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TYPES OF QUESTIONS

WH-QUESTIONS begin with what, where, when, who, how,


and why. These questions all seek information.
YES/NO QUESTIONS are questions that can be answered
with either yes or no.
TAG QUESTIONS/QUESTION TAGS begin with a declarative
or imperative statement which is turned into a question by
adding the tag or question fragment for either confirmation or
to assure statement.
EMBEDDED QUESTIONS are those which are included in
another sentence.
Example:

How much do those dresses cost on sale? Could


you tell us how much those dresses do cost on sale?
When is the next mega sale at the mall? Do you
know when the next mega sale at the mall is?
What does she sell I wonder what she sells.

ALTERNATIVE QUESTIONS (a.k.a. or-questions) are those


which require you to make a choice.

Prepositional phrase: The lecture about the demands of


college life had been very interesting
Adverbial phrase: The series of lectures have been going on
since last week.
CLAUSES
Contains a subject and a verb.
(a)Independent Clause: makes a complete statement and can
stand alone
(b)Dependent/Subordinate Clause: cannot stand alone
*can use semicolons or conjunctions to connect two
independent clauses
TYPES OF EXAMINATIONS
Cronbach (1971), as cited in McNamara (1996), define a test
as a systematic procedure for observing a persons
behavior and describing it with the aid of a numerical
scale or category system.
Dr. Milagros Ibe (1981) defined it as a sample behavior under
controlled or specified conditions and aimed toward
providing a basis for forming judgments.
(a)Performance Tests

MODALS are helping verbs and may express some of these


meaning: ability, possibility, necessity, and possibility.

SIGNAL WORDS

Emphasis above all, most of all, should be noted, remember


that
Addition furthermore, finally, in addition, also, next, finally,
and, or
Comparison in the same way, likewise, just as, similarly, as
Contrast nevertheless, yet, on the other hand, but, though,
however
Exemplification or Illustration for example, such as, e.g., for
instance
Cause because, for that reason, since, if, on account of
Effect as a result, hence, thus, therefore, consequently
Purpose so that, in order that, to this end, for this purpose
Summary in short, in brief, to sum up, to summarize
Conclusion to conclude, finally, in conclusion

PHRASES - Group of words without a subject and word,


forming an expression, it may function as a modifier, subject,
complement and object.
Noun phrase: The series of lectures started last week.
Verb phrase: The lecture had been videotaped.

Requires you to demonstrate reading, writing,


listening and speaking
Often involve simulation of real world roles and
tasks
Include note-taking, outlining, summarizing,
organization

(b)Traditional Pencil-and-Paper Tests

Measures your achievement in relation to objectives


and materials that have been set for the course.
Integral part of the classroom activities
Bases in the computation of marks for a specified
course
Examples are multiple choice, T or F, matching type,
enumeration, and essay (timed writing)

(b.2)Direction words
Discuss, Explain, Compare and Contrast, Expound,
Define, Interpret, Classify, Illustrate, Describe, Assess,
Evaluate, Argue, Analyze, Criticize, Justify, Provide/Give

(c)Self-assessment test

Designed to make you know and understand yourself


better
Determines personality type, interests, aptitudes,
skills, strengths, weaknesses and potential career
paths

IF CLAUSES
Conditions

Verb in the If
Clause

Contrary to fact

Past tense were


(never was)

Condition that
exists or may
exist
Factual
Possible but did
not happen

Subjunctive
mood (were)

Possible but
unlikely to
happen

Present tense
Past perfect

Past tense

Verbs in the
Independent
Clause
Would, could, or
might plus base
form of the verb
Would, could, plus
base form of the
verb
Present tense
Would have, could
have, might have
plus past participle
Would, could plus
base form of the
verb

1. If I were rich, I would send deserving students to


school.
2. If you win the contest, you will proceed to the
nationals.
3. If you eat vegetables, your immune system is
strengthened.
4. If you lived in Paris, you would have learned how to
speak French fluently now.
5. If Steven had the time, he would join more
organizations.
DEFINITIONS
Trimble (1985) mentions two broad types of definitions,
namely:
SIMPLE DEFINITION consists of a word, phrase or a
sentence.
(a) Formal Definition follows a pattern (term + class +
distinguishing characteristic); gives the most as well
as the most precise information.

Example: A radar is a communication instrument


which identifies the position of objects by radio
waves.
(b) Semi-Formal Definition consists of the term and the
differentiating characteristic because instances
wherein the class is either obvious or too large.
Example: A thermometer measures temperature in a
persons body.
(c) Non-Formal Definition provides the term and
another word/phrase approximating the meaning. It
may also give an outstanding characteristic of the
term. It can give a synonym or an antonym; it can
have a negative statement. It does not provide
precise definition as the two mentioned before.
Example: An iPod is not a computer.

COMPLEX/EXPANDED DEFINITION are most often used in


scientific and technical discourses. They are found in one or
more paragraphs.
(a) Definition by Stipulation to set limits in time, place,
field, meaning to the main definition.
(b) Definition by Operation usually gives information for
physical or mechanical activities; often contains
instructions.
(c) Definition by Explication comes after the original
definition, makes it clearer by adding synonyms or
new information.
*definitions can further be expanded through description,
classification, and exemplification.
KISS OF DEATH by Conrado de Quiros
Theme: Cheating has its consequences; Filipinos can be very
desperate and do irrational things.
SPEECH ACTS
The speech acts according to Searl (1976) are:
Representative: suggest, assert, and hypothesize
Directive: order, command, plead, and advise
Commissive: vow, pledge, and promise
Expressive: congratulate, welcome, and deprecate
Declaration: fire, hire, terminate, dismiss, and pronounce
THE CASE FOR USING ENGLISH IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS by
Jose Antonio Cangco
ANDREW GONZALEZ ON LANGUAGE by Isagani Cruz
COLLOCATION is the regular combination of words
Sample Combinations:

Adverb + verb : highly appreciate


Adjective + noun : correct decision/lifetime vow

Noun + noun : love and hate/peace and order


Adjective + adjective : safe and sound/small but terrible