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A.

(Pliny the Elder) was at Misenum and in command, governing the fleet in person. On August 24 th, at almost
the seventh hour, my mother pointed out that a cloud of unusual size and appearance appeared. Pliny the
Elder ascended toward the place from which that strange sight was able to be seen very well. The cloud
was rising up- uncertain to those watching from a distance, from which mountain (afterwards, it was known
to have been from Vesuvius), - a cloud of likeness and form which no other tree more than a pine would
express. To him, as a very learned man, it seemed a great thing and one that had to be observed at closer
range. He orders a light fast warship to be prepared; he gives me the chance if I should wish to come
together (with him); I responded that I preferred to study and by luck, he himself had given up that which I
was writing. He was going out from the house; and when he accepts a short letter from Rectina, (the wife)
of Tascius, so frightened by the imminent danger (for her villa was lying at the foot of Mount Vesuvius, and
there was not any flight except by ships); she was begging that he would rescue her from such a great
danger.
He changes his plan and that which had started with a scholarly spirit, he accepts with a very great spirit.
He leads quariremes down, climbs up himself, and not only for Rectina, but many (for the pleasant shore
was thickly populated) was he going to bring help. He hurries to that place from where others fled, and
holds a straight course and straight steering oars, into danger, he is free from fear to such an extent that
he is dictating and noting down all the motions of that bad thing and all the forms as he had caught them
with his eyes.
B.
Now the ash was falling upon the ships, the nearer they came, the hotter and thicker; now pumice stones
and also black, burned up and fire-broken rocks; now there was a sudden shallow and the shore blocked by
the ruins of the mountain. He hesitated a little whether he should turn back, he says, suddenly, to the
helmsman who is warning that this he should do, Fortune favors the brave: seek out Pomponianus. He
(Pomponianus) was at Stabia, separated by the middle of the bay. Although not yet there, the danger was
approaching, nevertheless obvious and it was very close since it was glowing; He had collected his
baggage into ships, being certain of his flight if only the contrary wind would settle down. There, at that
time, my uncle having been carried by a much favorable wind; he embraced, consoled, and encouraged
(the man) in panic; in order to soothe his fear by his own lack of concern, he orders himself to be brought
down to a bath. Having been washed, he lies down, he eats; either cheerful or similar to cheerful (a thing
which is equally great).
C.
Meanwhile out of Mount Vesuvius in many places, very wide flames and tall fires were gleaming, of which
brilliance and brightness were accentuated by the shadows of night. Pliny the Elder kept saying that fires
abandoned out of fear of the farmers and the villas deserted through the countryside burned as a cure for
their fear. Then he gave himself rest and indeed he truly rested by sleep; for the motion of his breathing,
which in his case was rather heavily and rather loudly because of the size of his body, was heard by those
who were moving about in front of the door. Out the area from which the living room was usually
approached, had risen so much already having been so stuffed with ashes and also mixed up pumice
stones that if the delay in the bedroom was longer exit would be denied. Having been awakened he
proceeds and he gives himself back to Pomponianus and others who had stayed awake. Together, they
consult, whether or not they should stay within the house or whether they should wander out into the
open. For the house kept on nodding with numerous and vast tremors and as if it had been moved from its
foundations now to this place and now to that place, it kept seeming to go away and bring back again.
Under the sky again, if they were to go back out of the doors, a fall of pumice stones, although light and
porous was being feared, which thing however; of all the dangers, comparison and for Pliny, indeed reason
conquered reason, for the others fear conquered fear. Pillows placed on heads were tied with linen cloths;
it was defense against the falling things.
D.
Now it was day elsewhere, there (at the villa), night was blacker and thicker than all nights; however it was
a night which many torches and various lights were dissolving. It was decided to go out towards the shore
and to inspect from close up, whether now the sea would allow them (to escape); that still kept on
remaining huge and unfavorable. There on top of a spread out piece of linen, lying down once and also
again, he demanded cold water and drank it. Then the flames and the odor of sulfur, a pre-announcer of

flames, turned the other to flight, and woke him up. Leading on two little slaves, he rose up and
immediately fell, as I gather, with his breath having been obstructed by the rather thick murkiness, with
his windpipe, which for him was by nature weak and narrow and frequently inflamed, having been closed
up. When day retuned (this was the third from that one which he had seen most recently), his body was
found whole, unharmed and covered up as if he had been dressed; having been held the condition of the
body more similar to a sleeping person than a dead person.

Declensions
Numb
er
Case
Singu
lar
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Voc.
Plural
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Voc.

1st
f.

m.

n.

m.

-a
-ae
-ae
-am
-
-

-us
-
-
-um
-
-e

-um
-
-
-um
-
um

-ae
-rum
-s
-s
-s
ae

-
-rum
-s
-s
-s
-

-a
-rum
-s
-a
-s
-a

2nd

4th

3rd
f.

n.

m.

n.

m.

5th
f.

-is
-
-em
-e
(Nom
)

-is
-
-em
-e
(Nom)

-is
-
-e
(Nom)

-us
-s
-u
-um
-
us

-
-s
-
-
-
-

-s
-
-
-m
-
-s

-s
-
-
-m
-
-s

-s
-um
-ibus
-s
-ibus
-s

-s
-um
-ibus
-s
-ibus
-s

-a
-um
-ibus
-a
-ibus
-a

-s
-uum
-ibus
-s
-ibus
-s

-ua
-uum
-ibus
-ua
-ibus
-ua

-s
-rum
-bus
-s
-bus
-s

-s
-rum
-bus
-s
-bus
-s

Adjectives
Positive
-us, -a, -um
-er, -ra, -rum
-is, -is, -e

Comparative
-ior, -ius
-ior, -ius (refer to the feminine)
-ior, -ius

Superlative
-issimus, -errimus, or illimus

Participles
Singular
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Plural
Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
Acc.
Abl.
Adverbs (regular)

M.

F.

N.

-ns
-ntis
-nt
-ntem
-nt/e

-ns
-ntis
-nt
-ntem
-nt/e

-ns
-ntis
-nt
-ns
-nt/e

-s
-ium
-ibus
-s
-ibus

-s
-ium
-ibus
-s
-ibus

-ia
-ium
-ibus
-ia
-ibus

Positive
-
-iter

Comparative
-ius

Superlative
-issim, -errim, or illim

Infinitives
Present

Active
2nd principle part

Perfect
Future

Add isse
4th principle part=> urus and esse

Passive
Drop off e from 2nd and add i. 3rddrop ere and add i.
4th principle and esse

Indirect statement= subject become accusative and verb becomes infinitive. Words that agree with the
subject accusative also become accusative.
Ex. Senatus credit Caesarem esse dictatorem arrogantem.
1. If a perfect passive infinitive or a future infinitive is used, the ending on the participle must agree in
gener, number, and case with subject of the infinitive; the boldface endings in the last hour
examples above show this.
2. The pronoun se in indirect statement refers to the subject of the main verb.
Ex. Caesar sciebat senatores se aggressuros esse. The se refers to Caesar.
Subjunctives (We Eat Caviar)
1st conjugation
Present

Active

Passive

Imperfect

Active

Passive

Perfect

Active

Passive

Pluperfect

Active

Change ending
to -e and add
personal
endings
Change ending
to e and add
passive
personal
endings
Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add eri to the
3rd principle part
and endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of sum
Perfect active

2nd
conjugation
Change ending
to -ea

3rd conjugation
Change ending
to -a

3rd io and 4th


conjugations
Change ending
to -ia

Change ending
to -ea

Change ending
to -a

Change ending
to -ia

Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add eri to the
3rd principle part
and endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of sum
Perfect active

Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add eri to the
3rd principle part
and endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of sum
Perfect active

Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add personal
endings to
infinitive
Add eri to the
3rd principle part
and endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of sum
Perfect active

Passive

infinitive and
personal
endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of esse

infinitive and
personal
endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of esse

infinitive and
personal
endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of esse

infinitive and
personal
endings
4th principle part
add subjunctive
of esse

Sequence of Tenses
Main Clause
Indicative

Primary Sequence

Secondary Sequence

Present
Future
Future Perfect
Imperfect
Perfect
Pluperfect

Subordinate Clause
Tense of Subjunctive
Time of Action
Relative to Main clause
Present = same time or after
Perfect = time before
Imperfect = same time or after
Pluperfect = time before

Gerund/ Verbal Noun

1.

2.

3.
4.

Active in meaning (-ing)


Formed by adding nd- to the present stem of verb
Same endings are used as 2nd neuter singular nouns
No nominative case
Gerunds of re are eund, eund, eundum, eund
Genitive
Used with caus or grti- for the sake of
special adjectives Ex. Cupidus gubernand desirous of governing
Dative
Indirect object
special adjectives Ex. Idneus gubernand fit for governing
Accusative
Used with ad to show purpose
Ablative
Prepositional phrases d, ex, in Ex. d gubernand- concerning governing
Ablative of means
Modus operandi- method of operation
Modus Vivendi- way of living
Onus probandi- burden of proof

Gerundive/Verbal Adjective

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Future and passive in meaning a.k.a future passive participle


Has all endings of 1st and 2nd declension adjectives
Preferred to gerund when though required a direct object
1st conj.
Parandus, -a, -um
2nd conj.
Habendus, -a, -um
3rd conj.
Mittendus, -a, um
3rd conj. i
iaciendus, -a, -um
4th conj.
Audiendus, -a, -um

Passive Periphrastic (Must)

Use with form of esse

Impersonal gerundive of obligation is found with intransitive verbs


Dative of Agent and Ablative of Agent are used with the passive periphrastic

Gerund

Verbal noun
-ing
Present and active in meaning
Has only neuter singular gen, dat, acc, abl
cases

Gerundive

Verbal adjective
Agrees with noun or pronoun
Future and passive in meaning
Has all case forms of adjective

Fear

Verbs metuo, timeo, or vereor


Ut- that not; ne- that

Passive verbs used impersonally

Used to emphasize the action rather than the person(s) performing the action
Usually, the personal subject is absent Ex. Complures horas acriter pugnabatur- pugnabatur means
the fighting went on or a fight was being fought

Genitive with Special verbs


1. Used with:
Memini, meminisse to remember
Misereor, eri, itus sum to pity, feel sorry for
Obliviscor, oblivisci, oblitus sum to forget
Potior, potiri, potitus sum to get control of, get possession of
Dative with Special Verbs
1. Verbs that cannot take a direct object in Latin; found with dative of indirect object. These verbs are
used in passive voice
Cedere- to yield
Confidere- to rely on, trust
Credere- to believe
Diffidere- not to trust
Favere- to favor
Ignoscere- to pardon
Imperare- to order
Licere- to be allowed
Nocere- to harm
Nubere- to marry
Parcere- to spare
Parere- to obey
Persuadere- to persuade
Placere- to please
Praecipere- to instruct, order
2. Intransitive verbs compounded with prepositions
Approprinquare- to approach
Occurrere- to meet
Resistere- to resist
Succedere- to relieve
Succurrere- to come to the aid
3. Compound transitive verbs that can take dative or direct object in the accusative
Imponere- to place X upon Y

Praeficere- to place X in charge of Y


4. Compounds of esse, including deesse (to be lacking), praeesee (to be in charge of), and prodesse
(to benefit)
Deesse- the person who lacks is in the dative
Dative of possession- Subject who possesses is in dative
Indefinite pronouns and adjectives
Pronoun
Adjective
m.
f.
n.
m.
f.
n.
Aliquis
Aliquis
Aliquid
Aliqui
Aliqua
Aliquod
(someone, something, anyone, anything)
(some, any)
Quidam
Quaedam
Quoddam
Quidam
Quaedam
Quoddam
(a certain one)
(a certain)
Quisque
Quisque
Quidque
Quisque
Quaeque
Quodque
(each one, every one)
(each, every)
Quisquam
Quisquam
Quidquam
Quisquam
Quisquam
Quidquam
(someone, something, anyone, anything)
(any)
1. Quidam is commonly found with ex meaning some of
2. Quis is commonly used after si, nisi, num. and ne and is declined liked aliquis w/o the ali
3. Quisquam is usually found in negative context (sentence containing non, nec, numquam, or negare)

Impersonal Verbs

Decet, decre, decuit it is becoming, fitting; should


Libet, licre, libuit (+dat.) it is pleasing, it is agreeable
Licet, licre, licuit (+dat.) it is allowed
Oportet, oportre, oportuit it is fitting; ought

Libet, licet, and mecesse est can be used with datives

Miseret, miserre, miseruit it makes one pity, feel sorry for something
Paenitet, paenitre, paenituit- it makes one regret something
Pudet, pudre, puduit it makes one be ashamed of something
Taedet, taedre, taesum est

The above are used with the accusative of the person affected by the feeling and the genitive of the
cause of the feeling

Placre can also be used impersonally; in perfect tense, it means it was decided
iuvre and vidr have special meanings. The former, enjoy. The latter, seems best

Lastly, many intransitive verbs can be used impersonally in the passive voice

Ex. non aliter in Senatu principibus acclametur nisi


In no other way is acclamation given to emperors in the Senate except

Relative Clauses of Characteristic


Ex. Iste est quem omnes timent. He is a man whom everyone fears.
By changing the verb so that it is in the subjunctive, the following is the result.
Ex. Iste est quem omnes timeant. He is the type of man whom everyone fears (would fear).

It is common after expressions such as est qui, sunt qui, nemo est qui, and quis est qui and is
translated with phrases such as of the sort that, the kind that, or of such a kind that

Jussive and Hortatory Subjunctives

Let.
When it is used in the above way in the 3rd person, it is called the jussive
When it is used in the 1st person plural

To review
There are three ways of expressing a command or request
1. Using imperative i.e. tacte meaning Be quiet
Nl/ Nlte is used with an infinitive (Dont infinitive...) to express a negative command
N is used with the 2nd person of the present or perfect subjunctive to express a negative command
Passive imperative (found with deponents, with active meaning) ends in re (singular) or min
(plural)
2. Indirectly using an ut clause with subjective (negative n)
Ex. Te rogo ut naves in monument meo facias. I ask you to make some ships on my tomb
3. Using jussive or hortatory subjuctive (negative n)

Conditional Sentences
Has two parts
1. A subordinate clause (if clause or protasis) introduced by si (negative nisi) expressing a condition
2. A main clause (apodosis) describing the situation that results
I.

II.

III.

IV.

V.

Factual conditions may refer to the future. The verb in the si clause is in the future or future perfect
but translated as present.
When the two clauses take place at the same time, the future is used in the si clause.
When the si clause is completed before the main clause, the future perfect is used
Imaginary conditions refer to the past using the pluperfect subjunctive. Translated as had, would
have
Plinius, si Romae fuisset, Fanniam visitavisset.
If Pliny had been in Rome, he would have visited Fannia.
Imaginary conditions may refer to the present using the imperfect subjunctive; translated as
were, would
Si Fannia valeret, iter rus faceret
If Fannia were well, she would travel to the country.
Imaginary conditions may refer to the future using the present subjunctive; translate as were to/
should, would
Si Fannia moriatur, Plinius maxime doleat.
If Fannia were to die/should die, Pliny would be very sad.
In mixed conditions, the tenses will be different in the two clauses
Si laborem confecisses, nunc discedere posses.
If you had finished the work, you would be able to leave now.

Cum Clauses
Cum can mean with when functioning as a preposition with certain Ablatives (Manner, Accompaniment).
Cum, when it introduces a subordinate clause, can also mean when, since, while, or although,
depending on what is happening in the sentence.
1. CUM TEMPORAL CLAUSE (cum = when)

If the main verb is Primary (Present, Future, Future Perfect) and relates to present or future time,
cum takes the Indicative mood. This type of clause most often describes precise time.
Cum doceo vos, felix sum When I am teaching you all, I am happy.
Cum studebitis, linguam Latinam discetis. When you will study (i.e. at that precise moment in
time), you will learn Latin.
2. CUM CIRCUMSTANTIAL CLAUSE (cum = when, while)
If the main verb is Secondary (Imperfect, Perfect, Pluperfect), relates t past time, and describes the
circumstances surrounding a situation, cum takes the Subjunctive (Imperfect or Pluperfect).
These can be difficult to distinguish between Cum Temporal and Cum Causal Clauses.
Cum filia patrem necavisset, deprehensa est. When the daughter had killed her father, she was
arrested.
Cum Claudius nuntiatus esset imperatorem, fugit. When Claudius had been announced (as) the
emperor, he fled.
3. CUM CAUSAL CLAUSES (cum = since, because)
In this type of clause, cum is followed by the Subjunctive. Thus type of clause, while somewhat
showing the circumstances surrounding a situation, show you the reason why someone is able to do
something.
Perfacile est discere linguam Latinam, cum studeamus simper multas horas diei.
It is easy to learn Latin, since we always study for many hours of the day.
4. CUM CONCESSIVE CLAUSES (cum = although)
In this type of clause, cum is followed by the Subjunctive. This type of clause makes a
concession or an acknowledgment of something. Sometimes tamen (nevertheless) appears to let
one know that it is a cum concessive clause.
Cum inferiors numero essemus, in hostes impetum fecimus.
Although we were inferior in number, we made an attack against the enemy.
Cum hoc faceret, tamen mater amavit suum filium.
Although he did this, nevertheless the mother loved her son.
List of all those annoying short words that no one seems to be able to remember

Ac- and
An- whether, or
Apud- (+ acc.) at the house of,
near, at with, among
Atque- and also
Aut- or; autaut either or
Bis-twice
Cur- why
Deinde/dein- then, next
Denique- finally, at last
Di- for a long time
Dum- while, as long as
Ecce- look, look at
Enim- for, because
Etiam- also, even
Ets- even if, although
Fer- almost
Forte- by chance
Hc-here
Hc- here, to this place
Iam- now, already

Ibi- there, in that place


Idem, eadem, idem- the same
Ide- for this reason, therefore
Igitur- therefore
Illc-there, to that place
Inde- from there, then
Ipse, ipsa, ipsum- self
Iste, ista, istud- that (used to show
contempt)
Ita- thus, so
Itaque- and so
Item- likewise
Iterum- again
Magis- more, rather
Mox-soon
Nec- andnot, but..not, nor
Nisi-unless, ifnot, except
Num- surelynot? (expects a no)
Numquam- never
Nusquam- nowhere
Paene- almost

Partim- partly, some


Paulum-a little
Postquam-after
Prope-nearby
Propter-because of
Quam- how, than as
Quamquam-although
Quamvis-although
Quantus- how big, how much
Quare- why
Quasi- as if
Quidem-indeed
Quin-but that, who not
Quoad-until
Quomodo-in what way
Quondam-once, formerly
Quoniam-since
Quoque-also
Quot- as many, how many
Saepe-often
Sed-but
Semper-always
Si-if
Sic-thus, in this way
Sicut-just as
Simul-together
Sin-but if
Supra-over, above
Tamen-however
Talis-such, of this quind
Tamquam-just as it
Tum-at that moment
Tunc-at that moment

Ubi-where, when
unde- from where?
Vel-or

And finally, some random terms

Anaphora- repeating sequence


of words
Asyndeton- conjunctions are
deliberately omitted
Anachronisma
term
inconsistent with its time


Alliteration
repetition of the same letter of sound

Anaphora
repetition of word or phrase at beginning of successive clauses

Anastrophe inversion of normal order of words

Aposiopesis A Breaking off in the middle of a sentence

Asyndeton
Omission of conjunctions

Polysyndeton overabundance of conjunctions

Chiasmus
words in a mirror pattern (ABBA)

Ecphrasis
extended and elaborate description of a work of art, building, or natural setting

euphemism term or phrase which softens the blow of a harsh statement

hendiadys
use of two nouns when really one should be understood to be an adjective/genitive

hyperbole
over exaggeration

litotes
understatement often enhanced by the use of a negative

metonymy
substitution of one word/idea for another

onomatopoeia
use of words which sound like what they are

prolepsis
inclusion in the main story of references to future, untold events (spoiler)

similie
figure of speech which draws a comparison using "like" or "as"

synchesis
interlocking word order (ABAB)

transferred epithet an adjective grammatically modifying one word but which must be understood
to modify another

ellipsis
omission of one or more words which must be logically supplied in order to create a
grammatically complete
expression

Tmesis
the separation into two parts of a word normally written as one

Juxtaposition Placing two words next to each other for emphasis

Tricolon Crescens
the accumulation of three parallel phrases or clauses, each of which is at
least one syllable longer than that
preceding it

Enjambment the continuation of a unit of thought beyond the end of one verse and into the first
few feet of the next

Synecdoche Using a part for the whole