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# 8th EMMC

By Amirul Faiz on
Wednesday, March 7, 2012 at 9:44am
EASY : Number Theory
1. Find all positive integer solutions of the equation : a b = ab + 61
EASY : Trigonometry
2. Find average of the numbers : 2sin 2, 4sin 4, 6sin 6, 8sin 8, ... , 180sin 180
(Give the answer in trigonometric form).
EASY : Combinatorics
Let A = 0.123456789101112 ... 998999 where the digits are formed by writing integers 1 to 999 in order.
Find the 1983-th digit to the right of decimal point.
EASY : Functions
Find all functions (x) for all real number x and y that satisfy : (x(y) + x) = (x) + xy

EASY : Probability
The probability that a man who is 80 years old will die before attaining the age of 90 is /. Amy, Bob,
Charles, Dennis are four person who are 80 years old. what is the probability that Amy will die before
attaining the age of 90 and will be the first to die. (Give the answer in fraction form)
EASY : Geometry
Three circles O, O, and O touch each other externally. The parallel line P and Q is a common tangent of
O, O and O, O respectively. The radius of O, O, and O is r, r and r respectively with r > r > r.
If r = 3, r = 2, find d.
(img:10150658301043684)

KEY TO CORRECTION
8TH EMMC

EASY 1.
Answer : b = 5 and a = 6. (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
Solutions :
Clearly a > b 1 and ab + 61 = a b = (a b)(a + ab + b), thus :

61 = (a b)(a + b) + (a b 1)ab.
If a b 3, then a 4 and 61 > 3(a + b). Thus a = 4, so b = 1 and we note that these do not satisfy the
original equation. If a b = 2, then,
61 = 2(a + b) + ab
= 2((b + 2) + b) + (b + 2)b
= 5b + 10b + 8
and this equation also has no positive integer solution in b. Thus we must have a b = 1, so
61 = a + b = (b + 1) + b and hence :
b = 5 and a = 6.
EASY 2
Answer : cot 1 (Edison Valeroso)
Solutions :
Let S = 2sin 2 + 4sin 4 + 6sin 6 + 8sin 8 + + 178sin 178 + 180sin 180.
There are 90 terms and sin 180 = 0. Therefore :
S = (2sin 2 + 178sin 178) + (4sin 4 + 176sin 176) + + 90sin 90
Now, sin 2 = sin(180 2) = sin 178. Similarly,
sin 4 = sin(180 4) = sin 176 and so on. Hence,
S = 180sin 2 + 180sin 4 + 180sin 6 + + 180sin 88 + 90
= 180(sin 2 + sin 4 + sin 6 + + sin 88 + sin 90) 90
Ssin 1 = 180(sin 2sin 1 + sin 4sin 1 + + sin 88sin 1 + sin 90sin 1) 90sin 1
= 180[(cos 1 cos 3) + (cos 3 cos 5) + + (cos 89 cos 91)] 90sin 1
= 90cos 1 90cos 91 90sin 1
= 90cos 1 + 90sin 1 90sin 1
= 90cos 1
Hence, S = 90cot 1. Therefore, the average of this number is : S/90 = cot 1
EASY 3
Answer : 7 (Isaiah James Maling)
Solutions :
The digit numbers from the first 9 digits after the decimal is obviously 9 digits.The digit numbers from 10
until 99 is 90(2) = 180 digits. Since the integers are between 1 and 999 the remaining should be three digits
so :
(1983 (180 + 9)) = 1794 digits to be filled by 3 digit numbers. Dividing 1794 by 3 we get 598 with
remainder 0. Since the first 3-digit integer is 100, then the 598-th 3-digit integer should be
598 + 99 = 697.
Therefore the 1983rd digit is 7.

EASY 4
Answer : (x) = x, (x) = x (Antonio Valente Macarilay)
Solutions :
Suppose (k) = k. Then putting x = k in the original relation we get :
(k(y) + k) = (k) + ky. Hence,
k(y) + k = k + ky
(y) = y for all y.
Similarly, let (k) = k. Then putting x = k in the original relation we get :
(k(y) + k) = (k) + ky. Hence,
(k(y) + k) = k + ky
(y) = y for all y.
Thus, we can conclude that (x) = x or x for all real number x.
EASY 5
Answer : 175/1024 (Unanswered)
Solutions :
Required Probability = (Probability that at least one person dies) (Probability Amy is first to die)
= (1 Probability that no one dies)
= (1 ())
= /
EASY 6
EASY : Calculus Answer : d = 46 = 9.79795897 (Edison Valeroso & Philipp Grinev)
Solutions :
Actually it is difficult to derive the formula using this document. But the formula to find r is :
r = 4rr. But d = 2r , hence :
d = 4rr = 46

## Integrate sin(ln x)/ln x dx with the x on the interval [0, 1].

(Give the answer in fraction form)
EASY 7
Answer : pi/4 (Antonio Valente Macarilay)
Solutions : Coming Soon !!

## EASY : Complex Numbers

For certain real values p, q, r, and s, the equation x + px + qx + rx + s = 0 has for non-real roots. The
product of two of these roots is 1 + 2i, and the sum of the other two roots is 2 3i, where i = 1. Find q
Answer : 15 (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
EASY : Series
Compute :
(img:10150658302398684)
Answer : 1953 (Unanswered)
EASY : Algebra
Let x y = x + y + xy for all integers x and y.
Evaluate : 1 (2 (3 (4 (99 100) )))
Answer : 101! 1 (Nm la Uno)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------AVERAGE : Geometry
In the figure, a circle of radius 1 is tangent to two perpendicular lines. A second smaller circle is drawn
tangent to the first circle and to the two lines, and a third circle is tangent to the second and the two lines.
Imagine continuing this process until a total of ten circles have been drawn. Find the radius of the tenth
circle. (Give the answer in standard form to 4 s.f.)
(img:10150658304578684)
Answer : 1.288 10 (Unanswered)
AVERAGE : Number Theory
Find a triple of rational numbers (x, y, z) such that : ( 1 + 2) = x + y + z
Answer : (x, y, z) = (4/9, 2/9, 1/9) (Unanswered)
AVERAGE : Combinatorics
Find the value of a in the following expansion :
(x 3) / (x 3x + 2) = a + ax + ax + + ax.
(Give the answer in Indices form)
Answer : 2 2 (Antonio Valente Macarilay)
AVERAGE : Functions
Find (x) for all real number x and y that satisfy : (x (y)) = ((y)) + x(y) + (x) 1
<em></em> Answer : (x) = 1 x/2 (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
Solutions :
Let c = (0) and A be the image (). If a is in A, then it is straightforward to nd (a) :
putting a = (y) and x = a, we get :
(a a) = (a) + a + (a) 1, thus,
(a) = (1 + c) a --------------------------------------------

The next step is to show that A A = . Note rst that c cannot be zero, for if it were, then putting y = 0, we
get :
(x c) = (c) + xc + (x) 1 -------------------------------------
Hence (0) = (c) = 1. A contradiction. But also shows that (x c) (x) = xc + ((c) 1). Here x is free
to vary over , so xc + ((c) 1) can take any value in . Thus given any x in , we may nd a, b A
such that x = a b. Hence (x) = (a b) = (b) + ab + (a) 1. So, using :
(x) = c b + ab a= c x. In particular, this is true for x A. Comparing with we deduce
that c = 1. So for all x we must have (x) = 1 x.
AVERAGE : Probability
Let P, Q, and R be independent random variables uniformly distributed between (0,1). What is the
probability that the polynomial Px + Qx + R has no real roots? (Give the answer in fraction form or decimal
to 4 s.f.)
<em><em> </em></em>Answer : (31 ln 64) / 36 = 0.7455866 (Unanswered)
AVERAGE : Complex Number
For how many positive integers n less than or equal to 1000 is :
(sin x + icos x) = sin nx + icos nx, true for all real x?
<em><em><em> </em></em></em>Answer : 250 (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
AVERAGE : Series
Evaluate :
(img:10150658308788684)
<em><em><em><em> </em></em></em></em>Answer : 6pi 18 (Philipp Grinev)
AVERAGE : Trigonometry
One day, Hipparchus wants to test out his newly found trigonometric functions. He picks his favorite point
(x, y) in the first quadrant on the unit circle x + y = 1, such that a ray from the origin through (x, y) is
radians counterclockwise from the positive x-axis. He then computes arccos[(4x + 3y)/5] and he is
surprised to get . What is the value of tan ?
<em><em><em><em><em> </em></em></em></em></em>Answer : 1/3 (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
AVERAGE : Calculus
Calculate :
(img:10150658310383684)
<em><em><em><em><em><em> </em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : 1(Mohit Hemant
Gohil)
AVERAGE : Algebra
A polynomial P is of the form P(x) = 1 x x x x x x.
Given that P(2) = 27, what is P(3)?

## <em><em><em><em><em><em><em> </em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : 439

(Vepa Gautam)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------HARD Algebra
Let (x) = x + 6x + k for all real numbers x, where k is some real number. For what values of k does ((x))
have exactly 3 distinct real roots?
<em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>
</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : k = (11 13)/2 = 3.69722 (Unanswered)
Solutions : (M-Cee Malicsi)
Let m = one root of (x) and 6 m = other root of (x)
So k = m( 6 m) = m 6m --------------------------------------------
Then (x) = x + 6x + k = (x m)(x m 6)
If (x) is substituted in x,
((x)) = (x + 6x + k m)(x + 6x + k + m + 6) ------------------
To obtain 3 distinct real roots in a 4th degree polynomial, one of the factors of must be a perfect square.
Lets set x + 6x + k m is a perfect square (with 1 distinct root)
By setting its discriminant to 0, we have :
k m=9
Substituting for k
m + 7m + 9 = 0
m = [7+13] and k = [11 + 13] or,
m = [7 13] and k = [11 13]
Substituting it in the 2nd factor :
we have (1st solution) x + 6x + 8 + 213 (which has no real root) and x + 6x + 8 213 (which has 2
distinct roots)
So k must be (11 13) = 3.69722
HARD : Geometry
Similar to the Easy Geometry Question, three circles O, O, and O touch each other externally. But this
time, the parallel line P is a tangent of O only and line Q is a common tangent of O, O. The radius of O,
O, and O is r, r and r respectively with r > r > r. If r = 4, r = 3, r = 2, find d.
(Give the answer at least to 4 s.f.)
(img:10150658312923684)
<em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>
</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : d = 9.54381 (Unanswered)
HARD : Calculus

## Find the Area under the curve y = ln(tan x) with 0 x pi/2.

(Give the answer at least to 3 s.f)
<em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>
</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : 1.832 (Mohit Hemant Gohil)
HARD : Combinatorics
Eight Mathematicians from different countries meet at a conference. It so happens that each Mathematician
shakes hands with exactly two others. A student in the conference makes a list of all unordered pairs of
Mathematicians who shook hands with each other. If order does not matter, how many different lists are
possible?
<em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>
</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : 3507 (Unanswered)
IXth Annual Harvard-MIT Mathematics Tournament (Combinatorics) - 2006
web.mit.edu/hmmt/www/datafiles/solutions/2006/scomb06.pdf
Exercise 9
HARD : Trigonometry
Given (x) = cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos x))))))).
Assume the number k satisfies the equation k = cos k, express (k) in terms of polynomial k.
<em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em><em>
</em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em></em>Answer : k 4k +
6k 4k + 1 (Unanswered)
<em><strong><em><em><strong><em><strong><em> Solutions :
</em></strong></em></strong></em></em></strong>(M-Cee Malicsi)</em>
f(x)=cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos x))))))), so for better convinience, i will just have this notation as
f(x)=cos<8> x, meaning getting the cosine of the previous result 8 times.. :)
And By continuous chain rule..
f(x)=cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos(cos x)))))))
f'(x)=sin(cos<7> x) sin(cos<6> x) ... sin(cos<2> x) sin(cos x) sin x
And since cos k=k , no matter how many cosine operations we will do.. it will always be k..
f'(k)=sin(cos<7> k) sin(cos<6> k) ... sin(cos<2> k) sin(cos k) sin k
f'(k)=(sin k)(sin k)..(sin k) (8 factors)
f'(k)=sin^8 k
f'(k)=(1-cos^2 k)^4
f'(k)=(1-k^2)^4
Therefore, f'(k)= k 4k + 6k 4k + 1
---------------------------------------------------------------------------Conducted by : Amirul Faiz (7-th EMMC Quiz's Winner)
Result :
1. Mohit Hemant Gohil (13 Points)
2. Antonio Valente Macarilay (4 Points)2. Philipp Grinev (4 Points)

## 4. Edison Valeroso (3 Points)

5. Vepa Gautam (2 Points)
6. Isaiah James Maling (1 point)
7. Nm la Uno (1 Point)
Unanswered : Easy(3), Average(1), Hard(3) = 17 Points
Graph :
(img:10150658326628684)