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Reading Greek

GRAM M AR AND EXERCI SES


Seco nd e di t i on

First published in 1978, Reading Greek has become a best-selling one-year introductory course in ancient Greek for students and adults. It combines the best of modern
and traditional language-learning techniques and is used widely in schools, summer
schools and universities across the world. It has also been translated into several
foreign languages. This volume provides full grammatical support together with
numerous exercises at different levels. For the second edition the presentations of
grammar have been substantially rewritten to meet the needs of todays students and
the volume has been completely redesigned, with the use of colour. GreekEnglish
and EnglishGreek vocabularies are provided, as well as a substantial reference
grammar and language surveys. The accompanying Text and Vocabulary volume
contains a narrative adapted entirely from ancient authors in order to encourage students rapidly to develop their reading skills, while simultaneously receiving a good
introduction to Greek culture.

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th e joint a s s o c iat io n o f c l as s i c al t e ac h e r s gr e e k c ou r s e

Reading Greek
G R A MMA R A N D E X E R C ISES

Second editio n

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cambridge university press


Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So Paulo,
Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New York
www.cambridge.org
Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521698528
The Joint Association of Classical Teachers Greek Course 1978, 2007
This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and
to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without
the written permission of Cambridge University Press.
First edition published 1978
Twenty-sixth reprint 2006
Second edition published 2007
Reprinted with corrections 2008, 2010
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge
A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library

ISBN 978-0-521-69852-8 paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or


accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred
to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such,
websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

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Contents

Preface
ix
Acknowledgements
x
Abbreviations
xiv
A

Grammar and Exercises for Sections One-Twenty1

Alphabet and pronunciation


17
Grammatical Introduction
Part One
851
Section One
5265
Section Two
6676
Section Three
Part Two
77100
101127
128149
150177

1
1
4

8
43
54

Section Four
Section Five
Section Six
Section Seven

70
92
115
134

Part Three
178188 Section Eight
189211 Section Nine
212219 Section Ten

160
176
210

Part Four
220227
228248
249273
274283
284290

226
236
270
300
309

Section Eleven
Section Twelve
Section Thirteen
Section Fourteen
Section Fifteen

Bold numbers refer to the grammatical paragraph sections.


v

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vi

Contents

Part Five
291306 Section Sixteen
307328 Section Seventeen
329332 Section Eighteen

315
336
356

Part Six
333336

359

Section Nineteen

Part Seven
337339 Section Twenty

362

369

340
341
344
349
354
360
362
366
367
373
376
384
385
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406

Reference Grammar

Preliminaries
The Greek alphabet
Accentuation
Homeric dialect the main features
Nouns
Pronouns
Adjectives
Adverbs
The verb with second aorist in full
Contract verbs
Verbs in - in full
The endings of non-indicative forms (aspectual)
Irregular verbs
Important principal parts
Prepositions
Particles
()
Participles
Innitives
Impersonal verbs
Result clauses
Indirect speech
Temporal clauses
Purpose clauses
Verbs of fearing
Potential (polite)
Potential-conditionals
Wishes
Commands (orders)
Deliberatives
Subjunctive and optative usages compared

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369
370
375
378
382
389
393
399
400
409
416
431
433
435
443
445
450
451
452
454
454
455
457
458
459
459
460
460
461
461
462

Contents

Language Surveys

408
412
415
420
422
423
426
428
432
437
445
448
D

A brief history of the Greek language


Active, middle and passive voices
Aspect: present, aorist and perfect
Optative
Uses of the subjunctive
The uses of
Verbs in and verbs in -
The negatives and
Morphology of the cases
Uses of the cases
Uses of the denite article
Vocabulary building
A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

Finding the lexicon form of a verb


Total vocabulary
List of proper names

vii

465
465
467
469
472
473
474
476
477
479
483
487
490
497
497
498
517

English Greek Vocabulary

521

The Grammatical Index to Reading Greek

529

Index of Greek words

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539

o
Menander

viii

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Preface

This book is written to be used in step with Reading Greek (Text) of the Joint
Association of Classical Teachers Greek Course. In it will be found:
A: Section-by-section grammatical explanations and exercises to support the
reading of the twenty sections of the Text (pp. 1368). While we recommend
that the Text is tackled before students turn to the grammar and exercises, no
harm will be done by taking a different view.
B: A Reference Grammar, which summarises and sometimes expands upon the
essential features of the grammar met in the Course (pp. 369464).
C: A number of Language Surveys which look in detail at some of the more
important features of the language (pp. 465496).
D: A Total Vocabulary of all words that should have been learnt this has been
appended to the Text as well followed by a list of proper names (pp. 497
520).
E: A vocabulary for the English-Greek exercises (pp. 521528).
F: Indices to the grammar and to Greek words (pp. 529543), originally constructed by Professor W. K. Lacey and his students at the University of
Auckland, New Zealand and here revised.
It would be impracticable to produce an exhaustive grammar of the whole Greek
language. We have therefore concentrated attention on its most common features. Students and teachers should bear in mind that the rst aim of this grammar is to help students to translate from Greek into English.
Peter Jones
Newcastle on Tyne
October 2006

ix

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Acknowledgements to the original edition of


Reading Greek (1978)

Reading Greek was developed by a Project Team (Dr P.V. Jones, Dr K.C. Sidwell
and Miss F.E. Corrie) under the guidance of a Steering Committee and Advisory
Panel made up as follows:
Steering Committee: Professor J.P.A. Gould (Bristol University) (Chairman);
M.G. Balme (Harrow School); R.M. Grifn (Manchester Grammar School); Dr
J.T. Killen (Joint Treasurer, Jesus College, Cambridge); Sir Desmond Lee (Joint
Treasurer, President, Hughes Hall, Cambridge); A.C.F. Verity (Headmaster,
Leeds Grammar School); Miss E.P. Story (Hughes Hall, Cambridge).
Advisory Panel: G.L. Cawkwell (University College, Oxford); Dr J. Chadwick
(Downing College, Cambridge); Professor A. Morpurgo Davies (Somerville
College, Oxford); Sir Kenneth Dover (President, Corpus Christi College,
Oxford); Professor E.W. Handley (University College, London); B.W. Kay
(HMI); Dr A.H. Sommerstein (Nottingham University); Dr B. Sparkes
(Southampton University); G. Suggitt (Headmaster, Stratton School); A.F.
Turbereld (HMI). The Committee and Panel met in full session three times a
year during the period 1974-8 while the Course was being developed, but also
divided up into sub-committees to give specic help to the Project Team on certain aspects of the Course, as follows:
Text: K.J.D.; E.W.H.
Grammar: J.C.; A.M.D.; A.H.S. (who, with K.J.D., have kindly made individual contributions to the Reference Grammar and Language Surveys).
Exercises: M.G.B.; R.M.G.; A.C.F.V.
Background: G.L.C.; J.P.A.G.; B.S.
Dissemination: B.W.K.; H.D.P.L.; E.P.S.; G.S.; A.F.T.
We have also been guided by a number of overseas scholars who have used, or
given advice on, the Course, as follows:
J.A. Barsby (Dunedin, New Zealand); S. Ebbesen (Copenhagen, Denmark);
B. Gollan (Queensland, Australia); Professor A.S. Henry (Monash, Australia);
Drs D. Sieswerda (Holland); Professor H.A. Thompson (Princeton, U.S.A.).
We would like to stress the immense debt of gratitude which we all owe to the
Steering Committee, Advisory Panel and our overseas advisers. But we would also
like to make it clear that the nal decisions about every aspect of the Course and
any errors of omission and commission are the sole responsibility of the Team.
We gratefully acknowledge the help and advice of Professor D. W. Packard
(Chapel Hill, N. Carolina, U.S.A.) on the use of the computer in analysing and
x

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Acknowledgements

xi

printing Greek; and of Dr John Dawson of the Cambridge University Literary


and Linguistic Computing Laboratory, who made available to us the resources of
the Computer Centre for printing and analysing draft material in the early stages
of the Project.
We have learnt a great deal from members of the Team who produced the
Cambridge Latin Course, and are extremely grateful to them for help, especially
in the early stages of the Project. If we have produced a Course which takes a
more traditional view of language-learning, our debt to many of the principles
and much of the practice which the C.L.C. rst advocated is still very great.
Finally, our best thanks go to all the teachers in schools, universities and adult
education centres both in the U.K. and overseas who used and criticised draft
materials. We owe an especial debt of thanks to the organisers of the J.A.C.T.
Greek Summer School in Cheltenham, who allowed us to use our material at the
School for the three years while the Course was being developed.
Peter V. Jones (Director)
Keith C. Sidwell (Second Writer)
Frances E. Corrie (Research Assistant)

The second edition of Reading Greek (2007)


The main features of the revised course
Reading Greek was originally written on the assumption that its users would
know Latin. Tempora mutantur it has now been revised on the assumption
that they do not, and in the light of the experiences of those using the course
over nearly thirty years. While the overall structure of the course and its reading
matter remain the same, the most important changes are:
Text

1. The running and learning vocabularies are now in the Text, on the same pages
as the Greek to which they refer. The Text also has the total Greek-English
Learning Vocabulary at the back, as does the Grammar.
2. There are indications throughout the Text of what grammatical material is
being introduced and at what point; and there are cross-references to the sections of The World of Athens (second edition) relevant to the story-line and
issues under discussion.
As a result of these changes, the Text can now act as a stand-alone revision
reader for anyone who has a basic grasp of ancient Greek, whatever beginners course they have used. The second half of the Text in particular, starting
with its carefully adapted extracts from the extremely important legal speech

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xii

Acknowledgements

against the woman Neaira and leading on to Plato and an introduction to


the dialects of Herodotus and Homer, makes an ideal introduction to some
superb literature and central social, cultural, historical and philosophical
issues relating to the ancient Greek world.
3. Various aspects of the cultural and historical background of the Text are discussed from time to time in situ.
4. The original Section Five has been split into two sections, Five and Six. As a
result, there are now twenty sections to the course.
Grammar

The Grammar has been completely re-written and redesigned. The aim has
been to make its lay-out and content more user-friendly:
1. There is an introduction to some basics of English grammar and its terminology, and its relation to ancient Greek.
2. Explanations are clearer and fuller, composed for those who have never learnt
an inected language, and the lay-out more generous on the eye.
3. Brief, usually one-word, Exercises accompany the explanations of each new
item of grammar. If the teacher so chooses, these can be used to provide
instant feed-back on the students grasp of the new material.
4. Declensions go down, not across, the page and the shading of cases has
been abandoned.
Acknowledgements

The revision was conducted under the aegis of a sub-committee of the Joint
Association of Classical Teachers Greek Committee, the body that invented the
idea of the Project and oversaw it from its inception in 1974. The sub-committee consisted of Professor David Langslow (University of Manchester, chairman), Dr Peter Jones (Course Director), Dr Andrew Morrison (University of
Manchester), James Morwood (Wadham College, Oxford), Dr James Robson
(Open University), Dr John Taylor (Tonbridge School), Dr Naoko Yamagata
(Open University), Dr James Clackson (Jesus College, Cambridge) and Adrian
Spooner (Management Consultant).
The sub-committee met roughly once a term for two years and took decisions that affected every aspect of the second edition. It concentrated particularly on the Grammar. Sections 12 were revised in the rst instance by
Dr Andrew Morrison, Sections 39 by Dr James Robson and Sections 1020
by Dr Peter Jones, while the Language Surveys were revised by Professor
David Langslow. Members of the sub-committee read and commented on
virtually everything. Professor Brian Sparkes (University of Southampton)
again advised on the illustrations. We are grateful to the students and tutors
at the 2006 JACT Greek Summer School in Bryanston for giving a thorough testing to the rst half of the revised course in draft form, especially
to Anthony Bowen (Jesus College, Cambridge); and to Dr Janet Watson for
work on the proofs.

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Acknowledgements

xiii

Cambridge University Press has given its full backing to the revision. Dr
Michael Sharp patiently discussed and met with most of our requests, Peter
Ducker solved the complicated design problems with elegance and ingenuity and
Dr Caroline Murray expertly oversaw the computerisation of the text.
Dr Peter Jones as Director carries nal responsibility for this second edition.
Peter Jones
Newcastle on Tyne
September 2006

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Abbreviations

abs.(olute)
acc.(usative)
act.(ive)
adj.(ective)
adv.(erb)
aor.(ist)
art.(icle)
aug.(ment)
cf. ( = confer) (Latin: compare)
comp.(arative)
cond.(itional)
conj.(ugated, ugation)
contr.(acted, action)
dat.(ive)
decl.(ension)
def.(inite)
del.(iberative)
dir.(ect)
f.(eminine)
fut.(ure)
gen.(itive)
imper.(ative)
impf. (= imperfect)
inc.(luding)
ind.(icative)
indec(linable)
indef.(inite)
indir.(ect)
inf.(initive)
irr.(egular)
lit.(erally)

m.(asculine)
mid.(dle)
n.(euter)
nom.(inative)
opt.(ative)
part.(iciple)
pass.(ive)
perf.(ect)
pl.(ural)
plup.(erfect)
prep.(osition)
pres.(ent)
prim.(ary)
pron.(oun)
q.(uestion)
redupl.(icated, ication)
rel.(ative)
s.(ingular)
sc.(ilicet) (Latin: presumably)
sec.(ondary)
seq.(uence)
sp.(eech)
subj.(unctive)
sup.(erlative)
tr.(anslate)
uncontr.(acted)
unfulf.(illed)
vb. ( = verb)
voc.(ative)

1st, 2nd, 3rd refer to persons of the verb, i.e.


1st s. = I (sometimes 1s.)
2nd s. = you (sometimes 2s.)
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xv

Abbreviations

Alphabet and pronunciation

3rd s. = he, she, it (sometimes 3s.)


1st pl. = we (sometimes 1pl., etc.)
2nd pl. = you
3rd pl. = they

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xv

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A Grammar, Vocabularies and


Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

Introduction
Alphabet and pronunciation
THE ALPHABET

(alpha) pronounced cup or calm


(beta) pronounced b as in English
(gamma) a hard g, like got
(delta) a clean* d, like dot
(epsilon) short e like pet
(zeta) like wisdom
(eta) pronounced as in hair
(theta) blow a hard* t (tare)
(iota) like bin or like bead
(kappa) a clean* k like skin
(lambda) like lock
(mu) like mock
(nu) like net
(xi) like box
(omicron) a short o, like pot
(pi) a clean* p, like spot
(rho) a rolled r, like rrat
(sigma) a soft s, like sing
(tau) a clean t, like sting
(upsilon) French lune or German Mller
(phi) blow a hard* p, like pool
(khi) blow a hard* c, like cool
(psi) as in lapse
(omega) like saw

* Clean indicates no h sound; blow hard indicates plenty of h aspiration (e.g. as in top-hole).

Diphthongs

as in high
as in how
o as in boy
1

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

Digraphs

(anc) and o (boo) are single sounds


- pronounce both elements separately
Double-consonants

as in nger; is sounded as ng in , , , and .


as rat-trap, as wholly, should be dwelt on.
Sigma and iota subscript

Observe that is used at the end of words, while is used elsewhere (e.g. ,
revolt). Sometimes is printed underneath a preceding (), () and (),
when it is called iota subscript (Latin, written under).
Breathings
n Rough breathing

All words that begin with a vowel have a breathing. aboe a lower-case vowel,
or in front of a capital, indicates the presence of an h sound, e.g. = horos
(marker), = hoplites (hoplite), = Hellas (Greece).
n Smooth breathing

aboe a lower-case vowel, or in front of a capital, indicates the absence of h


sound, e.g. = oros (mountain), = atomos (atom).
n Diphthongs

Note that, on a diphthong and digraph, the breathing comes on the second vowel,
e.g. , Aeschylus.
Punctuation

Greek uses ; for a question-mark (?) and for a colon (:) or semi-colon (;).
Otherwise, punctuation is as in English.
Vowel-length

Diphthongs and the vowels and are always pronounced long; and are
always pronounced short. A macron is used to indicate where , , are pronounced long (, , ) in learning vocabularies, total vocabularies and tables in
the Grammar. A vowel with a circumex accent or iota subscript is long, needing no macron to mark it.
* Further information on the whole subject of alphabet and pronunciation is given in the Reference
Grammar.

Transliteration

Most Greek letters convert simply into English, e.g. and become b and t.

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Alphabet and pronunciation

But some are not so obvious. Note in particular:


= sd or z
= ng
=e
= th
= c or k
-o = -um or -on
-o = -us or -os
= y or u
= ch or kh
= ps
EXERC I S E S
1. Write the following Greek words (which you will meet in Section 1) in their
English form:*

* You will see these words have accents. They are explained at 343, 3448.

2. Write the following English words in their Greek form:


(a) for a word that begins with a vowel, mark the smooth breathing over the
vowel, e.g. electron =
(b) for a word that begins with an h, write the vowel which follows h and
then mark the rough breathing over it . Thus historia = .
(c) diphthongs place the breathing over the second vowel, e.g. eugenes =
.
drama, panther, crocus, geranium, hippopotamus, ibis, asbestos, character,
scene, Pericles, Sophocles, Euripides, *Hippocrates, comma, colon, Socrates,
Zeus, Artemis, *Heracles, asthma, dyspepsia, cinema, orchestra, melon, iris.
* With English capital H, write the vowel which follows the H as a capital, and put the rough
breathing before it, e.g. Homeros, (Homer).

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

13

Grammatical introduction
This section introduces some basic terms of grammar for you when translating
from Greek into English. The grammar of a language explains simply how it
works, and it does this by using various technical terms, the most important of
which are introduced below.
Those who are familiar with these terms (e.g. because they have already studied Latin) should neverthless read 67 for its introduction to some basic principles of Greek.
BASIC TERMS

Below you will nd some of the basic technical terms of grammar.


Noun
The woman persuades the man.

1. In this sentence woman and man are NOUNS. Nouns name things or
people, e.g. potato, telephone, Chloe, honesty, courage. Cf. The dog pursues
Charlotte.
Gender

2. Gender is a grammatical term and has nothing to do with males and females.
Nouns come in three genders in Greek MASCULINE, FEMININE and
NEUTER. Compare French or Spanish, which have two genders, masculine
and feminine: le soleil and el sol [the sun in French and Spanish] are
MASCULINE, but la lune and la luna [the moon] are FEMININE. The
gender of a noun in a given language DOES NOT CHANGE. So the moon
is ALWAYS feminine in Spanish and French.
Verb and clause
The woman persuades the man.

3. (a) The word persuades is a VERB. Verbs are usually action-words


bring, win, walk, complain: I bring, you win, they complain. They
can also express a state: she is, he remains. The verb tells us what is
being done or happening in a sentence: The dog pursues Charlotte. All
the verbs quoted here are FINITE verbs. This means they have a person
(I, he etc.), a TENSE (all referring to present time in the examples
given) and a MOOD (here indicative: they indicate something is the
case).
(b) Sentences often contain numbers of CLAUSES. Each clause has a FINITE
verb in it, e.g. When Chloe left, although she forgot her glasses, she did
not return to pick them up. The nite verbs here are left, forgot,
return but not pick.

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36

Grammatical introduction

(c) We dene these clauses in relation to each other. SUBORDINATE


clauses are introduced by words like when, although, so that, if,
because, since and so on. When you have removed all the subordinating clauses, you are left with the MAIN CLAUSE and the MAIN VERB
(or verbs). In the example in (b), return is the main verb.
Denite article
The woman persuades the man.

4. The is what is known as the DEFINITE ARTICLE in English. As we shall


see when we meet the denite article (def. art.) in Greek in the grammar for
Section 1 AB, it plays an extremely important role in translation from Greek
into English.
Subject and object
The woman persuades the man.

5. The SUBJECT of the sentence above is the woman the woman is doing the
persuading. The subject, in grammar, is the person or thing doing the action
of the verb. This is very important. The subject is NOT what the sentence is
about, but is the person or thing performing the verb: I bring the potatoes,
She wins the cup, The dog pursues Charlotte.
The OBJECT of the sentence above is the man the woman is persuading
the man. The object is the person or thing on the receiving end of the verb.
Examples: You bite the apple, Toby likes sport, The dog pursues Charlotte.
WORD SHAPE AND WORD ORDER

6. One of the most important differences between Greek and English is that in
English it is the order of the words which tells you what a sentence means,
but in Greek it is the changing shape of the words. For example, in English
the following two sentences mean very different things:
The woman persuades the man.
The man persuades the woman.

The difference in meaning between these two sentences lies in the word order.
This tells you who or what is doing the persuading. In the rst the woman comes
before persuades and this tells you the woman is persuading. In the second the
man comes before persuades and so it is the man who is persuading.
Now read the following two sentences in Greek:

|
|
The woman

.
|
|
|
persuades the man.

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

67


|
|
|
|
|
The woman persuades the man.

Both sentences have the same word order in Greek: woman persuades
man. But the meaning is quite different: the rst means The woman persuades the man, but the second, despite the order of the words, in fact means
The man persuades the woman. What is going on? How can we tell which is
which?
In Greek it is the shape of the words which tells you what job any word
is doing and therefore what a sentence as a whole means in this case,
who is persuading whom. The changes to words in Greek usually (but not
always) come at the end of words.
Now look at the changes of word shape in the two sentences given above.
You will observe that contrasts with , and
with . The reason is as follows:
In the rst sentence the woman is the subject (the woman is doing the
persuading) and the Greek form for the woman-as-subject is .
In the second, she is the object (she is on the receiving end of the persuasion) and the Greek form for that is (now you know where
gynaecology comes from).
In the same way, the man is the subject in the second sentence and the
Greek form is ;
but when he is the object in the rst sentence, the Greek is .
Notice also how the def. art. changes as well: it is (masculine) or (feminine) when its noun is the subject, but (masculine) or (feminine)
when its noun is the object.

Rule: pay close attention at all times to the changes in word shape in
Greek. There are also examples of changing word shapes in English,
usually left-overs from an earlier period. For example:

I, he and she are the subject shapes of the sentence;


me, him and her the shapes for the object and everything else.
So There is a dispute between me, him and her, not between I, he and she.
CASE: SUBJECT AND OBJECT

7. Look at the following sentences in English (and note that, while in English
we say Hegestratos, in Greek it is common to say the Hegestratos):
[The] Hegestratos sees [the] Sdenothemis.
[The] Sdenothemis chases the sailors.
The woman persuades [the] Hegestratos.

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Grammatical introduction

What are the SUBJECTS in each of these sentences? What are the OBJECTS?
Now examine the same sentences in Greek:
.
.
.

What are the differences between the Greek for [the] Hegestratos when
Hegestratos is SUBJECT and when he is OBJECT? What form would [the]
Zenothemis have if he were the SUBJECT?
Case

The grammatical term for these different word shapes is CASE. Nouns in Greek
have a different shape, a different CASE, according to whether they are subject
or object in a sentence.
We have already met several examples of different cases in Greek:

|
The woman (subject) persuades

.
|
the man (object).

|
The woman (object) persuades


|
the man (subject).

The cases in Greek have different names:


The case of the subject is the NOMINATIVE case.
The case of the object is the ACCUSATIVE case.
is the nominative of the woman in Greek, and is the accusative. The woman has the shape , the nominative case, when it is the
subject of a sentence (e.g. when the woman persuades someone), but when the
woman is the object of a sentence (e.g. when someone persuades the woman), it
has the shape , the accusative.
Other cases and word shapes of verbs will be explained later.

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

Grammar for Section 1AB


In this section you cover:
c The denite article the,
c The principle of agreement
c Adjectives like
c The vocative case

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:

. . .

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR 9 (p.9)

I go
he/she/it goes
in
Byzantium
the land
the land

is
the
the sailor
the sailors
[they] see
the ship

the rhapsode
the rhapsode

DECLENSION OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

8. We have met several examples of the def. art. in Greek, which corresponds
to the in English: , the ship, , the helmsman,
, the sailors. Here is the def. art. set out in the traditional pattern
common to all adjectives and nouns (called a declension), showing how def.
art. declines:
The denite article , , , the

Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Dative

m.

Singular
f.

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n.

89

Grammar for Section 1AB

The denite article , , , the (continued)

Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Dative

m.

Plural
f.

n.

You have already met the nominative and accusative cases. We shall be concentrating on these for the moment. But you can see that there are two other
cases, the genitive (often meaning of) and dative (often meaning to, for or
by).

It is essential that you learn all these forms now. Their functions
will be fully discussed later. The cases will often be referred to in their
shortened forms as nom., acc., gen. and dat.

The principle of agreement

9. Translate the following sentences:


.
.
.

What marks the SUBJECT in each of them? What marks the OBJECT (note
there is no object in the rst two sentences)? The reason the article is when
the rhapsode is the SUBJECT and when the rhapsode is the OBJECT
is that the article changes to AGREE with the noun with which it is linked.
That is to say, it changes form according to:
c the GENDER of its noun (i.e. whether the noun is masculine, feminine or
neuter remember the GENDER of a noun never changes),
c the CASE its noun is in (e.g. nom. if it is the subject),
c and the NUMBER of the noun (i.e. whether it is SINGULAR or
PLURAL).
If the noun with which the article is linked is MASCULINE, NOM., and
SINGULAR, the article will also be MASCULINE, NOM., and SINGULAR.
This is what we mean by saying the article is agreeing with its noun. So:
. (The woman persuades the man.)

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10

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

The woman = when the woman is the subject, because is


FEMININE, NOM., SINGULAR. What would be the form of the def. art. if the
woman were the object?
(Do you also hear the noise?)
The noise = when the noise is the object, because is
MASCULINE, ACC., SINGULAR. What would be the form of the def. art. if
the noise were the subject?
. (The sailors go onto the ship.)
The sailors = when the sailors are the subject, because is
MASCULINE, NOM., PLURAL. What would the form of the def. art. be if the
sailors were the object?
(Where is the Acropolis?)
The Acropolis = when the Acropolis is the subject, because
is FEMININE, NOM., SINGULAR. What would the form of the def.
art. be if the Acropolis were the object?
The def. art. is your anchor in the sentence:

See , and you know the noun it goes with is subject, plural, masculine.
See , and you know the noun it goes with is object, singular, masculine, and so on.
So even if you do not know how the NOUN changes, the def. art. will
tell you exactly the function in the sentence of the noun it agrees with.

See how useful the def. art is by doing the following examples. You have not
yet met or learned any of the nouns involved, though you can have a guess at
their meaning. But you can tell a great deal about them by the preceding def.
art. So, using each words def. art. as your guide to the answer, write down the
GENDER, CASE, and NUMBER (where possible) of each:
(cf. political)
(cf. basil, king of herbs)
(cf. gerontologist)
(cf. trireme)

Would be SUBJECT or OBJECT in a sentence?


What about ?
The def. art. tells you this even if you have learnt nothing at all about the noun
or the ways it changes.

Rule: always PAY THE CLOSEST ATTENTION to the def. art.:


it will tell you immediately the function of the noun to which it is

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910

Grammar for Section 1AB

11

attached. Those who have studied Latin, which does not have a def. art.,
will realise how enormously helpful this is.
EXERC I S E
1AB: 1. Name the GENDER, CASE, and NUMBER (where possible) of the following def. art. + noun combinations (guess again at the meaning of the nouns):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR 11

the acropolis
beautiful, ne; good
the dockyard
the Parthenon

ADJECTIVES

10. So far you have met two Greek ADJECTIVES (i.e. a describing-word, e.g.
red, brave, tall, honest). They are the and , ne, beautiful.
declines (see 8) as follows:
- - -, ne, beautiful, good

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Vocative

m.
-
-
-
-
-

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

Singular
f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

Plural
f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

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12

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

1011

Observe that a new case has been added, the VOCATIVE (voc.). It is
used when addressing people (O man). In many cases, the nom. and
voc. forms are identical; so it is added to the declension only where
it is different from the nom. Its function will be fully discussed later
(see 22).

Agreement of adjectives

11. Observe how changes in each of these sentences:


.
.
.

Why does it change? For the same reason that the def. art. does: the form of
changes to AGREE with its noun in GENDER, CASE, and NUMBER.
c In the sentences above, is MASCULINE, NOM., SINGULAR,
so the denite article has the form (which itself tells us all of this information), and the adjective has the form , which is MASCULINE,
NOM., SINGULAR.
c Contrast this with , which is FEMININE, NOM., SINGULAR,
so that its denite article has the form and its adjective the form ,
which is also FEMININE, NOM., SINGULAR (it AGREES with its noun
in GENDER, CASE, NUMBER).

In other words, just like def. art. , the endings of change


according to the GENDER, CASE, and NUMBER of its accompanying
noun.

Observe how similar the endings of - - - are to the def. art., making
it easy to learn if you know .

There is an important lesson here: learn one set of forms in ancient


Greek and you will be able to apply them across many others.

From now on, masculine, feminine and neuter will be denoted by m., f., and
n.; and singular and plural by s. and pl.
EXE RC I S E
1AB: 2. Write the correct form of - - - for the following nouns
(remember you can tell their GENDER, CASE, and NUMBER from their
def. art.), e.g. = . See if you can remember the
meaning of any of the nouns:

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11 12

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Grammar for Section 1AB

13

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 A B

The Summary Learning Vocabularies, which occur from time to time


throughout the Grammar for revision and testing purposes, contain all the
words now needing to be learned. Some you should have learned already
from the Running Vocabularies; others will have been used in the Exercises.
The words listed in these places will be used extensively in the ensuing
Revision Exercise
,

(-)*
,

-
,
,

,
,
,

acropolis
indicates a question
I come, go, walk
land
and, but
over here
I (sometimes emphatic)
then, next
and, also
beautiful, ne, good
sailor
dockyard
the
the Parthenon
vessel, ship
rhapsode
you (s.)
A and B, both A and B
what? who?
O (addressing someone)

* Asterisked words contain very important alternative stems (in brackets) which must be
learned now. Their signicance will be explained later.

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you decline and ?
2. Do you understand the principles of agreement between noun and adjective?

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14

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

12

Grammar for Section 1CD


In this section you cover:
c Verbs ending in - (present tense, indicative mood, active voice)
c Tense, mood, voice, person and number
c Compound verbs (with prexes)
c The imperative [command/order] mood
c The vocative case

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:

o, o,

o
;

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR THE EXERCISES

I hear, listen
I look (at)
I pursue
I go [onto], on board

I descend, go/come down


I remain, wait for
I run off, ee

VERBS IN -

12. CONJUGATION is the technical term for a set of verb forms (cf. declension, 8). Here is the conjugation of I go/am going/do go, in the
present indicative active:
I go/am going/do go
Stem
-

Ending

()

Meaning
I go, I am going
you go, you are going
he/she/it goes (etc.)
we go
you go
they go

Description
rst person s. (1 s.)
second person s. (2 s.)
third person s. (3 s.)
rst person pl. (1 pl.)
second person pl. (2 pl.)
third person pl. (3 pl.)

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1316a

Grammar for Section 1CD

15

Form and use of verbs

In the technical description Present indicative active:

Present shows the tense (other tenses are e.g. future, I shall ,
imperfect I was -ing, etc.)

Indicative shows the mood (in this case, it indicates that something
is happening; the other moods are imperative, innitive, subjunctive,
and optative)

Active shows the voice (that it is the subject doing the action; the two
other voices are middle and passive).
n Tense

13. Verbs (in Greek and in English) have different TENSES, that is, sets of different forms which show when the action of the verb takes place, in the past,
present, or future. For example, in English, I go is in the present tense, but
I went is in the past tense, I shall go is in the future. The forms of
conjugated here are the present tense of the Greek verb to go.
n Mood

14. Verbs also have different moods: the indicative tells you something is
indicated as occurring (or, with the negative o, o, , not occurring!), the
imperative expresses a command (learn this!), and so on.
n Voice

15. The active voice tells you that the subject is doing the action (Charlotte
is carrying the book); the passive voice that something is being done to
the subject (the book is being carried). The passive voice will be met and
learned later.
n Person and number

16a. The forms of a verb differ according to NUMBER, that is whether the verb
is s. or pl., and PERSON. There are three persons:
rst person

I, s. we, pl.

second person you, s. and pl. (Greek uses different forms for s. and pl.
you.)
third person

he/she/it, s., they, pl.

In English we indicate the PERSON of a verb by using a pronoun like I or


you, but in Greek it is the ENDING of the verb which tells you the person:
-

you go (or go-you as a Greek would hear it)

they go (go-they)

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16

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

16a17

All verbs ending in - like follow the same pattern of endings. We


have met , , , and . Once you have mastered
, you will know the endings of all of these other verbs also (indeed,
most verbs in Greek). The golden rule again: learn one set of forms, and you
can apply them to many other sets.
n Thematic verbs

16b. All - verbs are also thematic. A thematic verb is one consisting of
stem + thematic vowel + person endings. The thematic vowels are:
1s.

--

1pl.

--

2s.

--

2pl. --

3s.

--

3pl. --

This pattern will recur elsewhere.


n Compound verbs

17. In Greek you can make COMPOUND VERBS from simple verbs like
by adding a prex. We have seen some examples of this:
-

I go into, on board (into-go-I)

I go down (down-go-I)

The endings for these compound verbs are the same as for simple .
Look out for compounds of other simple Greek verbs you meet. The basic
meaning is usually close to, but different from, that of the simple verb. Cf.
English import, export, transport, deport, report, etc.
EXE RC I S E S
1CD: 1. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1CD: 2. Translate into Greek. Remember one Greek word will often correspond to several English words for the same action (e.g. you are going =
). In this exercise, all the answers are one word in Greek:
1. They hear
2. She is looking at
3. You (pl.) pursue
4. I am going
5. They do not remain

6. He is running for it
7. They chase
8. You (s.) look at
9. We are waiting
10. He does not hear

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1822

Grammar for Section 1CD

17

IMPERATIVE

18. The imperative mood is the form of a verb which is used to express orders
or commands, e.g. stop! in English.

go!

go!

s. (telling one person to go)

go!

pl. (telling more than one person to go)

Form and use of imperatives

19. Translate and observe the differences between the following two Greek
sentences:
.
, .

While is the indicative mood, showing that Sdenothemis is going,


is in the imperative mood, ordering him to go. Again, all regular verbs
ending in - follow this pattern of imperative endings.
n An ambiguity

20. You may have noticed a problem here. The pl. imperative mood, is
identical to that of the second person pl. indicative mood. So could
mean either go! (pl.) or you (pl.) are going. Only the context can give you
the right answer.
n Ordering someone not to

21. In Greek, to make an imperative negative, i.e. to tell someone NOT to do


something, put before the imperative:

do not go! (s.)

do not go! (pl.)

So: the imperative is a mood, expressing an order (negative ); and


the 2pl. imperative and 2pl. indicative, having identical forms, need to
be distinguished by context.

VOCATIVE CASE

22. In the sentence , , the form is in the VOC. case.

The VOC. is the calling CASE used when someone is being called
or addressed (cf. Play it again, Sam). Its form is frequently identical to
the nom. (see 10).

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18

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

22

The voc. is often prefaced with in Greek, and is usually found with
IMPERATIVES (as above) or second-person verbs (e.g. and
, you are going). The voc. is sometimes distinguished from the nom.
in the s.; in the pl., nom. and voc. are always the same, e.g.
.
, .

EXE RC I S E
1CD: 3. Translate into English (specify whether the imperative is s. or pl. unless
you think the imperative mood is not being used ):
1.
2.
3. ,
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9. ,
10.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 C D

(-)

(-)
(-)

, ,

hear, listen
the truth
but, alternatively
look (at)
for, because
chase, pursue
I at least/at any rate
enter, board
we
go/come down
remain, wait for
dont!
no, not
nothing
so, then, really, therefore
what?
you (pl.)
ee, run away/off
how!

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you condently conjugate ?
2. Do you know the imperative forms and their negative?

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2324

Grammar for Section 1EF

19

Grammar for Section 1EF


In this section you cover:
c Contract verbs (-, -, -): present indicative and imperative
c Rules of contract
c Adverbs ( -ly)

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


. . .
;

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR THE EXERCISES

- accurately, closely
deeply
help, run to help
show, reveal
badly, evilly

nely, beautifully
see
make, do
clearly

CONTRACT VERBS

23. Verbs ending in - like are the normal Greek verbs which we met
in the Grammar for 1CD. Verbs whose stem (the part that does not change)
ends in a vowel, like -, I see, have slightly different endings. These are
called CONTRACTED or CONTRACT verbs. There are three types, named
after the vowels in which their original stem ended. These are:
-contracts (e.g. -);
-contracts (e.g. -, I do/make); and
-contracts (e.g. -, I show).

They will be shown uncontracted (that is, with that vowel still present) in the
vocabularies.
Note that contraction is conned to verbs whose stem ends in -, - or -. So
verbs like - or - are NOT contract verbs, but take endings like
-.
Forming contract verbs

24. Note that the uncontracted forms are given rst in each of the three columns
(it is, of course, the contracted forms you will be using to read and write).

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20

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

2425

-- I see, -- I make, do, - - I show


-contract
1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

-
-
-
-
-
-

-contract

-contract

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
- -
- -
- -
- -
- -

-
-
-
-
-
-

Rules of contract

25. In early Greek, such verbs were uncontracted. But over time the contract
vowel began to blend with the endings to produce a new-look ending, which
you can see above. It is rather like English Ive, hes, theyre. The pattern
of the contractions is entirely predictable, according to the following table. To
use it, nd the rst vowel in the left-hand column and the second in the top
row where they intersect is the contraction which you get when these two
vowels come together in that order. For example, + = , while + = .

n A learning strategy for contracts

On the grounds that learning the whole chart off by heart could well induce contractions, two options are available:
(a) Learn just the contractions relevant to this tense, i.e.
1. + // = , + / = ( goes subscript)
2. + = , + / = , + / =
3. + = , + // = , anything with iota =
(b) Learn the contract verbs as mere variations on verbs ending in - like .
Compare their endings in the present indicative active below with those of :

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2526

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Grammar for Section 1EF

Uncontracted
-

-contract
-

-contract
-

-contract
-

-
-
-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-
-
-()

21

Again, the golden rule applies: when you have learnt the contracted forms
of -, - and -, you will be able to recognise and form the
present indicative active of all contract verbs.

EXERC I S E S
1EF: 1. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1EF: 2. Translate into Greek (n.b. one-word answers throughout):


1. They see
2. She makes
3. You (pl.) do
4. I show
5. They are helping

6. He makes
7. They do
8. You (s.) show
9. We see
10. He is doing

1EF: 3. Write the contracted form of the following verbs (you do not need to
know what the verbs mean):
1. -
2. -
3. -
4. -
5. -

6. -
7. -
8. -
9. -
10. -

CONTRACT IMPERATIVES

26. Contract verbs also have imperatives. You will be able to predict what those
forms will be by using the chart at 25 above. But consult the following chart,

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2729

again comparing contracts with :


see!,

do!/make!,

show!

uncontracted

-contracts

-contracts

-contracts

s. -
pl. -

- see!
- see!

- do!/make!
- do!/make!

- show!
- show!

n Accent on -contract imperatives

27. Pay particular attention to the accent on imperative s. active (do!). This
distinguishes it from the third person s. indicative active (he/she/it does).
EXE RC I S E S
1EF: 4. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7. (two translations)
8.
9.
10.

1EF: 5. Translate into Greek:


1. Do not wait! (pl.)
2. Chase! (s.)
3. Show! (pl.)
4. Do not hear! (s.)
5. Help! (s.)

6. He makes
7. Do not do! (s.)
8. He sees
9. See! (s.)
10. Do not go! (s.)

ADVERBS

28. In English, adverbs usually end in -ly actually, normally, beautifully,


quickly, slowly. They tell you how or in what way the action of a verb is done,
or they modify (i.e. make a difference to) an adjective. For example:
c He played beautifully tells you how someone played (verb);
c Extremely cold tells you how cold (adjective) it is.
Forming adverbs

29. Adverbs in Greek do not change form. Observe how these adverbs are formed
from adjectives and deduce the rule:

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29

Grammar for Section 1EF

Adjective

Gen. masc. pl.

Adverb

- ne/beautiful
- bad/evil
- clear
- deep
- accurate

-
-
-
-
-

- nely/beautifully
- badly/evilly
- clearly
- deeply
- accurately

23

The rule, then, is that adverbs (which do not change their forms) are mostly
formed by substituting for the at the end of the m. gen. pl. form of the
adjective. So most adverbs end with - or -.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 E F

accurately, closely
deeply
help, run to help
show, reveal
badly, evilly
nely, beautifully
on the one hand on the other
alas! Oh dear!
see
to where?
make, do
where (at)?
clearly
yourself (s.)

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you conjugate in its contracted forms in the present, with the
imperative forms?
2. Can you repeat the exercise with ?
3. Do you know what an adverb is, and how to form one?

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30

Grammar for Section 1G


In this section you cover:
c Nouns like (man, 2a) and (work, 2b)
c Patterns of declension
c Neuter nouns as subject or object
c Adjectives like
c Prepositions like towards, from, in
c Particles and their position; enclitics
c Translating English into Greek

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR THE EXERCISES

the man; fellow


sink
the task, work, job; duty
the market-place
- - our(s)

bad, evil; cowardly;


lowly, mean
the captain, helmsman
the boat, life-boat
o safe

NOUNS: TYPES 2A AND 2B

30. Like def. art. and adjectives, all nouns in Greek words like man
and work change shape in accordance with their function in the
sentence (e.g. subject or object, s. or pl.). Here are the declensions (see 8 for
this term) of two very common types of noun, labelled 2a and 2b:
, man/fellow (2a)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.

pl.

-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

, task/duty/job/work (2b)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

s.

pl.

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

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25

The declensions

31. Broadly speaking, there are THREE DECLENSIONS in Greek.


c stems in - (Type 1)
c stems in - (Type 2)
c all the rest (Type 3)
Each DECLENSION or TYPE has a number of sub-types, reecting slight differences in the endings used (these sub-types will be called 1ad, 2a and b, and 3ah).

All TYPE 2a nouns follow the same pattern as , while all


TYPE 2b nouns follow the pattern of : the golden rule, again.

n 2a nouns

32. The endings of the cases of TYPE 2a nouns like are very similar to those
of the masc. and neut. def. art. (8), and the m. forms of the adjective (10).
Most TYPE 2a nouns are m., though there are a few feminines and some (e.g.
) which are m. or f.
n 2b nouns

33. Again, the endings of TYPE 2b nouns are similar to those of the neuter def.
art. and the neuter forms of . TYPES 2a and 2b therefore have very similar endings only nom. and voc. s., and nom., voc., and acc. pl. are different.
TYPE 2b nouns are all neuter. N. nouns are often inanimate, or regarded as
effectively inanimate, e.g. and (what do these two nouns
mean?) and some diminutive, perhaps affectionate, like child, slave (!).
Neuter nouns
n Subject or object?

34. Consider the following sentences:


.
.

Is SUBJECT or OBJECT in the rst sentence? What about the


second sentence?
The nom. and acc. s. and nom. and acc. pl. of all n. nouns and adjectives are
identical. Therefore:

Only the context of the sentence will tell you whether the noun in question is subject or object; if it is not immediately clear what the meaning
is, you will have to try both.
Nor will the def. art. help here, because that too follows the n. rule:
is nom. and acc. s., and nom. and acc. pl.

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3536

n Neuter pl. subjects

35. Examine these two sentences:


.
.

What is the subject in the rst sentence? Is it s. or pl.? Is the verb s. or pl.? Ask
the same questions of the second sentence.

The conclusion? N. pl. subjects (normally) take a s. verb, as in our


examples above.

EXE RC I S E S
1G: 1. Write the correct form of or for the following def. art. +
adjective combinations. Check the gender of the def. art. + adj. to determine
which noun to put with them. Sometimes you can give two answers:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

1G: 2. Write the correct form of the verb in brackets in the following sentences:
1. (are) .
2. (chase) .
3. (make) .

4. (sees)
.
5. (are) .

ADJECTIVES

36. There is another type of adjective very similar to adjectives like .


Adjectives of the - type have exactly the same endings as in
the m. and n. s. and pl., and the f. pl. They only differ in the f. s., where they
have instead of :
- - our(s)

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

s.
f.

n.

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

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3637

Grammar for Section 1G

27

- - our(s) (continued)

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

pl.
f.

n.

n The , , rule

37. If an adjective ends in - in the m. nom. s. and its stem ends in , , , it will
follow the pattern of (i.e. it will have instead of in the f. s.). For
example, the f. nom. s. of -, your(s), is -, like -,
because its stem ends in .
Check you understand this by forming all the f. s. forms for the following
nouns:
-, someone elses, alien
-, manly
- evil
-, strong, powerful
EXERC I S E S
1G: 3. Translate the following phrases into Greek, using the correct form of
the def. art., adjective and noun, e.g. [the] our man (nom.)
:
1. The ne land (acc.)
2. [The] our tasks (dat.)
3. The evil men (gen.)
4. [The] our men (acc.)

5. The beautiful tasks (nom.)


6. [The] our boat (dat.)
7. The ne market-places (gen.)
8. The evil men (dat.)

1G: 4. Add the correct form of the noun to the following Greek
phrases and specify the CASE and NUMBER of the article, adjective and
noun, e.g. , nom. s.:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

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3738

VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR THE EXERCISES

from, away from + gen.


into + acc.
from, out of + gen.

in + dat.
to, towards + acc.
at least, at any rate

PREPOSITIONS

38. PREPOSITIONS are words like in, on, below, towards, to, followed
by a noun, e.g. in the house, to the beach:
c They can indicate place or movement;
c They can express a relationship in terms of time (e.g. after); or
c They can indicate something more abstract like cause (e.g. because of).
In Greek, they are always followed by nouns or pronouns in the acc., gen., or dat.
For example: + ACC. means into, so means into the
sea (you can tell is acc. from the def. art. ).
c When a preposition is followed by a particular case, it is said to take that
case (so + acc. = takes the acc.).
c When a noun or pronoun goes into this case because of a preposition, it is
said to be governed by it (e.g. is governed by in the
phrase above).
Other prepositions we have met, together with the cases they take, are:

+ ACC., towards, e.g. , towards the land


+ GEN., away from, e.g. , away from the ship
+ GEN., out of/from, e.g. , from the ship
+ DAT., in, e.g. , in the sea

Some prepositions may govern more than one case and differ in meaning
depending on the case being taken, e.g. while + ACC. means towards
(see above), + GEN. means in the name of, from, under the protection
of. For the moment, however, we will meet prepositions taking one case only.

In general, it is important to think carefully about the meaning of the


preposition. For example, the meaning of in in Get in the boat! is different from that in she swims in the sea the former , the latter .

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3841

Grammar for Section 1G

29

EXERC I S E S
1G: 5. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1G: 6. Translate into Greek:


1. Out of the ship
2. Into the life-boat
3. Away from the man
4. In the ships

5. Towards the life-boat


6. Into the ship
7. Towards the men
8. Into the markets

PARTICLES

39. You will have noticed several short Greek words such as , , , ,
and so on. We have usually translated these with an English equivalent,
such as but for or for for . Nevertheless the resulting translation
can often seem a bit unnatural in English, because particles often indicate
gesture, intonation, facial expression or attitude (e.g. , why, you
are stupid!) and this cannot necessarily be reproduced by a word-for-word
translation. To get your translation to sound natural in English, you will often
have to change it after the rst attempt. You can also sometimes use exclamation marks, inverted commas, etc. to capture the tone of the particle.
First-position particles

40. There are three particles which normally come rst in the sentence or part of
the sentence to which they belong. These are:
c which introduces a question when there is no interrogative word like
Who, What, Why? (e.g. ; lit. [question] the
men you see?, do you see the men?)
c but
c and, even, actually
Postpositive particles

41. Most of the other particles you will meet for now are postpositive, lit. afterplaced, and usually come second in the sentence or clause to which they
belong, e.g.
c , , , , , .

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4243

Enclitics

42. Two of these postpositive particles and are also enclitics (on-leaning). These are words which have accents, but they give them to the previous
word if possible. Thus they can alter the accentuation of the preceding word
[Reference Grammar, 264ff.]. Note the following points:
a. Like postpositives, enclitics cannot come rst in a sentence or clause.
b. Other enclitics you have met are and , I am in the present indicative (but not second person s.).
c. Most particles, even those which cannot come rst in a sentence or clause,
are not enclitics. For more on enclitics see [Reference Grammar, 34.7.].
and
43. Two of the most important particles are often found together in parallel, coordinated sentences or clauses. These are and .
a. These are often used to draw a contrast between two ideas or halves of a
sentence:
, .
So the captain goes down, but the sailors go up.

Here the contrast between the two halves of the sentence, indicated by
in the Greek down goes the captain, up go the sailors is translated in
English by but.
b. Another useful way of translating and is by using while to introduce one of the clauses, as in:
, .
While Dikaiopolis runs away, the sailors give chase, or Dikaiopolis runs
away while

c. It is also possible to translate by using on the one hand, on


the other hand. This, while useful as a literal way of translating the
Greek, usually sounds strained in English.
d. Sometimes the contrast drawn by Greek using is not at all
strong, e.g.
, .
The Parthenon is beautiful and the Acropolis is beautiful.

Here it is worth observing that (etc.) is used


to construct a (usually uncontrasted) list: A and B and C and D and E, etc.

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43 44

Grammar for Section 1G

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 G

(-)
,
+ gen.
(-)

+ acc.
, + gen.

,
+ dat.
,
(-)
- -
,

,
(-)
,

(-)
+ acc.

o
,
,

go up
man; fellow
away from
die
go away, depart
at least, at any rate
why?
sink
to, into, onto
out of
come! go!
market-place
in
task, work, job; duty
have, hold
our(s)
sea
bad, evil; cowardly; lowly, mean
captain, helmsman
say
boat, life-boat
now
sail
towards
throw, hurl
save, keep safe
safe
safety, salvation
friend
dear, friendly, ones own
think; worry

TAKING STOCK
1.
2.
3.
4.

Can you decline and ?


Can you explain how declines differently from ?
Can you instantly give the meanings of , , and ?
Can you instantly recall the meanings of , , ,
, , , , , , ?

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43 44

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR 1AG


In the Revision Exercise sections of Reading Greek, summing up largish chunks
of grammar, you will nd exercises divided into ve sections:
A VOCABULARY-BUILDING: these build up your vocabulary by getting you
to think about the meaning of words based on those you have already met. These
are provided for Sections 111 only.
B WORD SHAPE: these get you practising the changing forms of nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs.
C SYNTAX: these get you practising how to use these changing forms in
sentences.
D ENGLISH INTO GREEK: these help you practise writing Greek, which
is an excellent way of mastering the Greek you are learning. In the rst four
Sections there are guide-sentences to get you started. There is also an introduction Writing in Greek at pp. 3656.
E TEST EXERCISE: these come usually at the end of Sections, and test grammar and vocabulary from the section just completed. They should be done as
written exercises, without help from vocabulary or grammar, after all the other
work on a section has been completed. There is a guide on how to tackle Test
Exercises at pp. 3667.

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43 44

Revision Exercises for 1AG

33

a vocabulary-building
Translate the words in the left-hand column and use them to translate those in the
right-hand column.

b word shape*
1. Translate each word, then give the pl. form, e.g. a 1st person s. will become
1st person pl., etc.
-, -, -, -, - (check the accent, and compare -)
2. Translate each word, then give the s. form (there may be more than one!):
-, --, --, -, --
3. Fit the appropriate form of the def. art. to the following nouns:
-, -, -, -, - (2b), -
4. Use the information provided by the def. art. to put the adjective and the noun
into the correct form:
a. - b. - c. - d. - e. - -

c syntax
For each of the examples, translate the Greek sentence and then write what the
Greek would be for the word(s) in italics (there is no need to translate the English
sentence into Greek):
1. .
We see Hegestratos.
2. .
Sdenothemis pursues the ships.
3. .
The man rescues us.
* Never hyphenate your answers to exercises.

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43 44

4. .
The life-boat is not in the harbour.
5. .
We chase the men.

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences (there are tips on writing in Greek given at
pp. 3656):
1. .
The man runs off towards the boat.
2. .
Hegestratos does not see the men.
3.
Do you (s.) see the men too?
4. .
Come and help (pl.)! Chase the man! Do not run away!
5. .
The friends are not waiting.

e test exercise one ag


Translate into English (n.b. underlined words are given in the vocabulary
below):
, .
.
. .
.
. . .

,
.
.
, ,
.

, .
.
. ,
.
Vocabulary (in the order it occurs in the text)

the land
below

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43 44

Revision Exercises for 1AG

35

cause to sink, sink


axe (acc.)
dockyard (2b)
suddenly
noise (2a)
his right hand
from below
themselves (as reexive object, e.g. they hurt themselves)

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44

Grammar for Section 1HJ


In this section you cover:
c Verbs I am and I know
c Complement and ellipse with
c Adjectives used as nouns
c More particles

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , , , ,
VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR EXERCISES

lit. the naval-things, naval matters


lit. the leaders-things, leadership, generalship
lit. the soldiers-things, military matters

IRREGULAR VERBS

44. Just as in English, French, Spanish and many other languages, some common
verbs in Greek are irregular. Here is the present tense of two of the most
common irregular verbs, , I am (i.e. the Greek verb to be), and , I
know:
, I am

()

()

I am
you are
he/she/it is
we are
you are
they are

rst person s.
second person s.
third person s.
rst person pl.
second person pl.
third person pl.

I know
you know
he/she/it knows
we know
you know
they know

rst person s.
second person s.
third person s.
rst person pl.
second person pl.
third person pl.

, I know

()

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Grammar for Section 1HJ

37

The complement: same case before and after

45. The verb to be, in English and Greek, is often used to describe someone or
something by linking it to an adjective, e.g.:
The man is good.
, The sea is evil.

Since the adjective is describing the subject, it goes in the NOM. case in
Greek, AGREEING with the subject. In the Greek sentence above
is the subject of , so it goes in the nom. case; and so does the adjective
, describing .

To put it very crudely but helpfully the verb to be takes the same
case before and after, which usually means the nom.

46. The verb to be can also be used to link the subject to another NOUN, which
also goes in the NOM., e.g.
The man is the captain.
, The rhapsode is Ion.

The SUBJECT in sentences such as these is usually marked by having the


def. art. and . Both the adjective and the noun to
which it is linked by the verb to be are called the COMPLEMENT (= completion; cf. compliment, congratulation).
No complementary def. art.

47. In Greek, the complement does not normally have a def. art. Look at these
two sentences:
.
.

Both sentences mean Homer is the best rhapsode, and in both cases the
SUBJECT of is , as indicated by the def. art.

So, with the verb to be, def. art. will go with the subject; the complement will not have one.

Omission of verb to be

48. Quite often the verb to be is omitted from a sentence (a feature called
ellipse). So if you nd a sentence without a verb, try some form of ,
e.g.
Memnon handsome.

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4849

Supply , giving Memnon is handsome. The Greek here is an example


of the many common inscriptions on Greek pots, the complement
complimenting a young man on his good looks (and omitting
is). See Text p. 103, the youth [is] handsome.
EXE RC I S E S
1HJ: 1. Translate into English:
1. (translate three ways)
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1HJ: 2. Translate into Greek:


1. I know
2. You are (s.)
3. They are
4. She is
5. They know

6. She knows
7. We are
8. It is
9. He knows
10. You are (pl.)

ADJECTIVES AS NOUNS

Neuter things

49. The stem - means many, much. - is its n. pl. form: the - ending
is like the n. pl. def. art. -, the noun - and the n. pl. adjective -.
(Remember the nom., voc., and acc. pls. of neuter articles, nouns and adjective always end in -).
In this n. pl. form, means many things.

In a similar way, the adjective , means of a general, but in the


n. pl. with a def. art., , literally things to do with a general, it
means a generals business, or generalship.

This use of the n. pl. of an adjective, especially when linked with the def.
art., is very common, e.g.:
lit. the naval-things, i.e. naval matters
lit. the military-things, military matters

The n. s. can also be used as an abstract noun. , the beautiful


thing, comes to mean beauty.

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Grammar for Section 1HJ

39

Masculine and feminine people

50. The def. art. can, in fact, be used in this way with adjectives in all genders and
numbers. When m., it will refer to men, and when f., to women, e.g.
, the beautiful [f. s.] woman
, the wise [m. pl.] men

English plays the same game, e.g. The clever [= clever people] are not
always wise.
PARTICLES

and

51. The combinations of particles and link two words or phrases


together (bothand), e.g.
, [The] both Dikaiopolis and the rhapsode.
, The man [both] sees and does not see.

Note the position of in these phrases it goes after the FIRST item it will
link with the next (between article and noun in the rst example), while
comes before the SECOND item.

In other words, in this usage waves a ag saying another item


coming up.

Remember, is an ENCLITIC (42)


EXERC I S E S
1HJ: 3. Translate into English:
1.
.
2. .
3. .

4. .
5.

1HJ: 4. Translate into Greek:


1. They know much.
2. He is and he is not.
3. He does not know generalship.

4. I know and I do not know naval


and military matters.
5. We are and we know.

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51 52

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 H J


(-)
o

,
o

( + acc.)

;
,


always
best; very good
know; think; resolve
clear; obvious
I am (= verb to be)
Greek
skilled, experienced
or
stupid; foolish
yes
ship
know
that
play; joke (at)
(+ acc.) about
many things (acc.)
of course
general (2a)
lit. the naval-things, naval matters
lit. the leaders-things, leadership, generalship
lit. the soldiers-things, military matters

TAKING STOCK
1.
2.
3.
4.

Be certain that you can conjugate and in the present.


Do you understand the idea of a complement?
In what ways are adjectives used as nouns in Greek?
What are the alternative stems of , , , ?

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51 52

Revision Exercises for 1HJ

41

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR 1HJ


a vocabulary-building
1. From the words in the left-hand column deduce the meaning of those on the
right:

b word shape
1. Translate each verb, then change to the s. or pl. form as appropriate:
, , , , , , ,

c syntax
1. Translate these sentences:
a. .
b. .
c. .
d. .
e. .
f. .

d english into greek


If you need a reminder of how to tackle this exercise, look at pp. 3656.
Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
It is clear that the rhapsode knows many things.
2. .
You are not experienced in the job.
3. .
The best general is a rhapsode.
4.
Doesnt he know that the rhapsode is speaking accurately?
5. , .
But I am not a fool; I know a lot.

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51 52

e test exercise one hj


Translate into English:
.
. .
. .
.
.

.
.
.

,
.
.


, , .

. ,
.

Vocabulary

near the harbour


suddenly
recite Homer
good
at the same time
of the Greeks
about
andnot

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Grammar for Section 2AD

43

Grammar for Section 2AD


In this section you cover:
c Middle verbs in - (middle voice: present and imperative)
c Contract middle verbs in -, -, - (present and imperative)
c Nouns like (1a), (1b), (1c), , (1d)
c The genitive case, of
c Sandwich and repeated article constructions
c Prepositions governing accusative and dative cases

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , , , ,
,
VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR EXERCISES

-, perplexity
-, shout
- happen, be made, be born
- enslave
- go, come

- observe, watch
- ght
-, daring, courage
- be afraid of, fear

MIDDLE VERBS (-)

52. Most of the verbs we have met so far have followed the CONJUGATION (or
pattern) of -, ending - in the third person s., - in the third person pl.
and so on (see , 12). But you have also met verbs with different endings:
-.
The ship goes slowly towards the Piraeus.
- .
The Athenians ght for the sake of freedom.
-.
The Greeks swiftly attack [against] the Persians.

c These verbs are called middle verbs (the technical term is the middle
voice, in contrast with the active voice).
c Verbs in the middle voice end in - in the rst person s. (compare
-).
c We have met, for example, , , , ,
o.

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5253

Here is the CONJUGATION of , I go, set out in full for the present
indicative middle forms. This is the pattern that all uncontracted middle verbs
follow in the present indicative tense (so, e.g., , I become, and
, I ght, follow this pattern).
Middle indicative

I go, am going
-
- (-)
-
-
-
-

I go, I am going
you go, you are going
he/she/it goes/is going
we go, we are going
you go, you are going
they go, they are going

rst person s.
second person s.
third person s.
rst person pl.
second person pl.
third person pl.

Middle imperative

go!
- (s.), go!
- (pl.), go!
n Form

(a) Middle forms have two patterns of ending: this one worth remembering in
these terms because it will recur is:
- - - - - -
These endings are added to the thematic vowels: (see 16b).
(b) You will immediately (and rightly) demand to know where the - has got
to in the 2s. Here, then, is another useful hint. In Greek, in certain circumstances, a between vowels (intervocalic sigma) disappears. The 2s form
was once --. The disappeared leaving -. This then contracted
into , sometimes .
CONTRACTED MIDDLE VERBS

53. We have also met some contracted middle verbs, which follow the same rules
of contraction as contracted active verbs (see 235).
c Just as with active contracted verbs, there are three different types of contracted middle verbs, -contracts, -contracts and -contracts.

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Grammar for Section 2AD

45

c All regular middle -contracts follow the pattern of , all regular


middle -contracts follow the pattern of , all regular -contracts
follow the pattern of -, as given below:
Present indicative middle

, I watch, am watching
+
-
-
+
-

-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-

I watch
you watch
he/she/it watches
we watch
you watch
they watch

, I fear, am fearing
+
-
-
+
-

-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-

I fear
you fear
he/she/it fears
we fear
you fear
they fear

, I enslave (for myself)


+
-
-
+
-

-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
-
-

I enslave
you enslave
he/she/it enslaves
we enslave
you enslave
they enslave

Present imperative middle

54. Using the rules of contraction, you can also predict what the imperative forms
must be for middle -, - and -contracts:
-contracts: (s.), watch!
+ -
- (s.), watch!
+ - - (pl.), watch!
-contracts: (s.), fear!
+ -
- (s.), fear!
+ - - (pl.), fear!
-contracts: (s.), enslave!
+ -

+ -

- (s.), enslave!
- (pl.), enslave!

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

5456

Note that, as with active verbs (20), the second person pl. indicative form is
the same as the pl. imperative.
EXE RC I S E S
2AD: 1. Translate into English:
1. (translate three
ways)
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

8. (translate two
ways)
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

2AD: 2. Translate into Greek:


1. Do not watch (pl.)
2. They are going
3. He does not fear
4. You become (pl.)
5. You (pl.) enslave
6. I fear

7. We go
8. They fear
9. She enslaves
10. She watches
11. They do not become
12. You go (s.)

NOUNS TYPES 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D

55. Here are some more types of noun, which we have categorised as TYPES 1a,
1b, 1c (all f.) and 1d (m.).
TYPE 1a nouns have endings in s. and pl. exactly like the f. def. art. (see 8).
, , shout (1a)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

s.
-
-
-
-

pl.
-
-
-
-

56. TYPE 1b nouns like -:


c Replace the - with - (pronounced LONG) all the way through the s.
This is because their stem ends in , , or (see 37), i.e. they follow the
same rule which you have already learnt for adjectives in - whose stems
end in , , (e.g. such as -, f. -);

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Grammar for Section 2AD

47

c Usually have a long nal in the nom./voc. and acc. s., and always have a
long in the gen. and dat. s. and acc. pl.
, , perplexity (1b)
s.
Nom.
-
Acc.
-
Gen.
-
Dat.
-

pl.
-
-
-
-

57. TYPE 1c nouns like :


c Show - in the ending of the nom. and acc. s. (pronounced short);
c Switch to in the gen. (-) and dat. s. (-: contrast TYPE 1b nouns);
c Usually have a stem ending in or a double consonant: but note --
daring (1c).
, , sea (1c)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

s.
-
-
-
-

pl.
-
-
-
-

58. Type 1d nouns:


c Are all masculine; but
c Take endings which look suspiciously f., except for the gen. s. in -:
nothing for it but to learn it accurately.
c Some 1d nouns end in nom. -, e.g. -, young man.
c You will, however, observe that the pl. endings of ALL type 1 nouns
follow exactly the same pattern, and that they are also the same as the f.
pl. endings of adjectives like [10].
, , sailor (1d)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.
-
-
-
-
-

pl.
-
-
-
-

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

, , young man (1d)


s.
Nom.
-
Acc.
-
Gen.
-
Dat.
-
Voc.
-

5861

pl.
-
-
-
-

EXE RC I S E S
2AD: 3. Decide which of the ve nouns above can agree with each def. art.
below (gender will tell you) and then choose the right case and number to
make them agree:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

2AD: 4. Change s. to pl. and vice-versa:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

GENITIVE CASE

Meaning

59. The gen. case has a wide range of functions, and very often it is equivalent to
the English of:
, of the men; , of the deeds
n Form

60. Observe the form of the gen. pl. of some of the words you have met, e.g.
, , , ,

They all end in -.

In fact, all nouns and adjectives end in - in the gen. pl. as you will
nd out (though, of course, not all words which end in - are gen. pl.).

Sandwich and repeated article constructions

61. Notice the position of the gen. in the following sentences, all meaning the
ship of the men:

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Grammar for Section 2AD

49

the ship of-the men


the of-the men ship
the ship the [one] of-the men
of-the men the ship
n Sandwich

The normal order is , with the gen. coming BETWEEN


article and noun, as in the following sentence (the sandwich-construction):
, I see the [of] the men ship. (in answer to
the question, What are you doing?)
n Repeated article

If the question had instead been, Whose ship do you see?, the order would have
been as follows (the repeated article-construction):
, It is the mens ship I see. (lit. The
ship I see the [one] of the men.)

The def. art. is repeated here (in the n., to agree with , to specify which
ship it is that is being seen).
n Other uses of the sandwich and repeated article construction

62. This use of the def. art. is seen with other phrases which do not involve the
gen., e.g.
, the events around Salamis (lit. the
events the [ones] around Salamis)

Here again, the article is repeated to specify which events are being referred to. But it is
also possible to extend phrases without repeating the def. art., e.g. by using the sandwich-construction we saw above (where a gen. came BETWEEN article and noun):
, the around Salamis events
n Article + preposition constructions

63. In Greek the def. art. can be used to extend phrases in a way similar to its use
with adjectives to make nouns (49). Examine the following phrases:
, the [n. pl., i.e.] things/events around Salamis
, the [m. pl., i.e.] men in Salamis/those in Salamis
, the [f. pl., i.e.] women in the Piraeus

In these phrases the def. art. + prepositional phrase is being used as an equivalent
of a noun.

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6465

PREPOSITIONS

Prepositions governing the accusative

64. Note the following prepositions, all of which have the given meanings when
they take the acc. case:
+ ACC.
+ ACC.
+ ACC.

along, alongside
against, at, to attack
because of

Prepositions governing the dative

65. The DATIVE is the last of the cases in Greek, the different possible word
shapes a noun, adjective, pronoun or article can have. You have been learning
the dative forms of the types of nouns and adjectives we have introduced, and
you have met the dat. used with the preposition , in, on or among, as in
the following phrases:
, in/on the sea
, in his/her right hand
, in Byzantium
EXE RC I S E S
2AD: 5. Revise the prepositions taking the GENITIVE at 38 and translate into
English:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .

7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .

2AD: 6. Translate into Greek:


1. Because of the shouts.
2. Out of the boats.
3. Alongside the friends.
4. At the army.
5. Because of freedom.

6. Alongside the goddesses.


7. Because of the agreements.
8. Away from the enemy.
9. At the men.
10. Because of the victory.

EXE RC I S E U S I N G T H E D AT I VE ( O R NO T )
2AD: 7. Write the correct form of the article between preposition and noun and
translate the resulting phrase:

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65 66

__ .
__ .
__ .

Grammar for Section 2AD

51

__ .
__ .

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 2 A D

good, noble,
courageous
,
Athenian (2a)

at the same time

retreat
-
be at a loss; have
no resources
-,
perplexity, lack of
provisions (1b)

again
,
barbarian,
foreigner (2a)
() o
secure

slowly

(+ acc.) because of
(-) go through, relate
-
enslave
,
freedom (1b)
o o free

free, set free



my; mine

when
(-) go against, attack
(+ acc.)
at, against, to
`
attack
(-)
go, come

with pleasure,
happily

by now, now,
already

be quiet, keep
quiet
,
quiet, peace (1b)
,
goddess (1b)
-
observe, watch

most/very ne/
beautiful/good
,
story, tale (2a)
(-) ght
,
naval battle (1b)

win, defeat
,
victory, conquest
(1a)
,
agreement,
harmony (1b)
o
how great!

no longer
()
thus, so, in this way

(+ acc.) along,
alongside
(-)
fall, die
,
the enemy (2a)
o
hostile, enemy
,
war (2a)
whether or

advance, go/come
(-)
towards
-
be silent
-
look (at), consider
,
army (1b)

quickly

in the end, nally

a, something
,
daring (1c)

dare, be daring,
undertake

fear, be afraid
(of)

falsely

like, as

TAKING STOCK
1. Show that you can conjugate and by heart, with imperative forms.
2. Rattle through the declensions of , and , with denite article attached.

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65 66

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 2


a vocabulary building
Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left:

/
/




(-contract)

,

, ,

(-contract)


, (-contract)

, ,
, , (-contract)
(-contract),

b word shape
1. Translate each verb, then change to s. or pl. as appropriate:
, , , , , , ,
, , , ,
2. Add the correct form of the def. art. to these nouns:
, , , , , , , , ,

3. Put in the correct form of adjective and noun:


1. - 2. - 3. - -

4. - 5. - -

c syntax
1. The war of the Athenians = /
. Put together the following groups of words in the same patterns,
and translate:

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65 66

Revision Exercises for Section 2

a. +
b. +
c. +

53

d. +
e. +

d english into greek


If you need a reminder of how to tackle this exercise, look at p. 365ff.
Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
The sailors converse with the rhapsode.
2. .
The captain relates with pleasure our sea-battle.
3. , .
Finally the Athenians are victorious, while the Athenians enemies are falling.
4. , , .
Do not be afraid, sailors, but ght and become free.
5. .
You (pl.) know that the Persians generals are retreating.

e test exercise two


Translate into English:
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
, .
, , .
. ,
. .
Vocabulary
,

,

,

eet, navy (2b)


arrive
night (nom.)
this way and that
day (1b)
in good order
courage

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66

Grammar for Section 3AB


In this section you cover:
c Type 3a nouns: and (3a)
c Personal pronouns: , , ,

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , ,
VOCABULARY TO BE LEARNED

(-), man (3a)


(-), neighbour (3a)
(-), torch (3a)
(-), harbour (3a)
(-), night (3a)
(-), child, slave (3a)
(-), fatherland (3a)
(-), saviour (3a)

THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS

66. So far you have met nouns classied as types 1 or 2 (or 1st and 2nd declension). The endings of these nouns show very helpful similarities with the
denite article and adjectives like , and their genders can for the most
part be predicted.
There is a further group of nouns, type 3 nouns, which decline in another way.
Here are two examples of type 3 nouns laid out in full: , harbour,
and , night.
(-), harbour (3a)
s.
Nom.
Acc. -
Gen. -
Dat. -

pl.
-
-
-
() [< -()]

(-), night (3a)


s.

-
-
-

pl.
-
-
-
() [< -()]

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67

Grammar for Section 3AB

55

Important features of 3rd declension nouns


n Gender

67. (a) The gender of 3rd declension nouns is not generally predictable from the
ending. This means that you must be especially careful to learn the gender
along with the noun. Nevertheless, there are patterns, for example:

Nouns classied as type 3a are either m. or f., but never n.;


Nouns classied as types 3b, 3c and 3f are always neuter.

n Stem

(b) The nouns STEM is generally not obvious from the nom. s.

When you learn a new noun, you must therefore also learn its stem
(-), harbour, (-), man, (-),
torch, and so on.

This is the only way for you to be able to spot the noun when it occurs in a
form different from the nom. s. (In time, you will nd that you are often able
to predict a nouns stem from its nom. s. form and vice versa: this will come
with experience.)
n Genitive singular

(c) In dictionaries and word lists, you will usually nd the nom. s. form of a noun
listed along with its gen. s. and gender, e.g. , (m.) (or simply
[m.]).
The gen. form enables you to see:
c The stem of the noun (i.e. -); and
c That it is a type 3 noun (because of the ending, -).
c You will also nd other nouns listed in this way, e.g. (m.),
man and (f.), sea.
n Vocative

(d) The vocative of and (both s. and pl.) are the same as the equivalent nom.
forms: on the vocatives of other type 3a nouns see 204.
n Noun-types

(e) There are a number of different types of 3rd declension noun, of which 3a is
the most common. In Reading Greek, 3rd declension nouns are classied as
types 3ah (you will meet types 3bh in future sections).
c But you must be aware that when you look up a word in a dictionary
you will not nd these conventions employed: instead, you will have to

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6768

deduce its type 3a, 3b, etc. from the way the noun is listed, i.e. its nom.
and gen. forms and its gender.
n Accusative singular

(f) 3a nouns ending in - (usually feminine) generally have an acc. s. in -, e.g.


(-), grace, acc. s. , but otherwise follow the same pattern as
and . Note that (acc. ) is an exception.
n Knowing the endings

(g) As you can see, the endings are very different from those of 1st and 2nd
declension nouns. These type 3 endings are found extremely commonly in
Greek, and it will be important to master them now.
(h) The dat. pl. of (-) man is (), and its vocative .
EXE RC I S E S
3AB: 1. Taking all the 3a nouns listed in the learning vocabulary at the start of
this section, and paying close attention to stem and gender, attach as many as
you can to the following forms of the denite article:
1.
2. o
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

3AB: 2. Provide the correct form of the noun to agree with the denite article
(for the stems, see the list above):
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()

5. ()
6. ()
7. ()
8. ()

3AB: 3. Translate into Greek using the nouns listed in the learning vocabulary
at the start of this section and the following prepositions: , , , ,
.
1. Alongside the harbour
2. Into the fatherland
3. At the men
4. Towards the neighbours
5. Because of the child

6. Into the harbours


7. Against the neighbour
8. Because of the night
9. At the children
10. Because of the fatherland

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
, YOU (PL.)
, I; , YOU (S.); , WE;

68. Learn the following pronouns:

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Grammar for Section 3AB

57

s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

I/me

you (s.)

or
or
or

we/us

you (pl.)

pl.

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Form and use

(a) Note that , , and , , are emphatic forms, , , and


, , unemphatic, e.g. He is watching me (); Whom is he watching?
Me! (). The unaccented forms of these pronouns are enclitics: see 42.
(b) Note the emphatic usage of the nom. forms, often implying a strong contrast
with someone or something else. So:
c means I am going; but
c means I am going, and will probably be set in opposition to
something/one else, equally emphatic e.g. but you are staying put.
EXERCI S E S
3AB: 4. Translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

, .
, .
, .

.
, .
, .
, .

3AB: 5. Translate the italicised words:


1. Can they see us?
2. You (pl.) are foolish, we are intelligent.

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

68 69

Our safety is in me.


They go towards you (s.).
They come from you (pl.).
Which of us is free?
They cannot nd me or you (s.).
Their freedom is in us.

TAKING STOCK
1. It is essential that you are condent you know the endings of 3rd declension
nouns. Can you decline and ?
2. Explain the importance of nding the stems of 3rd declension nouns. Can
you give the stems of: , , , and ?
3. Can you decline in full the personal pronouns and ?
4. Of what verbs are these the alternative stems -, -, -, -,
-?

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Revision Exercises for Section 3AB

59

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 3A B


a vocabulary-building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left:

,

, ,

,

o

, ,
()

b word shape
1. Change nom. to acc.:
a.
b.
c.
d.
2. Change acc. to nom.:
a.
b.
c.
d.
3. Change the phrases from question 1 into the gen. case and the phrases from
question 2 into the dat. case.

c syntax
Translate the phrases in exercises B 1 and 2 above.

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69

Grammar for Section 3CE


In this section you cover:
c Adjectives/pronouns: ,
c Adjectives: ,
c Irregular nouns: ,
c Negatives

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , , , ,
,

ADJECTIVES/PRONOUNS
, THIS; , THAT

69. The Greek words for this and that can be used as:
c Adjectives, in which case they will agree with a noun (this ship, that
harbour); or
c On their own as pronouns, when they will mean he, she, it, etc.,
depending on form and context.
Thus:
;

Do you not see those res (adjective)?

, . When he orders, the ship sails away


(pronoun).

Cf. on adjectives used as nouns, 4950.


Here are the declensions of and in full:
this, he, she, it
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

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61

this, he, she, it (continued)


pl.
m.
-
-
-
-

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

Form

(a) As with the denite article, all forms except the nom. m. and f. s. and pl.
begin with -.
(b) Note especially the n. forms and and the f. gen. pl.: .
(c) It may be helpful to observe the rule that / in the ending goes with -- in
the stem, whereas / in the ending goes with -- in the stem.
that, he, she, it
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Usage
n This, that

70. When and are used as adjectives they must, of course, agree
with the noun which they are describing. Observe closely how Greek does
this:

or

this sailor

or

these deeds

or

that shout

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7073

In other words, unlike English, Greek says (literally) either this the sailor,
or the sailor this, all the words agreeing. Greek never sandwiches and
between the denite article and the noun to make the this sailor.
n He, she, it

71. and are regularly used on their own, as third person pronouns,
to mean this man, that woman, that thing, etc. and are usually best translated he, she, it, they, etc., depending on context.

this [m., i.e. man] is approaching (or he is approaching)

those [f., i.e. women] are running (or they are running)

he is doing this [n., i.e. thing] (or he is doing it)

n and

72. Both and can occur in forms ending in -, e.g. ,


, etc. This intensies the pronouns so that they mean this man here,
that woman there, etc.
EXE RC I S E S
3CE: 1. Add the correct form of to the following nouns and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

3CE: 2. Add the correct form of to the following nouns and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

3CE: 3. Add the correct forms of and to the following nouns:


1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

MANY AND GREAT: ,

73. (-), many, much, and (-), great, decline just like
except for the four forms underlined:

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Grammar for Section 3CE

(-), many, much


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.

-
-

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

(-), big, great


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.

-
-

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
EXERC I S E S
3CE: 4. Add the correct form of to the following nouns, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

3CE: 5. Add the correct form of to the following nouns, and translate:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

7475

3CE: 6. Add the correct forms of and to the following nouns:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

IRREGULAR NOUNS
, SHIP; Z, ZEUS

74. Learn the two following irregular nouns:


, Zeus
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

-
-
-

, ship
s.

pl.

()

Form

The endings of , Zeus, are the same as for regular type 3a nouns: it is
classed as irregular because of the unusual change in its stem.
EXE RC I S E
3CE: 7. Translate into Greek using the following prepositions: , , ,
, .
1. Because of (the) Zeus
2. Alongside the ships
3. Into the ship

4. Towards (the) Zeus


5. Against the ships

NEGATIVES

75. (a) A series of negatives with the simple negative ( or ) rst in the clause
reinforces the negative, e.g.


nobody comes
no one ever comes
dont say anything at all

(b) Where the simple negative follows a compound negative, they cancel each
other out, e.g.

nobody does not come, i.e.


everyone comes

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65

GREEK IDIOMS

76. (a) As we have already seen, Greek often leaves out the verb to be if it can
be assumed from the context (48). Likewise, other words can be left out if
they are understood easily from the context, e.g.
o ; Dont the Spartans practise?
, .

No, (but instead) we prevent


(understand them).

(b) Observe that what appears in Greek as an adjective may best be translated
into English as an adverb, e.g.

The master is sleeping peacefully.


(lit. peaceful)

(c) You saw earlier how adjectives can be used as nouns in Greek by the addition
of the denite article (49), e.g.
military matters
naval matters

In fact, nearly all Greek adjectives can be used as nouns (cf. 50). Observe the
following:

o

the evil man


the enemy
the barbarian women
the beautiful (thing), i.e. beauty

Remember, though, that when and are used as pronouns


(meaning he, she, it, etc.) the denite article is not used.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 3 A E


(-),
(-)

(-),

come!
each other, one another (2a)
other, the rest of
man (3a)
arrive, come
shout (for)
neighbour (3a)
terrible, dire, clever
then, indeed
(+gen.) near, nearby
I
speak! tell me!
that

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S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N
(CONTINUED)

(-)

(-)

(-),

,
,
,

,
,
(-)
(-),
(-),
,
(-)
(-)

,
(-),
,

,
o


(-),

embark
when, since, because
ask
still, yet
well
prayer (1a)
pray
Zeus
look for, seek
we
watch, gaze at
noise, din, hustle and bustle (2a)
door (1b)
a sacrice (1b)
sacrice
look! here! hey!
sleep
call, summon
(+acc.) in, on, by, according to
boatswain (1d)
order
danger (2a)
Spartan (2a)
take, capture
torch (3a)
harbour (3a)
word, speech; story, tale (2a)
learn, understand
big, great
naval
island (2a)
night (3a)
house (1b)
homewards
at home
weapons, arms (2b)
and not, not even
this
this here
child, slave (3a)

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76 77

3AE

76 77

Grammar for Section 3CE

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 3 A E
(CONTINUED)

(-),
;
(-)

(-),
,
(-)
,

(-)

fatherland (3a)
from where?
many, much
march, journey, go
re-signal (2b)
pour a libation
hurry
a libation (1a)
you (s.)
saviour (3a)
skill, art, expertise (1a)
run
trierarch (2a)
you (pl.)
appear, seem
go, come

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you explain when and are used as adjectives and when
as pronouns, and what the difference in meaning is?
2. Do you know what the stems of and are, and which of the
forms are irregular?
3. Can you conjugate and ?

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76 77

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 3C E


a vocabulary-building
1. Group the words in this list together which seem to share common roots, then
translate:

b word shape
1. Change nom. to acc.:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e. o
2. Change acc. to nom.:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
3. Insert the appropriate form of or :
a. () .
b. o () .
c. () .
d. () .

c syntax
Translate the answers to exercises B 13 above.
d english into greek
Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
And so the ship sails slowly towards that harbour.
2. , .
For there is much din, a lot of shouting and many men appear.
3. ;
I dont know whether that fellow is a general or not.

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76 77

Revision Exercises for Section 3CE

69

4. .
That stupid rhapsode is afraid of these Spartans.
5. , .
For while those women are cowardly about many things, this woman is not.

e test exercise three ce


Translate into English:

10

15

,
. , .
o
. o o
.
. .
. o
, .
.
,
. . o
,
. o
.
.

Vocabulary

set sail, put out to sea

EXERCI S E
Answer the following questions using the passage above. Give the line numbers
of each word you identify.
1. Find two more examples of prepositional phrases like (l.1)
which are made up of a preposition plus a noun in the acc. case.
2. Find three examples of verbs in the third person pl.
3. Find two examples of nouns which are in the acc. because they are the direct
object of a verb, and state the verb of which each is the object.
4. Find an example of an adjective which is (a) m. s. nom., (b) f. s. acc., (c) n. s.
nom.

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77

Grammar for Section 4AB


In this section you cover:
c Types 3b, c, e, f nouns: , , , ,
c Adjectives:
c Adjectives/pronouns: , ,
c Present participles:

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , ,
, , , , ,
VOCABULARY NEEDED FOR EXERCISES

, city (of Athens) (3f)


, (-) well-disposed
(-) unlucky, dogged by an evil daimon
, dwelling (3e)
(-) no; no one, nothing
, number, crowd; the people (3c)
, city (state) (3e)
(-), thing; matter; affair; (pl.) troubles (3b)
, gear, furniture (3c)
, battle-array, order, rank (3e)
(-) who? what?
(-) a, a certain; someone

THIRD DECLENSION NOUNS


(3B), (3C), (3E), (3E), (3F)

Type 3b nouns

77. Type 3b nouns are all neuter, and most end in -. Their stem is commonly
a verb stem, and the noun has a passive sense thus (-) I do,
thing done, deed:
(-), deed, thing, matter (3b)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

s.

-
-

pl.
-
-
-
()

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71

n Form

Be careful not to confuse 3b nouns with the few 1c nouns which end in -,
e.g. , daring. A small number of type 3b nouns do not end in -,
e.g. , re.
Type 3c nouns

78. These are all neuter, and end in -:


, number, crowd, the people (3c)
s.
pl.
Nom.
-
-
Acc.
-
-
Gen.
-
-
Dat.
-
-()
n Form

c Be careful not to confuse type 3c nouns like with type 2a nouns


like , man: the gender here makes all the difference.
c Also be careful not to mistake nom. and acc. pl. of type 3c nouns (e.g.
) for the nom. s. of type 1a nouns like , shout.
c Note the presence of -- in the stem of this noun, which has contracted with
regular type 3a endings: i.e. the - ending was once -, - was once -
and - was once -.
c Note also that the - ending may be acc. pl. of 2a nouns, or the gen. s. of 3c nouns.
Type 3e nouns

79. These all end in - (f.) or - (m.):


, city-state (3e)
s.
Nom.
-
Acc.
-
Gen.
-
Dat.
-
Voc.

pl.

-
-()

, old man ; pl. ambassadors (3e)


s.
pl.
Nom.
-

Acc.
-

Gen.
-
-
Dat.
-
-()
Voc.

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7980

n Form

c Note, once more, the presence of -- in the stem of this noun, which has contracted with regular type 3a endings: i.e. the - ending of the nom. pl. is a
contraction of -. (The acc. pl. form is borrowed from the nom.)
c is unusual in that it has a different meaning in the s. and pl. The
Greek for ambassador (s.) would be and old men (pl.) o
(s. ).
Type 3f nouns

80. These are all neuter, and end in -:


, city (3f)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

s.

-
-

pl.

-
-()

n Form

Note that the nom. and acc. pl. of this noun is a contraction of -.
EXE RC I S E S
4AB: 1. Add the correct form of the 3b-, c-, e- and f-type nouns listed on the
vocabulary on p. 70 to agree with the following denite articles. (First, check
by gender that they are able to agree.)
1. o
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

4AB: 2. Add the correct form of the noun to agree with the article.
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()
5. ()

6. ()
7. ()
8. ()
9. ()
10. ()

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Grammar for Section 4AB

73

TYPE 3 ADJECTIVES

81. There are a number of adjective types based on type 3 nouns.

Just as the endings of -type adjectives correspond to the endings


of type 1 and 2 nouns, so the type 3 adjective endings correspond to the
endings of type 3a and 3b nouns (and, like them, also have a stem which
needs to be learned):

Adjectives in - -

82. Typical of this type 3 adjective is , well-disposed. Note the stem


is -:
(-) well-disposed
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

m./f.

-
-
-

n.

-
-

m./f.
-
-
-
()

n.
-
-
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
n Gender alert

In these adjectives, the same form is used for both m. and f., e.g.

The man is well-disposed


The goddess is well-disposed

A, A CERTAIN WHICH? WHO? WHAT?

83. The pronouns and (which can be used adjectivally) follow a similar pattern to :

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83

(-), a, a certain, some


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

-
-
-

n.

-
-

m./f.
-
-
-
()

n.
-
-
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
n Usage

(a) When is used as an adjective (i.e. in conjunction with a noun) it means


a (pl. some) or a certain, e.g.

A (certain) farmer

A (certain) ship

Some men, Certain men

(Note, though, that you do not always need to use when translating a(n)
into Greek: a farmer can also be translated simply as .)
(b) When is used on its own (i.e. as a pronoun) it means someone/anyone
or something/anything, e.g.

But someone is arriving

Can you see anything? (lit. Do you see anything?)

(c) Remember that is enclitic (42) and cannot come rst in a sentence or clause.
(-), which? who? what?
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

-
-
-

n.

-
-

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75

(-), which? who? what? (continued)


pl.
m./f.
-
-
-
()

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

n.
-
-
-
()

n Usage

84. Note once more that the way in which is used affects its translation into
English:
(a) When it is used as an adjective (i.e. in conjunction with a noun) it means
which or what, e.g.
;

What farmer?

What ship?

(b) When is used on its own (i.e. as a pronoun) it means who or what,
e.g.
;

Who is arriving?

What can you see? (lit. What do you see?)

n Accent

85. Note the difference in accent between and . The accent on


(who?, what?) always falls on the rst and is always acute (i.e. ).
NO, NO-ONE, NOTHING: - - -

86. no one follows a different adjectival pattern:

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-
-

f.
--
--
--
--

n.

-
-

Form and use


n No + one

(a) is simply , not, nor, not even, plus , one. Naturally,


is very rare in the pl. It has a corresponding form .

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8687

n The 3-1-3 pattern

(b) Observe closely the declension patterns of the three genders of . You
will see:
c That the f. form, -, declines exactly like a rst declension noun (1b,
such as with short in nom. and acc.); but
c The m. and n. forms of the adjective decline like a third declension noun
(types 3a and type 3b respectively).

As you will discover, a number of Greek adjectives follow this 3-1-3


pattern, where the m. and n. forms follow the pattern of type 3 nouns
and the f. follows that of a type 1 noun.

n Noun and adjective

(c) Observe that and are used as a pronoun and an adjective:


No one [pronoun] is approaching

I see nothing [pronoun]

I see no [adjective] sailor (I dont see any


sailor)

EXE RC I S E S
4AB: 3. Add the correct form or forms of , and to the following nouns (use only with s. nouns):
1.
2.
3.
4.

5. o
6.
7.

4AB: 4. Add the correct form or forms of , and to the following nouns in the gen. and dat. (once more, use only with s. nouns):
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

PRESENT PARTICIPLES

87. In the reading passages, you have met a number of forms of the present participle of the verb to be (). Here is the declension of , being, in full.
It is a type 3 adjective, but note the difference from the type 3 adjectives you
have met so far:

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(-) being
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.

-
-

m.
-
-
-
()

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
n Form

Note that (-) follows a 3-1-3 pattern like :


c The m. and n. forms follow the pattern of type 3a and 3b nouns;
c The f. follows that of a type 1 noun (in this case a type 1c noun like
, sea);
c Note, too, that the m./n. participle stem ends in - (-), unlike the stem
of adjectives like , in - (-).
n Usage

88. Participles, of which you will meet more examples in 4CD, occur frequently
in Greek and are therefore important to master. Here are a few points to bear
in mind:
c Participles are adjectives.
c Participles derive from verbs: , being, for example, derives from the
verb , I am. In English, all present participles are formed by placing
-ing on the end of a verb, e.g. be-ing, see-ing, go-ing, and so on.
c Like any other adjective, a participle has to agree in gender, number and
case with the person or thing in the sentence it is describing, e.g.
o ,

The men, being stupid, (m. nom. pl.)

, The goddess, being well-disposed, (f. acc. s.)

c Translation: since Greek participles are often stilted when translated


literally into English, you will need to think carefully about how you

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render them in English. Here are some of the ways participles may be
translated:
o

Since the men are stupid


As the men are stupid
While they are stupid, the men
If the men are stupid
Although the men are stupid
The men, who are stupid,

So you see that the participle can be equivalent to a combination of conjunction (although, since, if, when) and nite verb, or relative pronoun
(who, which) and nite verb.

There is no one right way of translating a participle. It is generally a


good idea rst to translate literally (the men being stupid , the goddess being well-disposed , etc.) before deciding how best to render
the participle in the given context.

EXE RC I S E S
4AB: 5. Add the correct form or forms of to agree with the following nouns:
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
4AB: 6. Choose between the different versions of the Greek participles using
the English translations beneath each sentence to guide you. (It will help to
identify the gender, number and case of the noun which each participle is
describing.)
1. /.
They are looking at the woman who is beautiful.
2. /.
The captain does not go on board the ship although it is secure.
3. o / .
Since men are mortal, they honour the gods.
4. / .
While he is stupid, the sailor is handsome.
5. /.
We are afraid of the city since it is big.

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Grammar for Section 4AB

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 4 A B

,
(-),
(-),
,
(-)

, (-)
, /


(-)

,
,
,
o
(-)
,
,
(-),
,
,
,

(-)
(-)

(-)
,

city (of Athens) (3f)


dishonour, hold in dishonour
farmer (2a)
woman, wife (3a)
god, daimon (3a)
master (1d)
destroy, kill
even now, still now
well-disposed
god(-dess) (2a)
mortal
unlucky, dogged by an evil daimon
hold sway, power (over)
prevent, stop
especially; particularly; yes
corpse (2a)
(+acc.) by !
law, convention (2a)
plague, disease (2a)
dwelling (3e)
small, few
no; no one, nothing
number, crowd; the people (3c)
city (state) (3e)
thing; matter; affair; (pl.) troubles (3b)
funeral pyre (1b)
gear, furniture (3c)
battle-array, order, rank (3e)
honour
who? what?
a, a certain; someone
strike, hit
carry, bear
fear (2a)

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you condently recite the ve new types of noun?
2. Do you understand the difference between third declension and 3-1-3
declension adjectives? Can you give an example of each?
3. Can you demonstrate the difference in meaning between and ?
4. Do you know what a participle is, and can you decline ?
5. Of what verbs are the following the alternative stems: -, -, -?

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 4A B


a vocabulary-building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left.

(-)

(-)

(-)

,
,









,
,



,
,

b/c word shape and syntax


1. Translate into Greek the italic phrases in the following sentences, including
in each answer a part of :
a. Since I am unhappy, I shall leave the city.
b. We, who are few, shall not defeat you, who are many.
c. As friends, ladies, you do not quarrel.
d. I, an Athenian and fortunate, hate you, Spartan that you are and hated by
the gods.
e. Who are you to threaten me?

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
Since you are a farmer you know the laws.
2. , , .
As sailors we hold sway on the sea.

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81

3. , .
I am not afraid of the number of corpses, large as it is.
4. , ,
.
My wife, who is unlucky, is afraid of the plague, which is evil.
5. o , , ,
.
The people (use ), since it is good, does not dishonour the gods,
who are great.

e test exercise four ab


Translate into English:

.
.
.

10

. , ; ,
, , ;
, , .
.
. ;
o ;
, ,
.
.
,
,
.
,
.

Vocabulary
lament
, son
(()-) daughter
on top of corpses

, troubles
much perplexity
short-lived
commit irreverent acts (on)

EXERCI S E
Answer the following questions using the passage above. Give the line numbers
of each word you identify.
1. Find two examples of participles in the acc., giving their number and gender
and say with which noun each agrees.
2. Find two examples of imperatives, and state whether each is s. or pl.
3. Find an example of an adjective which is (a) m. nom. pl., (b) m. acc. pl.
4. What case are (a) (line 1) and (b) (line 11)?

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Grammar for Section 4CD


In this section you cover:
c Present participles, active and middle: ,
c Uses of participles; expressions using participles
c 3g nouns:
c Elision and crasis

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , ,

MORE PRESENT PARTICIPLES

89. Just as the verb to be gives us a participle form, being, so most verbs have
a present participle in English: to run gives running; to stop, stopping,
and so on. As you have already learnt, participles are adjectives (i.e. they
change according to the gender, number and case of the noun they agree with
or represent).
Present active participles

90. Present active participles are formed simply by adding - - to the


present stem.
They decline just like , being and follow the 3-1-3 pattern (86[b]).

Active participles are generally easy to spot: look for a verb stem plus
-- or --:

- - - (-) stopping
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
-
-
--
--

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- - - (-) stopping (continued)


pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
-()

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
-()

Present active participles of contract verbs

91. Observe the endings which active contract verbs have in their participle
forms:
c - - - (--) contracts to: (-),
doing
c - - - (--) contracts to: (-),
honouring
c - - - (--) contracts to:
(-), showing, revealing
n Form

(a) These contractions follow the same principles as those in other verb forms
you have met: e.g. - > ( + = ); thus - > ;
- > ( + = ); thus - > , etc. (25).
(b) Note that the form could be the neuter s. nom. and acc. participle, or
the masculine s. nom. participle.
(c) Once more, these contracted participles have exactly the same case-endings
as , being, and , stopping. Only the contracted stem is different
e.g.
-contract (-) doing
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.

-
-

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-contract (-) doing (continued)


pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-()

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-()

Present middle participles

92. (a) The present participles of middle verbs are formed by adding --
to the present stem.
(b) They are 2-1-2 adjectives like : that is, they decline like type 2 nouns
in the m. () and n. () and type 1 nouns (like ) in the f.

Middle participles are generally easy to spot. Look for a verb stem plus
--:

-- stopping oneself
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Present middle participles of contract verbs

93. Observe the the effect that contraction has on middle participle forms:
c -- contracts to: - fearing
c - contracts to: - watching
c -- contracts to: - enslaving

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n Form

(a) Since the contraction takes place before the endings -- are added,
these participles have endings identical to -- .
(b) Note once more that the contractions in these participles follow the same
principles as those in other verb forms you have met, e.g.
- > ( + = )
- > (25).

EXERC I S E S
4CD: 1. Add the correct form or forms of and to the following nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

4CD: 2. Add the correct form or forms of and to the following nouns (all of which are in the gen. or dat.):
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Use of participles

94. A very common Greek usage is to join a participle with a denite article and
use it as a noun: e.g.
c = lit. the [m. s.] running, he who runs, the man who is running, the runner
c o = lit. the [m. pl.] running, those who run, the men who are
running, the running men, the runners
c = lit. the [f. pl.] running, the running women, the women
who run, the runners
EXERCI S E S
4CD: 3. Add the correct form of the participle to the denite articles using the
following verbs: , , , , . Then translate:
1. (watching)
2. (seeing)
3. (doing)
4. (showing)

5. o (fearing)
6. (doing)
7. (seeing)
8. (showing)

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4CD: 4. Add the correct form of the participle to the denite articles (all of
which are in the gen. or dat.) and translate:
1. (watching)
2. (seeing)
3. (doing)
4. (showing)

5. (fearing)
6. (doing)
7. (seeing)
8. (showing)

Expressions using participles

95. Note the following expressions which tend to include a participle:


()
( )
()
()
()
()
( )
( )

I am obvious[ly] (eeing)
I stop (you eeing)
I stop [myself] (eeing), I cease (eeing)
although/despite (eeing)
I happen, chance [to be], actually am (eeing)
I appear [to be] (eeing), I seem [to be] (eeing)
I escape the notice of (you [in] eeing) (i.e. I
ee without you seeing me)
I anticipate (you [in] eeing), I ee before you (do)

n Form and use

Remember that the participle must change to agree with the noun to
which it refers, e.g. the women
[f. nom. pl.] happen to be eeing [f. nom. pl.].
Note that means I seem to be eeing and actually am.

EXE RC I S E
4CD: 5. Choose the correct version of the Greek participles using the English
translations beneath each sentence to guide you. (It will help to identify the
gender, number and case of the noun which each participle is describing.)
1. / , .
Whilst going towards Athens, the woman looks towards the Piraeus.
2. / .
The rhapsode is clearly joking.
3. / /.
In eeing, the captain escapes the notice of the men who are shouting.
4. //
;
Can you see those wicked men running away?
5. / .
I see the sailor running to the ship.

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87

GREEK IDIOMS

96. You have already met one adjective in Greek (, peaceful) which is best
translated adverbially (peacefully: 76[b]). Another one is , obvious,
clear, when used in the phrase + participle, he is obviously ,
e.g.

He is obviously eeing

She is obviously watching

A FURTHER TYPE 3 NOUN: , KING (3G)

97. Here is a further type 3 noun to learn, classied as 3g.

Type 3g nouns are typically m. and end in -:

, king (3g)
s.
Nom. -
Acc.
-
Gen.
-
Dat.
-
Voc.

pl.
(or -)
-
-
-()

ELISION AND CRASIS

Elision
n Dropping vowels

98. Observe the following sentences and note the loss of vowels:
(= )
(= )
(= )
o (= o)

To summarise, when a word ends in a short vowel, that vowel may be


dropped if the next word begins with a vowel. This is called elision.

n and

99. Observe what happens to the following words in elision:


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Prexes to verbs beginning with vowels may be affected in the same way,
e.g.
- = - =
- = - =

So with (, ) and (, ) when they prex words beginning


with vowels.
To summarise, before a rough breathing, becomes and becomes :
that is, the aspiration spreads.

Crasis

100. Observe the vowel-contraction in:


( ) men

This is called crasis.

Crasis occurs when a vowel or diphthong (i.e. vowel + or ) at the end


of a word coalesces with one at the beginning of the next word, making
one word where you would expect two.
Consider further:
* ( ) good things
( ) the one on
( ) the man
*Observe that you can often spot crasis by the occurrence of breathings where you would not
usually expect them.

EXE RC I S E S
4CD: 6. Elide the following:
1.
2. ;
3.

4.
5.

4CD: 7. De-elide the following:


1. o
2.
3.

4.
5. ;

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89

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 4 C D

,
(-)
(-)
(-)
,

(- )
,
,
,

,
,
(-),
(-)

/,


(-)

,
, o
(-)
(-)
,
,
(-)

lawlessness (1b)
lead/take away
kill
escape, run off
irreverence to the gods (1b)
him, her, it, them
drag off
king (3g)
altar (2a)
slave (2a)
call upon (to witness)
sanctuary (2b)
suppliant (1d)
herald (3a)
escape notice of X (acc.) in ing (part.)
(+acc.) by !
hate
foreigner, guest, host (2a)
lament, mourn for
straight, correct, right
suffer, experience, undergo
stop
ambassador (1d)
ambassadors (3e)
turn, turn in ight
happen to be -ing, be actually ing (+ nom.
part.)
aggression, violence (3e)
servant, slave (1d)
seem to be, appear to be (+ part.)
anticipate X (acc.) in ing (nom. part.)
what .! (+gen.)

TAKING STOCK
1. Can you describe accurately how , , and use
the participle?
2. Can you describe how + participle works?
3. Can you decline ?

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 4C D


a vocabulary-building
Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left:

b/c word shape and syntax


Translate these sentences, completing the second sentence in each of the pairs by
using a participle or combination of participle + denite article:
e.g. ; o .

(Who is calling us to witness? The slaves are dragging away the man who is
calling us to witness.)
a. ;
b. ;
c. .
d. ;
e.
f. .

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
We see the men running.
2. ;
Dont you (s.) see that the slave is dragging the suppliant away?
3. o .
For the Spartan runs into the sanctuary before his pursuers.
4. .
The stranger does not stop calling on us and shouting.
5. .
But the man is clearly an ambassador, and happens to be escaping.

e test exercise four cd


Translate into English.

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100 101

10

Revision Exercises for Section 4CD

91

.
, ,
. ,
. o
.
. o
, , .
,
, .
.

Vocabulary

the sanctuary
the city

EXERC I S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above.
1. Give the gender, number and case of the following participles: (a)
(line 1), (b) (line 3), (c) (line 4) and (d) (line 9).
2. Give the person and number (e.g. 3 pl.) of the following verbs: (a)
(line 2), (b) (line 4), (c) (line 5) and (d)
(line 9).

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Grammar for Section 5AB


In this section you cover:
c Imperfect indicative, active and middle: ,
c Augments
c Position of adjectives

92&$%8/$5< &+(&.

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , , , ,

THE IMPERFECT TENSE

Imperfect indicative active

101. The forms of the imperfect active are as follows:


-- I was stopping
--
I was stopping, I used to stop, I stopped
--
you (s.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped
--()
he/she/it was stopping, used to stop, stopped
--
we were stopping, used to stop, stopped
--
you (pl.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped
--
they were stopping, used to stop, stopped
Imperfect indicative middle

102. The forms of the imperfect middle are as follows:


--, I was stopping (myself)
--
I was stopping, I used to stop, I stopped (myself)
--
you (s.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped (yourself)
--
he/she/it was stopping, used to stop, stopped (him/her/itself)
--
we were stopping, used to stop, stopped (ourselves)
--
you (pl.) were stopping, used to stop, stopped (yourselves)
--
they were stopping, used to stop, stopped (themselves)
Form

(a) Note the prex of the stem, -. This is called the augment (1045).
(b) Look back at 52. There it was asserted that there were two forms of the
middle ending, one being:

- - - - - -

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93

Here, then, is the second:


- - - - - -

(c) Note the recurrence of the thematic vowels (16b).


(d) There were also wise words at 52 about the 2s. and intervocalic sigmas which
you will well, ah, recall. So here: the 2s. was originally --, the intervocalic dropped out leaving --, which contracted into .
Meaning

103. The new tense you meet in this section is called the imperfect. The word
imperfect comes from a Latin word meaning incomplete.
c The imperfect is used to describe continuing, repeated or uncompleted
actions in the past something that was happening, used to happen, began to
happen or kept happening.
c Depending on context, then, (the imperfect of ) could be
translated I was stopping, I used to stop or simply I stopped.
c Note, though, that in the last case, the use of the imperfect implies that
I stopped (i.e. used to stop or kept stopping) on a continual basis or
more than once, e.g. I stopped him going into the house every day.
EXERC I S E
5AB: 1. Translate into English, then convert into the middle equivalent:
1.
2. (two possibilities)
3.

4.
5.

Form
n The augment

104. Augment means growth or increase and is so named because the addition of an augment generally causes the verb to increase in size.

The distinguishing mark of an indicative verb in the past is the presence of an augment at the front of the verb.

n Augments in -

(a) When the verb begins with a consonant, the augment takes the form of -, e.g.

--, I was ordering, used to order, ordered

--, I was going, used to go, went

n Augments as lengthened vowel

(b) If the verb starts with a vowel, however, - is NOT added. Rather, this initial
vowel will lengthen if it can, e.g.

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104105

I was listening, used to listen, listened

I was setting free, used to set free, set free

I was living, used to live, lived

(i) Note that, as in the last example, iota is traditionally written subscript
after a long vowel (e.g. , ).
(ii) A handful of verbs beginning in - has the augment - (rather than ).
Learn the most common example, which is , I have, imperfect:
, I was having, used to have, had.
(c) If a verb already begins with a long vowel, this vowel simply remains long in
the imperfect too, e.g.

I was keeping quiet, used to keep quiet, kept


quiet

I was enjoying, used to enjoy, enjoyed

Augment summary

105. The following chart summarises the rules of augmentation for verbs beginning with vowels:

unaugmented vowel

augmented vowel

EXE RC I S E
5AB: 2. Translate and convert the following presents into the equivalent imperfect form:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

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105

Grammar for Section 5AB

95

Augment and prex

There is an important rule applying to augment and prexes:

The augment is added to the base verb, NOT to any prexes it may have
acquired.

Thus becomes -- in the imperfect and becomes


--. Observe how other prexes react to the addition of an augment:

**
***
*
*
*
*

* +
*** +

+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+

or

* Note that all two-syllable prexes ending in a vowel drop their nal vowel before an augment. The exception to the above rule is -; - also can stay unchanged.
** Note that - changes to - before a vowel.
*** Note that with e.g. and , the prex recovers its basic form .

EXERC I S E
5AB: 3. Translate and convert into the equivalent present forms:
1.
2.
3. (two possibilities)

4.
5.

THE IMPERFECT OF CONTRACT VERBS

106. As in the present, contract verbs (such as , I make, do, ,


I honour and , I show, reveal) also contract in the imperfect.
Remember that these contractions follow predictable patterns (see 25):

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106107

Active contract verbs

, I was honouring (-contract verb)


--
>
I was honouring, used to honour, honoured
--
>
you (s.) were honouring, used to honour,
honoured
--
>
he/she/it was honouring, used to honour,
honoured
-- > we were honouring, used to honour, honoured
--
>
you (pl.) were honouring, used to honour,
honoured
--
>
they were honouring, used to honour,
honoured
I was making, doing (-contract verb)
--
--
--
--
--
--

>
>
>
>
>
>

I was making, used to make, made


you (s.) were making, used to make, made
he/she/it was making, used to make, made
we were making, used to make, made
you (pl.) were making, used to make, made
they were making, used to make, made

, I was showing, revealing (-contract verb)


--
- -
--
--
--
--

>
>
>
>
>
>

I was showing, used to show, showed


you (s.) were showing, used to show, showed
he/she/it was showing, used to show, showed
we were showing, used to show, showed
you (pl.) were showing, used to show, showed
they were showing, used to show, showed

Middle contract verbs

107. The forms of the imperfect middle contract verbs are as follows. Note once
more that these verbs contract in the imperfect in the same way as in the
present (53).
, I was watching (-contract verb)
--
--
--
--
--
--

>
>
>
>
>
>

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107108

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97

, I was fearing (-contract verb)


--

>

--
--
--
--
--

>
>
>
>
>

, I was enslaving (-contract verb)


--
--
--
--
--
--

>
>
>
>
>
>

Identifying imperfects: removing the augment

108. The imperfect is based on the present stem of the verb. As you have seen, to
form the imperfect you add an augment to the beginning of the verb and the
correct imperfect personal ending.
Now the dictionary form of any verb is the present. So if you meet an unfamiliar verb in the imperfect, you will need to be able to work out its present
form in order to look it up in the dictionary. In other words, you will have
to reverse the process of forming the imperfect from the present: you must
learn to form the present from the imperfect.
n Verbs augmented with -

- augments should generally be easy to deal with:


= -- from , I/they say, speak
Therefore = I was/they were saying, speaking, etc.
= --- from , I go through
Therefore = you were going through, etc.
n Verbs augmented with a long vowel

If the imperfect form begins with a long vowel, the present stem of the verb
may be more difcult to ascertain, e.g. has the ending -
(we), but what of --?
c The initial - must represent the augment, but what would it be in the present?
c The answer is that it could represent , or in the present (105).
c Therefore, the present stem of the verb could be -, - or -.

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108110

c No doubt you recognise one of these stems as belonging to a verb with


which you are familiar, namely , I hear, listen (to), which allows
you to work out that:
= we were hearing, listening to, etc.
You may nd, of course, that, when you have removed the augment, you do
not recognise any of the stems you are left with! In that case there is, unfortunately, no alternative but to hunt under all the possibilities in your dictionary
(in the above case, e.g. -, - and -) until you nd a suitable candidate. The more you study the language, the more you will develop a good
instinct for where to look rst.
Different meanings of the imperfect

109. The imperfect tense can be translated in the following ways:


I was ------ing
I used to ------
I continued ------ing

I kept on ------ing
I tried to ------
I began ------ing

Note that all these meanings denote an action which the speaker wishes to
characterise as continuing or repeated in the past: a process rather than an
event, or put another way an incomplete rather than a completed action.

The past of to be

110. Learn the irregular past of the verb to be:


or I was
or

()

I was
you (s.) were
he/she/it was
we were
you (pl.) were
they were

EXE RC I S E S
5AB: 4. Translate:
1.
2.
3. (two ways)
4.
5.
6.

7. (two ways)
8. (two ways)
9.
10.
11.
12.

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99

5AB: 5. Translate into Greek using the following verbs: , , ,


, .
1. They were honouring
2. He used to suffer
3. We were owing

4. I was preventing
5. You (pl.) were ordering

5AB: 6. Translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

5AB: 7. Translate into Greek using the following verbs: , ,


, , .
1. They were obeying
2. He used to be afraid
3. We were ghting

4. I was seeming
5. You (pl.) were conversing

5AB: 8. Translate into Greek using one word only:


1. He was preventing () 6. You (pl.) began to shout ()
2. He used to stop (middle:
7. They were enslaving (middle:
)
)
3. We were calling to witness
8. I kept on honouring (middle:
()
)
4. You (s.) were owing
9. She continued making (middle:
()
)
5. I tried to hear ()
10. They were conversing ()
PREDICATIVE ADJECTIVES

111. Observe the subtle Greek use of the position of the adjective in relation to
its noun + denite article to indicate a slightly different meaning:
(a) or the wise man
BUT: (b) or the man [is] wise
The distinction applies to all cases of the noun, e.g.
lit. much the expense she caused, i.e.
the expense she caused was great

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111 112

When the adjective stands outside the denite article + noun phrase, or is not
linked with it by a preceding denite article (as in [b] above), it will carry this
so-called predicative meaning.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 5 A B

,
,

,
(- )

(-)

,
/

,

,
o
/

(()-),

(-)

,
,

responsible (for), guilty (of)


light; fasten, x
deep
heavy
life, means, livelihood (2a)
marriage (2a)
converse
lawsuit; penalty; justice (1a)
exact ones due; punish ( + gen.)
because
unlucky
bring in, carry in
be in
sweet, pleasant
horse (2a)
treat badly; do harm to
punish
young man (1d)
young
house-slave (1d)
whole of
not yet
owe
father (3a)
stop
trust, obey (+dat.)
near, nearly; almost
then
son (2a)
you (s.) say
debts (3c uncontr.)
money (3b)
good, ne, serviceable

TAKING STOCK
1. Do you understand the idea of the imperfect tense and know its endings?
Can you therefore spot one at a hundred paces?
2. Can you condently de-augment an imperfect verb to nd its dictionary
form? What, for example, could - de-augment to? What -?

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111 112

Revision Exercises for Section 5AB

101

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 5A B


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Translate each sentence, then change the verbs from the present to the imperfect tense:
a. , o .
b. ; .
.
c. . .
d. o. o
o.
e. o , .
2. Translate each verb, then change to s. or pl. as appropriate (numbers in brackets indicate which person, where there is ambiguity):
, , (3), , , , ,
, , (1), , , .

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. , .
I was sleeping deeply but my son did not stop shouting.
2. o .
The father always punished his son.
3. o .
Young men used to be good, and obey.
4. , .
We used to give orders, but the slaves mistreated us.
5. o.
We would shout and stop the slaves conversing.

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102

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

Grammar for Section 5CD


In this section you cover:
c Future indicative, active and middle: ,
c Future of to be and to go: ,
c The meaning of the middle voice
c Indenite and interrogative words
c Type 3d nouns like trireme
c Nouns like

92&$%8/$5< &+(&.

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , ,

THE FUTURE TENSE

112. In this section you meet another new tense: the future.

As you will see, the big clue is the added to the present stem:

Future indicative active

, I shall stop
-
-
-
-
-
-()

I shall stop
you (s.) will stop
he/she/it will stop
we shall stop
you (pl.) will stop
they will stop

Future indicative middle

I shall cease, stop myself


-
I shall cease
- or -
you (s.) will cease
-
he/she/it will cease
-
we shall cease
-
you (pl.) will cease
-
they will cease

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112

112115

Grammar for Section 5CD

103

n Form

Re-visit 102 and observe the - - - middle endings.


EXERC I S E
5CD: 1. Translate the following futures and turn them into the present:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Forming the future


n Plain

113. The future stem of a verb is typically formed by adding to the present
stem:
- I stop + = - I shall stop
n Consonant stems

114. Note what happens to verbs with stems ending in consonants (but see 117
below):
(a) , , and combine with to produce :
-
I send
+ = -

I shall send

(b) , , , (and usually ) combine with to produce :


-
I receive
+ = -
I shall receive
(c) , , and are simply replaced by :
-
I persuade
+ = -

I shall persuade

EXERC I S E
5CD: 2. Translate the following presents and turn them into the equivalent
future:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

n Contract verbs

115. Contract verbs lengthen the contract vowel, then add :


c and lengthen to
c lengthens to

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115118

Thus:
-- I honour
I make, do
I show

( > + ) = --
( > + ) = --
( > + ) = --

I shall honour
I shall make, do
I shall show

116. An exception to this rule affects verbs whose stems end in -- and --:
the of these verbs simply becomes long in the future:
I do, act ( > ) - I shall do, act
(This is an effect of the same phenomenon that you observed in the f. s.
forms of adjectives like [37]: in Attic Greek long remains after
, and and does not change to .)
c Because the future stem of all contract verbs ends in -- (not a vowel),
the endings in the future are not contracted: there is no vowel for them
to contract with. So the endings are -, -, - etc.
EXE RC I S E
5CD: 3. Translate the following futures and turn them into the equivalent
present:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

n Futures without

117. Verbs with stems in , , or do NOT form their future by the addition of . Instead, they characteristically become contract verbs in with a
future stem similar to (but usually different from) that of the present:
c I destroy > I shall destroy
c I remain > I shall remain
These verbs conjugate as in 24 and in 118 below. Note the difference in
accent between the present and future of .
118. Verbs in - most commonly form the future in this way too, e.g.
I think > I shall think.
The conjugation of such verbs in the future is as follows (a regular - contract just like the present tense of ):
-
-
-

>
>
>

I shall think
you (s.) will think
he/she/it will think

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118121

Grammar for Section 5CD

-
>
-
>
-() >

105

we shall think

you (pl.) will think


() they will think

Verbs with a middle future

119. There is a handful of verbs which have active present forms and middle
future forms: note that the meaning is not affected by the change. Examples
include:

--
--
--
--

I shall hear
I shall shout
I shall be silent
I shall ee

Irregular future forms

120. Finally, the following common verbs have futures which are irregular. It is
important to master these now, as you will nd that familiarity with these irregular futures will later help you to recognise other tenses of the verbs listed:

I shall go
I shall become
I shall get to know
I shall take
I shall learn
I shall see
I shall suffer, experience

The future in English

121. In British English, the use of shall in the 1 s. and will in the 2 and 3 s.
traditionally denotes simply that the event will take place in the future,
whereas the inverse I will have my revenge, you shall go to the ball
serves to mark out the sentence as emphatic, in these examples expressing a threat and a promise respectively.
EXERC I S E S
5CD: 4. Translate:
1. (two ways)
2. (two ways)
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

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121123

5CD: 5. Translate into Greek using the following verbs: , ,


, , .
1. They will order
2. She will persuade
3. He will obey

4. I shall honour
5. You (pl.) will make

The future of the verb to be

122. To form the future, the verb to be adds middle endings to the stem - :
- I shall be
-
I shall be
()
you (s.) will be
-
he/she/it will be
-
we shall be
-
you (pl.) will be
-
they will be
n Form

The exception to the - + middle endings rule is the 3s. form: .


The future of the verb to go

123. This verb requires careful watching because of its similarity to , I am:
, I shall go (used as the future of )

I shall go

you (s.) will go

he/she/it will go

we shall go

you (pl.) will go


()
they will go
n Warning

Be careful not to confuse:


c , I shall go with , I am;
c , you will go, with , you are; and
c , he/she/it will go, with , they are.
For two of the forms, the difference in accents will help you, but with , only
context will help.
c The participle with present meaning going, is (-).
Compare (-) being.

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107

EXERC I S E S
Translate:
5CD: 6. Translate into English with reference to 1203:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

5CD: 7. Translate into Greek with reference to 1203:


1. They will go
2. She will be
3. We will get to know
4. You (s.) will become
5. He will go

6. They will take


7. I shall learn
8. You (pl.) shall be
9. We shall go
10. You (pl.) will be

MIDDLES: MEANING AND USE

124. So far you have met verbs which have active forms, and verbs which have
middle forms. But in this chapter you have met verbs which display both
types of form, e.g.
I stop x
I stop myself, I cease
I persuade I persuade myself, I trust, I believe in
n Acting in your own interests

(a) Very crudely, the difference can be described as follows:

In active verbs, the action moves out from the doer to affect someone or
something else, but in middle verbs, the doers own interest is somehow
involved.

Let us consider how this works in practice:


n No object required

(b) Often the difference between the active and middle forms of a verb is that
the active requires a direct object to complete its sense (i.e the action is being
done to someone or something else), whereas the middle does not (i.e. it is
being done to oneself), e.g.
c I stop the man running
as against

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124

c I stop (myself) running, I cease running


c I am washing the child
as against
c I am washing (i.e. myself)
n Doing unto each other

(c) Closely related is the reciprocal use of the middle. For example, in the active
the verb can mean to insult someone, whereas in the middle it
means to insult one another, i.e. to insult and be insulted, e.g.
c I am insulting the farmers
as against
c o The farmers and I are insulting each
other
n Winning out

(d) With some verbs, the middle is used to indicate an action from which the doer
gains a certain benet, e.g.
c , I bear, carry
as against
c I carry off for myself, I win
c I loose
as against
c I loose for myself, I ransom
n Getting things done

(e) More rarely, the middle form of a verb has a so-called causative sense, e.g.
c I am teaching the boy
as against
c I am having the boy taught
Remember that these rules only apply to verbs which display both active
and middle forms in any one tense. They do not apply, for example, to any
of the verbs listed above (e.g. 119) where the middle form of the future is the
only form the verbs have.
The more Greek you read, the more you will get used to the way in which
middle forms of active verbs are used.

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125126

Grammar for Section 5CD

109

INDEFINITES/INTERROGATIVES

125. You already know the distinction between and . The accented form
means who?, the unaccented form means someone. This distinction is
carried across a wide range of Greek words. Thus:
c You have recently met and : the accented form means how?,
the unaccented form means somehow;
c Sometimes these words lose the initial , whence how!;
c Sometimes they add - before the consonant, to give in this case .

Thus the complex of words ; , , all mean how in


various ways, and Greek uses each in accordance with the context.

Learn the following chart:


Direct question

Indirect question

Indenite*

Relative

?
; where (at)?
; where to?
; where from?
; when?

He asked where
where (at)?
where to?
where
from?
when ?

He nds where
, where
, to where
, from
where
, when

; how?

how ?

Some-
somewhere
to somewhere
from
somewhere
at some time,
ever
somehow

who?

who ?

someone

, as, in such
a way
, who

* The indenite forms are all enclitics (see 347(ii)).

You will discover that Greek authors do not always follow the rules in indirect questions, where they often use the direct question form (e.g. instead
of ).
GREEK IDIOMS

126. Observe the way in which a Greek often repeats a question which he/she
has just been asked:
a. ;
b. ;

Where is the torch (shining) from?


Where from?

As you can see, - is added as a prex to the question word. Compare:


a. ;
b. ; .

What are you doing?


What? Im doing nothing.

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126127

Once again, in such cases you will sometimes simply nd the question word
repeated, i.e. and .
A FURTHER TYPE 3 NOUN
, ; 3(D)

127a. Here are two examples of a further type 3 noun, classied as 3d.
Type 3d nouns end in - and are generally mens proper names and m.
, trireme (3d)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.
-
-
-
-

, Socrates (3d)

pl.
-
-
-
()

s.
-
-
-
-

no pl.

Form

(a) Be careful to distinguish 1d nouns like (gen. ) from 3d nouns


above, especially as a number of 1d nouns are also proper names, e.g.
(1d), Xerxes (gen. ).
(b) A small number of type 3d nouns has a slightly different pattern of declension. This group consists only of proper names ending in -, such as
, Perikles and , Herakles. Note that the difference
in accentuation allows you to distinguish between the type and
type:
, Perikles (3d)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.

no pl.

FATHER, MOTHER, DAUGHTER

127b. Learn the declension of father (3a) and the way the stem alternates
between - and -:

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127

Grammar for Section 5CD

111

, father (3a)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.

-
-
-
()

pl.
-
-
-
-()

mother (3a) and daughter (3a) decline in the same way.


(For full noun survey, see Reference Grammar, 3539.)
EXERCI S E
5CD: 8. Translate into Greek, adding the correct forms of and :
1. Towards the triremes being/going
2. Of the mothers being/going
3. From Perikles being/going
4. Socrates being/going (acc.)
5. The fathers being/going (nom.)
6. The daughters being/going (dat.)
TAKING STOCK
1. Can you distinguish clearly between the forms of present, imperfect and
future tenses?
2. Do you know the future of irregular verbs like , , ?
Not to mention the verbs to be and to go?
3. Do you understand the general idea behind middle verbs?
4. Can you decline 3d nouns?

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127 128

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 5C D


a vocabulary-building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words in the right-hand columns from those in the
left:
/


o
o

b/c word shape and syntax


Translate these sentences, then change the verb(s) from the present to the future
tense:
a. .
b. , ;
c. .
d. o .
e. .
f. , .
g. .
h. .
[N.B. the iota of is generally dropped outside the present and imperfect
tense.]
i. .
j. ;
k. o .
l. o ;

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. o .
The young men will learn the unjust argument today.
2. .
The good son will always love his father.
3. o .
This horse will not stop running.

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127 128

Revision Exercises for Section 5CD

113

4. .
The student will go into the house.
5. .
The wise men will be just.

e test exercise five


Translate into English.
Dikaiopolis needs to borrow a costume from Euripides so that he can dress up to
deliver a tragic-style speech. First, however, he must get past Euripides slave.
(From Aristophanes, Akharnians)

.
5
.
.
.
10
.

15

.
.

, . .
; ;
(Seeing Dikaiopolis) ;
; , .
;
, , , .
, ; ;
.
.
, , .
, .
. (Addressing the slave again)
, .
.
; .

(The slave shuts the door in his face)


. , .
(He knocks on the door)
, . ; , .
Vocabulary
to me
Euripides (1d) (voc.
)
understand (lit.
have a mind)
collect
, tragedy (1b)

thrice, three times


impossible
I shall call (irreg. fut.
of )
dear Euripides
from (the deme of)
Cholleidae (m. nom. s.)

EXERC I S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above.

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127 128

1. Give the tense of the following verbs: (a) (line 4), (b) (line 8),
(c) (line 16) and (d) (line 15).
2. Give the gender, number and case of the following participles and adjectives: (a) (line 10), (b) (line 11), (c) (line 11) and (d)
(line 14).

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128129

Grammar for Section 6AB

115

Grammar for Section 6AB*


(* Formerly 5EF)

In this section you cover:


c First aorist indicative, active and middle: ,
c Aspect
c Type 3h nouns:

92&$%8/$5< &+(&.

Ensure you know the meaning of:


, , , , , , , ,

THE AORIST

128. In this section you meet another new tense: the aorist. The aorist and the imperfect are the tenses most commonly used to denote past actions in Greek.

Whereas the imperfect describes a continuous or repeated past action


(a process), the aorist describes the action as a single past event.
Usually, a verb in the aorist is best translated I ed, you ed, etc.,
e.g. , I stopped, , you sacriced, and so on.

First and second aorists: English and Greek

129. In English there are two ways in which verbs may be put into the past
simple (the tense which is the nearest equivalent in English to the Greek
aorist):
c The majority of verbs add -ed or -d to the present stem, e.g. I watch
I watched, you like you liked; but
c some have a different stem in the past, e.g. I sing I sang, they go
they went.
The situation is similar in Greek:
c The majority of verbs have a rst aorist also called the weak aorist
a form which is closely based on the present stem: it is this type of
aorist you will meet here.
c Some verbs have a less predictable second aorist also called strong
aorist involving a strong change of stem: this type of aorist will be
dealt with in section 6 CD.

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First aorist

130. The aorist of a verb such as , I stop, is formed by:

adding to the present stem: -;


adding an augment to this stem, --, to indicate that the action
is past;
adding the appropriate personal endings

n First aorist indicative active

- I stopped
-
--
-()
--
--
--

I stopped
you (s.) stopped
he/she/it stopped
we stopped
you (pl.) stopped
they stopped

n First aorist indicative middle

-- I ceased, stopped [myself]


--
I ceased
-
you (s.) ceased
--
he/she/it ceased
--
we ceased
--
you (pl.) ceased
--
they ceased
n Form

(a) You can see why the rst aorist is also known as the sigmatic or alpha
aorist. Originally there was no ; avoided confusion with .
(b) Revisit 102 and observe that we have here the - - - middle endings.
With the loss of intervocalic sigma keenly in mind, you will understand how
the original 2s. - became - and so -.
Forming the rst aorist stem
n Simple verbs

131. As you have seen above, the rst aorist stem is typically formed by adding
to the present stem: - I stop > -. On to this is added the augment ( + -). The aorist stem is -.

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117

EXERC I S E
6AB: 1. Form the aorist 3rd person s. and pl. of the following verbs, and translate:
1.
2.

3.
4.

n Consonant stems

132. When is added to verbs with stems ending in consonants the following
changes occur (note that these changes are, for the most part, identical to
those found in the future tense: see 114).
(a) , , and combine with to produce :
-

I send

I sent

(b) , , (and usually ) combine with to produce :


-

I receive +

-- I received

(c) , , and are simply replaced by :


- I persuade

I persuaded

EXERC I S E
6AB: 2. Translate the following presents and turn them into the equivalent aorist.
You may need to revise augments. See 104 or look ahead to 136:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

n Contract verbs

133. Contract verbs both active and middle lengthen the nal vowel of their
stem before is added (exactly as in the future, 115):
c I honour
( > )
c I make, do ( > )
c I show
( > )

- I honoured
- I made, did
- I showed

Cf. > --, etc.


EXERC I S E
6AB: 3. Translate the following aorists and turn them into the equivalent present:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

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n Contract verbs with stems ending in -- and --

134. As in the future (116) an exception to this rule is verbs whose stems end in
-- and --: the of these verbs becomes long in the aorist.

I do, act

( > )

I did, acted

Verbs with stems ending in , , or

135. Verbs whose stems end in , , or do not form their aorist by the addition of . The general rule is that:
(a) the aorist stem of these verbs is the same as the present;
(b) but if the nal vowel in the present stem is short, it lengthens, e.g.
c I destroy -
c
I ward off
c
I remain

I destroyed
I warded off
I remained

(Note that verbs of this type usually have an aorist stem that is different
from the future stem: see 117.)
Augments

136. The principles of augmentation are exactly the same as for the imperfect
(see 1045). Thus - is added to stems beginning in a consonant:
n Consonant stems

I pursue
I punish

- I pursued
- I punished

Vowel stems

137. When a stem begins in a vowel, this vowel lengthens where possible:

I hear
I ask
I pray
I keep quiet

-
-
--
-

I heard
I asked
I prayed
I became quiet

n Compound verbs

138. Remember that with compound verbs it is the stem which is augmented,
not the prex:
- I retreat -- --
- I kill
-- --

I retreated
I killed

EXE RC I S E S
6AB: 4. Form the aorist 3rd person s. and pl. of the following verbs, and translate:

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Grammar for Section 6AB

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

119

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

6AB: 5. Translate into Greek using the verbs in brackets:


1. We heard ()
2. They received ()
3. You (s.) retreated ()
4. He pursued ()
5. They punished ()

6. You (pl.) shouted ()


7. She considered ()
8. I showed ()
9. They waited ()
10. He destroyed ()

Recognising rst aorist forms

139. When you encounter an aorist indicative form in a reading passage, you will
at times be faced with a challenge. In order to look a verb up, you will have
to ascertain its dictionary form (i.e. the rst person s. present indicative).
n Simple stems

Sometimes this process is simple, since it will require only the removal of the
augment, and personal ending, e.g.
:
(a) remove augment =
(b) Remove (3s. ending) = (c) - is the stem. Therefore the verb is , I order. Translation:
he/she/it ordered.
n Complex stems

140. On other occasions, however, the process will be more complex. For example, it may not be immediately clear what the nal consonant of the stem
would be in the present, e.g.
:
(a) Remove augment =
(b) Remove (1s. ending) = what stem?
c It might be -, from the verb -. Look it up no such verb.
c But - might have been produced by a combination of or or
or + .
c The stem could therefore be any of -, -, - or - .
c If so, the verb could be , , or .
c If you recognise , I look (at), you will translate I
looked at.

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If you do not recognise any of them, there is no short cut: you must simply
look up , , and to see which of the verbs exists in
Greek.
n Even more complex stems

141. Here is a demanding example and fortunately rare!


:
c Remove the augment. But - could hide the original vowel , or
(137 above).
c Remove the ending - (3rd pl. they).
c Stem therefore //c The verb is therefore //. Look up vocabulary: no such verb.
Infuriating, as there is a verb .
c Think: what would the aorist of be? . Ha! The contract
vowel has lengthened to (see 133 above), as it does in contract
verbs. But did not lengthen to with //- (above). Therefore
//- is not a contract verb.
c The is therefore misleading us. It must be part of the original verb. So
we were wrong to think (above) that it needed to be removed as the sign
of the aorist. The verb is therefore //-. Look it up.
c No, it isnt. What other consonant might that hide, which would turn
into a in the aorist? Answer: , , or (see 132).
c So the verb might therefore be any of , , ,
, , , , , , ,
or . If you recognise one of the items in this list, you
can proceed to translate . If you do not, however, you must
hunt under -, - and - in a dictionary or vocabulary list
until you nd a suitable candidate. The more you study the language,
the more you will develop a good instinct for where to look rst.
is in fact the 3rd pl. aorist active indicative of I dishonour, and may be translated they dishonoured.
Aspect and the aorist

142. The most common meaning of the aorist is I -ed. But:


c Because of the different ways in which Greek and English speakers use
tenses, you may sometimes need to render an aorist as I have -ed or I
had -ed to stop your translation sounding stilted.
c The essential point, however, is this: aorist indicatives are used to
indicate something that happened in the past without reference to the

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121

duration of time over which it occurred. The action is regarded as a


single complete event, not as an uncompleted process (cf. the imperfect
tense).

The way in which a verb-form looks at an action e.g. as an event


(complete) or a process (uncompleted) is known as aspect. You will
learn more about aspect in future sections.

A FINAL TYPE 3 NOUN: , EYEBROW (3H)

143. Here is the nal type 3 noun you are asked to learn, classied as 3h:
, eyebrow (3h)
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

s.
-
-
-
-

pl.
-
-
-
-()

n Form

(i) Be careful to distinguish 3h nouns like from 3e nouns like


(79).
(ii) Some 3h nouns have acc. pl. in -, e.g. sh.

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143 144

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 6A B


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Translate each sentence, then change the verb into the aorist:
a. ;
b. ;
c. .
d. .
e. .
f. ;
2. Translate each sentence, then change the verb into the aorist:
a. .
b. , ( I measure)
c. .
d. .
e. , ;
3. Using the Total Vocabulary at the back of the book, nd the dictionary forms
of the following verb-forms, then translate:
e.g. : , they heard
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

4. Complete the following table with the 1st s. imperfect, future and aorist
forms of the verbs:
present

imperfect

future

aorist

(continued)

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143 144

present

Revision Exercises for Section 6AB

imperfect

future

aorist

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
The farmer gave a shout and knocked on the door.
2. ;
Dont they know that you received this idea with pleasure?
3. .
The sophist did not persuade the clever young men.
4. o , , .
The just man, though clever, was astounded at the unjust argument.
5. .
They stopped looking at the horses.

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123

124

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144

Grammar for Section 6CD*


(* Formerly 5GH)

In this section you cover:


c Second aorist indicative, active and middle: ,
c Interrogatives:
c Indirect speech
c Some particles

92&$%8/$5< &+(&.

Ensure you know the meaning or signicance of:


-, -, , -, , , , , ,

THE SECOND AORIST

144. As we earlier warned (129), a number of verbs do not form their aorists on
the pattern of what we have called rst aorist (basically, present stem + -)
but on the pattern of what is called second aorist (or strong aorist).
Note carefully the following about second aorist forms:

They have an aorist stem different from that of the present:


For example, the aorist stem of , I take, is -, and that of
, I become, is - ;
They form the strong aorist indicative by adding the augment to this
stem in the usual way, --, --, to indicate that the action is
past.
They have personal endings different from rst aorist endings (no
-).

Second aorist indicative active

-- I took
--
--
--()
--
--
--

I took
you (s.) took
he/she/it took
we took
you (pl.) took
they took

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125

Second aorist indicative middle

-- I became
--
--
--
--
--
--

I became
you (s.) became
he/she/it became
we became
you (pl.) became
they became

n Form and meaning

145. (a) The meaning of the second aorist is the same as the rst aorist: I -ed
(or sometimes I have -ed or I had -ed: see 142).
(b) Note the - - - middle endings (102).
(c) The endings of the second aorist are exactly the same as those of the imperfect. The difference between the two tenses lies in the change of stem:

Second aorists have a stem or a form of the stem which is different from
that of the present whereas the imperfect is based on the present stem.

Observe the following:


Present

Imperfect

Aorist

-, I take
-, I become

--, I was taking


--, I was becoming

--, I took
--, I became

Common verbs with second aorist forms

146. Verbs which take second aorist forms nearly always undergo a radical stem
change. These stem changes have to be learnt. Some you should already
recognise from earlier learning vocabularies. The most important and
common verbs with second aorist forms are:
Present

Aorist stem
-

Aorist

Meaning in aorist
I became
I found
I had
I took
I learned
I happened (to be)

As you can see, aorist stems are generally shorter versions of the present stem
(e.g. - -) and/or different from, but nevertheless recognisably

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related to, the present stem (e.g. - - ; - -). However, some


verbs use a completely different stem for the present and aorist (cf. English,
go and went):

I came, went
I said, spoke
I saw
I ran

EXE RC I S E S
6CD: 1. Using the above information, form the aorist 3rd person s. and pl. of the
following verbs, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

6CD: 2. Using the above information, translate into Greek:


1. They became
2. We saw
3. You (s.) found
4. He took

5. You (pl.) went


6. You (s.) said
7. I learnt
8. They ran

WHAT? WHY?

147. Observe that , which you have learnt to mean what? can also, and very
commonly, mean why? When does mean why?, it is in the acc. case
and being used adverbially. Its literal meaning is in relation to what? or
in respect of what? in other words, why?
INDIRECT SPEECH

148. A common way of reporting what someone has said in Greek is by using a
clause introduced by , that, e.g.
. They say that Socrates is clever.
Observe, however, that in the -clause Greek preserves the original tense
and mood of the utterance. You must therefore pay special attention when the
verb introducing the -clause is in the past. Note the following examples:
(a) . They said that Socrates was wise.

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127

The original utterance (i.e what they originally said) was Socrates is
wise. In Greek the present tense is preserved ( = present), whereas
English puts the verb into the past (was).
(b) .
run/ran onto the ship.

You said that the sailor had

The original utterance here (i.e. what you said) was the sailor ran onto
the ship. Greek preserves the aorist tense in the indirect speech, whereas in
English there is a choice: a speaker can either put the verb into the pluperfect tense (had run) or use the past simple (ran).
(c) The same rules apply to reported questions e.g.
.

I asked why Socrates was wise.

GREEK IDIOMS: PARTICLES

149. As you are aware, Greek particles rarely have a single correct translation in
English. Note the range of meanings that the following particles can convey:
n

The basic meaning of is but, alternatively. It thus conveys the idea of but
rather or (especially in speech) oh, well, anyway, denoting a change in topic.
, .
I didnt see the Athenians, but rather the Spartans.
. Tell me, anyway, Now well, tell me.
n

The basic meaning of is and or but. Since it is such a common connective


in Greek, however, it often requires no translation at all. Note, though, the use
of def. art. with ( , , etc.) to denote a change of subject in Greek:
, .
The sailor was pursuing the foreigner, but he (i.e. the foreigner) wasnt
running away.
n

has a range of uses which the meanings then, indeed only begin to capture. It puts special stress on the preceding word or phrase and is often used to
grab the listeners attention. It can even convey scepticism or sarcasm:
, .
I shall not teach you any more as you are really ignorant.
. Out with it!

Note that in common with most particles, and (unlike ) never


come as the rst word in a sentence or clause (they are postpositives,
whereas is a prepositive: Reference Grammar, 391).

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149 150

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 6 A D

o
o
,

(-)

(-),
,
(-)

,
,

(-)

(-)


(- )
o
,
(-)

(-)

(-)

from the country, boorish


impossible
Athens (1a)
ignorant
depart, go away
then, in that case (inferring)
go to hell!
use force
old man (3a)
mind, purpose, judgment, plan (1a)
bite, worry
right
right hand (1b)
deme (2a)
then
do, act
if
then, next
throw out
myself
intend, have in mind
nd out
one (or the other) of two
sun (2a)
lesser, weaker
wonder at, be amazed at
although (+part.)
head (1a)
steal
stronger, greater
release
how much, many
where? where
when
sky, heavens (2a)
hey there! hey you!
very (much); at all
believe, trust, obey
leap, jump
far, far off
which (of two)

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149 150

Grammar for Section 6CD

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 6 A D
(CONTINUED)

(-),

,

,

;
() (-),
o
,

foot (3a)
rst, at rst
rst
easy
easily
moon (1a)
your(s) (when you is one person)
Socrates (3d)
today
why?
put, place
thought, care, concern (3a)
useful, protable
place, space, region (2b)
as

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129

130

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149 150

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 6C D


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Form the aorist stem of these verbs and then give the aorist (1st s.):
e.g.

2. Give the aorist stem of these verbs and then the aorist (1st s.):
e.g. -

3. Pair each aorist with the equivalent present from the list below (unaugmented
stem in brackets). Then give the meaning of each verb:
(-)
(-)
(-) (-)

(-)
(-)
(-) (-)

, , , , , , ,

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. o .
The student said that he (had) discovered how big the space was.
2. o .
The farmer happened to be a fool.
3. o .
The old man departed to the city.
4. .
The father became unjust.
5. .
I noticed that you were a bumpkin.

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131

SU MM ARY EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 6


a vocabulary building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words in the right-hand columns from those in the
left:

2. Translate these pairs of words: what is the signicance of the change from
left to right?

b/c word shape and syntax


Translate this passage (if you did not do Test Exercise Two); then change the
tense of the verbs to imperfect or aorist as indicated:
(aorist) ,
o (imperfect)
(aorist). o
(imperfect). (aorist)
, (aorist),
(aorist) . (aorist) ,
(aorist) (imperfect).
(imperfect), (imperfect)
(aorist) . (imperfect)
(imperfect), (aorist) .
(aorist) o .

Vocabulary
up and down
, day (1b)
in good order
, courage (1a)

aor.
aor.
aor.

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149 150

d english into greek


Below is the rst passage of continuous prose you are asked to translate into
Greek. Here are three tips to help you with this new kind of exercise.
n You will probably nd it helpful at rst and less daunting to consider each
passage as a series of sentences. Simply attempt each of the twelve sentences
in turn, looking up vocabulary and checking endings in the same way that you
usually do when you translate from English to Greek.
n You will sometimes nd that you have to think your way around problems
when translating. For example, when you come to translate a great deal
in the fth sentence of the passage, you wont nd the word deal in your
English to Greek vocabulary. On such occasions you will have to ask yourself what Greek words and expressions you have met which can be of use to
you.
n Once you have worked through the passage and checked your work, there
will still be one job left to do: that is, to make sure that your passage of Greek
contains the necessary particles. You will have noticed that most Greek sentences have a word near the beginning such as , , , , , ,
r . Sometimes words in the English passage like so, and or
but will prompt you to use a particle, but to make your translation read well,
you may need to add a word such as (which usually comes as the second
word, never the rst) to join a sentence to a previous one.
Translate into Greek:
An old man and his son, a young man, were talking about money. The youngster, as it happened, owed a lot of money. And because of this, his creditors
would not stop pursuing his father. The father did not punish the son (for his
mother stopped him), but conceived a clever plan. So when the father managed to persuade his son, the boy went obediently to the sophists and learnt a
great deal. The sophists always persuaded him, taught a lot of clever stuff and
received a lot of money. So the son learnt quickly the just and unjust arguments, always winning his case. But when the youth came home, this plan did
not put a stop to his fathers debts. The young man did not like his father (who
was a yokel), but hated him. So he never stopped mocking him. Finally, the
old man threw him out.

e test exercise six


Translate into English.
.
, o
. .
5

, , .
, ;
, ; ; ;

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149 150

10

15

Summary Exercises for Section 6

133

, .
, .
. .
, .
,
.
. , o
. ,
. o .
, ,
.

Vocabulary
, horse-fever (1a)
, creditor (1d)
(()-), mother (3a)
horse-mad (m. acc. s.)
ignorant (m. acc. s.)

from the city


his horse-madness
horse-mad (m. nom. s.)
hurrah!

EXERCI S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above.
1. Give the tense of the following verbs: (a) (line 1), (b) (line 2),
(c) (line 2), (d) (line 3), (e) (line 6), (f)
(line 7), (g) (line 14)
2. Give the gender, number and case of the following participles: (a)
(line 3), (b) (line 9) and (c) (line 17)
3. What is the case of (a) (line 5) and (b) (line 13)?

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150151

Grammar for Section 7AC*


(* Formerly 6 AC)

In this section you cover:


c Present innitives, active and middle: ,
c Irregular present innitives: , ,
c Verbs taking innitives (e.g. , , )
c Comparative and superlative adjectives, regular and irregular
c Past of : I went

92&$%8/$5< &+(&.

Ensure you know the meaning or signicance of:


, , , , , , , , , ,
,

PRESENT INFINITIVE

150. In English the present innitive is the form of the verb created by the addition of
to: to go, to listen, to do, etc. This is how the innitive is formed in Greek:
Non-contract verbs

Non-contract verbs form their innitives as follows. Note the thematic vowel --:
Active innitive, -
Add - to the present stem, e.g.
, I stop > -, to stop
Middle innitive, -
Add - to the present stem, e.g.
, I stop (myself) > -, to stop (oneself), cease
Contract verbs

151. Contract verbs form their innitives in the following way:


-contract verbs: + -/-
Active innitive in -, e.g. -, to honour*
Middle innitive in -, e.g. -, to watch
*Rules of contraction would suggest the ending of should be ; but the - innitive
ending was originally -, and the form reects this lack of .

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135

-contract verbs: + -/-


Active innitive in -, e.g. , to stop
Middle innitive in -, e.g. , to be afraid
-contract verbs: + -/-
Active innitive in -, e.g. , to show (not : see on above)
Middle innitive in -, e.g. , to enslave for oneself
Irregular innitives

152. Learn the following innitives of irregular verbs:


, I am

, I shall go
, I know

, to be
, to go
, to know

n Form and Usage

(a) While , I shall go, is used with reference to future time, its innitive,
, is present in meaning.
(b) The negative with the innitive is usually .
(c) Note the - ending. It will recur.
EXERC I S E
7AC: 1. Form in Greek the present innitives of the following verbs and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

VERBS TAKING INFINITIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

153. Certain verbs take innitive constructions, e.g.

I wish to + inf.
I seem (to myself), I think that I + inf.
it is necessary to, X must + inf.
it is obligatory to + inf.

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153155

Special cases

(a) With , the person who must goes into the acc. case, e.g.
// it is necessary for me/you/them/ to go, I/you/they
must go

(b) With , the person for whom it is obligatory goes into the acc. case
(or sometimes the dat.), e.g.
/
to speak or
/

lit. It is obligatory for the god/you

i.e. The god is/you are obliged to speak


EXE RC I S E
7AC: 2. Translate into Greek, using the innitives of the verbs in brackets:
1. I wish to go ()
2. They wish to believe ()
3. He seems to think ()
4. They seem to slander
()

5. I/we/you (pl.) ought to be present


()
6. Socrates ought to teach ()
7. It is obligatory to depart ()
8. It is obligatory for you (s.) to learn
()

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADJECTIVES

154. Comparative and superlative adjectives of the type are formed as follows:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

-
wise
-
clever

--
wiser
--
cleverer

--
wisest, most/very wise
--
cleverest, most/very clever

Form

155. The big giveaway with comparatives and superlatives is the - -


endings. But should that be - or -, - or -? Learn
the usual rules for the formation of the comp. and sup. adjectives:
n (a) Short vowel stem: -

Usually, when the last syllable of the adjectives stem is short (i.e. contains a
single short vowel as in -), - and - are added to form the
comparative and superlative adjectives, e.g. and .

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137

n (b) Long vowel stem: -

When the last syllable of the stem is long (i.e. contains a diphthong [vowel
+ or ] as in -, or a long vowel as in -), -, - are
added, e.g. , .
Declension

156. All regular comparative adjectives decline in the same way as


(36), and all superlative adjectives decline like (10).
Meanings of comp. and sup. adjectives

157. As well as -er and more , comparatives can mean rather , fairly ,
quite ; superlatives, on top of -est and most , also mean extremely
, very .
Comparison in Greek

158. When two things are being compared, Greek uses , than, e.g.
. The man is wiser than the boy.

Note that the two things being compared are in the same case.
Irregular comparative and superlative forms

159. There are some important irregular comparatives (like e.g. English good,
better, best):
Positive

Comparative

Superlative

or
good

(-)
(-)

better



best

or
bad

(-)

(-)
worse



worst

beautiful, ne

(-)

more beautiful, ner


most beautiful, nest

big

(-)
bigger


biggest

much

(-)
more


most

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160161

Declension

160. Irregular comparative adjectives in -() decline like , welldisposed (82), i.e.:
(-) better (comparative of )
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

- or
-
-

n.

-
-

m./f.
- or *
- or *
-
()

n.
- or
- or
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

* More will be said about these irregular, and other, forms at 181.

EXE RC I S E S
7AC: 3. Add the correct comparative and superlative forms of the quoted adjectives to the following phrases, and translate:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()

5. o ()
6. ()
7. ()
8. ()

7AC: 4. Add the correct comparative and superlative forms of the quoted adjectives to the following phrases, and translate:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()

5. ()
6. ()
7. ()

PAST OF I SHALL GO

161. , I shall go, has an irregular imperfect:

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161

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139

I was going, went


or

()

I was going, went


you (s.) were going, went
he/she/it was going, went
we were going, went
you (pl.) were going, went
they were going, went

EXERC I S E
7AC: 5. Revise the present and imperfect of , I am/was (44, 110) and the
future and imperfect of , I shall go/was going, (123, 161) and translate
into Greek:
1. We were going
2. We were
3. They shall go
4. She is
5. He was going
6. She shall go

7. They are
8. We were
9. You (pl.) were going
10. You (s.) were going
11. We are
12. They were

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 7 A C

, truth (1b)
it is obligatory (for
X [acc. or dat].) to
(inf.)
, necessity (1a)
reveal, show

wish, want

really; I assure you

it is necessary for
X (acc.) to (inf.)
slander
(-)
, slander (1a)
corrupt; kill; destroy
(-)

seem; consider oneself


to
,
reputation, opinion (1c)

himself
knowing (part. of )
(-)

I shall go; to go;


I went

from then, from there

question closely
(-) nd, come upon

than

perhaps
reckon, calculate,
consider

think, notice, mean,


intend

not; dont! (with imper.)

think (impf. )

be present, be at hand
try, test
(-)
, poet (1d)

often
once, ever
,
wisdom (1b)

that

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161 162

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 7A C


b/c word shape and syntax
1a. Change the following verbs into the innitive form:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

1b. Adding subjects where indicated, use the the ten innitives you have created to complete the following sentences. Then translate the sentences:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

(you) (pl.) (tell), (slander) .


(to seem) , (to be).
o (know), .
(Socrates) (to go) (to talk) .
, , (to corrupt) .
(to discover)
. (to show)
.

2. Pair up the positive forms on the left with the comparative forms on the right.
Add the superlative in each case.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

a.
b.
c. /*
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

* Note these unusual comparative forms.

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
I was obliged to go to the poets.
2. .
You (s.) must question me closely and consider carefully.

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Revision Exercises for Section 7AC

141

3. .
I am trying to discover how the poets show their wisdom.
4. .
You know that you wanted to slander me.
5. , .
From then on I appeared to be corrupting the young, although I knew nothing.

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162163

Grammar for Section 7DF*


(*Formerly 6 DF)

In this section you cover:


c First aorist participles, active and middle: ,
c Aspect in participles
c Past of : knew
c Present and past of say
c More on the complement

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning or signicance of:


-, , , , -, , , ,

AORIST PARTICIPLES

162. You have already met participles based on the present stem of verbs, e.g.
, looking, , running. Greek also has participles based on
the aorist stem of verbs.
First aorist stems

The aorist participle is based on the aorist stem. To form the aorist stem:
c Take the aorist indicative;
c Remove the augment;
c Remove the personal endings, e.g.
- > aorist stem: - > aorist stem: --- > aorist stem: First aorist active participles: stem + endings

163. The rst aorist active participle is formed by adding the following endings
to the aorist stem: -() -()- -() (-()-), e.g.
- -- - (--)
stopping
s.
m.
f.
Nom. -
--
Acc.
--
--
Gen.
--
--
Dat.
--
--

having stopped, on stopping,

n.
-
-
--
--

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143

- -- - (--) having stopped, on stopping,


stopping (continued)
pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
-()

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
-()

n Forms

Just like the present active participle ( , etc.),


(-) follows a 3-1-3 pattern, i.e. the m. and n. forms follow the pattern
of type 3a and 3b nouns and the f. follows that of a type 1c noun like .
See 87.
First aorist middle participles

164. The rst aorist middle participle is formed by adding -- - - to the


aorist stem:
-- having stopped / on stopping / stopping / onself /
ceasing
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
n Form

Like all middle participles, rst aorist middle participles are declined in the same
way as - - -.

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165

PARTICIPLES AND ASPECT

165. What is the difference in meaning between, say, and , or


between and ?
c One vital thing to say is that the difference is not necessarily one of
time. or need not be translated having stopped or
having looked.
c The difference is one of what is called aspect and is the same difference that has already been shown to exist between the imperfect and
aorist indicatives i.e. the difference between regarding the action as an
incomplete process (imperfect) and a complete event (aorist).
c A present participle regards the action as a process (and is therefore sometimes called imperfective, Latin imperfectus incomplete, unnished).
c The aorist participle regards it as simply a single event.
c Thus it is possible to translate both and as looking;
in the former case, it would be understood that the look went on, in the
latter that it simply took place.
c Another way of stating this difference is that the action described by
a present (imperfective) participle is capable of being broken off,
whereas that of an aorist participle is not. Rather, the action of an aorist
(perfective) participle is conceived of as having a denite end point: it
has been (Latin) perfectus completed.
Consider the following pairs of sentences:
1. After boarding the ship, the sailors shouted.
2. The sailors shouted while boarding the ship.
In this case, the difference between the two acts of boarding is one of time:
c In the rst sentence, the sailors have nished boarding before they
shout: the action is complete and would therefore be translated by an
aorist participle in Greek.
c In the second sentence, however, the boarding is going on at the same
time as the shouting and as the action is incomplete it would therefore
be translated into Greek by a present (imperfective) participle.
It is important to note that both sentences could be rephrased as Boarding
the ship, the sailors shouted. That is to say, English practice differs from
Greek, in that English speakers often use a present participle (such as
entering) to describe a past, complete action. An implication of this is
that when translating into Greek you will sometimes have to think carefully
about what the English means, not just what it says.
1. With a laugh, the girl replied.
2. The girl replied, laughing as she spoke.

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145

In this case, the difference between the sentences is not strictly one of time,
since in both cases the girls reply can be understood as being accompanied
by laughter (i.e., in both cases the laughing and replying are simultaneous).
However, in the rst sentence, the laugh seems to be a single event with an
identiable start- and end-point, which suggests that with a laugh should
be translated into Greek with an aorist participle. In the second sentence,
however, the laughter is ongoing: an incomplete action which would best
be rendered in Greek by a present (imperfective) participle.
Aspect in Greek is subtle, and is unlikely to be mastered overnight. Indeed,
at times the distinction between the two aspects may seem quite arbitrary to
an English speaker, but the more you read the more used you will get to the
different ways in which Greek uses present and aorist participles.

Whatever else you do, it is essential that you pay close attention to the
actual Greek usage: ask yourself What does the aspect of this present
or aorist participle here suggest about the way the Greek wants us to
see the action (however much we may want to see it differently)?

Translating aorist participles

166. What does all this mean in practical terms when you are translating from Greek
into English? Perhaps the most important point to grasp is that there is rarely a
single right way to translate an aorist participle. Depending on context:
c may be correctly translated as having stopped, on stopping,
stopping.
c On occasion you may nd it best to translate an aorist participle as if it
were an ordinary verb in the aorist, e.g.
he glanced at me and blushed.
c You may translate it as a noun e.g. with
a glance at me, he blushed.
Because aorist participles occur so regularly in Greek, you will nd that you have
plenty of opportunities to experiment with different ways of translating them.
EXERCI S E S
7DF: 1. Give the gender, number and case of the following aorist participles
(e.g. m. s. nom.) and the form in which you would nd them if you looked
them up in the dictionary:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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166168

7DF: 2. Turn the following present participles into their aorist equivalent:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

7DF: 3. There is a famous vase-painting of Achilles killing the Amazon queen,


Penthesileia. As she died, their eyes meet and (it was said) Achilles fell in
love with her. Typical bloke. How would the following captions express that
moment?
(a) *.
(b) .
* caught re, burned with passion.

TWO IRREGULAR VERBS


, I KNEW; , I SAY

167. The past of is as follows:


I knew

()

or

I knew
you (s.) knew
he/she/it knew
we knew
you (pl.) knew
they knew

168a. , I say, conjugates as follows:


Present: I say*

or
()

()

I say
you (s.) say
he/she/it says
we say
you (pl.) say
they say

Innitive

to say

* Note that the present indicative is enclitic (347(ii)) except for /.

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147

Participle
(-) or
(-), sometimes - saying
Future
- I shall say
Past: I said

or

I said
you (s.) said
he/she/it said
we said
you (pl.) said
they said

Form and use

(a) Do not use if you are translating English say that into Greek. Use
for the moment. See further Reference Grammar 397.
(b) You will nd (which is borrowed from the verb ) used far
more commonly than as the present participle of .
(c) In passages containing direct speech, you will often nd , said ,
and said he used as alternatives to and .
EXERC I S E
7DF: 4. Revise the present and past of , I know (44, 167) and using
as say translate into Greek:
1. We know
2. They said
3. She knew
4. We say
5. You (s.) know

6. She said
7. I knew
8. He says
9. You (pl.) said
10. They knew

MORE ON THE COMPLEMENT

168b. Usually, in sentences with two nouns either side of the verb to be, the
complement lacks a denite article (457). But not always. In answer to
the question Who are the learners, the clever or the stupid?, Greek will
say The learners are the (= those who are)
clever, i.e. creates the group. What would it mean if it lacked ? (As
usual, the complement comes rst.)

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168 169

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 7 D F


(-)
,
(-)

(-)
(-)

/
,

brave, manly
answer
virtue, excellence (1a)
laugh
of course, surely
teacher (2a)
receive in turn
fall into, on (+ or )
praise
at once, straightaway
enjoy, be pleased
I said
he said
agree
therefore
not therefore
young man (2a)
urge on, impel
I say/I said
philosophy (1b)

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168 169

Revision Exercises for Section 7DF

149

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 7DF


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Form the m. nom. s. aorist participles of these verbs:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9. (-)
10. (-)

2. Form the m. nom. s. aorist participles of these contracted verbs:


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6. (-)

3. Translate into Greek the italicised phrases, using either aorist or present participles of the verb in brackets to suit the sense:
We sat silently, all the time perplexed as to his meaning. ()
With a glance at me the teacher began to speak. ()
The spectators heard his arguments and applauded. ()
Dionysodoros replied with laughter constantly in his voice. (: aor.
stem -)
e. The woman picked up the argument and replied. ()
f. He happened to say in answer. (: aor. stem -)

a.
b.
c.
d.

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. o .
The teacher answered and said that the love of wisdom was a virtue.
2. .
Dionysodorus laughed and took up the argument.
3. o .
The sophist, with a glance at me, agreed.
4. .
I praised them and said, Urge them on at once.
5. .
Once in a state of perplexity, the student tried to escape.

e test exercise seven df


Translate into English:
Kriton reports how he and Socrates discussed the nature of expertise and

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168 169

decided that an experts opinion is more valuable than another mans.


(From Plato, Kriton)

10

15

20

, , , , .
, , , ,
.
, , .
, ,
; ;
, , ; .
, .
,
;
.
, ,
, , , ;
, , o .
, o .
, .
, ;
, .

, , ;
;
, .

Vocabulary
object
well then
all (f. acc. pl.)
come!

, doctor (2a)
here
respect

EXE RC I S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above:
1. Give the tense of the following verbs: (a) (line 2), (b) (line 3),
(c) (line 11), (d) (line 12)
2. What is the case of (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) and
(f) ?

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169170

Grammar for Section 7GH

151

Grammar for Section 7GH*


(*Formerly 6 GH)

In this section you cover:


c Second aorist participles, active and middle: ,
c Pronouns: , , ; , , /
c

VOCABULARY CHECK

Ensure you know the meaning or signicance of:


-, , , , , -, , -, +
acc., ,

SECOND AORIST PARTICIPLES

169. You have aready learnt how verbs with a rst aorist form their aorist participle on the rst aorist stem. Verbs with a second aorist form it (hard to
believe though it is) on the second aorist stem.
Second aorist stems

You are already familiar with how to form the rst aorist stem (131ff.): take the
aorist indicative, and remove (i) the augment and (ii) the personal endings. As
you have seen, it works for second aorists as follows (144ff.):
--
-
--
---

aorist stem: aorist stem: aorist stem: aorist stem: -

Second aorist active participles: stem + endings

170. The second aorist active participle is formed by adding the endings -
-- - to the aorist stem:
- - - (--), taking, on taking, having taken
()
s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom. -
--
-
Acc.
--
--
-
Gen.
--
--
--
Dat.
--
--
--

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170171

- - - (--), taking, on taking, having taken


() (continued)
pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
-()

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
-()

n Form

The endings for these participles (- -- -) are exactly the same as for
present participles (87).
Second aorist middle participles

171. The second aorist middle participle is formed by adding the familiar - - - endings to the aorist stem:
-- -- -- becoming, on becoming, having
become ()
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

m.
--
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
--
--
--
--

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

EXE RC I S E S
7GH: 1. Attach the appropriate form of the aorist participle to the given form of
the denite article:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()

5. o ()
6. ()
7. ()
8. ()

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Grammar for Section 7GH

153

7GH: 2. Attach the appropriate form of the aorist participle to the given form of
the denite article:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()

5. ()
6. ()
7. ()
8. ()

PRONOUN/ADJECTIVE: - - -

172. The declension of - - - (self, same); - - - (him, her, it)


is as follows:

s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

n Form

173. is one of very few pronouns in Greek which (like the def. art.) end in -o
in the n. s. nom./acc. You have already met others: e.g. and (69).
Meanings of

174. has a variety of meanings:


n Him, her, it, them

Used as an unstressed pronoun, but never in the nom. (nor as the rst word of a
clause, when it will always mean self) means him, her, it, them, e.g.

he saw them running


I caught her

Note that and are used when the pronoun is stressed.

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174

n Self

Agreeing with the noun it picks out, it means self, e.g.



Socrates himself
the man himself

n Myself, yourself, etc.

Combined with the appropriate pronoun, it serves as a reexive pronoun:


Myself
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-

Ourselves
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-

Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Yourself
m.
()-
()-
()-

f.
()-
()-
()-

Yourselves
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-

Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Himself, herself, itself


m.
f.
-* (-)
- (-)
- (- )
- (-)
- (-)
- ()

n.
- (-)
- ()
- (-)

Themselves
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-* (-)
- (-)
- (-)

f.
- (-)
- (-)
- (-)

n.
- (-)
- (-)
- (-)

* Note that the - is a 3rd person pronoun found mostly in Homer. Watch the breathing where - is
contracted out!

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175177

Grammar for Section 7GH

155

Meaning

175. Reexive forms are used when me, you, him, etc. refer to the same
person as the subject of the clause e.g. dont kill
yourself/commit suicide!. In further clauses, they can refer to the subject of
the main verb of the sentence, e.g.
/ .

The Amazon persuaded the man to release her (i.e. the Amazon).
.

The Amazon persuaded the man to release her (i.e. another woman).
n Same

176. preceded by the denite article is an adjective meaning same, e.g.


the same youth

EXERC I S E S
7GH: 3. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

7GH: 4. Translate each of the words in brackets into Greek using a version of
:
1. (same)
2. (them, f.)
3. (herself)
4. (him)

5. (themselves, m.)
6. (herself)
7. o (same)
8. (it)

I AM ABLE, CAN
177. Note the -- dominated , I am able, can. The stem is -.
Instead of taking the thematic vowel and being a contract verb, it is athematic: the endings are simply added to the stem. You should learn this verb
now as you will meet other verbs that conjugate in the same way (such as
, I get up, emigrate: 187):

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177

I am able, can

I am able, can
you (s.) are able, can
he/she/it is able, can
we are able, can
you (pl.) are able, can
they are able, can

Innitive

to be able

Participle
- - -

being able

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 7 G H

(-)
lead, bring
(-) pick up
(-) leave, depart

self
(-) cross

be able

two
- (-), him/her/itself
- (-), (pronoun)
- (-)
- (-), themselves
-
(-), - (pronoun)
(-)
-, -
myself (pronoun)

return
(-)
(-)
follow
-,
ourselves
-
(pronoun)

come across,

(-)
overtake
(-), possession (3b)
,
ght, battle (1a)

however, but

(+acc.) after

think,
acknowledge

the same

dwell (in), live

back, again
,
river (2a)
()-, -
yourself (s.)
(pronoun)
,
sign, signal (2b)
-, - yourselves
(pronoun)

your(s)

guard

speak, utter
,
voice, language,
speech (1a)

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177 178

Revision Exercises for Section 7GH

157

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 7G H


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Form the 1st person s. aorist indicative of these verbs, then construct the m.
nom. s. aorist participle:
1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
2. Translate the following sentences, completing them with the aorist participle
of the verbs indicated:
a. o () (the rest).
b. , () , .
c. , () , .
d. o , () , .
e. o , (), (pitched camp).
f. o , (-) () , .
3. In the following sentences, translate only the words in italics by the correct
forms of , , :
a. We saw them approaching.
b. The same man did this same thing.
c. She herself brought another Amazon with her.
d. Did you see the same woman as I?
e. What does he himself think of it?
f. They all speak about ( + acc.) the same things.
g. I myself do not enjoy sentences.
h. I saw the young men themselves behaving like this.
i. Women? We love them! Men? We hate them.
d english into greek
Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
The men picked up the bodies of the women and went away.
2. .
Coming upon these women, the young men were amazed.
3. , o .
Once friends, the young men are able to converse with those women.
4. , .
The women said these things and persuaded the young men.
5. .
Because of this the young men returned to their houses and took their possessions.

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177 178

SU MMARY EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 7


a vocabulary-building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words in the right-hand columns from those in the
left:

2. Group this pool of words into sets of cognate words (i.e. words which share
common roots). Give the meaning of each word:

d english into greek


Translate into Greek (and dont forget connecting particles!):
When the Amazons had killed the Athenians, they came to the land of the
Scythians. On arrival, they found horses and fought with the Scythians.
The Scythians, defeating them and learning about them, wished to become
friends. The young men therefore followed closely, but did not ght; and the
Amazons, seeing this, kept quiet themselves. At last they became friends and
lived together; but it was necessary for the young men and their wives to cross
the river and inhabit another place. For, said the Amazons, we do not want
to live in your land, since on arrival we fought you.
e test exercise seven
Translate into English:

,
, . o ,
,
, .
,
, . ,
, ,

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177 178

10

15

Revision Exercises for Section 7

159

. ,
, , ,
, . o ,
.
. ,
, . o
o o .
, .

Vocabulary
lay waste
never
EXERC I S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above:
1. Give the aspect (i.e. present or aorist) of the following participles: (a)
(line 2), (b) (line 3), (c) (line 4), (d)
(line 7), (e) (line 7), (f) (line 8)
2. Give the tense of the following verbs: (a) (line 4), (b)
(line 6), (c) (line 8), (d) (line 15)

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178

Grammmar for Section 8AC*


(*Formerly 7 AC)

In this section you cover:


c The genitive case and its uses
c Further comparative and superlative adjectives
c Mood
c Present optative, active and middle: ,
c + optative
c I get up and go

GENITIVE CASE

178. The forms of the gen. s. and pl. across the range of noun and adjective types
you have met are as follows:
s.

pl.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

1a

-,

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

1b

-,

-o

-o

-o

1c

1d

-,

-o

-,

-o

2a

-o

2b

-o,

-o

-o

-o

3a

-o

-()

3b

-o

-()

3c

-o,

-o

-o

-v

-()

3d

-,

- o

-()

-v

-()

-v

-()

-,

-,

-v

3f

-,

3g

-,

-
-

-()

3h

-,

-o

-()

3e

Irregular nouns
,

()

()

Z,

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178

Grammar for Section 8AC

s.
nom.

161

pl.
acc.

gen.

dat.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

Personal pronouns

()

()o

()

Adjectives
m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

-o

-o

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m./f.

-()

n.

-()

m./f.

-()

-()

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

-o

o-()

f.

o-

o-

o-

o-

n.

-o

-()

m.

-o

- -()

f.

n.

-o

- -()

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179

179. Form

(a) All gen. plurals end in -.


(b) Gen. singulars of type 3 nouns/adjectives all originally ended in -.
Later contractions and other changes gave rise to forms in - and -.
(c) Gen. singulars in types 1 and 2 nouns/adjectives end (masculine)
in - and (feminine) in - (1a, 1c) or - (1b). Remind yourself of the
rules for these nouns (especially the rule) at 5657.
(d) 1d nouns like , are tricky: , is their
nom. form (not feminine gen. s.!) and their gen. s. is , .

EXE RC I S E S
Select from this list according to need.
8AC: 1. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
1ac type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8AC: 2. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following 1d
type nouns:
1.
2.

3.
4.

8AC: 3. Give the meaning and (where possible) gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of
the following 3d type nouns:
1.
2.

3.
4.

8AC: 4. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
2ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

8AC: 5. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. in all genders (with def. art.) of the
following type 2-1-2 adjectives:
1.
2. *
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

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179180

Grammar for Section 8AC

9.
10.

163

11. (N.B. irregular stem)


12. * (N.B. irregular stem)

* Position def. art. correctly with these words.

8AC: 6. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
type 3c nouns:
1.
2.

3.

8AC: 7. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. of the following 3ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

8AC: 8. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. in all genders of the following type
3rd declension and 3-1-3 adjectives/participles:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8AC: 9. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art. [where meaningful])
of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

8AC: 10. Give the meaning and gen. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

USES OF THE GENITIVE

180. The most common uses of the genitive are as follows:


(a) To correspond to English phrases introduced by of in such senses as:
n (i) possession, e.g.
o the house of [belonging to] Dikaiopolis

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n (ii) a part, e.g.


180

few of [out of the whole number of] the men

n (iii) source or origin, e.g.


o o the words of [that come from] the fellow

the lawlessness of the Eleven
n (iv) content or material, e.g.

the crowd of [made up of] citizens, the citizen crowd

(b) With certain adjectives, e.g.


worthy of
full of
responsible for
(c) With certain prepositions, e.g.

away from
from (esp. a person)
out of, from
(in company) with
on, on part of, in the time of
through
for the sake of (comes after the noun)
concerning, about (also with acc.)

Note that and have quite different meanings depending on the


case they take:
+ acc. because of; + gen. through
+ acc. after; + gen. with

(d) With certain verbs, e.g.

I hear (a person)*
I condemn
I seize, take hold of (see (a)[ii] above)

* normally takes the acc. of the thing heard (e.g. words) but the gen. of the source of sound
(e.g. the person who is speaking):

I hear the words


I hear you speaking

Cf. [a](iii) above. You will nd that other verbs of perception behave in a similar way.

(e) To express comparison


So far you have met comparisons of the type described at 158 i.e. constructed
with = than. Greek can also express comparison without by putting the
thing compared in the gen., e.g.

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180181

Grammar for Section 8AC

165

.
Socrates is wiser than this fellow.
(This can also be expressed as
.)
EXERC I S E
8AC: 11. Translate into Greek using the prepositions and adjectives listed at (c)
above:
1. in company with (the) Socrates
2. away from the assembly
3. through the crowd
4. out of the ship
5. I condemn the man
6. I hear the women
7. I seize the citizen

8. worthy of (the) excellence


9. responsible for (the) lawlessness
10. in company with the herald
11. through the river
12. concerning the law
13. away from (the) Athens
14. out of the house

ALTERNATIVE COMPARATIVE FORMS

181. Revise the alternative comparative and superlative forms of and


:
Positive

or
good

or
bad

Comparative

Superlative

(-)
(-)
better
(-)
(-)
worse



best


worst

Meaning

The alternative comparative and superlative forms of carry slightly different nuances:
c and imply superiority in terms of physical or mental
ability
c and imply moral superiority
Form

The full declension of comparative adjectives is as follows:

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181182

(-) better (comparative of )


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

- or
-
-

n.

-
-

m./f.
- or
- or *
-
()

n.
- or
- or
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Note the alternative forms in the m./f. acc. s. and the m./f./n. nom. and acc. pl.
These are old forms, arising from a stem ending not in -- but in --:
() > (m./f. acc. s.; n. nom./acc. pl.)
() > (m./f. nom. pl.)
* This form, which should by contraction be , has not in fact been contracted but simply
taken over from the nom. pl.
You will nd that these old forms are used far more often by Greek authors than their new -- stem
equivalents.

EXE RC I S E
8AC: 12. Add the correct forms of the to the following phrases, giving
alternatives where appropriate, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5. o
6.
7.
8.

COMPARING ADJECTIVES LIKE

182. Observe also that adjectives ending in - like form their comparatives and superlatives as follows:
Positive

Comparative

Superlative


lucky


luckier


luckiest, very lucky

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167

The regular sufxes - and - are still there waving like mad, but on
a stem extended by --.
EXERC I S E
8AC: 13. Add the correct comparative and superlative forms of the quoted
adjectives to the following phrases, and translate:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()

4. ()
5. ()
6. ()

MOOD: THE OPTATIVES

183. Most of the verbs you have met so far have been in one of two moods: the
indicative or the imperative. The mood of a verb gives important clues as
to its function in a sentence:
c The indicative mood, for example, is generally used to make statements
or ask questions.
c The imperative mood is used to give orders.

There are two further moods in Greek: the optative and the subjunctive.

Here you encounter the optative (and you can ght over whether to stress
the o or the a). You will meet a number of uses of this mood in future
sections, but as you will discover, most examples of the optative in Greek
require the use of words like would, could and might when translating
in English.
Present optative active and middle

184. The forms of the present optative active and middle for non-contract verbs
are as follows:
Present optative active:
-
-
-
-
-
-

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Present optative middle:


-
-
-
-
-
-
n Form

c Note the - - - middle endings (102). The 2s. was originally -, with the intervocalic sigma dropping out to give --.
c The thematic vowel is -- throughout; the optative mood is marked by the
immediately following --.
EXE RC I S E
8AC: 14. Translate the following present indicatives and turn them into the
equivalent optative forms:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Present optative of contract verbs

185. The forms for contract verbs in the active are as follows. Note that in the s.
active the forms arise from contracting the vowel with the endings -,
-, -:
Active contract optative
, I honour

, I make, do

, I show, reveal

(-contract verb)

(-contract verb)

(-contract verb)

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

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169

Middle contract optative


, I watch
(-contract verb)
-
>
-
>
-
>
-
>
-
>
-
>

, I make, do

, I enslave for
myself

(-contract verb)
- >
-
>
-
>
- >
- >
- >

(-contract verb)
- >
-
>
-
>
- >
- >
- >

n Form

You can recognise present optatives from the combination of a present stem and
-- (or ).
EXERC I S E
8AC: 15. Translate the following present indicatives and turn them into the
equivalent optatives:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

+ OPTATIVE
186. The optative forms are used with the particle to express a polite request
or agreement. Sometimes polite requests are difcult to distinguish from
straightforward requests. The best translations involve using the English
forms would, would like to, can, or the simple future will, e.g.
c ; Would you tell me? Would you like to/could you/will
you tell me?
c I would/would like to/can/will tell you.
Note that cannot come as rst word.
EXERC I S E
8AC: 16.Translate into the polite form, + optative, using the verbs in brackets:
1. They would bring ()
6. They would do wrong ()
2. We would converse () 7. He would see ()
3. She would consider ()
8. You (pl.) would persuade ()
4. I would send ()
9. We would guard ()
5. You (s.) would receive () 10. They would obey ()

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187188

, I LEAVE, EMIGRATE
187. The verb , I get up and go, leave, emigrate (stem -), conjugates in the same way as , I am able, can (177):
I leave

I leave
you (s.) leave
he/she/it leaves
we leave
you (pl.) leave
they leave

Innitive

to leave

Participle

leaving

As with -, there is no thematic vowel between stem and ending.


EXE RC I S E
8AC: 17. Revise (177) and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

GREEK IDIOMS

+ participle

188. Note the Greek love of + participle and the variety of possible translations it takes:
;
lit. Wanting what do you do this?
i.e. What is your motive/purpose/intention in doing this?
;
lit. On suffering what do you say this?
i.e. What did you suffer to make you say this?

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188

Grammar for Section 8AC

171

Note also that, since basically means I have something done


to me, a perfectly good translation of this last sentence would also be
What made you say this?

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 8 A C

,
(-)

/
(-)


(-)

,

,
,


(-)
(comp. o;
sup. )
(-),

,
,
(-)

o
(-)

market-place, agora (1b)


live in, be at; lead, bring
be unjust, commit a crime, do wrong
sing
get up, emigrate
worth, worthy of (+gen.)
I shall kill, destroy
best
better
clever; right-hand
people; deme (2a)
(+gen.) through
law-court (2b)
juror, dikast (1d)
(+gen.) near
peace (1a)
live in/be at peace
(to) there
assembly, ekklesia (1b)
(+gen.) opposite, in front of
meanwhile
since
(+g en.) on
ready (to) (+inf.)
happy, rich, blessed by the gods

leader (3a)
think, consider; lead (+ dat.)
pleasure (1a)
Herakles (3d uncontr.)
see, look down on
take hold of (+gen.)
(+ gen.) with
greatest (sup. of )
greater (comp. of )

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188 189

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 8 A C
CONTINUED

(-)

,

,
(-)
(-)
,
,
,


(-),
(-)
,

alone
surely not?
then (cf. now)
pity
one another
experience, suffering (3C)
everywhere
send
(+gen.) about
full of (+ gen.) (as if - - - contr.)
make
citizen (1d)
run towards
orator, politician (3a)
food (2a) (pl. , 2b)
treaty, truce (1a)
relation (3d)
my dear chap (condescendingly )
(+gen.) for, on behalf of
(+gen.) by, at the hands of
philosopher (2a)
hello! farewell!
difcult, hard
hand (3a)
worse
time (2a)

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188 189

Summary Exercises for Section 8

173

SU MM ARY EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 8


a vocabulary-building
1. Deduce the meaning of the words in the right-hand columns from those in the
left:

b/c word shape and syntax


1. Translate the whole passage into English, putting the bracketed words into
the gen. case:
. ( ) ( );
. o , , ( ).
() () (o ) .
( ) ();
. ( ) ,
(). ( ) (
), .
. . . ( o )
(). o ( )
( ).
2. Convert these verb-forms into the corresponding polite form (optative + )
and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

3. Translate these sentences and contrast the use and construction of the preposition in each pair.
a. (i) .
(ii) .
b. (i) .
(ii) o.

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188 189

c. (i) .
(ii) .
d. (i) , .
(ii) .
4. Compare Dionysodorus with Euthydemos using the adjectives listed below
and these formulae:

()

1.
2.
3.
4.

174


5.
6.
7.

d english into greek


1. Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
The mans slave grabs the rhapsodes hand.
2. , ;
Who is responsible for those shouts, which are very loud?
3. , .
You are a sophist and worth nothing.
4. ;
Why are the politicians richer than the people of the city? Tell me!
5. .
We suffered many bad experiences, but fought against the Persians for freedom.
2. Translate into Greek using the hints below to guide you:
Dikaiopolis
Slave
Dik.
Slave
Dik.
Peisetairos

Look! I see a slave running towards us. Whose slave are


you?
As it happens I am the slave of Euelpides, your friend.
Would you please say what you want, and for what reason
you ran to me?
I will. For I must, as Euelpides ordered, ask you to wait.
Then I shall wait. Hello, Euelpides and Peisetairos. What
is your purpose in leaving the city? Where are you off to?
We have to go away to a new and more useful city.

Hints
As it happens: i.e. I happen to be

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188 189

Summary Exercises for Section 8

175

your friend: this must be in the same case as the noun it is in apposition to
(i.e. further describing), i.e. Euelpides.
Would you please say?: use optative + .
I will: i.e. I will say. Remember, too, that in a reply to a question Greek
often repeats the question word prexed with - (126).
Hello: s. , pl. .

e test exercise eight


Translate into English:

10

15

, ,
, , . o
, ,
. ,
,
.
, o.
.
,
, . o
, o (
) o. o
o . ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

Vocabulary
, Cloud-cuckooland (1b)
ignorant (m. acc. pl.)
inf. of accompany
EXERC I S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above.
1. Give the aspect (i.e. present or aorist) of the following participles: (a)
(line 2), (b) (line 4), (c) (line 5),
(d) (line 7), (e) (line 9), (f) (line 12), (g)
(line 13), (h) (line 15)
2. Give the case of the following: (a) (line 1), (b) (line 6), (c)
(line 8), (d) (line 11), (e) (line 14), (f) (line
16)

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189

Grammar for Section 9AE*


(*Formerly 8 AE)

In this section you cover:


c The dat. case and its uses
c Time phrases
c More optatives: ,
c Principal parts: , ,

THE DATIVE CASE

189. The forms of the dat. s. and pl. across the range of noun and adjective types
you have met are as follows:
s.

pl.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

1a

-,

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

o-

1b

-,

-o

-o

-o

1c

1d

-,

-o

-,

-o

2a

-o

2b

-o,

-o

-o

-o

3a

-o

-()

3b

-o

-()

3c

-o,

-o

-o

-v

-()

3d

-,

- o

-()

-v

-()

-v

-()

-,

-,

-v

3f

-,

3g

-,

-
-

-()

3h

-,

-o

-()

3e

Irregular nouns
,

()

()

Z,

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189

Grammar for Section 9AE

s.
nom.

177

pl.
acc.

gen.

dat.

nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

Personal pronouns

()

()o

()

Adjectives
m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

-o

-o

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

m./f.

-()

n.

-()

m./f.

-()

-()

n.

m.

f.

n.

m.

-o

o-()

f.

o-

o-

o-

o-

n.

-o

-()

m.

-o

- -()

f.

n.

-o

- -()

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189

Form

(a) Dat. s. all end in - (whether subscript or not).


(b) Dat. pls. all end in - or -() (but note the exceptions: , .)
(c) Type 3 nouns:
(i)

those with stems ending in -- have dat. pl. in -(), e.g. participles
like - with stem - produce the dat. pl. ().*
(ii) those in -- have dat. pl. in -().
(iii) those with a single consonant at the end of the stem either drop it in the
dat. pl. (, stem -, dat. pl. ) or let it coalesce with the
of the ending (, stem -, dat. pl. [= -]).
See also 359.

* Ouch! For the form () can be either 3rd pl. pres. indic. they stop or a m./n. dat. pl. of
the pres. participle! Only context will tell you which.

EXE RC I S E S
Select from the list according to need.
9AE: 1. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
1ac type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9AE: 2. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following 1d
type nouns:
1.
2.

3.
4.

9AE: 3. Give the meaning and (where possible) dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of
the following 3d type nouns:
1.
2.

3.

9AE: 4. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
2ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9AE: 5. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. in all genders of the following type
2-1-2 adjectives:
1.
2.

3.
4.

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Grammar for Section 9AE

5.
6.
7.
8.

179

9.
10. (N.B. irregular stem)
11. (N.B. irregular stem)
12.

9AE: 6. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
type 3c nouns:
1.
2.

3.

9AE: 7. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following
3ab type nouns:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

9AE: 8. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. in all genders of the following 3rd
declension and 3-1-3 adjectives/participles:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

9AE: 9. Give the meaning and (where possible) dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of
the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.

9AE: 10. Give the meaning and dat. s. and pl. (with def. art.) of the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

Usage

190. The most common uses of the dat. are as follows:


(a) To express an indirect object. Indirect objects are most often found after
verbs of giving or saying: they are the person or thing to whom something is
given or said (or for whom something is done). In English, indirect objects are
regularly introduced by to, e.g.

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190

speak to the spectators


he offers this to me

[N.B. In English if the indirect object is sandwiched between the verb and
direct object the word to is omitted: for example, the last sentence could
also be translated he offers me this.]
(b) To express the idea of possession with the verb to be, e.g.

(lit.) there is to me a father, i.e. I have a father

(c) To show the means by which or instrument with which something is


achieved, usually expressed in English with by, by means of or with, e.g.
we guard the old man with
the nets
(d) To show the way in which something is done (rather like an adverb), again
usually expressed by the English with, e.g.

with much enthusiasm, enthusiastically

(e) Certain verbs take the dat., e.g.

()

I use, have to do with, treat


I obey, trust in
I fall on, attack
I meet with
I follow
it seems a good idea (to me)

(f) Certain adjectives take the dat., e.g.

resembling, like, the same as

(g) With prepositions, e.g.

in
on, for the purpose of
with, near
near, in addition to
with (the help of)

Note that , and have different meanings depending on the case


they take. See 390.
(h) Note the two expressions:
(a)
(b)

baggage and all


in theory but in fact , i.e. outwardly something appears to be the
case, but the reality is very different.

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181

EXERC I S E
9AE: 11. Translate into Greek:
1. It seems to Socrates
2. I follow you (pl.)
3. I meet with the king
4. In the ships
5. It seems to us
6. In addition to the spectators

7. With our help (with the help of us)


8. I use you (s.)
9. I follow them
10. In the crowd
11. For the purpose of victory
12. In word/theory but in fact

TIME PHRASES

191. Greek can express the idea of time by the use of case alone:
Accusative (throughout)

The acc. case expresses a length of time, the time throughout which something happens (often expressed in English by for), e.g.
o he stayed in the house for 10 days
he sleeps (for) the whole night
Genitive (within)

The gen. case expresses time within which something happens (generally
expressed in English by during, in the course of, within or simply in), e.g.
he judges during the night/in (the course of) the
night
I shall return within/in ten days
Dative (on)

The dat. case expresses the point of time at which something happens
(English at, on), e.g.
he left on the following day
he returned on the third day, i.e. two days
later
A visual representation may help:
he acc. case (length of time)
may be considered
he gen. case

he dat. case (point at which)

as a line
as a circle (the action is taking
place somewhere within the circle but
one doesnt know where.)
as a dot .

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EXE RC I S E
9AE: 12. Translate into English:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4.
.
5. .
MORE OPTATIVES

192. You have already seen how -- characterises the stem of certain verbs in
the indicative, e.g. I can and I emigrate (177, 187). It
continues to do so in the optative:
Present optative

Present optative

PRINCIPAL PARTS

193. In order to be able to form all parts of a verb you need to be familiar with its
principal parts:
c Knowledge of the rst person s. present form of a verb, e.g. ,
, allows you to conjugate the verb in the present and with the
addition of an augment the imperfect as well.
c But it does not necessarily allow you to predict the future or aorist forms.
c If the verb is regular, like, you can predict , , but
in the case of , for instance, there is no way of predicting the
forms , I shall take, and , I took.
c Once you know all these forms, however, you are able to use the future
and aorist stems to form other parts of the verbs, e.g. the whole of the
future indicative, the aorist indicative, the aorist participle and so on.
Greek verbs have up to six principal parts in all, three of which you have
yet to meet (perfect active, perfect middle/passive and aorist passive: these
will be covered in future sections). Much the most important are the three
you are currently meeting: present, future, and aorist.

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Grammar for Section 9AE

183

From now on, when you meet a new irregular verb, you should get
into the habit of learning its rst three principal parts 1st s. present,
future and aorist indicative forms. In this way you will be able to recognize all forms of the verb that occur in your reading passages.

Three verbs

194. Note the principal parts of the verbs , I ask, , I say, and
, I escape the notice of.
Present

Future

Aorist

I ask

I shall ask

(stem -)
(or )
I asked

> (or )

I say

I shall say

I escape the notice of I shall escape the notice of

(stem -)
(or )
I said
(stem -)
I escaped the notice of

n Form

Like a number of verbs, and have both rst and second aorist
forms.
EXERC I S E
9AE: 13. Translate into Greek:
1. He shall escape the notice of
2. They asked
3. He would be able (opt. + )
4. We shall say
5. He escaped the notice of
6. He would get up and go
7. He asked
8. They shall say
9. They would be able
10. We asked

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194 195

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 9 A E

(-)
(-),

(-)

(-),

(-)

(-)
(-)

,
,

-,

(-)



(-),
(-)

(-)

better
prince, lord, king (3a)
persuade over to ones side
up, above
run away
take badly, nd hard to bear
be a juror; make a judgment
it seems a good idea to X (dat.) to Y (inf.);
X (dat.) decides to Y (inf.)
play, drama (3b)
shut in, lock in
escape
here, at this point
I meet with (+ dat.)
lead/bring out
go out; come out
when; since
day (1b)
mule (2a)
quiet, peaceful
spectator, member of audience (1d)
sit down
sit down
black
no longer
foul, polluted
like, similar to (+dat.)
name (3b)
give to, provide
nearby, (+gen.) near
wicked, wretched
cause trouble
near, in addition to (+ dat.)
sell
groan
with (the help of) (+ dat.)
wretched, unhappy

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194 195

Grammar for Section 9AE

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 9 A E
CONTINUED

()

of this kind, of such a kind


come!
use, employ (+ dat.)

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185

186

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194 195

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR 9AE


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Translate the sentences, then change underlined dat. s. into pl. or vice versa,
as appropriate:
1. , .
2. , .
3. ,
.
4. (enthusiasm).
5. .
6. o .
7. .
8. ;
9. ;
10. o
.

d english into greek


Translate these pairs of sentences:
1. .
This spectators name is Philoxenos.
2. .
He is speaking to you and the spectators.
3. .
They will nd sitting in the court hard to bear.
4. .
I shut my father in by using many slaves.
5. .
The politicians persuaded the people with ne words.

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195

Grammar for Section 9FG

187

Grammar for Section 9FG*


(* Formerly 8 FG)

In this section you cover:


c Aorist innitives, rst and second, active and middle
c Aspect in the innitive
c Aorist imperatives, rst and second, active and middle
c Present imperatives: , , , ,
c ,
c Vocatives
c Adjectives:

AORIST INFINITIVES

195. You have already met present innitives (to ) formed by adding -
- to the present stem (150). Greek also has aorist innitives, formed
by adding the appropriate endings to the aorist stem (rst and second).
Their forms are as follows:
First aorist innitive active

-, to stop
To form the rst aorist innitive active, add - to the aorist stem, e.g
-, I stopped > stem: - > -, to stop

First aorist innitive middle

-, to stop (oneself), cease


To form the rst aorist innitive middle, add -[] to the aorist stem, e.g.
--, I stopped (myself) > stem: - > -, to stop
(oneself), cease
n Forms

c Observe once again the familiar rst aorist stem in -- (cf. aorist indicatives
131).
c The rst aorist active innitive ending in -[] may look odd, but you have
already met - as an innitive ending in e.g. -, to be, -, to go,
and -, to know.
c In the middle innitive, the ending - is the same as in the present innitive (--).

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Second aorist innitive active

196. Second aorist innitives are, to no ones amazement, based on second


aorist stems (146):
-, to take
To form the second aorist innitive active, add - to the second aorist stem,
e.g
--, I took > stem: - > -, to take

Second aorist innitive middle

-, to take hold of
To form the second aorist innitive middle, add - to the aorist stem,
e.g.
--, I took hold of > stem: - > -, to take hold of

n Forms

Observe that the endings of second aorist innitives (except for accent) are
just the same as the endings for the present innitives active and middle
(-, -), but the stem is the second aorist stem. (Cf. present
innitives 150 and second aorist participles 16970.)
EXE RC I S E
9FG: 1. Translate the following present innitives and form the equivalent
aorist innitive from them:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ASPECT IN THE INFINITIVE

197. The difference between present and aorist innitives is not one of time, but
one of aspect (cf. on aorist participles 165):
c Both and mean to stop (someone else), but the present
innitive carries the idea of process with it (keep on stopping, be in
the process of stopping), the aorist looks at the action as a simple, oneoff event (bring to a halt).

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189

c But this distinction is often a very ne one and rules as such are very
difcult to make. It is far better to observe closely actual Greek usage
and ask, What is the Greek suggesting about the way we should understand this innitive by using this particular aspect?
EXERCI S E
9FG: 2. Give the meaning and aspect (pres./aor.) of the following innitives:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

AORIST IMPERATIVES

198. You have already met present imperatives (active - -, middle - -).
These are based on the present stem (18). There are also imperatives based
(do you ever get that dj vu feeling?) on the aorist stem, rst and second.
Their forms are as follows:
First aorist imperatives active and middle

Active (-[], -[]-)


2s.
2pl.

- stop!
- stop!

Middle (-[]-, []-)


2s.
2pl.

- cease!
- cease!

n Forms

Observe once again the familiar rst aorist stem in -()-. Note particularly carefully:
c The s. active imperative form in -() (cf. from the Mass, , ,
, Lord, have mercy, Christ, have mercy!) the absence of
makes this look strange as a rst aorist form cf. 130(a);
c The ambiguity of , which is (i) aor. act. inf. to stop (someone else)
(195) and (ii) 2s. middle imperative, cease!
Second aorist imperatives active and middle

199. Like many other forms in the second aorist, the imperative endings are like
the present:

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Active (-, -)
2s.
- take!
2pl.
- take!
Middle (-, -)
2s.
- take!
2pl.
- take!
n Forms

As with second aorist participles (16970) and second aorist innitives (196):
c The endings of the second aorist imperatives are identical to those of present
imperatives, but based on the aorist stem.
c Observe too that you have already been meeting second aorist imperatives

come!
say!
look!

(, I came, from )
(, I said, from )
(, I saw, from : unusually, the aorist
imperative is middle)

ASPECT IN THE IMPERATIVE

200. Again, the distinction between present and aorist imperatives is one not of
time but of aspect (197); and again, it is sometimes very difcult indeed
to tell the precise difference in nuance between the two, or to decide
exactly why a writer used this, rather than that, imperative at any one time.
Aristophanes, for example, seems to use and , bring!, quite
indiscriminately.
c The distinction, when it can be made, is between an instruction to do
something and keep on doing it (present imperative), and one to do
something, but just once (aorist imperative).
c Key to this distinction, you will remember, is that the action of a present
(imperfective) imperative is capable of being broken off, whereas an
aorist action is not.
c So when I use the present imperative , listen!, I am telling you
to listen to me and to keep listening: I do not envisage the activity
having any specic end-point.
c When I use the aorist, , on the other hand, I am telling you to
listen until I have said what I have to say I am envisaging the action as
an indivisible unit of activity with a specic end-point.
c It is natural that certain verbs have, by their very nature, a tendency to
lean towards one aspect or the other. Thus, for example, , I

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191

take, tends to use the aorist forms of participle, innitive and imperative, because taking is the sort of thing that occurs once or at once and
does not involve a long-drawn-out process. On the other hand, a verb
like , I seek, which naturally implies a process, tends to appear
in the present forms of participle, innitive and imperative.
MORE PRESENT IMPERATIVES

201. Note the following imperative forms:


, I am
2s.
2pl.

be!
be!

, I shall go
2s.
2pl.

go!*
go!

, I know
2s.
2pl.

know!
know!

, I am able
2s.
2pl.

be able!
be able!

, I get up, emigrate


2s.
2pl.

get up!
get up!

* These function as present forms (like the participle ).

EXERC I S E
9FG: 3. Translate these imperatives. Give in brackets the number and aspect
(i.e. s./pl., pres./aor.):
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

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TWO INFINITIVE USAGES

(+ innitive) it is permitted to/for X to Y

202. You have already met (and ), which mean must, ought and take an
accusative and innitive (153):

I must/ought to sail to Athens

it is permitted, it is possible works in the same way, except that it


takes a dat. (not acc.) of the person, e.g.

it is permitted/possible for the man to go
out, i.e. the man is permitted/allowed to go out, the man may go out
(Cf. which can take either acc. or dat. and innitive: 153[b].)
(+ innitive) clever at

203. means clever at ing when followed by the innitive, e.g.


she is clever at speaking
VOCATIVES: REVISION

204. As you learnt at 22, the vocative is the case used when a person or thing
is directly addressed (such as rhapsode in O rhapsode, come here and
look!). The vocative form of nouns is often the same as the nom. in the s.
and always the same as the nom. in the pl. Those noun types which have
vocative s. forms different from the nom. s. are as follows:
1d
2a

3d
3e

3g
3h

The vocatives of type 3a nouns are less easy to predict, although they are
easily recognisable. Here are some examples:
Short vowel
(-) O man
(-) O god cf.
(-) O saviour
(()-) O father
Ones to watch
(-) O woman
(-) O son

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Grammar for Section 9FG

193

No change
(-) O night
(-) O Greek
EXERC I S E
9FG: 4. Say whether the following forms are nom., voc., or both:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.
12.

- ALL, WHOLE, EVERY


205. The adjective declines like an aorist active participle of the type
(163):
, , (-) all, whole, every
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.

-
-

m.
-
-
-
()

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
()

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Usage

(a) When used with the denite article, means all or whole:


o

All the city


He related the whole story to me
All the citizens

(b) Without the article, means every:



Every citizen
Everyone

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(c) is often used on its own in the m. pl. to mean everyone and in the n. pl.
to mean everything:


Everyone agrees
The speaker deceived everyone
The woman saw everything

Cf. 4950 on adjectives used as nouns.


EXE RC I S E
9FG: 5. Translate into English:
1. (two ways)
2. (two ways)
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 9 F G

,
(-)


(-)
(-)
(-)

( -)

;
(-)

(-),

market-place, agora (1b)


wait, hold on
begin (+inf. or part.)
but
clever at (+inf.); dire, terrible
allow
run out
carry out; (often: carry out for burial)
(+gen.) because, for the sake of (usually
placed after the noun)
here
it is possible (for X [dat.] to [inf.])
eat (fut. o)
nevertheless, however
what? (in reply to ;)
all
the whole of
(+gen.) except
re (3b)
it is necessary (for X [acc.] to [inf.])

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205 206

Revision Exercises for Section 9FG

195

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR 9F G


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Write down the 1s. aorist of these verbs. Then construct the aorist innitive:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.

2. Translate these imperatives. Give in brackets the person and aspect (i.e. s./pl.,
pres./aor.):
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.

3. Put the verbs in brackets into the present or aorist innitive as indicated, and
translate the sentences:
1. () (aorist) o, ()
(present) .
2. () (present) .
3. () (aorist);
4. () (present).
5. (/) (aorist) .
6. , , () (aorist) .
7. () (aorist) , ;
8. () (aorist) o.
9. () (aorist) .
10. () (present) .
11. () (present) .
12. () (aorist) ()
(aorist).

d english into greek


Translate:
1. , .
Father, you must stay here and give judgements.
2. .
It will be possible for you all to sell your mules.
3. .
Everything is here except the re.

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205 206

4. , .
Bring out the torches, slaves!
5. , ; ; .
Out with it, what were you looking for when you ran out? What?
Everything.

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206

Grammar for Section 9HJ

197

Grammar for Section 9HJ*


(*Formerly 8 HJ)

In this section you cover:


c Third person imperatives, present and aorist, active and middle, incl.

, ,
c
c
c
c

Future innitive and its uses


Root aorists: ,
I know
Principal parts: , , , , ,

THIRD PERSON IMPERATIVES: LET HIM/HER/THEM

206. As well as having second person imperatives, which you have already met,
Greek has third person imperative forms. Third person imperatives do not exist
in English, but their nearest equivalent is let him/her , let them , etc.
Here are the imperative forms of in full, with the third person imperatives taking their place beside the second persons:
Present 3rd person imperatives

Active -, -
2s.
-
3s.
-
let him stop
2pl.
-
3pl.
- let them stop

Middle -, -
2s.
-
3s.
-
2pl.
-
3pl.
-

n Contract verbs

These will contract in accordance with the normal rules:


Active
2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

Middle
2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

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First aorist 3rd person imperatives

Active -, ()-
2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

Middle -, ()-

-
let him stop
-
- let them stop

-
-
-
-

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

Second aorist 3rd person imperatives

Active -, -
2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

-
-
-
-

Middle -, -

let him take


let them take

-
-
-
-

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

n Form and usage

(a) Note once again the similarity between the endings of the second aorist and
present forms of the imperative.
(b) Third person imperatives are fairly rare, but note that:
c The present/second aorist pl. form (in -) and the rst aorist pl. form
(in -[]) could be mistaken for present and aorist participles in the
gen. pl.!
The presence of a stated subject in the nom. and/or lack of any other possible
nite verb-form will tell you that the third person imperative is being used, e.g.
o

let the Athenians depart!


let them pursue the man!

Contrast:

I hear the men talking

Irregular imperatives

207. Note the full imperatives of , , and :

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

, I am

, I shall go

, I know

be!
let him be!
be!
let them be!

go!
let him go!
go!
let them go!

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know!
let him know!
know!
let them know!

207208

Grammar for Section 9HJ

199

n Form

Note that you will also nd used as well as as the 3pl. imperative of .
EXERC I S E S
9HJ: 1. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

9HJ: 2. Translate into English:


1. .
2.
o.
3. .
4. .
5.
.

6. .
7. .
8.
.
9. .
10. .

FUTURE INFINITIVES: TO BE ABOUT TO

208. Future innitives are formed as follows, based inevitably on the future
stem (114):
Future active innitives

-, to be about to stop (someone else)


To form the future active innitive, add - to the future stem, e.g.
, I shall stop > -, to be about to stop
, I shall do > -, to be about to do

Future middle innitives

-, to be about to stop (oneself), cease


To form the future middle innitive, add - to the future stem, e.g.
, I shall stop (myself) > -, to be about to stop
(oneself), cease
, I shall receive > -, to be about to receive

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n Form and meaning

(a) The endings of the future innitives are the same as those of the present (and
second aorist) innitives: the difference lies solely in the stem.
(b) The meaning of the future innitive is to be about to , to be going to .
(c) One common use of the future innitive is with verbs that offer some future
hope, intention or promise, for example:
c , I hope/expect (to ), e.g. I hope/expect to
win
c , I am about to, intend (to ), e.g. she was
about to stop
c , I promise (to ), e.g. he promises
to take
EXE RC I S E
9HJ: 3. Form the future innitive of the following verbs and then translate into
English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ROOT AORISTS

209. A small number of verbs such as , I go and , I get to


know have a distinct kind of aorist called a root aorist. The augment and
personal endings are added to the absolutely basic aorist stem, or root,
ending in a vowel in these cases /- and /-:
, I went
--
--
-
--
--
--

I went
you (s.) went
he/she went
we went
you (pl.) went
they went

Innitive

to go

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Grammar for Section 9HJ

Participle
(-)

201

having gone, on going, going

, I knew
--
--
-
--
--
- -

I knew
you (s.) knew
he/she/it knew
we went
you (pl.) knew
they knew

Innitive

to know

Participle
(-)

having known, on knowing, knowing

n Forms

Note the innitive in - and the participles and .


, I KNOW (HOW TO), UNDERSTAND
210. The verb conjugates in the same way as , I am able,
and , I get up and go, emigrate (177, 187) -- + endings:
, I know

Imperative

I know
you (s.) know
he/she/it knows
we know
you (pl.) know
they know

know! (s.)
let him know!

know! (pl.)
let them know!

Innitive

to know

Participle

knowing

Optative
etc. (192)

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n Usage

When is followed by an innitive it means know how to, e.g.


I know how to play the kithara

IRREGULAR PRINCIPAL PARTS

211. Note the rst three principal parts of the following verbs:
, I take, capture, condemn, and its middle, , I take for myself,
choose;
, I suffer, experience, have something happen to me;
, I carry, bear, put up with;
, I persuade, and its middle, , I trust, obey.

Present

Future

Aorist

I take

I choose

I suffer

I carry

I persuade

I trust, obey

I shall take

I shall choose

I shall suffer

I shall carry

I shall persuade

I shall trust

(-)
I took

I chose
(-)
I suffered
or (-)
I carried

I persuaded
(-)
I trusted

n Form and meaning

Note that the future of , I suffer, is exactly the same as


the future of , I trust, obey. Only the context will tell you whether
means, I shall suffer or I shall trust, obey.
EXE RC I S E
9HJ: 4. Translate into Greek:
1. I shall take
2. They know how to persuade
3. He hopes to choose
4. They took
5. He went
6. They are about to suffer

7. She promises to go
8. They suffered
9. They persuaded
10. He chose
11. He took
12. You (s.) went

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211 212

Grammar for Section 9HJ

203

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 9 H J

(-)

,
,
(-),
(-),


(-)

o o

take, capture, convict


ask (for)
hear, listen to (+ gen. of person/thing)
both
defend oneself, make a speech in ones
own defence
speech in ones own defence (1b)
acquit, release
begin (+gen.); begin to (+part. or inf.)
again, moreover
indictment, charge, case (1a)
indict, charge
indict X (acc.) on a charge of (gen.)
prosecute, pursue
wish, want (to)
hope, expect (+fut. inf.)
deceive, trick
know how to (+inf.); understand
death (2a)
condemn, convict (X [gen.] on a charge of
[acc.])
prosecute X (gen.) on a charge of (acc.)
speech for the prosecution (1b)
thief (1d)
dog (3a)
witness (3a)
be about to (+fut. inf.); intend; hesitate
(+pres. inf.)
share, part (3c)
this here
because
child; slave (2b)
(+gen.) from
(adv.) much
(+gen.) in the name of, under the
protection of
forgive, pardon (+dat.)
hit, chance on, happen on, be subject to
(+gen.); happen (to), be actually (+part.)
(+ fut. inf.) I promise
later, last (of two)

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211 212

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 9 H J
CONTINUED

(-)
(-)
,

later, further (adverb)


steal, take for oneself by stealth
be a defendant, be on trial; ee
vote, voting-pebble (2a)

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211 212

Revision Exercises for Section 9HJ

205

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR 9HJ


b/c word shape and syntax
1. Sort this list into present, aorist and future innitives:

2. Give the aorist imperative, innitive and participle (m./f./n.) of these verbs:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7.
8.

3. Give meaning of verb and analyse part shown in right-hand box. Then connect the
forms in the right-hand box with the dictionary forms in the left-hand box:

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d english into greek


Translate:
1. o .
Let the dogs come in!
2. .
Let the thief steal this dogs share!
3. .
I expect the defendants will make a good defence speech.
4. .
This juror is going to condemn the dog to death.
5. o .
Let the prosecutor begin the prosecution!

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211 212

211 212

Summary Exercises for Section 9

207

SU MM ARY EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 9


a words
Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left:

d english into greek


1. Translate into Greek using the hints below to guide you:
A young man had an old man for a father. The young mans name was
Bdelykleon, the old mans Philokleon. The old man, it happened, had a terrible
disease he never stopped wanting to judge in the law-courts. The young man
tried to persuade him not to judge, but the old man would not obey him, for all
his persuasion. Finally, the young man locked him in the house. The old man
was in despair and tried to escape, using all sorts of arguments. But he was not
able to escape without being seen by the slaves, who guarded the house.
Hints
A young man : lit. To a young man there was a father who was old.
tried to persuade: use imperfect of persuade.
would not obey: use imperfect.
for all his persuasion: use + participle, although persuading.
all sorts of: use the appropriate form of .
2. Translate into Greek using the hints below to guide you:
bdelykleon
philokleon
bdel.
phil.
bdel.
phil.
bdel.

Once and for all, father, listen and obey me. I shall not
allow you to leave the house and judge in the courtroom.
Why arent I allowed to? I expect you to tell me everything.
Because you are the wickedest man in the city.
Well, what am I allowed to do? What do you intend to
do?
I shall allow you to pass judgement here in the house.
Would you like that?
Yes, I would. Tell me quickly, what must I do?
Wait here. I shall fetch out the legal equipment.
(Fetches gear; sets up the court.)
Let the advocate come forward! Let the trial begin! Where
is the prosecutor? Come here, dog, and prosecute. Get up

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208

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phil.

211 212

and speak. Tell us who has made the charge and for what
reason. Father, I hope you will pay attention.
Dont worry. Come on, dog, speak up!

Hints
Once and for all: no need to translate this phrase though it does affect the
aspect of the imperatives that follow.
Why arent I allowed to?: translate Wont you allow me? ( + dat.).
Would you like that?: lit. Would you want to do these things?
Yes, I would.: i.e. I would want to.
Voc. of dog: .
Get up: use root aorist imperative of : .
I hope you will pay attention: use followed by acc. (you) + fut. inf.
(will pay attention).

e test exercise nine


Translate into English:
Philokleon laments his luck to the passing jurors, and prays to Zeus and Lykos to
change his appearance, so that he will be able to escape; the jurors send for help
to rescue him. (From Aristophanes, Wasps)

.
10
.
.
15
.
.
20

, , . ,
. ; ,

. Z,
. , Z.
, ,
. , , .
; , .
, . .
.

;
, ,
. , .

.
, , .
o o , .
, .
o , .
,
.
(addressing slaves who are leading them)

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211 212

25

Summary Exercises for Section 9

209

, ,
.
. .

Vocabulary
, smoke (2a)
, stone (2a)
on which
count
in front

, device (1a)
o, family member (2a)
, hero (his shrine was next to the lawcourts)
tell
come

EXERCI S E
Answer the following questions based on the passage above.
1. Give the number, person and aspect of the following imperatives (e.g. 2 s.
pres.): (a) (line 4), (b) (line 5), (c) (line 8), (d)
(line 9), (e) (line 14), (f) (line 20), (g) (line
22), (h) (line 26)
2. Give the case of the following words and phrases: (a) (line 1), (b)
(line 4), (c) (line 4), (d) (line 18), (e) (line 21),
(f) (line 26)

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212

Grammar for Section 10


In this section you cover:
c Aorist optative, active and middle
c Verbs: ,
c Adjectives: ,
c Relatives: who/which/what/that

THE AORIST OPTATIVE

212. You have already met the present optative active (- - -, etc., 184).
Here is the aorist optative active:
c It features, as you will see, and , just like the aorist indicative active
(12931). This would lead you to expect the active aorist optative endings to be - - -, and these do occur.
c However, Greek prefers the alternatives using -- given in the conjugation below:
First aorist optative active

--
- (-)
-() (-)
--
--
- (--)
n Forms

(a) You know that the sign of the optative is , and rst aorist stem is . So
there is nothing very difcult here. Look for - -.
(b) Note the absence of augment.
(c) Take care with the alternative forms of the 2s. and 3s. and 3pl.

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212

Grammar for Section 10

211

First aorist optative middle

--
--
--
--
--
--
n Forms

(d) The aorist stem with optative signature () here takes regular past middle
endings (- -[] -, 102).
Second aorist optative active

Active

--
--
-
--
--
--

Middle

--
--
--
--
--
--

n Form and meaning

(e) Observe yet again that the second aorist takes endings identical to those for
the present, i.e. aorist stem + (cf. 1445). The formal difference between
e.g. - and - is purely one of stem.
(f) Again, there is no difference of time between present and aorist optative. The
difference is one of aspect (165), if there is a difference at all which is really
noticeable in translation.
EXERC I S E
10: 1. Translate the following forms and turn them into the equivalent form in the
present and aorist optative:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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213214

EXPRESSING A WISH

213. (sometimes just ) means May I die! Damn me! (cf.


the stem - learned at vocabulary 8C). This use of the optative on its
own to express a wish for the future is very common. It will be fully introduced later on.
MORE VERBS IN -

214. You have already met some verbs ending in -, e.g. -, I am, - I
shall go and - I say (see 3868). You will have noticed that they are
quite different from verbs in -.
There are a number of such verbs in Greek, of which the most common are:
c
c
c
c
c

I give
I place
I let go, shoot
I set up
I show

Here now, in full, is the conjugation of . It will give you the key to all
- verbs. Know , and the rest will be relatively straightforward:
I give: stem Present active I give
Indicative
-
-
-()
-
-
-()

Participle

-
(--)

Innitive
-

Imperative

-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Present middle I give


Indicative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Participle
--
-
-

Innitive
-

Imperative
-
-
-
-

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Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

214

Grammar for Section 10

I was giving: stem Imperfect indicative active I was giving


-
-
-
--
--
--
Imperfect indicative middle I was giving
--
--
--
--
--
--
I gave: stem Aorist active I gave
Indicative
--
--
--
--
--
--
(--)

Participle

-
(--)

Innitive

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Aorist middle I gave


Indicative
--
-
--
--
--
--

Participle
--
-
-

Innitive
-

Imperative

-
-
-

Future active and middle: stem - I will give


-, - (etc., like -, -)

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Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

213

214

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214215

n Form

(a) -/ verbs are called thematic, because they have a stem, e.g. -, to
which they add a thematic vowel -- or --, and an ending, e.g. -, to give
e.g. we stop (see 16(b), 52(b), 102(c)).
c But has no thematic vowel: it is therefore athematic.
c What this means is that the endings go straight onto the stem without any
intervening vowel.
c In other words, the stem is - in the present and - in the past.
c The same is true for - verbs in general. Simply add endings and
enjoy.
(b) Note how the 2s. middle endings (-) - (-) and (-) - (-) appear
in full for the rst time (but cf. 177).
(c) Given that one keeps a rm grip on these stems (-, -), there is very little
here that is difcult to recognise. The most remarkable feature is the aorist
inection with its change from --, -, - to --, -, - in the
plural. For the full conjugation, see 376, and cf. 4267.
EXE RC I S E S
10: 2. Translate into English:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

10: 3. Change presents into equivalent forms of the aorist and likewise aorists
into futures:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

ADJECTIVES

215. Here are two more adjective-types illustrated by uncaring and


sweet:

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215

Grammar for Section 10

215

- - uncaring
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m. and f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-()

- - - sweet
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
-
-
-o
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

-
-
-
-()

--
--
--
--

-
-
-
-()

n Forms

(a) has the same forms for the m. and f. (cf. , 82).
(b) types are of mixed declension 3-1-3 the m. and n. declining like
type 3 nouns, the f. declining like a 1st declension noun , but with
short -. (Cf. 90)
(c) The dominant vowel in the stem of both of these types of adjective is --.
Compare their declension with noun-types 3c, d, e and f (see 78, 79, 80,
127a).
(d) son can decline like 2a nouns, but it can also decline like the m. form of
(except for the acc. s.):

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215216a

, son (2a, and mixed)


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

()

EXE RC I S E
10: 4. Add the correct forms of the def. art. with both and to the
following nouns, e.g. = / :
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.
6.
7. Now add the correct forms of (true)
and (short).

THE RELATIVE PRONOUN

216a. The relative pronoun, who, which, what in English, declines as follows:
who, which, what
m.

f.

n.

s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

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216ab

Grammar for Section 10

217

n Form

c Except for , the relative declines exactly like the denite article without
the -.
* In the three places where the forms of the relative are exactly the same as the denite article, the
relative is distinguished by its accent, i.e. .

Meaning and usage of the relative

216b.The relative pronoun means:


nom.:
acc:
gen.:
dat.:

who, which, what, that


who, whom, which, what, that
of whom, of which, whose
to, for, by, with which/whom

Consider the following utterances:


1. the woman who does not love her husband
Comment: refers to , and is therefore f. and s. Another way of putting it is to say that is the antecedent of (Latin, that which comes
before). The case of is nom., because is the person who does not love her
husband, i.e. is subject of the who clause.
2. the boy whom I like
Comment: refers to , and is therefore m. and s. ( is the antecedent of ). Its case, however, is acc., because is the object of I
like (I like the boy, represented by whom).
3. the woman whose husband I hate
Comment: refers to , so is f. and s. So is the antecedent .
But its case is gen. because whose = of whom. Put another way, the relative clause means I hate the husband of the woman, gen.
4. the boys to whom I give the apples
Comment: is pl. and m. because its antecedent is . It is dat.
because I am giving the apples to the boys.
5. the house into which I go
Comment: refers to its antecdent , so is f. and s. But it is acc.
because works with the acc.
6. the women with whom I travel
Comment: is f. and pl. because its antecedent is . It is gen.
because () takes the gen. I am travelling with the women.
7. the house in which I live
Comment: , antecedent , is f. s.; and dat. because works with the
dat.

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217218

Rule
217. The relative takes the gender and number of its antecedent. It does
not take the antecedents case. The relatives case is entirely determined
by the function it fulls within the relative clause as you can see from
the examples given, in all of which the antecedent is in the nom., but
only one of the relatives is in the nom. (the rst one). Here come the
exceptions:

Some wrinkles (1): suppressing your antecedents


218. (a) Consider the English whom the gods love, dies young. Who, exactly,
is the subject of dies?
c The answer is an understood he or she: (s)he whom the gods love
dies young.
c In other words, the antecedent of whom has been suppressed.
This is common in Greek: o o .*

When you nd a suppressed antecedent, check the gender of the relative:

If m., it will mean the man/he who, e.g. [He] whom


you love is absent.
If f., the woman/she who, e.g. [She] whom you love
is absent.
If n., the thing which/what, e.g. , what [things, n.pl.] you
want, you have (i.e. the things which you want ).
* The Roman comic poet Plautus translates this: quem di diligunt adolescens moritur. Byron mistranslated this line as Whom the gods love die young: why is that wrong? What would it be in
Greek?

Some wrinkles (2): attracting your relatives


(b) If the antecedent is in the genitive or dative case, the Greek relative is sometimes changed (attracted) into that case, irrespective of the function it
should have in the relative clause, e.g.
c concerning the men whom I recognise.
(We would expect: , since whom is the
object of recognise; but the relative is attracted into the case of its antecedent and becomes instead of .)
c to the men whom I recognise.
(We would, again, expect ; but the relative is attracted into
the case of its antecedent and becomes instead.)

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218219

Grammar for Section 10

219

c This feature is known as relative attraction.


(-) and (-)
219. The relative pronoun does have a number of other forms, though its meaning is only slightly altered thereby:
(-) the very one who
(-) anyone who. Observe that this declines like the separate
parts of and combined.
[anyone] who, which, what
m.

f.

n.

()

()

(or )
(or )

()

()

pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

()
()
()

()
()

s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

Dat.

()

()

()
()
()

Form and use

(a) Sometimes the two words appear as one (e.g. as declined above), at other
times they are kept separate, e.g. , etc.
(b) Note the variant forms:
gen.:
for ; for
dat.:
for ; for
nom./acc. pl. for
(c) can be used to introduce indirect questions (cf. 125 and check the list of
relative usages there).

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219 220

EXE RC I S E S
10: 5. Supply a form of the relative in English and Greek ( and ) that
makes sense of the following utterances:
1. Where is the soldier is forcing me to hide?
2. They could not see the men they were commanding.
3. The woman sons he will teach comes from Miletos.
4. I cannot nd the women I was going to give the apples.
5. The girls he was intending to pursue gave him the slip.
6. They gave the arms to the men had survived.
7. you hold dear, I hold dear too. [Many possibilities here]
8. Three cheers for the boys fathers come from Athens!
9. [neuter] I know, he does not know.
10. Do you see [neuter] I see?
10: 6. Following the pattern noted at 218 (b) above, supply the appropriate relative in Greek ( and ) for the following:
1. I shall give an apple to the women I prefer.
2. Which of the men you saw were foreigners?
3. He arrived with [what case does take?] the slaves he had captured.
4. I shall give nothing to the slave once I loved.
5. We are not worthy you have given us.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 0


(-)

(-),

(-)

force, compel
uncaring
all, the whole
refrain, keep away (from) (+gen.)
just now, recently
walk, go (fut. )
sweet
at any rate
old woman (3 irr.) (acc. s. ; acc. pl.
). See 357.
need, ask, beg (+gen.)
give, grant
it seems a good idea to X (dat.) to do (inf.);
X (dat.) decides to do (inf.)
gift, bribe (2b)
undress
suddenly

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219 220

Grammar for Section 10

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 0


(-)
(()-),
,
o



(-), ,

221

(continued)

and yet
lie down
bring to an end; nish
blame, criticise, nd fault with (+acc. or dat.)
not at all, in no way
no, no one
mother (3a)
device, plan (1a)
what a! what sort of a!
who, what, which
who/which indeed
who(ever), what(ever)
in no way, not at all
(+dat.) with, beside, in the presence of
cease from (+gen.)
what sort of?
address, speak to
haste, zeal, seriousness (1a)
live with, live together
wall (of a city) (3c)
then (inference)
most dear ()
guard (3a)
vote (fut. )

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219 220

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 10


(a) words
1. Deduce the meaning of the words in the right-hand columns from those in the
left:

(b/c) morphology and syntax


1. Translate each sentence, then convert present optatives to aorist:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

.
.
.
, .
.

2. Translate each sentence, then substitute the correct part of for


:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

;
.
;
, ;
, .

3. Translate each of the following pairs of sentences. Then join them together
into one sentence, following these patterns:
(a) .
= , , .
(b) ; ;
= , ;
a. . .
b. . .
c. o .
.
d. ; ;
e. .
.
f. . .

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219 220

g.
h.
i.
j.

Revision Exercises for Section 10

223

; .
; .
; .
. .

(d) english into greek


1. Translate into Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Will the women refrain from the bribes which the men will give them?
These guards are uncaring and guard with no zeal.
The old women are making a plan by which they will capture the walls.
It seems a good idea to us women to bring the war to an end.
Wont anyone force the men to stop ghting?

2. Translate into Greek (words in italics are given in the vocabulary):


lysistrata We must stop the war and make a truce. We will persuade the
men, whose duty it is to ght, to do what we want.
woman
I should like to. But how is it possible for us, who are women,
to do this? Say what you have in mind.
lys.
Would you do what I order?
women
We would, by Zeus.
lys.
The plan I have in mind happens to be difcult. Listen then to
the words I speak, and obey. We must all refrain from sex!
myrrhine I will not do it!
kleonike Neither will I!
lys.
Is there anyone who will do what I order?
lampito
We must bring peace and stop the men who ght the wars. I will
vote with you.
lys.
Dear Lampito! Give me your hand.
lamp.
Here, I give it.
lys.
Go then to Sparta and persuade the Spartans.
lamp.
I will go at once.
Vocabulary
sex , (2b)
vote with (+ dat.)
Sparta (-), (3a)

test exercise ten


Translate into English:
A Spartan envoy arrives. After he has explained how things stand in Sparta, he
and his Athenian counterpart agree to come to terms with Lysistrata. Lysistrata
states the conditions on which a return to peace might be agreed.

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(From Aristophanes, Lysistrata)

10

15

20

25

30

;
.

,
;
.
, ,
.
.
, ;
.
.
.
. ;
.
.
.
,
.
.
; , .
.
, . ,
, ,
, .
.
,
;
.
.
. ;
.
,
, .

, . .
, .
,
;
, ,
;
. .
.
.

.
.
Vocabulary
, Council of Five Hundred (1a)
announce (aor. )
by the Two Gods*
a Spartan code-staff**
, sex (2b)
, nastiness (1b)
destroy

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225

(+gen.) instead of
, ally (2a)
make love (colloquial)
each
* The two gods Castor and Pollux.
** The message was written on a leather strip wrapped round the pole and when removed was unintelligible; the recipient would have a similar staff for use in decoding. There is a double entendre at
work here.

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220

Grammar for Section 11


In this section you cover:
c Present and imperfect passive
c Genitive absolute
c Comparative adverbs and two-termination adjectives
c Optative of I say

THE PASSIVE

220. So far you have met and learnt verbs which are active in voice and verbs
which are middle in voice. The distinction has usually been one of form
(active verbs in - or -, middle verbs in -, etc.), though occasionally
the meaning has been radically altered by the conversion of an active verb
into a middle, e.g.
I persuade
I believe in, trust, obey
We now come to the third and nal voice the passive (see 412).

The passive has a specic meaning, which cannot be ignored. It signies that the subject of the sentence is having something done to it,
e.g. the slave is being beaten, the soldiers were cut down, I shall
be defeated.
the forms of the passive in the present and imperfect are identical to
the forms for the MIDDLE. So you have no new learning to do
for these tenses.
But you must now be alert to the possibility that what you
are used to as a MIDDLE form might be PASSIVE and therefore
carry A QUITE DIFFERENT MEANING.

Here is a summary of the forms and their new meanings:


Passive forms and meaning

Present passive
Indicative

Participle

Innitive

Imperative

Optative

-
- -

I am being
stopped

being stopped to be stopped be stopped! I would be


stopped

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Imperfect indicative passive

I was being stopped

To take an extreme example, could mean:


c I trust, obey (middle); or
c I am being persuaded (the passive form of ).
Likewise, could mean:
c He stops himself (middle); or
c He is being stopped (passive).
In practice, of course, the context will make it clear which meaning is
required.
Now revise the present and imperfect middle (52, 102, 107, 214) before
attempting the exercise.
EXERC I S E
11: 1. Turn the following present active forms into their equivalent passive forms
in the present and imperfect, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

BY A PERSON OR THING

221. A verb with a passive meaning will always (by denition) indicate to whom
the action is being done. It will be the subject of the sentence:
We are being ruled ;
It was being announced ;
She is being kissed .
Such an utterance will also frequently tell you by whom or by/with what the
action was being carried out. Look at the following:
he is being persuaded by me
they were being stopped by the men

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we are being guarded by the nets


I was being pelted with the stones
You can now work out the rule:
By a person = + genitive;
By a thing or with a thing = plain dative.

So to help you get used to the new meaning, passive forms in extended sentences will for the moment be accompanied by one of these two markers:
, or the plain dative.
Note the technical terms:
c By a person = the agent (Latin agens lit. the one doing, acting);
c By/with a thing = the instrument.
EXE RC I S E
11: 2. Construct two intelligible sentences for each of the verbs in (a) by combining each with either an agent or instrument:
(a)
(b)
(c)

GENITIVE ABSOLUTE

222. We know that a participle, being an adjective, describes, and therefore


agrees with, its noun. But what case is the men in the following sentence?
The men being pelted with the stones, Brasidas retreated.
c
c
c
c

Being pelted is the participle agreeing with the men.


Being a participle, its case will depend on the case of the men.
So what case is the men?
It is certainly not the subject: that is Brasidas, subject of the main verb
retreated. Well?

The difculty is caused by the clause The men stones standing free of
any obvious grammatical link with the subject and main verb. Released,
freed in Latin is absolutus.

This therefore is an absolute phrase and absolute phrases in Greek


go into the genitive, thus: ,
.

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229

Translating genitive absolutes

223. When you come across a genitive absolute:


c Translate literally, starting with the word with: with X doing/having
done something or with X being/having been done.
c Then re-translate into good English.
For example:
c , ;
lit. With the herald giving orders (present participle), why do you wait?
i.e. Why do you wait when the herald is giving his orders? The herald is
giving his orders why wait?
c , .
lit. with the men having ed (aorist participle), I returned
i.e. The men ed but/and I returned; Because/as/since/when the men
ed, I returned; After the men ed, I returned; Although the men ed, I
returned.
n Participle tense

224. As you can see from the above examples, in these participle constructions,
the temporal force of the participle sometimes comes to the fore. In other
words, a present participle can show that the action is going on at the same
time as the main verb, the aorist participle that it occurred before the action
of the main verb. But see on aspect, 417.
EXERC I S E
11: 3. Turn the following clauses into genitive absolutes, assigning the tense of
the verb to that of the participle:
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.
7.
8.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE ADVERBS

225. Adverbs, indeclinable adjectives usually ending -ly in English (foolishly, hopefully: see 289) also have comparative and superlative forms:

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more wisely
The comparative adverb is formally identical with the accusative singular
neuter of the comparative adjective, e.g.
(adj.) more wise lit. a wiser thing, i.e.
more wisely
(adj.) worse lit. a worse thing, i.e. in a worse way,
worse
most, very wisely
The superlative adverb is formally identical with the accusative neuter plural
of the superlative adjective, e.g.
(adj.) most, very wise most, very wisely
The full sequence, therefore, is:
wisely more wisely most, very
wisely.

Irregular adverbs include:


very, more, rather (more) much, very much, a
great deal. See 366.
TWO-TERMINATION ADJECTIVES

226. You have already met 3rd declension adjectives that decline the same in the
m. and f. (e.g. , see 82). Some adjectives which look like the 2-1-2
type decline like this as well: in other words, their feminine, as well
as masculine, forms end - -, etc.

These -type adjectives with identical m. and f. forms are called


two-termination adjectives because they have only two sets of endings one for m./f., one for n.

You have already met one of these, deserted, which has occurred in
the sentence the Pnyx is deserted. One might have expected
*, but the adjective is two-termination, using the same form for m. and f.
Most two-termination adjectives are compounds, and pretty well all compounds are two-termination adjectives, e.g.
-- - unjust
-- - immortal
-- - of good reputation
-- - impossible

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231

But there are a number of other adjectives which are two-termination without
being compounds, e.g.
- - barbarian, foreign
OPTATIVE OF

227. Revise the indicative of I say (168) and now learn the optative:
- I would say
-
-
-
-
-
-

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 1

,

(-)
(-)
( -)

speak (in assembly), proclaim


eld, country(side) (2a)
immortal
choose
perceive, notice
unwilling(ly)
(+gen.) without
look steadfastly at (and away from everything
else)
(-, -) kill, ruin, destroy; (in pass.) be killed etc. (aor.
)

please (+dat.)

be ruled

rule (+gen.)
(-),
taste, sample (3b)

taste
,
drachma (1a) (coin; pay for two days attendance at the ekklesia)

very well then!


o o
well-disposed

most pleasant (sup. of )

come, have come

make a disturbance, din

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S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 1


,
. . .

,
,

(-, -)


,
(-)

(continued)

below
announce, proclaim
stone (2a)
neither . . . nor
and/but he
traveller (2a)
road, way (2a)
and/but they
destroy, kill; (in pass.) be killed, die, perish
(aor. )
sharp; bitter; shrill
how? (answer to ;), how (indir. q.)
as much as (pl. as many as)
preparation, equipping; force (1a)
come forward, pass by, go by
make war
prytanis (3e) (member of the committee currently in charge of public affairs)
be quiet
three
trireme (3d)
be used to; love; kiss
do business

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233

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 11


(a) words
1. Deduce the meaning of the words on the right from those on the left:

(b/c) morphology and syntax


1. Translate each sentence, then, making the necessary changes in nouns and
verbs, change from active to passive:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2. Translate each pair of sentences, then join them into one, using the genitive absolute construction. Remember to eliminate particles which connect
clauses of equal grammatical structure, e.g. and because, when one
of the clauses is a participial clause and the other a main verb, they will no
longer be syntactically equivalent.
a.
b.
c
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

. .
. .
. .
. .
,
.
.
.
, .
A . .
A . .
. .

(d) english into greek


1. Translate into Greek:

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1. The herald was making his announcement while the prytanes came into the
assembly.
2. The people were being persuaded to make war by the politicians, while the
farmers gazed out into the countryside.
3. The politicians are said to be well-disposed towards the city.
4. The Spartans are destroying our land while we are being deceived by the politicians.
5. The assembly is ruled by no one.
2. Translate into Greek:
Here are the prytanes! Now they have come, you can be sure that the politicians
will come forward, wishing to speak. We farmers will keep quiet, looking out
into the country, forced against our will to hear the words spoken by them. But
they will not tell the truth. They always say that the city is ruled by itself and is
beloved of all the politicians. But they are well-disposed only to themselves. The
city is being destroyed by them; but no one will move business about that, or
about peace. The whole thing is not at all to my liking.

test exercise 11
Translate into English:
Dikaiopolis defends his action in getting a peace treaty for himself with the
Spartans. He gives his own version of the causes of the Peloponnesian War.
(From Aristophanes, Akharnians)

10

15

, ,
A ,
. .
, .
, ,
. , .
.
. ,
,
, .
( ),
; (
, , ) ,
,
,
.

, .
.

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Revision Exercises for Section 11

Vocabulary
, beggar (2a)
(Dikaiopolis has borrowed some rags from Euripides to gain sympathy)
, comedy (1b)
alone, by ourselves
very much
, vineyard (1b)
but
remember!
the Olympian
pass (of a law)
, mainland (2a)
(-) withdraw
, decree (3b)
, cause (1a)

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235

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Grammar for Section 12AD


In this section you cover:
c Aorist passive
c Verbs: ,

THE AORIST PASSIVE

228. In the last section, you met the passive forms of the present and imperfect indicative and discovered they were the same as the middle forms
(, ). The aorist middle is . Regrettably, the
same is not true of the aorist passive:
I was stopped
Indicative
--
--
--
--
--
--

I was stopped
you were stopped
he was stopped
we were stopped
you were stopped
they were stopped

Participle
- - - (-) [having been] stopped
Form and meaning
n Indicative

(a) The aorist passive means I was -ed, regarded simply as an event, not a process (cf. the imperfect passive, which regards the action as a process I was
being -ed). See 142 on aspect.
(b) Note the augment -, to show the nite past tense in the indicative.
(c) The big sign of the aorist passive is the stem/endings in -.
(d) Note that the regular form of the aorist passive is - added to the aorist stem
without the , e.g. I released I was released; I
made, I was made, etc.
(e) But though the aorist passive forms are usually easy to recognise (the -
gives the clue), they are not always wholly predictable. Thus:
c I was prevented is regular; but compare e.g.
c or ;

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237

c I was ordered;
c I was persuaded.
(f) Note the change of the nal consonant of the stem before - in (and cf. 359(x)):
c - (-) > -
c (-) > -
c (uncontr. aor. -) > -
(g) Not all verbs have the in the aorist passive, but the augment and -- will
give the clue, e.g. he describes, - he was described.
(h) Some verbs adopt the aorist passive form, but are active in meaning: see 324.
(i) The aorist pass f is what one would expect, given the aorist stem
-: --.
n Participle

229. The aorist participle passive, [having been] -ed, declines on the same
3-1-3 pattern as the active present and aorist participles, but on the aorist
passive stem (-):
m.
-
--
--
--

f.
--
--
--
--

n.
-
-
--
--

--
--
--
-()

--
--
--
--

--
--
--
-()

Remember, therefore, (-).

EXERCI S E S
12AD: 1. Convert the following verbs from aorist active to the equivalent aorist
passive form, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

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12AD: 2. Turn the given verbs into the aorist passive participle to agree with the
nouns:
1. ()
2. ()
3. ()
4. ()
5. ()
ANOTHER VERB IN -:

230. You have already met I get (myself) up and go ( +


187). Here are the details of (middle/passive ), the verb of
which it is a compound:
Remember three things:
(a) the active form of means I am in the act of setting something
up;
(b) the passive form means I am in the act of being set up.
So far, so normal. Now a complexity looms:
(c) the middle form is used in two senses:
(i) I am in the act of setting myself up, i.e. it has a reexive
meaning. This is usually best translated I am (in the act of)
standing.
(ii) I am in the act of setting something up for myself, i.e. it takes
a direct object (transitive is the term for a verb taking a direct
object).
So when you see e.g. , you must be ready for it to mean:
(Passive) (s)he/it is being set up;
(Middle and reexive) (s)he/it is setting him/her/itself up; (s)he/it is (in
the act of) standing;
(Middle and transitive) (s)he/it is setting something up for him/her/itself.

To put it crudely, if you see any form of with a direct object,


translate (s)he/it is setting up X and add for him/her/itself if the
verb is middle in form.

Here are the principal forms and meanings of , set out by meaning:
Active (taking a direct object)

231. The active forms of will always be accompanied by an object in the


accusative:

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239

Present active - I am setting X up: stem Indicative


-
-
-()
-
-
-()

Participle
-
-
-
(--)

Innitive

Imperative

-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperfect indicative active I was setting X up (augmented with long )


-
-

-
-
-
Aorist active -- I (did) set X up : stem - (exactly like -
in all forms)
Indicative

Participle

Innitive

Imperative

Optative

--, etc.

-
- -
(--)

Future active - I will set X up: stem - (exactly like - in


all forms)
-, etc.

Form and meaning

c These forms are active, and take a direct object. The subject, in another
words, is setting something up.
c The present stem is -, -, and that controls the shape of all present and
imperfect forms. If you know (214), replace -/- with -/
- (watch out for a few exceptions).
c The future and aorist stem (+) is -, and gives absolutely regular rst
aorist () and future () forms.
EXERC I S E
12AD: 3. Create the equivalent forms of from the given forms of ,
and translate:

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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Intransitive middle/passive (taking no direct object)

232. in the middle will not take an object in the accusative when it is
intransitive /reexive and means X is setting up himself/standing. In the
passive it will mean X is being set up. The big surprise here is the (second/
root) aorist:
Present middle/passive I am setting myself up, standing/being set up:
present stem Indicative

Participle

Innitive

-
-
-
-
-
-

--
-
-

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperfect indicative middle/passive


I was setting myself up, standing/was being set up
(augmented with long )
-
-
-
-
-
-
Second/root aorist active I did set myself up, I stood up: aorist
stem -/
Indicative
--
--
-
--
--
--

Participle
-
-
-
(--)

Innitive

Imperative

-
-
-
-
-

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Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

232233

Grammar for Section 12AD

241

Aorist passive: stem -- I was set up


(etc., like --)
Future indicative: stem I shall set myself up/stand up
-
(etc., like -)
Form and meaning

(a) When these forms are passive or represent the reexive middle, they do not
take a direct object (they are intransitive). They denote the subject as setting
itself up/standing (middle) or being set up (passive).
(b) The present stem is -, -, and (again) works like but in the
middle (see 214): where -/- occur, observe now -/-.
(c) The future stem is -, and gives absolutely regular future middle forms,
like .
(d) The aorist is a root aorist, like -, - (see 209) and does not
conform to the usual pattern. It means I stood up.
(e) The aorist passive I was set up is wholly regular, like .
EXERCI S E
12AD: 4. Create the passive forms of from the given active forms, and
translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Transitive middle (taking a direct object)

233. All the middle forms listed above in the present () and imperfect
() (but NOT the second aorist) can also be transitive and mean I
am setting up x for myself. The aorist forms with this transitive meaning
are quite regular, based on the regular rst aorist and conjugating
like the rst aorist middle :

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233234

Aorist middle: I did set up X for myself


Indicative

Participle

Innitive

-- - -
-
--
--
--
--

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Cf. the aorist indicative active.

EXE RC I S E
12AD: 5. Translate the following forms in all ways possible:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Summary form and meaning

With all forms of , look for a direct object rst of all. If you nd
one, translate set X up.
Since you will tend to meet aorists most frequently in reading, hold on
to the vital difference in form and meaning between the aorists:
(-) I did set (someone) up (needing an object)
(-, -) I stood (no object possible) cf. 37881

The compound

234. The most important compound of is . In its active forms


(, , , ) it means I put someone in (usually ) a certain position; in its middle forms (,
, , ), it means I nd myself/become/
get myself/am put into a certain position, or I am elected, I am made/
become, e.g.
I was placed/found myself in poverty, I became
poor
he placed us in despair, he made us
despair, he reduced us to despair

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234 235

Grammar for Section 12AD

243

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 2 A - D

(-),



,
,


(-)
-

(-)


(-)


,

,
,

(()-),

,
(-)
(-)

,


,

contest, trial (3a)


contest, go to law
one another
someone elses, alien
contestant in a lawsuit (2a)
beginning, start (1a)
commit sacrilege upon
greet, welcome
deprived of citizen rights
take (acc.) from (acc.), claim
make a difference; differ from (+gen.); be
superior to (+gen.)
judicial
introduce
whether or
each/both (of two)
meet with, come upon (dat.)
worst, furthest, last
one another (of two)
good will (1b)
treat well, do good to
enmity, hostility (1b)
enemy (2a)
hostile, enemy
daughter (3a)
atter
cloak (2b)
set up, make, place, put X (acc.) in () Y
be placed, be put, be made
in fact; yes, certainly
whats more; look!
(+ acc.) according to; down; throughout; in
relation to
prosecutor (2a)
neither nor
be able to (+inf.)
oath (2a)
not only but also
(+acc.) against; to; compared with; except;
along, beside
poverty (1b)

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S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 2 A D

(continued)

(-),

,
()
,


(-),

trust (+dat. )
pay attention to (+ dat.)
rst (of two), previous
(adv.) previously
ne (+dat.)
a ne (3b)
take revenge on
revenge, vengeance (1b)
so great
chance, fortune (good or bad) (1a)
begin (+gen.)
false, lying
decree (3b)
push, shove

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234 235

Revision Exercises for Section 12AD

245

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 12AD


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the passage, choosing the form of the verb which ts the
context:
(/)
. (/)
.
(/),
(/). , (/
), , (/)
.
2. Translate each sentence, then change present tense to aorist:
a. .
b. .
c. , ,
, .
d.
.
3. Translate these aorist passives, then pair with their present forms:
, , , , (convict),
(give in marriage), (do violence to),
(be reconciled to), , (be made angry), ,
, , , (send away),
,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, ,
4. Translate these sentences, then change the aorist passive verbs, with their
subjects if necessary, to singular or plural as appropriate:
a. o oo ,
.
b. , .
c. .
d. .
5. Translate these sentences, lling in the correct form of the aorist passive
participle:
a. .
b. .

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234 235

c. .
d. ,
.
e. .
f. - .

(d) english into greek


Translate into Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Apollodoros was grievously wronged by Stephanos and Neaira.


A big ne was asked for by Stephanos.
Apollodoros faced the prospect of getting into terrible trouble.
Stephanos put Apollodoros in great danger.
Apollodoros was persuaded to take vengeance against Stephanos.

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235

Grammar for Section 12E

247

Grammar for Section 12E


In this section you cover:
c Innitives in indirect/reported speech

INDIRECT SPEECH USING THE INFINITIVE

235. You have already met indirect, or reported, speech, using the that
construction: I say that you are stupid. We now
examine reported speech constructions using not that but the innitive.
We have already already met constructions using the innitive, so the principle is not a new one e.g.
I want to go (153);
or, using an accusative and innitive,
I want you to go
(Compare e.g. It is necessary for me to go 153).
Note the change of subject:
c In the rst sentence, it is the subject of the main verb (I)
who wishes to do the going;
c In the second, the subject I wishes someone else to go, and
appears in the accusative.
Here, then, is a list of verbs that introduce indirect/reported speech (which
includes anything said, thought, felt etc. but not directly quoted), using the
innitive construction (not ):

I think (but not necessarily very strongly)


I say
I consider
I think (of a rmly held opinion)
I allege, claim

The innitive construction

Look closely at the following sentences and their literal translation:


a. I consider you not to be foolish
b. N he said Neaira to despise the
gods
c. they thought the man not to be
about to persuade the woman

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235

d. I think wise [note nom.] to be = I think [myself] to


be wise
e. we claim to have gone into the house =
we claim [that we] have gone/went into the house
n Comment

a. Should be translated in good English I consider that you are not foolish.
Note that:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

I is the subject of the main verb consider


you is the subject of the verb in the that clause, in the accusative
the negative is
there is no Greek word for that.

b. Should be translated He said that Neaira despised the gods. Note that:
(i) He is the subject of the main verb said
(ii) Neaira is the subject of the verb in the that clause, in the accusative
(iii) is present innitive, indicating that the man actually said
Neaira despises (present) the gods
(iv) there is no Greek word for that
c. Should be translated They thought that the man would not persuade the
woman. Note that:
(i) They is the subject of the main verb thought
(ii) the man is the subject of the verb in the that clause, in the accusative,
and the woman is the object of would persuade, also in the accusative. This means that the sentence could mean they thought that the
woman would persuade the man. Only the context will tell you which
is right.
(iii) the negative with is .
(iv) is future innitive, indicating that they actually said The man
will not persuade (future) the woman/the woman will not persuade the
man.
(v) there is no Greek word for that.
d. Should be translated I think that I am wise. Note that:
(i) I is the subject of both the main verb and of the that clause
(ii) No word for I appears in the that clause in Greek
(iii) is in the nominative, not the accusative. This indicates that it
refers to the subject of the main verb, I.
(iv) there is no Greek word for that.
e. Should be translated We claim that we went into the house. Note that:
(i)

We is the subject of both the main verb and of the that clause

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Grammar for Section 12E

249

(ii) No word in the nominative or accusative appears in the that clause in


Greek. This indicates that the subject of the that clause is the same as
the subject of the main verb, we.
(iii) is aorist innitive, indicating that we actually said we went into
the house
(iv) there is no Greek word for that.
n Rules

236. From the above, you can deduce the following rules:
c The tense of the innitive tells you what was actually said. In other
words, the tense of verb in the original utterance is duplicated in the
innitive;
c If the subject of the that clause is the same as that of the main verb,
it will normally not appear; but if the speaker wants to emphasise it, it
will appear as a nominative;
c If the subject of the that clause is different from that of the main verb,
it will appear in the accusative;
c If there are two accusatives in the that clause, only the context will tell
you which is the subject, which the object, of the verb in the innitive.
c In general, it is best to translate literally to start with, however awkward, and then re-translate into ordinary English.
c The negative is or , depending on what was originally said.
There is a general set of rules here:

In innitive constructions, a change of subject goes into the accusative;


If there is no change of subject, normally the subject is not repeated;
But if it is repeated, it goes into the nominative.
With innitive constructions, therefore, watch for the change of subject
in the accusative. See 397.

EXERCI S E
12E: 1. Translate literally, and then turn into correct English:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
In each of the above, what was originally said in English?

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 12E


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate each statement, then, using the verbs given, turn them into indirect
statements. How is the translation altered if you use the past form of the
verb?
. (/)
. (/)
. (/)
.
(/)
5. N . ( ;/
o;)
6. . (/)
1.
2.
3.
4.

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237

Grammar for Section 12F

251

Grammar for Section 12F


In this section you cover:
c I place, put I show, reveal

THE - VERB

237. I place, put follows exactly the same pattern as the other - verbs
you have already met ( 214 and 2303). Here are the forms in
full (cf. 377):
I put, place
Present: stem Active
Indicative

Participle

Innitive

-
-
-()
-
-
-()

-
(--)

Imperative

Optative

-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperative

Optative

Middle/passive
Indicative

Participle

Innitive

-
-
-
-
-
-

--
-
-

-
-
-
-
-

I was placing: stem Imperfect indicative active


--
-- (--)
-- (-)
--
--
--

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-
-
-
-
-
-

252

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237

Imperfect indicative middle/passive


--
--
--
--
--
--

I put, placed
Aorist: stem Active
Indicative
--
--
-- ()
--
--
--
(--)

Participle

-
(--)

Innitive
-

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Middle
Indicative
--
-
--
--
--
--

Participle
--
-
-

Innitive
-

Imperative

-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Passive: stem Indicative


Participle
Innitive
--
-
-
--
-
--
-
--
(--)
--
--
(The aorist passive regular, like --)

Imperative
-
-
-
-

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Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

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Grammar for Section 12F

253

Future active and middle: stem -, - (etc., all regular like -, -)


n Forms

238. You can see that I place, put follows exactly the same pattern as
I give :

For -, - write -, - (but - in aorist passive)


For -, - write - -, - corresponds to - - (but note the impf. )

The two can be instantly compared as follows:


Imperative

Optative

-
-
-
-

-
-

-
-
-
-

--
-
--
--
--
--
--
--

-
-

-
-

-
-

-
-
-
-

Future
(stem -,
-):

Innitive

-
-

Aorist
(stem -,
-):

Participle

-
-
-
-

Imperfect

Indicative

Present
(stem /
-, /-)

- (regular)
-
-
-

n Meaning

Note that I lie can also mean be placed, be made and as such is often
used as the perfect passive of (see 313).
EXERC I S E
12F: 1. Translate the following forms of and and then turn them
into the equivalent forms of and and translate, e.g. I
gave, I placed:

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Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

238239

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

THE - VERB -

239. There are some verbs ending in --, e.g. -- I show.


c They mostly follow the -/- pattern in the present and imperfect;
c But note that the optative is formed like , i.e. = o;
contrast - (214)
c They tend to have fut. and aor. stems in --, and in these forms conjugate exactly like (i.e. fut. , aor. , aor. pass. )
(see 383):

I show, reveal
Present: stem Active
Indicative
-
-
-()
-
-
-()

Participle
Innitive

- - - -

Imperative

(-)

Optative
-o
(like -)

-
-

Middle/passive
Indicative

Participle

Innitive

-
-
-
-
-
-

-o
- -

Imperative
-o
-
-
-

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Optative
-o
(like -

239

Grammar for Section 12F

255

I was showing: stem Imperfect indicative active


-
-

-
-
-
Imperfect indicative middle/passive
-
-
-
-
-
-
Aorist active and middle: stem , - (like , - in all forms)
Aorist passive: stem - (like - in all forms)
Future active and middle: stem -, - (like -, - in all forms)

EXERC I S E S
12F: 2. Translate the following forms of and , then turn them into
the equivalent forms of the other verb and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
12F: 3. Identify the forms which are passive, and translate:
, , , , , ,

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 12F


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the following sentences, then change the tense or aspect of the
verbs as indicated:
a. M (aor.).
b. (aor.) M,
(pres.) , (aor.)
.
c. , (pres.),
(aor.) .
d. , , M
(aor.) .
e. A (pres.),
(aor.) .

(d) english into greek


Translate into Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Stephanos will say that Apollodoros began their enmity.


Apollodoros said that he wanted to avenge himself on Stephanos.
Apollodoros will say that he did not wrong Stephanos.
Many men put down a lot of money on Neairas account.
Apollodoros says that Stephanos is living with a slave as his wife.

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257

Grammar for Section 12G


In this section you cover:
c Would-should conditions: future remote and present contrary to fact
c Wishes: Would that/O that
c + future indicative see to it that
c Optative forms of I am, I shall go, I know

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES (WITH )

240. So far, you have met + optative in the potential/polite sense would
you , would you like to , please , expressing a polite request or
agreement, e.g. Please would you give me this (cf.
186, 401).
But in some conditional clauses, + optative is used in a related, but
slightly different sense. By way of example, such clauses are introduced by
the word if, and take a number of forms, e.g. If X were the case, Y would
be the case.
Technical terms

c The Greek for if is ; the if clause is technically called the protasis


(Greek proposition, premiss)
c The main clause is called the apodosis (Greek pay-off)
e.g. If you do not hand over the money (protasis), the dog gets it (apodosis)
Future remote conditions

241. The future remote conditional usage takes the following form in English:
c If x were to happen, y would result.
Future remote is a good term: the future, after all, is hypothetical enough,
but in these conditions, even more so.
Examine the following sentences:
a. /, / .
If you were to persuade me, I would tell you.
b. /, / .
If they were to ee, we would pursue.

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You will notice a number of vital features of this potential > conditional construction:
c the verbs in both the if clause (protasis) and the main clause (apodosis)
are in the optative;
c the optatives can be either present or aorist. We are used to this: the difference, as usual, is one of aspect, not time (see 142, 165), and will affect
the translation very little;
c appears in the main clause (but NOT in the if clause).
Present contrary to fact conditions

242. Now examine these sentences, in the present contrary to fact form:
c If X were [now] happening, Y would [now] be resulting
a. , .
If you were [now] persuading me, I would [now] be telling.
b. , .
If they were [now] eeing, we would [now] be pursuing.
You will see at once that:
c the verbs in both the protasis and the apodosis are IMPERFECT
INDICATIVE;
c The meaning has changed to the PRESENT time: If x were the case
NOW, y would NOW be resulting;
c appears in the main clause (but NOT in the if clause);
c contrary to fact is again an accurate description, since the subject is
obviously not doing what is being merely put forward as a hypothetical
possibility.
n Negatives

243. Look closely at the negatives in this sentence:


, .
If they were not [now] eeing, we would not [now] be pursuing.

In other words, the negative in the if clause is , in the main clause


. This applies across all conditional clauses.

This can be very helpful if the protasis is not expressed by an clause, but some
other way. Take, for example, the following sentence:
, ;

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259

How would one vote, not remembering the speeches?


The in the participial phrase strongly suggests the phrase is the equivalent of a
conditional clause, i.e. if one were not to remember the speeches.
c Watch out for with this conditional force where one might otherwise
expect . See further 393(vi) and 430.
EXERCI S E
12G: 1. Convert these conditionals into future remote or present contrary to
fact conditionals, in accordance with the tense of the verbs:
1. , .
2. , .
3. , .
4. , .
5. , .
WISHES IF ONLY!

Wishes for the future

244. You have already met may I be killed, expressing a wish


for the future (cf. 213). The plain optative is found in this sense, but such
wishes are usually expressed by:
c or + optative, e.g.
/ /
Would that I were to become wiser! O that/If only I could become wiser!
Be aware that:
c the tense of the optative is aspectual, not temporal
c the negative is
c is NOT used in wishes
Wishes for the present and past

Wishes for the present are expressed by:


c / + imperfect indicative, e.g.
Would that I were [now] wise!

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Wishes for the past are expressed by:


c / + aorist indicative, e.g.
Would that I had departed!
or
c (I ought to have) + innitive
Put in the appropriate person e.g. lit. We ought to
have gone! = Would that we had gone!
/ can be added to the above, if so desired, i.e. the same sentiment could
have been expressed / ( is the past of
, I owe).
n Form

You will notice how these wishes conform to the pattern of conditionals:
future wishes in the optative and present in the imperfect indicative. You
will also have observed that wishes for the past take the aorist indicative:
a useful preparation for what is to come in would-should conditions that
refer to the past. See further 403.

EXE RC I S E
12G: 2. Express these sentiments as wishes:
1.
2.
3.
4. ()
5.
+ FUTURE INDICATIVE SEE TO IT THAT. . .
245. Serious warnings/exhortations in Greek are issued by :
c See to it/Mind that you are sensible
c See to it/Mind that you do not stop
Nothing difcult here: in such constructions is followed by a future
indicative (negative ).
This construction is also used with verbs expressing effort, where
reverts to its more normal meaning how and is best translated to, that, so
that, e.g.

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Grammar for Section 12G

261

The students
are taking action to learn Greek (lit. how they will learn).
OPTATIVES OF I AM, I KNOW, I SHALL GO

246. See to it that you do not forget the following optatives:


(I would be)

(I would know) (I would go)

EXERC I S E
12G: 3. Translate these commands into the construction, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
12G: 4. Using , and as your pool, convert the forms given into the
identical forms of the other two:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 2 E G

,
,
,

to Athens
be ashamed, feel shame
(use of, in conditionals, see Grammar 2402)
begin (+gen.); rule (+gen.)
female citizen (1a)
male citizen (2a)
loss of citizen rights (1b)
(+ opt.) I wish that! would that!

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S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 2 E G

(continued)

(-)
,
,
(-)

,
,

(-),

()


(-)
(-)
,
(-)

likely, probable, reasonable, fair


forget (+gen.)
whore, prostitute (1b)
(male) companion (2a)
recite, list
despise, look down on (+gen.)
evidence, witness (1b)
mention (1b)
remember
(+fut. ind.) see to it that
have children
poor man (3a) (or adj., poor)
rich, wealthy
small, short, little
be concerned, serious; do seriously
important, serious
be with, have intercourse with (+ dat.)
come together
evidence, proof (2b)
put, place, make
clear, obvious
(+ acc.) towards, to the house of

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Revision Exercises for Section 12G

263

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 12G


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the following statements; then change them into wishes for the
future (vary your construction and aspect of the verb). Remember that the
negative is .
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2. Translate each pair of statements (omitting ), then link them by making


them future remote conditions AND present contrary to fact conditions (see
2402).
a. () / .
b. () /
.
c. () / .
d. () / .
e. () / .
f. ( ) /
.
3. Translate these commands. Turn each into a warning/exhortation using
or + fut. ind.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

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247

Grammar for Section 12HI


In this section you cover:
c Participial constructions in reported speech
c The future passive

THE PARTICIPLE IN INDIRECT/REPORTED SPEECH

247. You have already met verbs which take an innitive construction in reported
speech (see 235). Some verbs, however verbs of knowing, perceiving,
recognising prefer a participle to express their that clauses, e.g.

I know that
I learn by inquiry/hear that
I learn that
I recognise that

Examine the following sentences:


a.

I know being wise (nom., present participle)


b.
I know you not being foolish (present
participle)
c. We learnt them eeing (present participle)
d.
They heard us having gone (aorist participle)
Precisely the same principles apply to these clauses as to those already
described in 235:
c If the that clause has a subject different from the main verb, the subject and
its participle will go into the accusative;
c If subjects are the same, there will be no accusative and the participle will go
into the nominative;
c No Greek word for that appears.
Observe one point of interest: the meaning of the tense of the participle.
Participles in general have an aspectual sense (process or event) rather than
temporal. But in this construction, the temporal sense comes to the fore:

In other words, in this construction the tense of the participle will point to
the tense of what was originally known/recognised/perceived.

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Grammar for Section 12H-1

265

So:
//
He recognises the man not having stopped (that the man did not stop)/ the
man not stopping (that the man is not stopping)/ the man not being about to
stop (that the man will not stop).
c Note that the negative is that of the original direct usage. See further 397.
EXERC I S E S
12HI: 1. Translate sentences ad above into the normal English form. Remember
that, and pay attention to the tense of the participle.
12HI: 2. Translate the following sentences and explain the nature of the reported
speech construction, whether , nom. or acc., inf. or part.:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

THE FUTURE PASSIVE, I SHALL BE -ED

248. We have met the future active and middle (I shall ), all based on the
future stem (-, -). The forms of the future passive, however, are based on a different stem:
I shall be stopped
--
-- (-)
--
--
--
--
Innitive
-- (to be about to be stopped)
n Form

The -- gives the game away: somewhat surprisingly, the forms of the
future passive are based on the AORIST PASSIVE (see 228).

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248

c Take the aorist passive stem (remember to remove the augment); and
c Add -, -, - etc. (the - is, of course, the usual give-away clue
to the future):

Aorist passive

Stem

Future passive

--
-
-

-- I shall be stopped
-- I shall be wronged
-- I shall be introduced

EXE RC I S E
12HI: 3. Convert the following forms into their future passive equivalent and
translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 2 H 1

()
,

(-),

(-)
,

(-)

at Athens
silver, money (2b)
pass time, waste time
hope, expectation (3a)
come to town, be in town
work, perform
put down, pay, perform
small house (2b)
grow angry with (+ dat.)
take, receive from
well then (resuming and pushing argument on
further)
way, manner (2a)

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Revision Exercises for Section 12HI

267

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 12HI


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these future passives. Then pair each with its present form:
, (convict), , ,
(ne),
, , , , ,
2. Translate each statement, then, using the present tense verbs given, turn them
into indirect statements. What difference does the use of the past introductory
verb make to your translation?
a. . (/)
b. . (/)
c. N . (/
)
d. . (/
)
3. Translate each statement, then, using the present tense verbs given, turn them
into indirect statements. What difference does the use of the past introductory
verb make to your translation?
a. . (/)
b. N . (/)
c. .
(/)
d.
. (/)
e. . (/)

(d) english into greek


1. Sentences
Translate into Greek:
1. If only I could remember the arguments of the prosecutor!
2. If I were a sophist, I would be remembering these arguments.
3. If I could remember the evidence, I would cast my vote justly.
4. Phrynion knew that Neaira was in town and had the money.
5. Stephanos says that Neaira will be wronged by nobody.
2. Prose
Translate into Greek:
Apollodoros, wronged and put into a dangerous position by Stephanos, is
contesting this suit. For the laws do not allow a citizen to live with a prostitute
as his wife. Apollodoros says that he will give clear evidence that Stephanos
is doing this very thing. If Stephanos were doing this, it would clearly be a

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248 249

very serious matter. Consequently, I hope that Apollodoros will win the suit.
If he were to win it, it would be a good thing for the city.

test exercise 12
Translate into English:
The prosecutor describes how the man Timarkhos, on trial for immoral behaviour, left Antikles to live with the slave Pittalakos. Timarkhos soon deserted
Pittalakos to live with Hegesandros.
(From Aiskhines Timarkhos, 5362)

10

15

. , .
,
. , .
, ,
.

,
. ,
. , ,
.
,
.
,
, .
.
The jilted Pittalakos, trying to get Timarkhos back, is beaten up for his pains and
next day takes refuge at an altar, where Timarkhos appeases him.

20

25

, ,
,
, .
,
,
, .
,
.
,
,
.
, .
.

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248 249

Revision Exercises for Section 12HI

Vocabulary
aor. pass. of release
spend ones days
, casino, gambling-den (2b)
, gambler (1d)
inf. of live
disdainful
go into
cf.
, nature (3e)
to no purpose
cf.
at night
smash up
, next day (1b)
naked
, crowd (2a)
assert
, drunken behaviour (1b)

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249250

Grammar for Section 13AB


In this section you cover:
c Aorist innitive passive
c Future participles active, middle and passive
c + future participle
c + innitive

AORIST INFINITIVE PASSIVE, TO BE/TO HAVE BEEN -ED

249. The aorist innitive passive:


c Is based (as you would expect) on the aorist passive stem (minus the
augment);
c Uses - as the innitive ending (cf. to be, to go, etc. cf.
3857).
c Means to be -ed or to have been -ed, depending on context.
Thus:
- t be/have been stopped.
Remember that:
c The aorist passive stem is -[]-;
c The stem must be de-augmented, e.g.
> - > -,
> - > -

to be/have been wronged


to be/have been written.

EXE RC I S E
13AB: 1. Give the aorist passive innitive of:
, , , ,
FUTURE PARTICIPLES ACTIVE, MIDDLE, PASSIVE, ABOUT TO

250. By now it will come as no surprise to learn that future participles are based
on the stems of the future indicative forms:

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271

Future active indic.

Future participle

Meaning

- - -
(--)

about to stop

-- -

about to stop [oneself],


cease

Future middle indic.


-
Future passive indic.
-

-- - about to be stopped

Form and meaning

c The future participles mean about to , on the point of -ing;


c The endings attached to the appropriate stem are the regular endings for:
present participles active, i.e. - - - (--) (see 90); and
middle/passive, i.e. -- - - (see 92);
c Remember that many verbs have irregular or unpredictable future stems,
e.g. the future of is (), etc. Revise 11720.
EXERCI S E
13AB: 2. Give the future active, middle and passive participles, with meanings,
of the following verbs:
, , , ,
+ FUTURE PARTICIPLE, IN ORDER TO
251. The future participle in Greek often carries with it a sense of intention. This
is entirely understandable. If you are about to do something, presumably (a
Greek would argue) you intend to do it and have some purpose in doing it
otherwise you wouldnt bother.
c In order clearly to mark this intentional/purposive usage, Greek often prefaces the future participle with (literally as [one] on the point of -ing),
giving it the meaning with the intention of -ing, in order to , e.g.
means I came as (one) on the point of taking
Neaira/with the intention of taking Neaira/in order to take Neaira.
The participle must agree with the person to whom it refers, e.g. if the I
above were feminine, it would be (etc.). See 393.

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251252

EXE RC I S E
13AB: 3. Translate the italicised words with + future participle. If it helps,
turn them into the as one[s] about to form rst. Then decide who the
one is, enabling you to put the participle in the right gender, case and
number:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The woman came to take her.


I saw the men eeing with the intention of saving themselves.
The man gave money to the woman in order to persuade her.
Where shall we go to give the food to the poor?

+ INFIN., BEFORE
252. The innitive has a wide range of uses in Greek, one of which is with the
conjunction . This means before, and controls a subordinate clause,
i.e. a clause with a verb.
c In English, such a clause can take a verb in the indicative, e.g. before
he departed or some other form e.g. before departing.
c In Greek, such a before clause constructs with an innitive, e.g.
before [X] departed.
Distinguish + inn. before X happened from before as a preposition which controls not a verb but a noun e.g. before dawn, + gen.
Usage

252a. In the subordinate clause before [X] departed, how do you


know who departed? Who is the subject of depart? Examine these two
sentences:
they prayed before [they] departed
I arrived before Neaira went to
Athens
Nothing new here! As we saw with the innitive and participle in reported
speech (2356, 247), it all depends on who the subject of the main verb is:
c If the subject of the clause is the same person as the subject of the
main verb, no new subject will appear (or if it does, it will be in the nominative);
c If the subject of the clause is not the same person as the subject of the
main verb, the new subject of the clause will appear in the accusative
case. See 398(i).

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273

As usual, beware of the double accusative problem: if there are two accusatives in the clause, only the context will tell you who is the subject, who the
object.
Again as usual, the tense of the innitive has no temporal, only aspectual,
force.
Change of subject in the accusative

253. So far we have learned that subordinate clauses taking the innitive (and
participles clauses in reported speech):
c Put the subject of the subordinate clause into the accusative if the subject is different from the subject of the main verb;
c Do not refer to the subject at all, or only in the nominative, if the subject
is the same as the subject of the main verb.
In future, we shall refer to this practice as change of subject in
the accusative.

EXERC I S E
13AB: 4. Translate the italicised words into Greek, using both the present and
aorist innitive:
1.
2.
3.
4.

They thought for a long time before they were persuaded.


The women prayed before their husbands departed.
Before eating, he always drank.
He consulted his friends before he divorced the woman.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 3 A B

(-)
(-)
(-)

(-)

(-)
(-)

(-)

take back, take up


childless
give back, return
send away, divorce
relinquish claim to; revolt from
engage, promise
throw out; divorce
give in marriage
send out, divorce
be thrown out, divorced
convict, refute, expose
care for (+ gen.)
empty, deserted; devoid of (+ gen.)
ne (1b)

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253 254

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 3 A B

(continued)

,
,
,
,
oo,

,

-
(-),

(-),
,

impf. of know how to (+inf.)


and really; as a matter of fact; let us suppose;
there! look!
demand securities from (+acc.)
maiden, girl (1a)
calculation (2a)
hatred (3c)
mina (100 drachmas) (1b)
relative (2a)
related, domestic, family
anger (1a)
ancient, old, of old
(+ inf.) before
ready, eager, willing, active
dowry (3a)
treat violently, disgracefully
member of a phratry (a group of families with
certain religious and social functions) (3a)
nature, temperament, character (3e)
(+fut. part.) in order to

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Revision Exercises for Section 13AB

275

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 13AB


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Pick out from the following list the future participles. Give their dictionary
form and its meaning:
, , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, , , , , ,
,
,
,
,
, , ,
2. Pick out from this list aorist passive innitives. Give their dictionary form.
What verbs do the other innitives in the list belong to?
, , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
, , ,
3. Translate these sentences, changing the form of the bracketed word to future
participle, to complete the sense:
a. () .
b. ()
().
c. () () .
d. () ().
4. Translate the introductory statements (a) and (b) and each of the bracketed
sentences; then change the bracketed sentences into +inf. clauses, dependent upon the introductory statement. Translate your answers:
a. .
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(i)

( )
( o)
( )
( )

b. .
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(i)

( )
( )
( )
( o

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254255

Grammar for 13C


In this section you cover:
c Conditional clauses: past unfullled; mixed; and open/simple (no )

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES WITH (PAST, UNFULFILLED)

254. You have already met:


Future remote conditions, indicated by an optative in both clauses (241);
and Present contrary-to-fact conditions (242), indicated by an imperfect
indicative in both clauses. Both were marked with in the apodosis/main
clause, and both were translated with were/would/ should in English.
Now examine the following (to which you were alerted at 244):
, If you had persuaded us, we would have
listened
As you can see, this conditional features:
c The marker in the apodosis;
c Verbs in both clauses in the aorist indicative.
This is a past unfullled condition, which takes the English form:
If x had , y WOULD HAVE RESULTED.
It is clear from the form of words that X did not happen, so Y did not
result. Hence unfullled. See 402, 425.
Mixed conditional sentences with

255. Consider the English If I had done this, I would now be happy. This is
undoubtedly a would/should unfullled condition, but the protasis refers
to the past, the apodosis to the present. It is therefore a temporally mixed
condition.
Greek plays the same game, e.g.
[aorist], [imperfect], i.e. If I had
done this, I would not [now] be making a mistake.
As you can see, Greek (like English) follows the individual rules for each
clause separately in this case:
c the verb in the protasis, referring to the past, is aorist indicative; and
c the verb in the apodosis, referring to the present, is imperfect indicative
(with, of course, ).

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Grammar for Section 13C

277

Open conditional sentences (no )

256. Neither in Greek nor in English do conditional sentences have to be


remote or unfullled, using were/would/should etc. They can be
open or simple:
If he ran, I walked, ,
If she is happy, I too am happy ,
.
In these cases, in which no appears, translate them perfectly normally,
e.g.
, If I am wise, you are foolish.
CONDITIONAL SUMMARY

256a.

Future remote: If X were to happen (optative), Y would happen


(optative).

Present contrary to fact: If X were now happening (imperfect indicative), Y would now be happening (imperfect indicative).

Past unfullled: If X had happened (aorist indicative), Y would


have happened (aorist indicative).

Mixed: e.g. If X had happened (aorist indicative), Y would now


happen (imperfect indicative), etc.

Open/simple conditions (no would/should): If you chased me, I ran


away (plain indicative in both clauses).

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 13C


1. Link the two statements by making them into past unfulled conditions
with and translate:
a. () /
b. () * /
c. () * /

d. () /
e. () /

*Use the past forms of these verbs.

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257

Grammar for Section 13D

279

Grammar for 13D


In this section you cover:
c Gerunds (verbs used as nouns): + innitive

VERBS IN THE INFINITIVE USED AS NOUNS

257. Verbs can be construed nitely, in conjugations (I go, you come, he


deceives), and also act as adjectives (I see the women running, jumping,
shouting) i.e. as participles. They can also act as nouns, sometimes called
gerunds. Consider the English I like to run and I like running. In both
cases, to run and running are nouns the object of like.
Form and usage

Observe how Greek turns a verb into a noun:


, or
, or
, or

the [act of] loving/kissing, love/a kiss


the [act of] hating, hatred
the [act of] not running

In other words, verbs are turned into (neuter) nouns/gerunds in Greek by:
c Prefacing the innitive with the neuter denite article ;
c Changing the case of to show what case the noun is in.
E.g.


because of the hatred


by not wronging
for the sake of defending

Observe how, by using this construction, Greek can work round nouns if it
needs to. For example:
c childlessness could be expressed as the to-be childless,
(and , being an adjective, would agree with whoever was childless);
c introduction into a clan could the to-be-introduced into a clan,
(passive), and so on.

In summary, a gerund like [the act of] kissing acts exactly


like any neuter noun, e.g. , except that alone changes to indicate the case of the noun: does not change. See 394(vi).
The negative is .

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257259

EXE RC I S E
13D. 1. Express the following English and Greek phrases with + the indicated
innitive:
1. on account of ight (aorist)
2. after time-wasting (present)
3. instead of ceasing (aorist)
4. by means of ghting (present)
5. for the sake of guarding (aorist)

6. (present)
7. (present)
8. (aorist)
9. (present)
10. (present)

Changes of subject

258. The innitive, being a verb-form, can take a subject and an object; and the
change of subject in the accusative rule applies (253), e.g.
c N Neaira left because of
the to-be unlucky, i.e. because of being/because she was unlucky:
(nom.) agrees with N (nom.), no change of subject.
c N Neaira left because of
the Phrastor to-hate her, i.e. because Phrastor (acc.: change of subject)
hated her.
Note : this is the reexive form herself because it refers to Neaira,
subject of the main verb.
Aspect

259. Pay attention, as far as is possible, to the aspectual sense of the verb. Thus
means the process of loving, while means demonstrating by an act, e.g. kissing. By using the article with the innitive, it is possible to indicate differences of aspect, which nouns cannot
indicate.

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281

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 13D


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate each sentence, then convert the underlined words or clauses into
expressions using , , + inf.:
a.
b.
.
c. , .
d. ,
.
e. ,
.
f. .
g. ,
.
h. .
i. .

(d) english into greek


Translate into Greek:
1. Stephanos went to Phrastor, intending to promise him Phano in marriage.
2. Phrastor married Phano before he knew she was Neairas daughter.
3. If Phano had not looked after Phrastor, he would not have taken back the
child.
4. Phrastor took back Phanos child because of his being ill and because of
Phanos looking after him.
5. If the child had been legitimate, Phrastor would have sworn the oath.

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260261

Grammar for 13E


In this section you cover:
c The perfect indicative active, have -ed

THE PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE, I HAVE ED

260. We have already learned the aorist. Why, then, do we need a perfect tense?
Do not I wrote and I have written mean, effectively, the same thing? No,
actually. But rst examine the forms of the perfect indicative active:
- I have stopped
-
-
-()
-
-
-()
n Forms

261. The two marks of the perfect are:


c The -- addition to the stem: - is the usual ending for the perfect
tense, though sometime does not feature, e.g. - I
have written.
c Reduplication: The reduplicated stem is e.g. the - of -.
This reduplication is a feature of all the forms of the perfect (participle,
innitive, etc.) and is not dropped in some forms (as the augment is).
c Note that perfects reduplicate after any prexes. Thus the perfect of
- is -.
n Patterns of reduplication

Observe the following patterns:


(a) Normal
I have stopped

I have released
(b) , , reduplicate with , , , e.g.

I have sacriced
I have revealed
I have rejoiced

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n - perfects

Note the following perfects:


I have given
I have placed
I have shown.
Their conjugation in the perfect is entirely regular.
n Contract verbs

Note that contract verbs lengthen the contract vowel before the ending, e.g.
> , > , > .
Meaning

262. (a) At an early stage of the language, the perfect meant I am in the position
of having -ed, i.e. there is a strong present force to it. So, for example:
c The perfect of I am dying is I am in the position
of having died, i.e. I am dead;
c The perfect of I am being ruined is , meaning I
am in the position of having been ruined, i.e. I am ruined/done
for;
c The perfect of I am setting myself up is I am in
the position of having set myself up, i.e. I am standing.
(b) In Classical Greek, the perfect also acquired the meaning I have -ed.
Sometimes the same perfect form can have both forces. It is important
to bear the early meaning in mind. See 41819.

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262 263

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 13E


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Write down the perfect reduplication of the following verbs, going no further
than the rst three letters (e.g. for , write -: do not count prexes):
, , , o, , , ,
, , , , , , , ,
, , , , , ,
2. Translate and give the dictionary form of each of these regular perfects (consulting the GreekEnglish vocabulary where necessary). Change singulars to
plural and vice-versa:
, , , , ,
, , , , , ,

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Grammar for 13F


In this section you cover:
c the aorist optative passive
c the use of the optative in indirect speech
c sequence of tenses
c the future optative

THE AORIST OPTATIVE PASSIVE

263. By now you will not be surprised to learn that the aorist optative passive is
based on the aorist indicative passive, i.e. - is a key marker:

-
-
-
-
-
-
Form

The optative mood has been predominantly characterised by -- (present) and


-- (aorist) so far (212). Here - comes into its own:
c Watch out for the aorist passive stem, usually , + .
c We have met the -- marker before in e.g. , the optative of
(246).
EXERC I S E
13F: 1. Give the rst person singular of the aorist passive optative of the following. Remember to check the aorist passive indicative rst and remove the
augment:
, , , , , , , ,
, , ,
USE OF THE OPTATIVE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

264. We already know that indirect speech using that or e.g. why,
where (etc., 148) reports what was originally said in the same tense
and mood as the original. So:

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c If the speaker originally said I am intelligent, , this would be


reported in the present tense, e.g. , whereas we
would say in English he said that he was (Greek is) intelligent;
c If the speaker said Where am I?, ; it would be reported
, in English he asked where he was (Greek is).
Now consider:
(a) He said that he had ceased (originally I ceased), and
its legitimate alternative
(b) , I knew why he was ceasing (original why is he
ceasing?), and its legitimate alternative .
Reection on the alternatives will have led you to the following conclusions:
c The optative has been used in place of the indicative;
c The optative has taken on the same tense as the indicative aorist in (a),
present in (b); and
c The use of the optative has not changed the meaning in the slightest.
What is going on? It is all to do with tense of the main verb.
SEQUENCE OF TENSES

265. Sequence of tenses in Greek relates to the tense of the main verb in the
sentence:
c The main verb is a nite verb that is not subordinated, i.e. not introduced
by subordinating conjunctions like if, when, because, since, although,
that, or a relative clause, and so on. In the sentences you have just been
examining above, for example, the main verb is he said (past).
The rule of the sequence of tenses is as follows:

If the main verb is past (imperfect or aorist, i.e. with an augment), the
sequence is secondary (or historic);
If the main verb is any other tense (present, future or perfect), the
sequence is primary.

To apply it to the use of the optative in reported speech:

In secondary sequence, verbs in reported speech are allowed to be


optative, of the same tense as what was originally said, but without
affecting the original meaning.

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287

THE FUTURE OPTATIVE

266. On what stem will the future optative be based? The future indicative stem,
of course:
Future optative active
-
-
-
-
-
-
Future optative middle
-
-
-
-
-
-
Future optative passive
-
-
-
-
-
-
EXERC I S E
13F: 2. Translate the following, and then turn them into the optative:
, , , , ,
, ,
Use of the future optative

The future optative is used only in indirect speech, in secondary sequence, as an


alternative to the indicative. For example:
He said that he would cease (originally I will cease),
and its legitimate alternative (future optative).
You will not nd the future optative used in any other way.

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c Where the optative appears in place of the indicative in indirect speech, be


careful to distinguish between the present, future, and aorist optatives in
order to translate correctly. In this case alone, the optative refers to tense,
not aspect. See 397(i) and 421(iii).
EXE RC I S E
13F: 3. Translate the following sentences, check the sequence, and where possible turn the indicative into the optative:
1.
4.
.
.
2.
5. .
.
6. .
3. .
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 3 C F

,
(-),

,

,
(-)
,
,

,


(-)

woman (2a)
inexperienced in (+gen.)
reject (+gen.)
position, ofce; start; rule (1a)
archon (3a)
unholy
illness, weakness (1b)
be ill, fall ill
king, king archon (3g)
be king, be king archon
council (1a)
marry
member of genos (1d)
genos (smaller groupings of families within
the phratry) (3c)
legitimate, genuine
I have shown, revealed
I have given
administer, run
enrol, enlist, register
manner, habit (3c)
willing(ly)
open, obvious
prove, show, demonstrate
I stand
look after, tend

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289

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 3 C F

(continued)
,

(-)
() (-)
(-)

(-)


,
(-)
(-)

rites, sacrices (2b)


beg, supplicate
give evidence against (+gen.)
judge, decide
bring (suit) against, obtain by lot, run as candidate for ofce
leave, abandon
give evidence, bear witness
be sick
(to) where
I am ruined, done for
swear
of what kind
very clear
fact, action (3e)
do, perform, fare
learn, hear by inquiry
I have placed/put
I am dead
(+inf.) seem to (but not in fact to )
be angry at, displeased with
lie, tell lies

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RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 13F


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these sentences, then change the subordinate verbs from indicative
to optative:
a.
.
b.
.
c.
.
d. ,
.
e.
;
Vocabulary
=
2. Translate the following questions, then turn them into indirect questions,
using as the introductory verb. Remember to alter direct question
words to indirect (see 125 and 219[c]), and indicative verbs to optative e.g.
; = .
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

;
;
;
;
;

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291

Grammar for 13GI


In this section you cover:
c More forms of the perfect:
1 perfect indicative middle and passive
1 perfect innitive
1 perfect participle
c Some irregular perfects

PERFECT INDICATIVE MIDDLE AND PASSIVE

267. As with the present and imperfect, the middle and passive forms of the perfect are identical.
c Perfect middle/passives also show reduplication the constant feature
of the perfect;
c But the -, so characteristic of perfect active forms, is never there.
Examine the endings. You will nd that they are familiar:
I have ceased (middle), been stopped (passive)
-
-
-
-
-
- (or - - )
n Form

You will have noticed our old middle friends - - -.


Consonantal endings

268. Here the stem of the perfect ends in a consonant:


(-) I have been described

- ()

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- I have been acted upon

- ()
Note how the nal consonant changes to accommodate the middle/passive
endings. See 359(x).

Form and use

269. (a) In the third person plural form - () (i.e. perfect


participle + ), the participle changes according to the gender
of the subject, e.g. they [women] have been
described.
(b) Note that, after a perfect, by a person is usually expressed by the
PLAIN DATIVE rather than by + genitive, e.g.
everything has been done by us.
EXE RC I S E
13G-I: 1. Turn the following perfects active into perfects passive and translate:
, , , ,
PERFECT INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES

270. The forms of the perfect innitives and participles are, as you would
expect, based on the reduplicated perfect stem:
Perfect innitives

Perfect active innitive


- to have stopped
n Form

Note the common innitive ending in -.

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Perfect middle/passive innitive


- to have ceased/been stopped
-- to have been described
-- to have been acted on
n Form

(a) The innitive ending in -() is a well-known acquaintance (cf. e.g. -).
(b) Observe what happens to consonant endings before -:
c The -- of - drops out;
c The consonant blends with -;
c Producing e.g. > -, () > -, etc.
EXERC I S E
13G-I: 2.Turn the perfects in the rst exercise (above) into perfect innitives
middle and passive.
Perfect participles

271. Here are the forms of the perfect participle having ed, having been
-ed:
- (--) having stopped
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-

m.

f.

n.

-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-()

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n Form

The perfect active participle is of mixed 3-1-3 declension, with the m. and n.
declining like 3a nouns on the stem --, and the f. declining like 1c nouns (short
-).
Perfect participle middle/passive
-- - - (n.b. accent) having ceased/having been stopped
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

m.
-
-
-
-

f.
-
-
-
-

n.
-
-
-
-

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

(a) The middle/passive participle declines like . Note the -- - -


endings, which you have already met with middle/passive participle forms
(92).
(b) You can often spot a perfect participle middle/passive instantly because
the accent always falls on the -- - -; with other - participles, the accent falls on the -- only when the nal syllable is long, e.g.
.
EXE RC I S E
13GI: 3. Turn the perfects of exercise 1 (p. 292) into gen. s. and nom. pl. perfect participles (all genders).
NON-REDUPLICATING PERFECT FORMS

272. We have already seen that perfects reduplicate the opening consonant, e.g.
. But verbs beginning with double consonants are different. Observe:

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I have sought
I have deprived
I have hurled

So:

If a verb begins with a double consonant e.g. , , , , reduplicate


with - .
If a verb begins with , reduplicate with - and double to .

But what if the verb does not start with a consonant? Observe the behaviour
of the following perfect forms:

I have acted impiously


I have done wrong
I have announced
I have acted aggressively

So:

If a verb begins with a vowel, reduplicate by lengthening the vowel.

IRREGULAR PERFECTS

273. Inevitably, there are some irregular perfects that just have to be learned.
Among the most common are:

I have come
I have taken
I have said (from stem cf. 194)
I have carried, endured (cf. aorist stem -)
I have suffered
I stand (participle -, - standing,
established)

n Warning

Do not confuse the aorists of and (, ) with their perfects (, ).

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EXE RC I S E S
13GI: 4. Translate into English:
, , , , ,
13GI: 5. Translate into Greek:
They have said, we have endured, I stand, you (s.) have sought, she has
been deprived, I have been wronged.

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 3 G I


(-)

(-)

(-)

base, shameful; ugly (of people) (comp.


; sup. )
err; do wrong, make a mistake
(perf. of ) I am lost
(perf. of ) I have been
do, act, perform
reasonably, rightly
I have taken (perf. of )
I have spoken/said (perf. of )
I have been said (perf. pass. of )
I have gone (perf. of )
I have carried, borne, endured (perf. of )
I stand (perf. of )
standing, established
strong, powerful
I have been made, put (perf. pass. of
)
I have suffered (perf. of )
state, constitution (1b)
be a citizen
forebear, ancestor (2a)
reveal, declare, indict
allege, claim, assert
bear; mid., grow; aor. mid. , perf.
be naturally

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297

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 13G I


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the sentences, then change singular verbs to plural and vice-versa:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

.
.
.
, .
.
o .
.
.
, , .
.

2. Using the rst person singular of (a) and (b) , change the above
sentences into indirect statements using nom./acc. + part. with and
nom./acc.+ inf. with .
3. Do the same as in 2 with the following sentences:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

(/) .
( /) .
(/) .
(/) .
(/) .

(d) english into greek


1. Sentences
Translate into Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

I have shown that Phano has made sacrices on behalf of the city.
The council asked what sort of wife the king archon had married.
Theogenes said that he had been deceived by Stephanos.
Stephanos has governed well and performed many noble deeds.
We all know that nothing noble has ever been said or done by
Stephanos.

2. Prose
Translate into Greek:
Once Phano was proved to be Neairas daughter, Phrastor divorced her. She,
divorced, waited for a short time, intending that Phrastor should take back
her child. And, not long afterwards, Phrastor fell ill. And, because he hated
his family and did not want them to get his property, he took back the child
before he recovered, not wishing to die childless. Clearly, Phrastor would

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never have taken back the child had he not fallen ill; for when he recovered,
he married a legitimate wife, according to the laws.

test exercise 13
Translate into English:
Menekles put away his wife, since he could not give her children. But, being
childless and aging, he wished to adopt a son. He opted for one of his exwifes two brothers. The adopted brother here describes how Menekles made
this choice.
(From Isaios, Menekles, 1013, 467)

10

,
,
.
,
, , ,
.
, .
.

. , ,
, , ,
, .
. , .
The brother, who claims to have looked after Menekles from then until his
death, ends his case with a plea to the jurors not to allow his opponent, who is
challenging his right to Menekles property, to take away his estate and leave
Menekles without heirs.

15

20

,
. , ,
.
,
,
,
.
Vocabulary
die
bury
, customary rites (2b)
, sister (1a)
, brother (2a)

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go abroad
disinherited
nameless
responsible (for making the decision)
A in Hades
perf. part. of
perf. of

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Grammar for Section 14


In this section you cover:
c The subjunctive mood: present, aorist and perfect
c Indenite constructions with

THE SUBJUNCTIVE

274. It is rare in this life for anything to come easy. The Greek subjunctive is the
exception that proves the rule.
The subjunctive endings

The good news is:


c The subjunctive mood occurs only in the present, aorist and perfect;
c The endings for all subjunctives present, aorist and perfect are as
follows:

All active subjunctives (and the


aorist passive)

All middle/passive subjunctives

Stem + -
-
-
-
-
-()

Stem + -
-
-
-
-
-

Present subjunctive

275. Here, then, is the present subjunctive: present stem + the above endings:
Present subjunctive active
-
-
-
-
-
-()

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301

Present subjunctive middle/passive


-
-
-
-
-
-
Aorist subjunctive

276. Here is the aorist subjunctive (rst and second), formed by taking the aorist
stem and adding the subjunctive endings (no augment):
First and second aorist subjunctive active
-
-
-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-
-
-()

Aorist subjunctive middle


-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-
-

Aorist subjunctive passive


-
-
-
-
-
-()

-
-
-
-
-
-()

EXERC I S E
14: 1.Translate and turn the following forms into their equivalent subjunctive
form (but check carefully that they do in fact have a subjunctive form):
, , , , (pl.)

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277278

Perfect subjunctive

277. Same again for the perfect: perfect stem + endings (remember to keep the
reduplication):
Perfect subjunctive active
-
-
-
-
-
-()
Alternatively:





()
Perfect subjunctive middle/passive





()
n Forms

The alternative forms of the perfect active, and the regular forms of the perfects
middle and passive, are nothing but the perfect participle + the subjunctive of the
verb to be as you will shortly see. The participle changes (s. or pl., m. f. or n.)
to agree with the subject. Thus she has stopped.
Subjunctives of contract verbs

278. Inevitably, contract verbs loom. But they follow exactly the same rules of
vowel-contraction as they have always done:

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303

Present active subjunctive


-

-
-
-
-
-
-()

(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

-
-
-
-
-()

-
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

-
-
-
-
-
-()

(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

Present middle/passive subjunctive


-
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

-
-
-
-
-
-

-
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

-
-
-
-
-
-

(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)
(-)

Subjunctives of , and

279. Even irregular verbs take on regularity (of a sort) in the subjunctive
mood:
I am

I shall go* I know

()

()

()

* In the subjunctive, of course, it means I go.

Subjunctive of

280. There is a very small exception to the rule of the subjunctive. A very few
verbs very few indeed keep the -- all the way through the conjugation,
e.g. :

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Present active

()

Present middle/passive

Aorist active

etc.

Aorist middle

etc.

280282

Cf. So too (209): aorist subjunctive , , etc.


EXE RC I S E
14: 2. Translate and turn the following into their equivalent subjunctive forms (if
they have them). Remember to de-augment where appropriate:
, , , , , , , ,
,
Meaning of the subjunctive

281. (a) The difference between present and aorist subjunctives is aspectual, not
temporal (142, 165).
(b) While the subjunctive does have a special meaning when used on its
own, you will not be meeting this usage for some time. For the moment,
you will learn that the subjunctive is used in certain contexts where a
special translation into English is not required. Register that the verb is
subjunctive, therefore, but translate it into the most natural English.
with the subjunctive

282. So far, has been found only in main potential > conditional clauses:
c In polite requests with the optative (186), and
c As the (apodosis) of various would-should conditional sentences, with
the verb in the optative or indicative (see 256[a]).
But is also found in subordinate clauses, beginning e.g. when , who
, if , etc. Its purpose is to give the clause an indenite feel to it, e.g.
c Whoever does this [but we dont know precisely who it will be] ;
c When it rains [but we are not saying whether it will rain or wont];

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305

c If I go to town tomorrow [but I may not] .


In other words, Greeks liked to distinguish between the denite and the vague
or indenite, especially when referring to future time. Look at the following and
deduce the rules:
/ Whoever does this

In a way in which [ever] they want
/
When they go (whenever that is)
/ , If we do this, we
shall stop the enemy [but we dont know if we will do it].
/, If he returns home, he
will see his wife [but we dont know if he will return home].
Note in particular the last two sentences. They are both open conditions (256,
i.e. no would-should, so no in the main clause). It would be possible to
translate them into Greek in the usual open form, i.e. If
we [shall] do this , but Greek much prefers the indenite usage here, +
subjunctive.
So, we nd :
(a) Attached to a subordinating conjunction like if, when, where, or relative who, which, what;
(b) Sometimes combined with the conjunction in question, e.g. (if) +
= or ; (when) + = ; (since) + = ;
(c) Sometimes standing free of it e.g. (who) , (where) ;
(d) With the verb of that sub-clause in the subjunctive (aspectual, not temporal);
(e) And creating a sense of indeniteness about the clause. See 398(ii),
422(ii).
Two uses of

283. To summarise:

in a main clause (with optative) will indicate a polite request or


(with a protasis beginning with and optative/indicative) a wouldshould condition;
in a subordinate clause (typically beginning e.g. if, when,
who/which etc.) will take the subjunctive and will indicate an
indeniteness or lack of certainty/precision about what is happening
or may happen. This might be expressed in English by ever or an
understood but we dont know if this will happen or not. Wouldshould will NOT feature in such clauses. Cf. 407(iii), (v), (vi).

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283

EXE RC I S E
14: 3.Translate into indenite Greek, using both present and aorist subjunctives
(remember to run together the subordinating conjunction and , if it is possible):
If they see, when I hear, whoever goes, wherever she is, when they depart,
if we enslave, whoever they are, when I know.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 4

(-),

(-),

,

,

(-)


(-),
,
(-),
,
(-)

crime (3b)
invalid
acquit (+gen.); reject (+gen.)
decide, judge between
explain, relate, go through
if (ever)
each
examination, refutation (2a)
refute, argue against
perf. of I have come
Greece (3a)
it seems, it is reasonable, it resembles (+ dat.)
when(ever)
(+dat.) for the purpose of, at, near
care, concern (1b)
careful
day (1b)
sufcient, able
leave behind, bequeath
able, with power, by right, sovereign
(dat.) is concerned about (gen.)
share in (+gen.)
pay (2a)
contemptuous
whenever
completely, outright
female citizen (3a: but acc. s. )
prostitute (1a)
body, person (3b)
honour, privilege, right (1a)
rear, raise, feed, nourish

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283 284

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307

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 14


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these sentences, changing the verbs underlined into the subjunctive
requested to make the Greek grammatical:
a. (pres.) (pres.) ,
.
b. (pres.) (pres.) ,
.
c. (aor.)
(aor.) , .
d. (aor.), (aor.) ,
.
e. (aor.) , o
.
f. (pres.) (pres.) ,
.
g. (pres.) (pres.), ,
, .
h. (aor.),
.
i. (aor.)
(pres.), .
j. (pres.) (aor.) ,
.

(d) english into greek


1. Sentences
Translate into Greek:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

When the dikasts go home, their wives greet them.


When a woman gets hold of money, she becomes difcult.
If you pay attention to the defence speech, you will acquit the defendant.
When prosecutors speak, they always say the same thing.
If you are loved by your daughters, they will give you whatever you want.

2. Prose
Translate into Greek:
When Stephanos makes his defence speech, what will he say? Obviously he
will claim that he has been a good governor and has performed many noble
deeds. And yet we all know that nothing noble or good has ever been done by
him. Or have you ever heard of any such thing at all? You have not; for neither
he nor his forefathers are naturally inclined to piety, but to impiety.

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283 284

test exercise 14
Translate into English:
In Lokris, because of a singular method of treating the legislator, only one new law has
been passed in a very long time. The story involves a one-eyed mans search for justice.
(From Demosthenes, Timokrates, 13941)

10

15

.

. ,
.
, . ,
.
, .
.
, ,
.
, .
, ,
,

,
. .
.
Vocabulary
frame laws
long ago
be established
and so
new
, noose (2a)
, neck (2a)
live
aor. part. pass. of draw tight
, year (3c)
, eye (2a)
knock out in return
threaten (+dat.)
(-) one
, one-eyed man (2a)
unlivable
both
two hundred

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309

Grammar for Section 15


In this section you cover:
c The future perfect
c Tragic usages
c Scanning Greek verse
c Iambic trimeters

THE FUTURE PERFECT

284. There is only one form of the future perfect. This is the middle/passive
form, as follows:
- I shall have ceased/been stopped
-
- (-)
-
-
-
-
Innitive
-
Participle
-
Optative
-
Form and meaning

285. (a) Look for a perfect middle/passive stem (no --, but reduplication), with
future middle endings i.e. - - - etc., e.g.

() I shall have been released


() I shall have ransomed
() it will have been done
() I shall have ceased

As usual, the middle verbs will carry an active meaning:

() I shall have obtained

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285286

(b) In meaning, particularly in poetry, it can be used as an emphatic future, e.g.

she will possess


speak, and it shall be done
(c) The active I shall have -ed is supplied by the perfect active participle and the
future of the verb to be e.g.

we shall have released

The passive may also be formed with the passive participle:


(=)

I shall have been released

Tragic usages

286. Note the following usages common in Greek tragedy:


(a) Observe the elision or crasis displayed by the following phrases in the Text:
l.25
l.16
l.38
l.47
l.9

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

Verse displays far more features of this type than prose, though doubtless crasis and elision occurred in spoken language, even if they were
not indicated in writing.
(b) Note the prexes to:
l.1
l.13
l.22
l.45

The basic meaning of the word is retained, but the prex shades its
meaning differently. This subtlety is one you should try to take into
account when translating.
(c) Note particularly the splitting of preposition from its verb (tmesis):
1.11 taking from the cedar box
(d) Observe the use of the poetic forms (e.g. for in
, 1.49), and the gurative use of words, e. g. l. 11 , usually
house, here = chest, box.
(e) Word order in verse can be far more exible than in prose; again, utterances can be far more oblique and tightly packed with meaning. Since
this is a matter of the individual authors style, only wide reading in an
author will accustom you to his particular quirks.

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311

Tragic verse metre


n English verse

287. English verse can be described in terms of the number of beats to a line,
and sometimes in terms of rhyme as well, e.g.
As I was going up the stair
I met a man who wasnt there.
He wasnt there again today.
I wish, I wish hed stay away.
There are four beats to each line, and the lines rhyme aa, bb.
n Greek verse

Greek verse does not rhyme; nor is it to be described in terms of beats. It is


made up of regular sequences of syllables, each of which counts as long or short
for the purpose of the metre.

every syllable counts in greek verse. To scan Greek verse, therefore,


requires you to work out the value (long or short) of each and every syllable that makes up the line.

n Long and short syllables

288. The quantity of the syllable (i.e. whether it is long or short) is determined
by the vowel(s) and consonant(s) which make it up. Here are the basic rules:
Long syllables
(a) Syllables containing , , and diphthongs, and long , , (these last three
have to be known to be long, or adduced from context) are pronounced
long and always count as long in verse.
Short syllables
(b) Syllables containing , and , , are pronounced short and count as
short in verse with exceptions:
Two-consonant law
(c) If a short vowel is followed by two consonants these include (= ),
(= ) and (= ) it will still be pronounced short, but the syllable will
count as long for the purposes of scansion.
Consider the vowels of they go:
would be pronounced short, but would count as a long syllable in
metre, because it is followed by two consonants, ;
(ii) Likewise, , pronounced short, but would count as a long syllable
because it is followed by two consonants ;
(iii) , a diphthong, would be pronounced, and count as, long. Thus
would scan long-long-long.

(i)

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288290

(iv) Word division makes no difference here. Thus, the of


would scan as a long syllable, because it is followed by two consonants, .
The two-consonant law exception
(d) There is one major exception to this two-consonant law. It all depends
on which two consonants. Any combination f short vowel followed by
(mute consonants) + (liquid consonants) need not
necessarily make the syllable long for scansion purposes. For example,
the of is short; it is followed by two consonants +; but the
syllable can scan long or short because the consonants are a mute+liquid
combination.
n The iambic trimeter

289. The commonest metre of Greek tragedy is the iambic trimeter (nearly all
the dialogue of Greek tragedy is written in iambic trimeters). A trimeter is
composed of three metra.
An iambic metron is i.e.
(i) doubtful syllable, called anceps, which can be either long or short,
followed by:
(ii) longshortlong syllables.
(Note that an iambic foot is or . An iambic metron consists of two
such feet.)
Thus, in terms of long and short syllables, an iambic trimeter looks like:
/ /

One might express it blank tum-ti-tum, blank tum-ti-tum, blank tum-titum. Note that the last syllable can be long or short.
n Resolving a long into shorts

290. In some Greek metres (and the iambic trimeter is among them), one long
syllable can be replaced by two short syllables. This resolution of one
long into two shorts is more common in some authors than others, and in
some parts of the line than others.
Here are ve lines of the passage from Alkestis scanned, i.e. with the longs
and shorts marked and the line split up into metra:



/; /;

/ /


; / /

/ / ;

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313



/ / .
(a) You will have noticed (future perfect) that the last syllable counts long
for the purpose of scansion, whatever its actual composition.
(b) There are no resolutions in these ve lines. Contrast l. 18:

/ /

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 5


,

,

,
,
(-)




,
(-)
/

(-)



(-)
,

pathetic, miserable, wretched


weight, burden (3c)
noble, ne
tear (2b)
weep
mistress (1c)
house, home (2a)
fall into, on
there
noble, ne, good
seemly, proper, becoming
fortunate, lucky
bedchamber (2a)
die
set up, stand, raise
(+gen.) below
die away
weep
hear
decoration, ornament; order; universe (2a)
acquire, get, gain
large, big, long
household, house (2a)
never
no one
for the very last time
of ones father, ancestral
betray
husband, spouse (3e)
address
fall upon, embrace
go, come

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290 291

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 5

(continued)
(-)
,
(-)
(-),

(-),

modest, chaste, discreet, sensible, law-abiding, prudent, disciplined, temperate


child (2b)
bear, give birth to
water (3b)
(+dat.) under, beneath
esh, skin (acc. ) (3a)

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315

Grammar for Section 16AB


In this section you cover:
c The pluperfect I had -ed
c Imperatives using + the aorist subjunctive
c Verbs of fearing: + subjunctive
c Verb-forms in -, expressing necessity

THE PLUPERFECT

291. The pluperfect tense is more than perfect: not I have -ed, but I had
-ed:
Pluperfect active ,
I had stopped

Pluperfect middle/passive, ,
I had ceased/been stopped

--
--
--
--
--
--

--
--
--
--
--
--

n Form

The pluperfect is formed by additions and changes to the perfect stem:


c The stem is given an augment -;
c The pluperfect active has new endings dominated by -, -;
c The pluperfect middle/passive takes the familiar - - - imperfect
middle/passive endings (102).
EXERCI S E
16AB: 1. Turn the following perfects into their pluperfect form and translate:
, , , , , ,
,
LAST ORDERS: + SUBJUNCTIVE

292. You have already met + present imperative meaning dont, e.g.
dont listen (21).

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292293

Greek has another way of expressing this. Look at the following:



dont listen (s.)


dont go (pl.)

What verb-forms are these?


othing but our new best friend, the subjunctive and the aorist subjunctive
at that.
So + 2s. or 2pl. aorist subjunctive = dont. The idiom has an aoristic
aspect, and it may imply dont do it just this once. See 404, 406(iii).
EXE RC I S E
16AB: 2. Translate the following commands, and turn present imperatives
into aorist subjunctives, and vice versa:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

VERBS OF FEARING

293. I fear means:


c I fear, am afraid of. Here it takes an object in the accusative, e.g.
I fear/am afraid of the Persians.
c I am afraid to do X. Here it takes the innitive, e.g.
I am afraid to run away.
c I am afraid that/lest X is the case:
In this last sense it takes:
(i) + subjunctive if the fear refers to the future e.g. I am afraid that the
allies will not come (note: the
negative is );
(ii) otherwise, it takes + the natural tense of the indicative, e.g. I am afraid
that he came . See 400, 407(ii), 422(ii)(d).
EXE RC I S E
16AB: 3. Translate these fears for the past, re-congure as fears for the future,
and re-translate:
1. .
2. .

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317

3. .
4. .
5. .
VERB-FORMS IN - EXPRESSING NECESSITY

294. Forms like () to be sent and () to be honoured are based upon the verb-stem, act as adjectives, and can be used in
two ways, personally and impersonally.
Personal use of - forms

In the personal sense, -- - - forms are used as straight adjectives, meaning


needing to be -ed, to be -ed. Consider:
the woman is to be honoured/must be honoured by you;
he said the ships were to be sent/had to be
sent;
the men are to be persuaded/must be
persuaded by us.
c In these usages, the agent (by you and by us above) is expressed by the
plain dative.
c Note particularly () to be carried, () to
be done.
Impersonal use of - forms

295. We are already familiar with it is necessary for X (accusative) to Y


(innitive), e.g.
it is necessary for them (acc.) to do (inf.) this,
they must do this (153).
That sentiment can also be expressed by:
c Replacing with the verb to be + the xed NEUTER -
form (s. or pl.). So becomes either (n.s.) or
(n. pl.).
c Putting the people who must into the accusative or dative, /
.
c So becomes /
/ .

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295

Compare e.g.
(i) it was necessary for me to write the letter
= / /
(ii) we must be down-hearted = /
/
Observe two points:
c As in (i) and (ii) above, the agent of -/ constructions can go into
the accusative (as with ) or the dative;
c The verb to be can be omitted, e.g.
/ [] / the men must go ( is
the adjectival form of will go) the equivalent of
.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 6 A B

,
,
(-)

-
-
-
,
,
(-)
,

freedwoman (1b)
freedman (2a)
go through, relate
(+gen.) outside
seem, resemble
(+gen.) straight towards
to be gone
to be carried, borne, endured
to be done
gate (1a)
disaster, mishap, occurrence (1b)
meet with (+dat.)
violent, criminal person (1d)
(+ acc.) under, along under, up under
farm; place, space, region (2b)

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295 296

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319

RE VI SION EX ERCIS ES FOR S E C T I O N 16AB


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these commands, then change into negative commands using +
aorist subjunctive:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.
k.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2. Translate the following sentences:


a.
b.
c.
d.

.
.
.
.

3. Translate these statements, then using the pool of - verb-forms below,


convert them as follows:
e.g. / /
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

.
.
.
.
.
.
, , , , ,

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296

Grammar for Section 16C


In this section you cover:
c The accusative absolute
c + the superlative

THE ACCUSATIVE ABSOLUTE

296. We are familiar with the genitive absolute, that is, participle phrases in the
genitive which have no obvious grammatical connection with the rest of the
sentence, e.g.
, me being absent/in my absence, the
children began to play (222-3).
Impersonal verbs, however, put their absolute forms into the neuter
accusative participle:

c it is necessary for X (acc.) > it being necessary


c it is permitted to X (dat.) > it being permitted
c it seems best to X (dat.) > it seeming best (aorist
aspect).
So:
, it being necessary for us to go, we shall go (or
since we must go )
, it being permitted for us to go, we stayed
put (or although we could go )
, it seeming good to me to wait, I waited.
EXE RC I S E
16C: 1. Turn the following clauses with nite verbs into subordinate clauses
with accusative absolutes, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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Grammar for Section 16C

321

+ SUPERLATIVE
297. Superlative adjectives and adverbs mean very , most , the -est (154,
225). Put before those superlatives, however, and they will mean as
as possible, e.g.
c as quickly as possible
c as much as can be
c as many as possible
EXERC I S E
16C: 2. Turn these adjectives into superlatives with and translate:
(two possibilities), , , , , ,
, (two possibilities)

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297 298

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS E FOR SE C T I O N 16C


(b/c) morphology and syntax
Translate the following pairs of statements, then join into one sentence by the use
of acc. absolute:
a. /
.
b. /
.
c. /
.
d. v /
.

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298299

Grammar for Section 16D

323

Grammar for Section 16D


In this section you cover:
c or + subjunctive or optative

PURPOSE CLAUSES

298. We have already encountered one way of expressing purpose in a sentence: + future participle (251). Greek has another way of doing it: by
the subordinating conjunction or , in order that, in order to, to.
See what is going on in the following sentences:
(i) / he is coming in order that he
may persuade the men/in order to persuade the men/to persuade the men;
(ii) / he came in order that he might
persuade the men/in order to persuade the men/to persuade the men.
c In (i), the (or ) subordinate clause has its verb in the subjunctive (present or aorist);
c In (ii) in the optative (present or aorist). See 399, 407(i), 422(ii)(e).
299. This illustrates an extremely important principle, which we shall meet
again and again:

Subordinate clauses which take the subjunctive in primary sequence


(see 265) may take the optative in secondary sequence. See 306.

So here:
in (i), the main verb is present (primary sequence) therefore the subordinate clause is in the subjunctive;
in (ii) the main verb is past (secondary sequence) therefore the subordinate clause is in the optative.
Note the way in which English too (in theory at any rate) acknowledges
sequence, using may in primary and might in secondary.

A second principle is one with which we are already familiar: the subjunctive and optative moods are aspectual, not temporal (142, 165).

EXERCI S E
16D: 1. Go back to the exercise at 13AB: 3 and turn the purpose clauses there
into or + subjunctive or optative.

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299 300

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS E FOR SE C T I O N 16D


(d) english into greek
Translate into Greek:
1. Dont be downhearted, my friend.
2. Are you afraid that you will suffer again at the hands of these rogues?
3. Although Theophemos is obliged to hand over the gear, I cannot force
him to do this.
4. I shall go to the council, so that they may draft a decree.
5. I went to a friends house, to nd out where Theophemos lived.

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300

Grammar for Section 16E

325

Grammar for Section 16E


In this section you cover:
c Indenite clauses in secondary sequence

INDEFINITES IN SECONDARY SEQUENCE

300. We have already met subordinate clauses that use + subjunctive to give
an uncertainty or lack of precision to the clause, e.g. when(ever),
if (ever), who(ever) (cf. 282).
But these clauses were all in primary sequence. What if they were in secondary sequence? Examine the following:
/,
whenever he came, I left
/, whoever made this got it wrong
In other words, indenite subordinate clauses in secondary sequence:
c Omit
c Put the verb in the optative (but see 306)

Rule: if you meet a subordinate clause controlled by , ,


, () etc., and the verb is in the optative, treat it as indenite
(no would/should). See 407(iii), (v).

There are two subordinate clauses where this rule does not apply:
(a) , if
When is followed by an optative, check the main clause for signs of :
c If the verb of the main clause is in the optative with , you are dealing with a remote future condition (if X were to be the case, Y would
happen 241) cf. 407(vi);
c If not, you are dealing with an indenite conditional. Therefore translate the clause indenitely (e.g. if ever X happened, ), without
any would/should cf. 407(v).
(b) in reported speech
If you nd the main verb of a reported-speech -clause in the optative,
translate it as a normal indicative. The optative will be being used in place
of the indicative to report what was originally said e.g. /
he said that he would obey (265, 407(iv)).

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300

EXE RC I S E
16E: 1. Translate the following indenite clauses in primary sequence and turn
them into indenites in secondary sequence (remember to remove ).
Keep the same aspect of verb in the secondary sequence as there is in the
primary sequence:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 6 C E

(-)

(-)

,
(-)

,
,

(-)

brother (2a)
demand X (acc.) from (acc.)
be absent
help, rescue operation (1b)
propose (a decree); write
show
it being necessary
leave
it being permitted, possible
(+subj., opt.) in order to, that
common, shared
collect
from where
whenever
when (+opt.=whenever)
where (at)
property, wealth (1b)
hand over
prepare, equip
very much, most (sup. of )
(+dat.) in addition to, near
ships gear; gear, furniture (3c)
ally (2a)
serve as trierarch
reply, answer; obey (+dat.)
utter, mention, talk
apart; separately; (prep.) apart/separately from
(+gen.)
buy
(+sup.) as - as possible
so that, with the result that, consequently

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327

RE VI SION EX ERCIS E FOR S EC T I O N 16E


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the following sentences, then change from primary to secondary
sequence or vice-versa (remember to change both introductory and subordinate verbs):
a. , .
b. Eo .
c. ,
.
d. , .
2. Translate the following pairs of sentences:
a. (i) , .
(ii) , .
b. (i) .
(ii) , .
c. (i) .
(ii) , .
d. (i) , ,
.
(ii) ,
.
e. (i)
. (Plato, abridged)
(ii) ,
. (Xenophon)
Vocabulary
inf. of
collect, gather

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301

Grammar for Section 16F


In this section you cover:
c The perfect optative
c I am being captured

PERFECT OPTATIVE, ACTIVE AND MIDDLE/PASSIVE

301. You should by now consider it a routine task to construct the optative of the
perfect. One applies optative endings to a perfect stem:
Perfect optative active,
-
-
-
-
-
-
Alternatively:






Perfect optative middle/passive,






Usage

The perfect optative is just another optative which writers will use when they
feel like it, in contexts where optatives are used, e.g. indenite clauses, reported
speech, etc. It has to be said it is not very common. If you have an interest in
rare grammatical features, you may therefore like to watch out for an example in
order to add it to your collection.

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329

302. has the passive meaning be captured, found guilty and is rather
irregular. It needs careful learning:
I am being captured
(fut.) I will be captured
- (-) (aor.) I was captured
(perf.) I have been captured
The aorist is a root aorist (cf. 209) and keeps its all the
way through the indicative and subjunctive, like ( I get to
know, 209). Here are its other aorist forms, all compared with :
Participle
, stem - (cf. , -)
Innitive
(cf. )
Optative
(cf. )
Subjunctive
, , etc. (cf. , cf. 280)

EXERC I S E
16F: 1. Using , and as your pool, transform each of
the following forms into the equivalent form of the other two:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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303304

Grammar for Section 16G


In this section you cover:
c Jussive/Hortatory subjunctive
c until

LET US (SUBJUNCTIVE)

303. So far we have met the subjunctive only in subordinate clauses. But it can
be used as a main verb in its own right, when it has its own specic meaning. Look at the following:

let us wait
let us inquire
let us not be afraid
lets go

Usage

c As you can see, its use is restricted to the rst person, and virtually always
plural too;
c The subjunctive can be either present or aorist (its force is aspectual, not
temporal);
c It is called the jussive (Latin iubeo I order) or hortatory (Latin hortor
I urge, exhort) subjunctive. See 406(i), 422(i)(a).
EXE RC I S E
16G: 1. Turn the following plural imperatives into 1pl. jussive subjunctives, and
translate. Keep the same aspect of subjunctive as the imperative:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
UNTIL
304. Here is another use of the subjunctive + in a subordinate clause with an
indenite or imprecise outcome to it: , meaning until [such time
as]. Observe:

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Grammar for Section 16G

331

let us wait till [such time as] the


master returns (whenever that may be).
The implication behind this sense of until is that the time of the event awaited in
the until clause is viewed as being not entirely certain, or as lying in the indenite future (on indenite use of , see 283 cf. 398(ii)).
EXERC I S E
16G: 2. Turn the following clauses into indenite clauses with , and
translate indenitely (in the grammatical, not temporal, sense):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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305306

Grammar for Section 16H


In this section you cover:
c + optative

AGAIN
305. You have already met + subjunctive, meaning I fear that
something will/may happen (293). It should come as no surprise to see
what happens to the construction here:
he was afraid the army might not
come
Of course!
c The sequence is secondary, being past; and
c The verb in the subordinate clause therefore goes into the optative,
.

You have now met three constructions in which the verbs in subordinate clauses are in the subjunctive in primary sequence, and optative
in secondary sequence expressing purpose (2989), indenite
clauses (282, 300) and now with verbs of fearing. Cf. 400, 407(ii).

Warning

306. Be aware, however, that Greek usage in this respect is very exible. It is not
at all uncommon to nd Greek using the subjunctive instead of the more
normal optative in subordinate clauses in secondary sequence the socalled vivid use of the subjunctive.
EXE RC I S E
16H: 1. Turn these sentences from primary sequence into secondary, and vice
versa, and translate:
1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
5. , .

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Grammar for Section 16H

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 6 F H

,
(-)

(-)
,

,
(-)

,
,

(-)

(-),

(-)

lack of spirit, depression (1b)


be caught, convicted (aor. )
innocent
(+gen.) instead of, for
take
member of council (1d)
be in X (adv.) state, mood
prevent
twenty
impeachment (1b)
impeach
there
security, pledge (2b)
take to heart, be angry at
(+ dat.) at, on; for the purpose of
fair, reasonable, moderate
(+ subj.) until
ne, penalise, punish
least of all, no, not
ne (1a)
judgment, dispute, trial, decision (3e)
very, quite, virtually (cf. , )
send for, chase after
fair, moderate, reasonable
more (adv.)
lead on
collect, gather
mouth (3b)
agree with, to (+ dat.); yield to
conclude, infer
promise (to) (+ fut. inf.)
fear that/lest (+ subj./opt.)

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306 307

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 16F H


english into greek
1. Sentences
Translate into Greek:
1. The decree demanded that the trierarchs get back the gear in whatever
way was most easy for them.
2. Whenever the trierarchs came across someone not handing over the gear,
they went back to the council.
3. Let us stop travelling and sit down.
4. We shall stay here until we feel better.
5. Before returning home, let us sit down over there until the sun becomes
more tolerable.
2. Prose
Translate into Greek:
Since it was impossible to get the gear, the city was in great danger. So the
council had to do something, in order that we might equip a rescue-force of
triremes as soon as possible. I had gone to Theophemos house, but he was
not in. I was afraid that he would not hand over the gear. So Khairedemos
drafted a decree. And the trierarchs, whenever they came across someone
who would not give back the gear, showed him the decree.

test exercise 16
Translate into English:
Apollodoros claims that the defendant Polykles refused to take over from him
as trierach of a trireme, even though Polykles had been appointed as its jointtrierarch for the next year. The result was that he himself had to serve several
months overtime with the boat. Apollodoros relates what happened when he
rst tackled Polykles about the matter, in Thasos.
(From Demosthenes, Polykles, 2937)

,
,
,
,
.
, , ,
, .
. ,
.
Apollodoros gets no further on the next occasion either. Returning from
a voyage ordered by the general Timomakhos to Thasos, he decides to go

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306 307

Revision Exercises for Section 16FH

335

straight to the top and ensure the general himself is in attendance when he
tries to hand over the vessel formally to Polykles for the second time.
10

15

20

25


,
,
,
. ,
, , ,
,
; ,
,
. , ,
, ,

, .
.
,
o .

Vocabulary
, marine (1d)
, successor (2a)
serve overtime as trierarch
(-), expense (3b)
(+ indic.) while
perf. part. pass. of spend
object
challenge
, madness (1b)
, extravagance (1b)
(-) endure
private
(-), army (3b)
(+ dat.) the same as
provide
(fut. ) sail with
it is the business of (dat.)
, joint-trierarch (2a)

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307308

Grammar for Section 17A


In this section you cover:
c + optative until such time as
c ()

UNTIL + OPTATIVE
307. You will not be surprised to learn that until such time as, which took
+ subjunctive in primary sequence (see 304), should react differently in
secondary sequence:
we waited until he should come/for him to come
c In other words, until such time as joins a growing number of constructions in subordinate clauses that take + subjunctive in primary
sequence, and may take plain optative in secondary. Cf. 300, 398(ii),
407(iii).
EXE RC I S E
17A: 1. Transform sentences in primary sequence into secondary, and vice
versa, and translate. Maintain the aspect of the original verb:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

.
.
.
.
.

THE FINAL VERB: () RELEASE, LET GO, SHOOT

308. We have already met the - verbs:


c I give (214)
c I put/place (237)
c I set X up (2303)
We have also seen how their closely forms are related.
is no exception, and basically follows the pattern of . ,
the common compound, is used here. See 382, 426.

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308

Grammar for Section 17A

I release, let go
Present: stem -Active
Indicative
-
-
-()
-
-
-()

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Innitive
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Subjunctive
-
-
-
-
-
-()

Participle
- - - (--)

Middle/passive
Indicative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperative
-
-
-
-

Innitive
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Subjunctive
-
-
-
-
-
-

Participle
-- - -

Imperfect indicative active


-
-
-
-
-
-
Imperfect indicative middle/passive
-
-
-
-
-
-

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I release, let go (continued)


Aorist: stem - (note: the augmented form is -- or --)
Active
Optative
Subjunctive
Indicative
Imperative
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-()
(-)
Innitive
-

Participle
- - (-)

Aorist: stem - (note: the augmented form is -- or --)


Middle
Imperative
Optative
Subjunctive
Indicative
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Innitive
-

Participle
-- - -

Passive: stem -Imperative


Indicative
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Innitive
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Subjunctive
-
-
-
-
-
-()

Participle
- - - (--)

Future indicative active


- (regular, like -)
Future indicative middle
- (regular, like -)

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308

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Grammar for Section 17A

339

I release, let go (continued)


Future indicative passive
-- (regular, like --)
Perfect indicative active
- (regular, like -)
Perfect indicative middle/passive
- (regular, like -)
Form and compounds

(i)

The main stems of are - and - (- is the augmented/reduplicated


form).
c For - in the present and imperfect forms of , you will nd - in
.
c For - in the unaugmented aorist forms of , you will nd - in ;

BUT
c For augmented forms, you will nd the - of replaced by - or
-, e.g. > , > .
(ii) Common compounds of are I understand and I let
go of.
(iii) On - verbs in general, see Language Survey 4267.
EXERC I S E
17A: 2. Replace the forms of , and with the same form of
and (except for the optative and subjunctive) translate them both:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.

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308 309

E XERCIS E FOR S ECTION 1 7A


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these sentences. Say what each of the other choices of verb would
mean:
a. .
(///)
b. .
(///)
c. , ,
.
(/ : / : /
)
d.
.
(///)

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Grammar for Section 17B

341

Grammar for Section 17B


In this section you cover:
c + indicative while, until
c + subjunctive and + optative until
c ,

UNTIL, WHILE
309. We have already met meaning until such time as (304, 307). In those
cases, it took:
c Subjunctive + in primary sequence;
c Plain optative in secondary sequence (optionally).
It did so because there was a degree of uncertainty or indeniteness about
when the action of the until clause would be completed presumably
some time, but possibly never: we just did not know.
But when takes the indicative, it means:
c until (and the action of the until is known to be completed); or
c while.
Only the context will tell you which is correct, though it is usual that (in past
time) the until meaning will be conveyed by + aorist indicative, the
while meaning by + imperfect indicative (a useful lesson in aspect),
e.g.
he shouted until I told him to stop
he shouted while I stayed silent
let us wait while it is possible
Meaning and use

310. We now have a full hand with until, while and very instructive it is:

When it is used indenitely, it means until such time as [but we dont


know when, if ever] and takes subjunctive + in primary sequence
and may take plain optative in secondary;
When it is used denitely, i.e. we know the action of the subordinate clause is completed, it means until and takes the indicative;
It can also mean while, when it takes the indicative.

Now prepare for a similar phenomenon with .

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311313

UNTIL
311. We have already met . As a subordinating conjunction it took the inn.,
and meant before (252).
But with a different construction, it has a different meaning:
when is followed by + subjunctive (primary sequence) or optative
(secondary sequence cf. 300), it means until. In this sense it is used
indenitely. Thus:
I must not leave till I see
my wife [but I do not know whether I will or not].
c When is followed by the indicative, it also means until, but in
that case we know that the action of the until clause will have been
completed, e.g.
c they did not leave till I showed them
the road [and they did leave because I did actually show them the road].
Usage

312. (i) It is noticeable that when means until, it is very often preceded by
a negative clause (as in the two examples above).
(ii) It is worth noting now that, especially in poetry, sometimes drops
out of indenite constructions in primary sequence with the subjunctive.
But you still have the subjunctive to cling on to, telling you that this is an
indenite usage. (In general, see 421(iii), 422(ii), 423 and cf. 407.)
EXE RC I S E
17B: 1. What meaning, or meanings, would you assign to the following and
clauses, and why?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Which of these clauses might change in poetry, and how?
/ TREAT, BE TREATED
313. means I dispose, I treat someone in a certain way; to express its
passive form Greek normally uses I am treated, disposed in a
certain way (cf. 238). Here, then, is in the (thankfully) limited forms
that are found:

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Grammar for Section 17B

343

I lie, am placed
Present
Indicative Participle
-
-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-

Innitive

Imperative

-
-
-
-

Optative
-
-
-
-
-
-

Imperfect indicative
--
--
--
--
--
--
Future
- (like -)

EXERC I S E
17B: 2. Give the forms of parallel to those of and translate
both (where possible):
1.
2.
3.
4. (two meanings)
5.

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313 314

E XERCIS E FOR S ECTION 1 7B


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate the following sentences:
a. .
b. .
c. , .

.
d. , ,
.
e. ,
.
2. Complete these sentences by inserting the correct word from the brackets.
Then translate:
a. (/) .
b. (/)
.
c. (/)
.
d. (/) (/
) .

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Grammar for Section 17C

345

Grammar for Section 17C


In this section you cover:
c clauses so as to, so that + indicative and innitive
c Numerals

RESULT CLAUSES

314. Subordinate clauses of purpose ( and , in order to, + subjunctive


or optative) state what peoples intentions are in carrying out any activity
(2989). -based subordinate clauses focus on the consequences or
results of an action.
consequently

We have already met used as a co-ordinating conjunction (a conjunction


that links clauses together, like and, but, however, and so on): in this usage,
it appears at the start of sentence, meaning consequently, as a result. But it can
also introduce a subordinate clause:
so as to

315. In this usage, takes the innitive, e.g.


c they are nding a plan so as [for
themselves] to escape (or an escape-plan);
c His friends
found a plan [so as] for Socrates [change of subject] to escape.
In both cases it is not clear what the result actually was, only that it was one
that could be expected to happen. Note the change of subject in the accusative rule (253).
so that

316. In this usage, takes the indicative, e.g.


c they found a plan so that they escaped.
This produces an actual result: they actually did escape, and the end result
was achieved.
so that

317. Frequently, is preceded by () so (or by words such as


so great, of such a sort, so many). This construction
forms what is called a result or consecutive clause:

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c he is so foolish that
he hopes to escape;
c he is so foolish as to
hope to escape;
c Socrates is of
such a sort that he does not wish to/so as not to wish to escape Socrates
is the sort of person not to wish to escape (note the negative ).
There is sometimes a very ne distinction between the force of the clauses
taking the innitive and those taking the indicative, and it is often not possible to
make as clear a distinction as we have done. See 396.
NUMERALS

318. Here is a summary of the basic information required to work out Greek
numerals:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
3090
100
200900
1,000
10,000

Cardinals

Ordinals

Adverbs

(one, two etc.)


()
-

-- -
- -
- -

(rst, second etc.)


- - -
- - -
- - -
- (etc.)

(once, twice etc.)

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Grammar for Section 17C

347

n Form

All ordinals, and cardinals in the 100s and above, decline in full like - -
-, or - - -.
One, two, three, four

319. The declension of one, two, three, four is as follows:


one
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-

two
m./f./n.

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
three
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

()

n.

()

four
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

()

n.

()

Duals

320. Note the genitive and dative plural of . This ending is a


special form known as the dual, used when nouns feature in pairs. We
shall meet it fully in Section 18.

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320 321

E XERCIS E FOR 17C


(b/c) morphology and syntax
1. Translate these sentences, then convert indicative to innitive in the
clauses and translate the new versions:
a. o
.
b.
.
c. .
d.
.

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Grammar for Section 17D

349

Grammar for Section 17D


In this section you cover:
c Aorist passive imperatives
c Root aorist imperatives
c Middle verbs which take passive forms in the aorist

AORIST PASSIVE IMPERATIVES BE STOPPED!

321. The forms of the aorist passive imperative depend on the aorist passive
stems (228) and are as follows:
2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

-
-
-
-

be stopped!
let him be stopped!
be stopped!
let them be stopped!

n Alternatively

Note that the base 2s. form is -, e.g. - lie down!. But two aspirates so close together () are dissimilated into .
ROOT AORIST IMPERATIVES

322. Observe the similarities between the forms of the aorist passive imperatives
and the imperatives of the root aorists (209, 232[d]):

2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

I got to know
- know!
-
-
-

I went
- go!
-
-
-

I stood
- stand!
-
-
-

THE IMPERATIVE OF I SAY

323. Learn the imperative of I say:


2s.
3s.
2pl.
3pl.

- say!
-
-
-

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323324

Now revise aorist imperatives as a whole (1989).


EXE RC I S E
17D: 1. Turn these active into passive imperatives, and translate:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
17D: 2. Turn s. into pl. and vice-versa
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
MIDDLES WHICH ADOPT AORIST PASSIVE FORMS

324. Many middles become passive in form (but NOT in meaning) in the aorist.
Learn the following list (and cf. 413[v]):








*

*

I wished
I was able
I begged
I knew
I found pleasure in
I remembered
I conversed
I thought
I feared
I rejoiced
I grew angry

* These forms, which we translate as middle in English are in fact passive in Greek, I am being
frightened, I am being angered.

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325328

Grammar for Section 17E

351

Grammar for Section 17E


In this section you cover:
c Deliberative subjunctives
c
c Correlatives

DELIBERATIVE QUESTIONS WHAT AM I TO?

325. When a person deliberates with himself on a topic, it tends to take the form
in English What am I to say/think/do etc. Look carefully at the following:
; Where am I to turn?
;
What is to become of me? (lit. am I to become)?
;
What is [any]one to say? (where one really = I)
c As you can see, the question-word is followed by a subjunctive, called
the deliberative subjunctive. It appears most commonly in the rst
person singular or plural.
Deliberatives with

326. This deliberative construction with the subjunctive sometimes appears


after , e.g.
c ;

Do you wish me to say this? (lit. [that] I should


say this?)
c ; Do you wish me to do this? (lit. [that] I should
do this?)
(N.B. is 1st person aor. subj., not future!)
(Cf. in general 405, 406(ii), 422(i)(b))

as deliberative

327. means basically I use, treat or I have to do with (+ dat.). It is


used quite often as a deliberative (in the subjunctive) to mean what am I to
do with ? e.g.
c ; What am I to do with myself?
CORRELATIVES

328. You have already met the sentence: o


For I do not hate these as (so) much as I like myself.

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328

Note the parallel of as/so much with as. In the same way, Greek
pairs such words as of such a sort with of what sort, as;
so great/many with how great/many, as, e.g.
c () There is not to me a letter of
such a sort of what sort there is to you, i.e. I do not have a letter of the sort
that you have;
c () he did not speak as many
words [as] how many you [spoke] as many words as you.
S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 7

,
+ dat.



(-)
(-)
,
(-)

(-)

(-)
,
(-)
,
(-)
(-)

(-)
(-)
(-)
,

(-),
,
,
(-)

messenger (2a)
follow, accompany
otherwise; in vain
necessary
foolish
announce, report
forbid
reply, answer (3e)
carry back
seize, plunder, snatch
courtyard (1a)
at once
release, let go
discuss, take advice
ten
dispose, put X in Y (adv.) state
delay; pastime; discussion; way of life (1a)
get away, ee
ne; case; justice (1a)
break open; throw out
pay
carry off
place in, put in
order
attack
year (3c)
(+opt.) until
servant (3a)
maidservant (1c)
doctor (2a)
carry down

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Grammar for Section 17E

S U M M A RY L E A R N I N G VO C A B U L A RY F O R S E C T I O N 1 7

(continued)


(-)

(-)

(-)


(-),

,
,


(-)
,

lie, be placed, be made


be in danger, run risk, be likely to
close, shut
left, remaining
remember, mention
be off, depart
where
charge, set off, make a move
be present, turn up at (+dat.)
lie beside, be placed beside (+dat.)
fty
drink
faithful, trustworthy, reliable
nearby
shepherd (3a)
older, rather old
(+opt.) until
(+subj.) until
sheep (2b)
summon, call (aor. part. pass. )
previous, of previous day
(+dat.) near; in addition to
tower (2a)
very easy
beat up, strike (aor. pass., )
discuss with (+dat.)
share enthusiasm of (+dat.)
very much, exceedingly
die, end, nish
value, reckon; honour
nurse (1a)
bank; table (1c)
remaining
next day
carry; bear, endure; lead
murder (2a)
bronze
yesterday
thousand
soul, life (1a)

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353

354

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

328 329

RE VIS ION EX ERCIS ES FOR SE C T I O N 17


(d) english into greek
1. Sentences
Translate into Greek:
1. The maidservants did not wait until they were caught.
2. They didnt stop carrying furniture out of the house until they had grabbed
everything.
3. They were taking off my son, until a neighbour told them that he was the
child of a citizen, and not a slave.
4. I was angry that the rogues had put my nurse into such poor condition that
she was actually in danger of her life.
5. They were disdainful enough to enter my house and carry out my furniture.
2. Prose
Translate into Greek:
My wife got angry and said, Do not seize this furniture. Have you not already
got fty sheep? Wait for a while; you must not go off till my husband returns.
They took no notice of my wifes words, but took everything and left. A messenger came to the Piraeus to tell me what had happened. When I heard the
news, I risked being angry enough to strike Theophemos myself. But I went
to him the next day and ordered him to follow me to the bank, to collect the
money which was deposited.

text exercise 17
Translate into English:
Socrates and Phaidros are taking a walk at midday, when most people take a
nap. Socrates tells the story of the cicadas and their close connection with the
Muses to explain his reasons for feeling that philosophic discussion should be
the order of the day.
(From Plato, Phaidros 258e259d)

10

, , .
,
.
,
,
,
.
,
, .
; . , ,
.

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328 329

Revision Exercises for Section 17

355

;
, ,
. ,
.
,
,
, .
,
, ,
, ,
,
.
.
.

15

20

25 AI.
Vocabulary

(-), cicada (3a)


, midday (la)
bewitch
, laziness (1b)
, fountain (1a)
uncharmed
cf.
them
conceal
unaware (of) (+gen.)
it is tting
perf. inf. of
, song, singing (1a)
aor. pass. of astound
neglect (+gen.)
, drink (2b)
, nourishment (1a)

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329331

Grammar for Section 18


In this section you cover:
c Deliberatives in secondary sequence
c + participle as one who
c Duals

DELIBERATIVES AGAIN

329. When a deliberative question is reported in indirect speech (e.g. he wondered what he was to do) the question may be followed by the optative in
secondary sequence, e.g.
(direct) ; What device am I to nd?
(indirect) He did not know what device
[he was] to nd (cf. 405).
+ PARTICIPLE BECAUSE, AS
330. (xed form) means as [one who] or because and is followed by a
participle, e.g.
. . . lit. because (as) not being too smart.
Translate literally at rst, and then turn the participle into an indicative, e.g.
because he was not too smart
(On participles in general, see 393.)
DUALS

331. When a verb has two people or things as its subject, or when a noun or
adjective represents two people or things, the words can adopt a special
form known as the dual.
Verbs

Verbs are restricted to duals in 2pl. you two, you both, the two of you and 3pl.
they both, the two/both of them only.
n Regular endings

The dual endings are as follows:

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Grammar for Section 18

Active
2pl.
3pl.

357

Middle/passive

you two -
they both - (primary sequence)
- (secondary)

-
- (primary sequence)
- (secondary)

You will nd these endings replacing whatever the non-dual form of the appropriate tense and mood would be. So:
- you (pl.) will stop
>
they cease
>
- they stopped
>
- you ceased
>
- they cease (aor. opt. mid.) >

- you two will stop


- they both cease
- they both stopped
- you both ceased
- they both cease

Dual forms of
Indicative:

Subjunctive:
Optative:

you/they two are


you two were
they two were

Nouns/adjectives

332. Nouns and adjectives too have dual forms, referring to two people or
things. They are as follows:
1st and 2nd declension nouns and adjectives
pl.
Nom./acc.
Gen./dat.

m.
-
-

f.
-
-

n.
-
-

m.

f.
,
/

n.

Denite article
pl.
Nom./acc.
Gen./dat.
For example:
c the wise men (nom.) becomes the
two wise men (nom.)

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332

c the wise men (acc.) becomes


the two wise men (acc.)
c of the wise men (gen.) becomes
of the two wise men (gen.)
3rd declension nouns and adjectives
pl.
Nom./acc.
Gen./dat.

m.
-
-

f.
-
-

n.
-
-

For example:
c the wise women (nom.) becomes the
two wise women (nom.)

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Grammar for Section 19

359

Grammar for Section 19


In this section you cover:
c Herodotus dialect
c Accusative of respect
c I say that not, I deny

THE DIALECT OF HERODOTUS

333. The Greek world was not politically unied, but consisted of about 1500
autonomous city-states like Athens, Sparta, Thebes and so on. Up till
the 4thC BC, each city-state tended to have its own dialect and alphabet.
Here are the main features of the dialect of Herodotus, who came from the
Greek-speaking city of Halikarnassos (modern Bodrum) on the west coast
of Turkey. Since the region was called Ionia, the dialect is called Ionic:
(a) Herodotus may have where Attic has (especially after , , ), e.g.
(Attic ). This phenomenon is called etacism.
Give the Attic form for: , .
(b) Herodotus uses for Attic , e.g. (Attic ).
Give the Attic form for: , .
(c) Herodotus can have:
for e.g. (Attic );
for e.g. (Attic );
for e.g. (Attic );
Give the Attic form for: , .
(d) Herodotus may not contract verbs, nor nouns with in the stem, e.g.

(Attic )

(Attic )

(Attic )

(Attic )

(Attic )
(e) can change to , giving e.g.
(for o, Attic )
(for Attic )
(for , Attic )
Give the Attic form for: o, , , .
(f) Herodotus uses - for the gen. s. of 1d nouns (e.g. , not ),
and - for the gen. pl. of all type 1 nouns, e.g. , not .
Give the Attic form for: .

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333335

(g) Herodotus uses - in the dat. pl. of type 1/2 adjectives and nouns, e.g.
(Attic )
(Attic )
Give the Attic form for: , .
(h) Except for , Herodotus uses the form of the denite article in place of
the relative, e.g. (Attic ).
(i) Herodotus often omits aspiration in composition (i.e. words with prexes, etc.), e.g.
(Attic )

(Attic )
Some important Herodotean forms

334. Here are some forms you will meet regularly:


Herodotus

()
()
()

Attic
therefore
being
himself
myself
of what sort
when
how
him, her (acc.)
to him, to her (dat.)

no comparable Attic form


rare in Attic

n Warning

It should be stressed that these are general rules, applying to most instances; that
some of them illustrate simply alternative forms; and that the rules are in fact
far more complex than they are made to seem here (which is why you will be able
to spot what look like inconsistencies).
ACCUSATIVE OF RESPECT

335. You have already met in the sense why?, when it was explained that
the literal meaning in this context was in respect of what? (147). This use
of the accusative to mean in respect of is very common, especially after
adjectives, and should be carefully looked for, e.g.
not pure in respect of his hands (i.e. with impure
hands);

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Grammar for Section 19

361

disabled in respect of his hearing (i.e. deaf).


This construction is very common in poetry, and Homer is full of examples, e.g.
Achilles, swift in respect of his feet (i.e. swiftfooted).

336. Observe that means I say that x is not the case (cf. Latin nego),
e.g.
Croesus said that he would not
send his son Croesus denied that he would send his son.
c In other words, does mean I do not say that .

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337338

Grammar for Section 20


In this section you cover:
c Homeric dialect
c Homeric hexameters
HOMERIC DIALECT AND SYNTAX

337. Homer, who lived somewhere on or off the west coast of Turkey, used a
uniquely mixed dialect, developed over hundreds of years by oral poets
who handed it down from generation to generation of poets; so it was never
used in everyday speech. Its main purpose was to enable the poet to compose hexameter poetry orally, without the use of writing. This explains why
so many different variations are available to the poet (see e.g. [e]!). Note
the following highly characteristic features:
(a) lack of augment = ; = ;
(b) dative plurals in -, - e.g. , ;
(c) dative plural appears as , ; so all type 1(a) (b) and (c) nouns
(e.g. );
(d) genitive singular in -oo e.g. ; and in -o, -, in place of - of
1d types;
(e) innitives in -, -, - (e.g. o = o). Note
, , , = ; () = ;
(f) use of to mean to him, her, and meaning to you (2s.);
(g) denite articles , appear also as o, ;
(h) presence of where Attic has or , e.g. = ; =
;
(i) use of denite article to mean he, she, it, they;
(j) tmesis, i.e. the splitting of the prex of a verb from the verb with
which it is (in Attic) normally joined, e.g. =
o he addressed a word;
(k) (, ) is used in place of .
(l) forms identical with the denite article being used as relative pronouns.
n Warning

It should be stressed that the above list does not represent a series of hard-andfast rules, which will always apply; the examples given are the most important
alternative forms that Homer uses. 34952 contains a fuller list of features of
Homeric dialect.
THE HOMERIC HEXAMETER

338. Like the iambic trimeter of tragedy (see 2878), the Homeric hexameter is
made up of long and short syllables according to the xed hexameter pattern:

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338339

Grammar for Section 20

363

(a) Number of feet


There are six feet in a hexameter
(b) Dactyls and spondees
Each foot consists of either a dactyl or a spondee
Dactyl
A dactyl scans: (longshortshort, tum-ti-ti)
Spondee
A spondee scans: (long-long, tum-tum).
(c) The hexameter pattern
(i) the first four feet can be either dactyl or spondee;
(ii) the fifth foot is usually a dactyl;
(iii) the sixth foot is always a spondee if we assume a nal syllable is
always treated as long.
Thus a Homeric hexameter can be visually expressed as follows:
1


or


or


or


or

or

6
or
()

Special features of Homeric scansion

339. The rules for identifying long and short feet metrically are largely the
same as for the iambic trimeter (see 28890). But there are some peculiar
features of Homeric scansion, of which the three most important are as
follows:
(a) Correption
Correption occurs when a naturally long vowel/diphthong at the end of a
word becomes short because the next word begins with a vowel, e.g.


(b) The inuence of digamma ()
Digamma is a consonant pronounced like English w. By classical times
the letter 364

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364

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

339

(c) Effects of metre on the language


The pattern of the dactylspondee rhythm of the Homeric hexameter imposes
certain limitations and makes some words unusable. Homer gets round this by a
number of devices:
(i) words which are naturally long-short-long are scanned long-long-long,
e.g.


is scanned .
(ii) words which are naturally short-short-short have the rst element lengthened, e.g.


unwearied


man (acc.)
(iii) the use of alternative forms, e.g. dative in - (long-short) rather than -
-
(short-short) e.g. or , etc.
(iv) in some cases one is given a choice whether to scan dactyl or spondee,
e.g.
or /
slayer of Argos (epithet for Hermes)
/
Here are the rst ve lines of the Homer extract scanned:



/
/ / /
/,

/
/

//. /


/ /
/

/

/
/

/

/


/

/


/
/,
/

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Introduction to writing in Greek

365

Introduction to writing in Greek

In the ENGLISH INTO GREEK Exercises you will practise translating English
sentences into Greek. To get you started on this, bear in mind the following tips:
n Do not rush into translating look carefully at the WHOLE sentence in English.
n First translate the guide-sentence in Greek which precedes the one you have
to translate from English into Greek. This has the same general shape as the
sentence you will be writing. Use it to guide the shape of your sentence.
n Remember that Greek will often use just one word where English will use
several, e.g. you are going is translated by one word, .
n Think about the English sentence in terms of SUBJECT, VERB, and OBJECT.
n Remember, when turning the English SUBJECT and OBJECT into Greek,
that it is vital to get the endings right in Greek simply putting the Greek in
the same order as the English will not get the meaning across. SUBJECTS
will go into the NOM. case, OBJECTS into the ACC.
n You will have to check carefully on the NUMBER of the subject (s. or pl.),
and make sure the verb corresponds to it (but remember that n. pl. subjects
take s. verbs: see 35).
n Check also the number and gender (m., f., or n.) of nouns and make certain
that any def. art. or adjective going with a noun agrees with it in CASE,
NUMBER, and GENDER.
So, work through these points for the following sentence:
Guide-sentence: .
Translate: The men see [the] Hegestratos.
Your sentence for translation into Greek: The friends pursue the man.
What is the SUBJECT? (It is the friends)
What is Greek for friend? (It is )
What gender is ? (M.)
So what form of the will you need? (Some form of )
What CASE does this need to be in your sentence?
How many friends? (More than one you need the pl.)
So how do you translate the friends here?
What is the VERB? (It is pursue)
What is the Greek for I pursue? (It is )
What form do you need? (It is the third person pl.)
So what is pursue here?
Does this VERB have an OBJECT (remember, not all verbs have objects)?
What is the OBJECT? (It is the man)
What is Greek for the man?
Make sure that the agrees with man.
What CASE does this need to be in your sentence?
How many men?
So what is the man here?

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366

Grammar, Vocabularies and Exercises for Sections OneTwenty

Putting it all together look at the guide-sentence to structure your sentence.


The sentence should be:
.
Introduction to Greek to English Test Exercises

In the TEST EXERCISES you will translate passages of continuous Greek without the help from vocabulary or grammar. Here are some tips to get you started:
n Do not rush into translating look carefully at the WHOLE of a sentence
before you start writing.
n Remember that you need to look at the ENDINGS of words to nd out their
role in the sentence you cant simply read the meaning of the sentence from
the left-to-right order of the words.
n Pay attention to the def. arts. in a sentence (they tell you the GENDER,
CASE, and NUMBER of their nouns).
n Analyse Greek sentences into SUBJECT, VERB, and OBJECT.
Now apply these lessons to a sentence:
.
n Read through the whole sentence rst.
n Read through the sentence again carefully:
n what is this? (def. art. there should be a noun it AGREES with
nearby)
N What gender, case, number? (m., acc., pl.)
N Hold this information in your head. So far our sentence goes The
[objects, m.]
n what is this? (particle)
N What does it mean? (so: it will probably be the rst word in English)
N Hold this in your head too. So far our sentence goes So the [objects, m.]
n what is this? (noun)
N What gender, case, number? (m., acc., pl.)
N Where have you seen this combination of gender, case, and number? (in
the article just now so probably goes with )
N What does it mean? (men)
N Is it likely to be SUBJECT or OBJECT? (Object, because it is ACC.) So
far our sentence goes So the men [object]
n what is this? (verb)
N What person and number? (third person pl.)
N What does it mean? (they [or people later specied in the sentence] pursue)
N Hold this too. So far our sentence goes So the men [obj.] they pursue.
Is it the men who are pursuing? No. The men are the OBJECT, not the
subject. So in English, at the moment, the sentence means So they are
pursuing the men.

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Introduction to writing in Greek

367

n what is this (def. art. plus noun)


N What gender, case, number? (m., nom., s.)
N What does it mean? (the captain)
N Is it likely to be SUBJECT or OBJECT? (Subject, because it is NOM.,
but it is also S., while the verb, , is PL. But remember there
could be a further person specied in the sentence who, together with
, makes up the subject.) So far our sentence goes So the men
[obj.] they pursue the captain [subj.]
n what is this? (and)
N And what? So far our sentence goes So the men [obj.] they pursue the
captain [subj.] and
n what is this? (def. art. plus noun)
N What gender, case, number? (m., nom., s.)
N What does it mean? ([the] Sdenothemis)
N Is it likely to be SUBJECT or OBJECT? (Subject, because it is NOM., but
it is also S., when the verb, is PL. But we have just seen ,
and, connecting and )
n So, what is the SUBJECT? ( )
n What is the OBJECT? ( )
n What is the VERB? ()
n Putting all of this together, the sentence means, the captain and [the]
Sdenothemis [SUBJECTS] chase [VERB] the men [OBJECT].
n Are there any words you have left out? (yes, )
n It is a particle meaning so.
n With the whole sentence means:
n So the helmsman and [the] Sdenothemis chase the men.
You can now see why ancient Greek is so good for the brain and for the understanding of the workings of language. You have to pay close attention to every
word. The rewards of this way of thinking about what you are saying and how
you are saying it will be immense.

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B Reference Grammar

PRELIMINARIES

Some denitions
(i) Aspect

340. This refers to the way in which a verb form suggests that the reader should
look at the action. The clearest example of aspect can perhaps be best
seen in Greeks use of the imperfect and aorist to refer to action in the
past: the imperfect suggests that the action should be viewed as continuing, as a process, the aorist suggests that it simply took place as an event.
Participles, innitives, imperatives, optatives and subjunctives are virtually always differentiated in their present and aorist forms by aspect, not
by time. Their present forms suggest that the action should be viewed as
continuing, a process; their aorist forms suggest that the action should be
viewed as simply happening, an event.
(ii) Change of subject in the accusative

In clauses which take a verb in the innitive or participle, the subject is placed in
the accusative if it is different from that of the main verb, e.g.
I know that you are foolish
we used to consider the Greeks to
be/that the Greeks were children
(iii) Sequence

Primary sequence means that the main verb is present, future or perfect; secondary (or historic) sequence means that the main verb is aorist, imperfect or
pluperfect. Sequence plays an important part in determining whether the subjunctive or optative is available for use in certain constructions.
(iv) Voice and mood

Voice is the term used to indicate the relationship between the subject of a verb
and the action, i.e. active, middle or passive; while mood indicates the function
in which the verb is used, i.e. whether it is indicative, imperative, subjunctive or
optative, to which are added the innitive and participle.

369

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370

Reference Grammar

341342

THE GREEK ALPHABET

341. Before the fourth century there were many forms of the Greek alphabet in use
in different cities. After 403 Athens and eventually most other cities adopted
the so-called Ionic form of the alphabet, which is the one in use today.
One important letter which does not appear in the Ionic alphabet is the
digamma (). This was originally the sixth letter of the alphabet (cf. English
fF), and had the value of English w. The Attic and Ionic dialects lost the
sound at prehistoric date, and consequently the letter was not used in their
alphabets. Other dialects maintained the sound, and the letter continued in
use in these dialects down to the adoption of the Ionic alphabet in the fourth
century. After this, traces of digamma are found, sometimes represented
by Greek , e.g. a Hellenistic text writes root in Sapphic dialect as
, using the to represent the digamma which Sappho used ().
The importance of the digamma lies in the fact that Homeric scansion may
react to it as if it were still there. Thus one would expect, for example,
in Homer to elide into ; but no, for it was originally ,
starting with a consonant. (See further notes on Homeric metre in the
Running Grammar 3389.)
ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION

342. Here is a more detailed guide to the sound of ancient Greek on the assumption of a standard English pronunciation of the examples:
Greek
capital

Greek
English
Pronunciation (recommended)
minuscule transcription
used in this
course1

(when
long)

(alpha)

(beta)

(gamma)
(delta)

(epsilon)

(zeta)

English cup (Italian amare)

b
g

English calm (Italian amare)


as (more correctly, with at the end)
English high
English how
as (with rst element long)
as English b
English got; before , , , as ink or song

d
e

French d (with tongue on teeth, not gums)


English pet

sd

English ance (German Beet)


Cockney belt (Italian eulogia)
English wisdom

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Phonetic
transcription2

[a]
[a:]
[a:i]
[ai]
[au]
[a:u]
[b]
[gn;]
[d]
[e]
[e:]
[eu]
[zd]

342

Greek
capital

Greek
English
Pronunciation (recommended)
minuscule transcription
used in this
course1

(eta)

(theta)

(long)

English man
English net
English box
English pot (or German Gott)

[m]
[n]
[ks]
[o]

p
r
s

English boy
English too
English spin
Scottish rolled r
English sing, lesson

[oi]
[u:]
[p]
[r]
[s]

t
u, y

t (with tongue on teeth, not gums)


u, as in French lune (German Mller)

[t]
[y]

(khi)

kh

(psi)

(omega)

ps
o

(long)

[:]
[:i]
[:u]
[th]

m
n
x

Phonetic
transcription2

k
l

th

371

English hairy (French tte)


as (more correctly, with at the end)
as (with rst element long)
English top (emphatically pronounced; later, as
in thin)
English bit (French Vitesse)
English bead
English skin
English left

(iota)

(kappa)

(lambda)
(mu)
(nu)
(xi)

(omicron)

(pi)
(rho)
,
(sigma)3
(tau)

(upsilon)

(phi)

Reference Grammar

ph

[i]
[i:]
[k]
[l]

u, as in French ruse (German Mhle)


close to French huit
English pot (emphatically pronounced; later, as
in fear)
English cat (emphatically pronounced; later, as
in loch)
English lapse
English saw

[y:]
[yi]
[ph]

As (more correctly, with at the end)

[:i]

[kh]
[ps]
[:]

1 See also notes at 454.


2 IPA system, in which : adds length; th, ph, kh mean aspirated t, p, k.
3 Most Greek texts use two forms of minuscule sigma: at the end of the word, elsewhere (e.g. ).
Some Greek texts print a lunate sigma, c, which is used in all positions (e.g. cc).

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372

Reference Grammar

343

Double consonants

343. (i) , , and indicate a double consonant:


is written for
is written for
is written for
Double consonants are given their full value in pronunciation, e.g.
is pronounced as in hip-pocket
is pronounced as in rat-trap
is pronounced as in disservice
is pronounced as in wholly (cf. holy).
The exception is , which is pronounced as in nger; and so too [as in
ink], [as in lynx] and [as in inkhorn]. It is debated whether was
pronounced hangman.
Vowel length

(ii) Vowels do not always indicate a distinction of length (or quantity):


, o always indicate a short vowel
, always indicate a long vowel
, , are used for both long and short vowels. In this Course the main
vocabularies and tables indicates long vowels thus:
Breathing marks

(iii) Words beginning with a vowel show a breathing mark over the rst (sometimes the second) letter, either or e.g.
(oros)
(horos)
The rough breathing, , denotes the presence of h.
The smooth breathing, , is merely a convention to denote the absence of h.
Note that all words beginning with take a rough breathing, e.g. (rhetor).
This may have indicated a special pronunciation.
Accents

(iv) You will already have noticed that Greek words have accent marks, i.e.
(acute), (grave), (circumex). These denote the musical pitch at which the
accented syllable was pronounced high pitch (), low pitch (), high pitch
falling to low (: originally written as a combination of acute + grave, . This
accent is found only on long vowels, and diphthongs).
There is no reason why you should not attempt to pitch the accent, but you will
nd it fairly difcult to do without constant care and attention. English speakers
naturally stress syllables. If you cannot pitch, then you must stress the accented

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343

Reference Grammar

373

syllable, even though this may obscure the accent which is being used (whether ,
or ). Learn the word with its accent as part of its pronunciation. That is why the
accent is there.
For a fuller, though by no means complete, account of Greek methods of
accentuation, see 3448.
Punctuation

(v) There are four punctuation marks in Greek, though we have used some
English ones in places to ease reading. The four Greek marks are:
. full stop, as in English
, comma, as in English
colon or semicolon (note that is placed slightly above the line)
; question-mark
Ancient conventions

(vi) Now the truth must be told that a fth-century Greek would hardly have recognised a single one of all these conventions you have just learnt. Fifth-century
Greeks wrote in CAPITAL LETTERS, with NOGAPSBETWEENWORDS,
with NO ACCENTS, with NO SMOOTH BREATHINGS and virtually NO
PUNCTUATION.4 All these conventions sprang up later, some very much
later indeed. Modern Greek continues to use most of them.
Smoothing the gaps

(vii) Greeks generally liked their language to run smoothly, and to achieve this
they regularly ran words together, or modied their endings (as we do too,
e.g. isnt for is not, were for we are, Tom n Jerry for Tom and
Jerry):
(a) , , ; ,

4 Consequently the act of reading for an ancient Greek must have required a high level of intelligence and concentration, especially since the endings of the words are so crucial for meaning. It
is bad enough in English: here is a translated extract from Platos Republic:
FARLESSIAGREESOWECANTHAVEHOMERSAYINGOFTHEGODSANDAFITOFHELPLE
SSLAUGHTERSEIZEDTHEHAPPYGODSASTHEYWATCHEDHEPHAESTUSBUSTLINGU
PANDDOWNTHEHALLYOURARGUMENTWOULDNTALLOWTHATCALLITMYARGUM
ENTIFYOULIKEHEREPLIEDINANYEVENTWECANTALLOWITANDSURELYWEMUSTV
ALUETRUTHFULNESSHIGHLY,
and so on.
The Greek looked roughly as follows:
KO

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374

Reference Grammar

343

Notice the changes that the Greek for no(t) undergoes in response to its
environment:
Dikaiopolis does not go to

Dikaiopolis is not in . . .

Dikaiopolis does not see the

Rules: before a consonant


before a vowel with no h sound (unaspirated)
before a vowel with an h sound (aspirated).

On the same principle, out of changes to before a vowel, e.g.


out of the boat
out of Athens
(b) -moveable
The letter - is used at the end of some words to smooth over hiatus, i.e.
the awkward transition between two vowels, one ending a word and the next
beginning a word, or at the end of sentences. It is found in:
c Most words ending in , including - and -, e.g. (), (),
()
c All third person verbs ending in , e.g. ()
c ()
e.g. they go towards ; ; they go into
; they go [full stop]. For other consonantal changes, see 359.
Transcribing Greek

(viii) For the principles of transcription of names from Greek into English, see
342 above and, for the traditional Latinate method, see 454.
Alphabet poem

(ix) The following poem was composed by the fth-century poet Kallias:

, , , ,

, , , , , , ,

,

, , , , , , ,

, .

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344345

Reference Grammar

375

ACCENTUATION

General remarks5

344. Accent-marks were invented about the third century. Their purpose was to
indicate the musical pitch of the syllable on which the accent was placed.
There are three accents:

the acute
the grave
the circumex

(high pitch)
` (low pitch, or perhaps a falling of the voice)
(high pitch falling to low)

Most Greek words have their own accent, which has to be learnt with the
word. Observe the differing accents on:
, , , .
In nouns and adjectives, the accent is persistent that is, it nearly
always stays where it occurs in its dictionary form unless forced to
move or change by the rules of accent which follow. You must learn
where the accent falls when you learn the word.

In verbs, accentuation is almost entirely predictable: a basic grasp of the rules


of accentuation will give you almost complete mastery over all verb accents.

The position of the accent

345. If a word has an accent, it will fall on one of the last three syllables. The
following diagram shows you where it is possible for accents to fall:

Acute
Circumex
Grave

Third syllable back


(antepenultimate)
yes
no
no

Second Syllable back


(penultimate)
yes
yes
no

Last syllable
(ultimate)
yes
yes
yes

ach of these accents has a technical name, by which you may nd it denoted:
Third-last
proparoxytone

Acute:
Circumex:
Grave:

Second-last
paroxytone

properispomenon

Last
oxytone

perispomenon

` barytone

5 This is a basic introduction to a big topic. Readers wishing to take it further are strongly advised to
buy Philomen Probert, A New Short Guide to the Accentuation of Ancient Greek (Bristol Classical
Press, 2003), a brilliant introduction, complete with exercises and discussion of difcult issues.

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376

Reference Grammar

346347

(i) The acute

346. Observe the following principles:

The acute can fall on any of the last three syllables.

(i) If the last syllable has a long vowel or diphthong, the accent can fall only on
the last two, e.g.
, .
(ii) If the acute falls on the last syllable, it will become grave when followed by
another word in the same sentence (unless a comma, full-stop or questionmark intervene, or the following word is an enclitic, q.v.), e.g.
;
(ii) The circumex

The circumex can fall only on the last two syllables; it can stand only
on a long vowel or a diphthong.

If the last syllable is long, a circumex cannot stand on the second last but
will be replaced by an acute, e.g.
, .
(iii) The grave `

The grave can stand only on the last syllable, and will do so only when
the word is followed directly by another word in the same sentence
which is not an enclitic (see The acute (ii) above).

Observe the change of accent on the last syllable in:


. . .
Proclitics and Enclitics

347. Not all words have an accent of their own. Those which do not are distinguished into two types:
(i) Proclitics

These words have no accent of their own, because they are accentually linked to
the word which follows them. The commonest proclitics are , , , , , ,
(/), . They show an accent only when the word which follows is an enclitic,
e.g. (see next).

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347348

Reference Grammar

377

(ii) Enclitics

These are accentually linked to the preceding word, and often change the accentuation of the preceding word.The principal enclitics are: , (a certain, and
all indenite words, e.g. somewhere), unemphatic , , , , ,
, (I am) and (I say) in the present indicative (though not the
2s.), .
Note:
An enclitic cannot stand rst in a clause.
(a) Acute on the last remains acute if the following word is enclitic, e.g.
, .
(b) If the preceding word has an acute on the third last syllable, or a circumex
on the second last, that word will take as well as its normal accent an acute on its
last syllable, e.g.


(c) If the preceding word has a circumex on the last syllable, the enclitic simply
loses any accent, e.g.
(d) Strings of enclitics will throw accents back onto each other, e.g.
a certain man once said to me
(do not confuse here with ; = who, what?)
(e) Forms of with two syllables will accent the last if they follow a
paroxytone word, e.g.
to a certain house
( cannot throw its accent back onto because does not have
an acute on the third-last or a circumex on the second-last. Note that the
accent on ; falls on the rst syllable in all its forms, e.g.
; to what house are you going?)
Some general hints

348. Here are some of the more general rules of accentuation:


(a) Nouns, pronouns, adjectives

(i) For the purposes of accentuation (not metre), - and - of nom. pl. count
short at the end of these words. Thus , .
(ii) Words of 1st and 2nd declension with an acute on the last syllable of nom.
s. take circumex in the genitives and datives, e.g. :
/ / / .

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348349

(iii) all 1st declension nouns have a circumex on the - of the genitive
plural (no matter where the accent was originally), e.g. gen. pl. ;
so with 3rd declension nouns in - (), if contracted (cf. ).
(iv) Note especially , , breaking the rule of 346(a).
(v) Monosyllables of the 3rd declension are accented on the nal syllable
of the genitive and dative; e.g. ; gen. s. ; dat. s. ; gen. pl.
; dat. pl. .
(vi) Noms. and accs. accented on the nal syllable are acute, unless contracted;
e.g.
but ().
(b) Verbs

(vii) The accent normally goes back as far as it can, and is nearly always acute
(but see under contracted verbs [xi] below).
(viii) For the purposes of accentuation (not metre), counts short (except in
the optative, in which both and count long), e.g.
, but
(ix) If the innitive ends in -, the innitive will be accented on the second
last (acute or circumex), and its nom. s. m. participle on the last syllable:
(gen. m./n. )
(f. ; gen. m./n. )
(f. ; gen. m./n. )
(x) Strong aorists accent on the last syllable in innitive and participle active,
e.g.
, (contrast , of the present)
(xi) For contracted verbs, examine the uncontracted form and determine where
the accent would come on that. If an accented syllable is involved in the
contraction, the accent will be circumex on the resulting contraction, if
the rule under 346(ii) does not apply. If 346(ii) does apply, the accent will
be acute, e.g.
>
>
>
HOMERIC DIALECT: THE MAIN FEATURES

349. Homers Greek differs in important ways from Attic Greek, as follows:

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349

Reference Grammar

379

Nouns
First declension

Second declension

Nominative s.
Types 1a b c (f.)
Ends in -, even
after , , e.g.
, not .

Accusative s.
Ends in - as well as
-, e.g. and
.
Endings in -
correspond to , e.g.
=.

Type 1d (m.) may


end in -, not - ,
e.g. , not

Genitive s.
Type 1d (m.) ends
in -o, -, not -,
e.g. , not
.

Third declension

Genitive s.
Ends in -oo
as well as -, e.g.

and .

Genitive s.
Endings in - and
- correspond to -,
e.g. =
;
o = .
Accusative pl.
Endings in -
correspond to -, e.g.
= .

Genitive pl.
Usually ends in
-, -, e.g.
,
not .

Genitive pl.
Dual ends in
-o, so , not
(dat. pl. too)

Genitive pl.
Endings in -
correspond to -, e.g.
= .

Dative pl.
Nearly always ends
in -(), or -, e.g.
= .

Dative pl.
Ends in - and -,
e.g. ,
.

Dative pl.
Ends in - and -, e.g.
, .

Note:
(i) Observe the Homeric alternation between and (which can be metrically
useful), e.g. > , > , > .
(ii) The termination - (-) may be used for the dat. s. and pl. of nouns and
adjectives (and sometimes the gen. s. and pl. too), e.g. by force,
with tears, in the mountains.

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Reference Grammar

350. Pronouns

Gen. s o, , , ,
I, you
Gen. s. , , ,
we
Acc. ,
Gen. ,
Dat. ()
you
Acc. , .
Gen. ,
Dat. ().
him
Gen. , , ,
Dat. , o
them
Acc. , , .
Gen. , .
Dat. , .
who, what, which
Nom.
Acc.
Gen. /
Dat.
Gen. pl. .
he, she, it
Nom. pl. o, , or , .
Dat. pl. , , ,
as well as .
351. Verbs
(i) Person endings

- can become in 3pl. act., e.g. becomes

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350351

351352

Reference Grammar

381

-, in 3pl. mid./pass. often becomes -, -, e.g. instead of

(ii) Tenses

Future: generally uncontracted, e.g. (), ().


Present/Imperfect: sometimes reinforced by a form in - implying repetition,
e.g.
they kept on running away.
Aorist/Imperfect: in both the augment may be missing e.g. ().
Observe the necessary adjustments in compounds, e.g. ().
(iii) Moods

Subjunctive:
(a) appears with a short vowel, e.g. o=
(b) has 2s. mid. in -, -
(c) has 3s. act. in -, e.g. =
(d) is used in place of the future; and can be used in general remarks.
(iv) Innitive

It appears with the endings -, -, - for -, - e.g. = ;


=; , , = ; () = .
Contracted verbs

In contracted verbs, we can nd:


-, -- in place of o- (Attic -) e.g. for Attic ;
- -, - where Attic would contract to , and to .
352. Adverbs
Note the way the following sufxes are used to create adverbs:
- whither, as in to the war (Note that - here is attached to
the acc.; in all the rest, the sufx is attached to the stem.)
-o how, as in with cries
- whence, as in from above
- where, as in on high
Cf. 451.
Particles

Note particularly the use and force of the following particles:


(, )

so, next (showing transition)


indeed (emphasising)
surely (emphasising)
just, even (emphasising)

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Reference Grammar

352354

and (or to show a general remark)


I tell you (assertion) (But it may also=, to you, for you.)

THE DEFINITE ARTICLE, NOUNS AND PRONOUNS

353. The denite article , , , the


Singular
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Dative

Plural
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Dative

354. First declension nouns


, , shout (1a)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.

, , perplexity (1b)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.

, , sea (1c)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.

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354356

, sailor (1d)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.

, young man (1d)


s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.

Reference Grammar

355. Second declension nouns


s, man/fellow 2(a)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.

, task/duty/job/work 2(b)
s.
pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

356. Third declension nouns


(-), harbour (3a)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.

() [< ()]

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383

384

Reference Grammar

(-), night (3a)


s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

356

pl.

() [< ()]

(-), thing, matter (3b)


s.
pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

()
, number, crowd, the people (3c)
s.
pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

()
, trireme (3d)
s.
pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

()
Voc.
, Pericles (3d)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

, city-state (3e)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

, Socrates (3d)
s.

no pl.

no pl.

pl.

()

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356357

Reference Grammar

, old man ; pl. ambassadors (3e)


s.
pl.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

()
Voc.

, city (3f)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.

()

, king (3g)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.
(or )

()

, eyebrow (3h)
s.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.

()

357. Some irregular nouns


, Zeus
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Voc.

()
()
()

, ship6
s.

pl.

()

6 So too old woman, with -- replacing -- in the stem and -- throughout.

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385

386

Reference Grammar

357358

, son (2a, and mixed)


s.
nom.
acc.

gen.

dat.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

()

, father (so too , mother and , daughter)


s.
nom.
acc.

gen.

dat.

voc.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

()

358. Vocatives
The vocatives of type 3a nouns are less easy to predict, although they are easily
recognizable. Here are some examples:
Short vowel
(-) O man
(-) O god; cf.
(-) O saviour
(()-) O father
Ones to watch
(-) O woman
(-) O son
No change
(-) O night
(-) O Greek

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359

Reference Grammar

387

359. Consonant change: dative plurals of 3a nouns


In the interests of euphony, certain consonants in Greek combine with each other
to produce a different consonant. Among the most common combinations are:
c , , +
>
c , , , + >
c , , , + >

e.g.
e.g.
e.g.

>
>
>

future
future
future

These combinations are especially common in forming the future and aorist
tenses and the dat. pl. of 3a nouns.

The dat. pl. of type 3a nouns is formed by adding the ending - or -


to the stem of the noun.
The sigma of the -() ending combines with the last consonant of the
nouns stem in the predictable ways set out below:

(i) stems ending in -, -, - or - (guttural or velar consonants, pronounced


in the throat) combine with -() to produce -():
e.g.

(-)
(-)
()-

+()
+()
+()

>
>
>

()
()
()

(ii) stems ending in , or (labial consonants, pronounced on the lips) combine with the -() ending to produce -():
e.g.

(-)

+()

>

()

(iii) stems ending in (or ) (liquid consonants, pronounced by allowing the


air to ow around the tongue) simply add the -() ending to the nouns
stem:
e.g.

(-)

+()

>

(iv) with stems ending in a dental consonant, , , or (dental consonants,


pronounced on the teeth) the nal consonant drops out and is replaced by
the sigma (note below, though, different rules when the stem ends in -- or
--):
e.g.

(-)
>
(-) >
(-)
>

+()
+()
+()

>
>
>

()
()
()

(v) the same happens with stems ending in a nasal consonant, or (nasal
consonants, pronounced through the nose): the nal consonant drops out
and is replaced by the sigma:
e.g.

(-) >

+()

>

()

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Reference Grammar

359

(-) >
(-) >

+()
+()

>
>

()
()

(vi) with stems ending in -, the two nal consonants are also replaced by
the sigma:
e.g.

(-)

>

>

()

(vii) the stem ending - combines with -() to produce -():


e.g.

()

>

+()

>

()

Exceptions
(viii) Two exceptions to these rules come in the form of the slightly irregular
nouns (()-) and (-) both of which form their dat. pl.s
by adding () to their (syncopated) stems:
(()-) >
(-)
>

()
()

(ix) The noun , hand, has a slightly irregular dat. pl. too:
(-)

>

()

Stem + ending consonant chart


(x) The following chart tracks the consonant changes that occur when a stem
ending in a consonant (e.g. -) meets an ending beginning with a consonant e.g. -() in the dat. pl. (as you have seen above).
Endings most usually begin with -() in nouns (see dat. pls. above); in
verbs, - too, but also e.g. - - - etc., participles , aor. pass.
, perfects , and noun-forms whose endings begin with e.g. and
.
Stems can end in almost anything (-, -, -, etc.) The following chart deals with most of the common combinations:

, ,
(velars)

+
gives

+
gives

+
gives

+
gives

e.g.
>

e.g.
- >

->

e.g.
- >

e.g.
e.g.
- > - >

- >

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+
gives

359360

+
gives
, , e.g.
(labials) - >

- >

+
gives

+
gives

+
gives

e.g.
- >

e.g.
- >

- >

e.g.
- >

, ,
e.g.
e.g.
(dentals) - > - >

e.g.
- >

Reference Grammar

e.g.
e.g.
- > - >

e.g.
- >

360. Pronouns
s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

I/me

or
or
or

you (s.)

we/us

you (pl.)

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

this, he, she, it


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

+
gives

e.g.
- >

e.g.
- >

e.g.
- > -
- > -

n.

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389

390

Reference Grammar

360

this, he, she, it (continued)


pl.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

that, he, she, it


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

self, him/her/it
s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

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360361

Reference Grammar

self, him/her/it (continued)


pl.
m.
f.
Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.


f.


Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
()
()
()

f.
()
()
()

Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.


f.


Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
()
( )
()

f.
()
()
()

n.
()
()
()

Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.
()
()
()

f.
()
()
()

n.
()
()
()

361. (-), which? who? what?


s.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

n.

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392

Reference Grammar

361

pl.
m./f.

()

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

n.

()

no, no one
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

who, which, what


m.
f.
n.
s.
nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

[anyone] who, which, what


m.
f.
n.
s.
nom.

acc.

gen.

()
()
dat.

()
()

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Reference Grammar

393

[anyone] who, which, what (continued)


m.
f.
n.
pl.
nom.

()
acc.

()
gen.

()
()
()
dat.
()
()
()
()
()

ADJECTIVES

362. Here is a summary of all the adjective/pronoun types you have met, including participles:
212 adjectives
, ne, beautiful
Singular
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.
Vocative

m.

f.

n.

m.

f.

n.

Plural
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

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Reference Grammar

, , , our(s)
s.
m.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

362

f.

n.

f.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

(-), many, much


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
f.

n.

(-), big, great


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

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362363

Reference Grammar

(-), big, great (continued)


pl.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

363. 333 adjectives


(-), a, a certain, some
s.
m./f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

()

n.

()

(-) well-disposed
s.
m./f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Voc.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.

()

n.

()

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395

396

Reference Grammar

- uncaring
m. /f.
s.
nom.
acc.

gen.

dat.

voc.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

()

363364

n.

()

364. 313 adjectives


() being
s.
m.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

f.

n.

f.

n.

()

, , () all, whole, every


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

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Reference Grammar

397

, , () all, whole, every (continued)


pl.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.
()

()

sweet
m.
s.
nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

f.

n.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

()

()

Note
A number of adjectives are contracted e.g. of gold are
the contracted forms of . Cf. of bronze,
of silver.
Among o-contract adjectives is double, contracted
from .
For contract rules see 373.
365. Comparison of adjectives

Most comparatives end in - - -o (some irregulars end in -()).


Comparatives basically mean more , -er, but can also mean quite -,
fairly -, rather -.
Most superlatives end in - - -o (some irregulars end in -()).
Superlatives basically mean -est, most -, very -, extremely .

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398

Reference Grammar

Regular comparative forms

clever

wise

sweet

careless

pleasant
Irregular comparative forms

good

disgraceful
sweet
bad

ne
great
little, few
much
easy
swift

365

(-) better (comparative of )


s.
m./f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.
or

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.
or
or

()

n.
or
or

()

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Reference Grammar

399

() better (comparative of )
s.
m./f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.
or

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m./f.
or
or

()

n.
or
or

()

Construction with comparatives

When two things are being compared (using English than), Greek
either:
(i) uses =than, and puts the two things being compared in the same case,
e.g. Socrates is wiser than Kriton;
or
(ii) puts the thing compared into the genitive (no ), e.g. Socrates is wiser than Kriton.
Notes
(i) Comparatives in - decline like .
(ii) Comparatives declining like can drop the nal and contract in
the nominative and accusative, e.g.
()
()-/

>
>

366. Adverbs
Most adverbs are formed by the addition of - to the stem of the adjective, e.g.

(-)
(-)

wise
deep
sensible

-
-
-

wisely
deeply
sensibly

Comparative and superlative adverbs are formed by using the neuter singular
comparative of the adjective (for comparative adverbs) and the neuter plural
superlative of the adjective (for superlative adverbs), e.g.

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Reference Grammar

366367

wisely more wisely


most wisely
badly
worse, more evilly
very evilly
quickly
more quickly

very quickly
Note:

well
much
Cf. 451.

more well, better


rather, more

best
very much

VERBS IN

The verb with second aorist in full

Here is a complete synopsis of / with representing


second aorist forms:
367. Imperfective system
Present active (stem -), I am stopping
1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

()

Innitive

Participle
(-)

(-) stopping
s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

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367

Reference Grammar

Present middle and passive (stem -), I cease, am stopped

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

(-)

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

Innitive

Participle

ceasing, being stopped


s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

Imperfect indicative active (stem -), I was stopping


1s.
2s.
3s.

()

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

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401

402

Reference Grammar

367368

Imperfect indicative middle and passive (stem -),


I was ceasing, was being stopped
1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Aorist system

368.
First aorist active (stem -), I stopped
1s.
2s.
3s.

()

() s
() ()

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

() ()

Innitive

Participle
(-)

(-) having stopped, stopping


s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

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368369

Reference Grammar

First Aorist middle (stem -), I ceased, stopped myself


1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Innitive

Participle

having ceased, on ceasing, ceasing


s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

369.
First (and Second) Aorist passive (stem -) I was stopped
1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative
*

Optative

Subjunctive

()

* at end of stem - where no for stem

Innitive

Participle
(-)

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403

404

Reference Grammar

369370

(-) having been / being stopped


s.
m.
f.
n.
nom.

acc.

gen.

dat.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

370.
Second aorist active I took (stem -)
1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

()

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Innitive

Participle
(-)

(-) having taken, taking


s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

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370371

Reference Grammar

Second aorist middle I took for myself (stem -)

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

Innitive

Participle

having taken/taking for myself


s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

Future system

371.
Future active (stem -) I shall stop

1s.
2s.

Indicative
Innitive
Participle
Optative

etc., exactly like the present active, on the stem -

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405

406

Reference Grammar

371372

Future middle (stem -) I shall cease

1s.
2s.

Indicative
Innitive
Participle
Optative

(or )
etc., exactly like the present middle, on the stem -

Future passive (stem -, based on aorist passive),


I shall be stopped
Indicative
Innitive
Participle
Optative
1s.
2s. (-)
etc., exactly like the present middle/passive on the stem Perfect system

372.
Perfect active (stem -) I have stopped
Indicative

()

Imperative

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

()

Optative

Subjunctive

()

*Only in verbs where the perfect has a present meaning (very rare).

Innitive

Participle
(o-)

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372

Reference Grammar

407

having stopped
m.

f.

n.

s.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

pl.
nom.
acc.
gen.
dat.

()

()

Perfect middle/passive (stem -) I have ceased, have been stopped

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

Imperative

1pl.
2pl.

3pl.
( ())
Innitive

Optative


Subjunctive




()

Participle

having ceased, been stopped


Singular
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

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408

Reference Grammar

372

having ceased, been stopped (continued)


Plural
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Future perfect middle/passive (stem -),


I shall have ceased, been stopped

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

(or )

Optative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Innitive

Participle

Pluperfect active (stem -) I had stopped


1s.
2s.
3s.

()
()
()

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Pluperfect middle/passive (stem -)


I had ceased, had been stopped
1s.
2s.
3s.

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372373

Reference Grammar

409

Pluperfect middle/passive (stem -)


I had ceased, had been stopped (continued)
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

CONTRACT VERBS

373. Contracted verbs form different endings, owing to the contraction of their
nal vowel with the ending. Rules of contraction are, in summary form:

The rst vowel is in the LEFT-HAND column, the second in the TOP ROW: read
off the resultant contraction where they intersect, e.g. + = . Remember that
this grid refers to contract verbs only: do not use it to e.g. change the - augment.
Present active -contract I honour

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Indicative

()
Innitive
*

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

*One might expect to contract into , but the original innitive


ending was in fact > , > -. So too - > (below).

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410

Reference Grammar

373

(-) honouring
s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

Present active -contract I make, do

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Innitive

Participle
(-)

(-) making, doing


s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

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373

Reference Grammar

(-) making, doing (continued)


pl.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.
()

()

Present active -contract I enslave

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Innitive

Participle
(-)

(-) enslaving
s.
m.
f.
n.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

()

f.

n.

()

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411

412

Reference Grammar

374

374.
Present middle -contract honour, estimate

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

Innitive

Participle

honouring, estimating
s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

Present middle -contract create, consider

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

()

Imperative

Optative

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Subjunctive

374

Reference Grammar

Present middle -contract create, consider (continued)

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Participle

creating, considering
s.
m.
f.
Nom.

Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

Optative

Subjunctive

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

Present middle -contract make subject (to oneself)

1s.
2s.
3s.

Indicative

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

Innitive

Participle

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413

414

Reference Grammar

374375

making subject
s.
m.
f.
Nom.
Acc.

Gen.

Dat.

n.

pl.
Nom.
Acc.
Gen.
Dat.

m.

f.

n.

375.
Imperfect indicative active -contract I was honouring
1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperfect indicative active -contract I was making, doing


1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

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375

Reference Grammar

Imperfect indicative active -contract I was enslaving


1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperfect indicative middle/passive -contract


I was honouring, estimating
1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperfect indicative middle/passive -contract


I was creating, considering
1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperfect indicative middle/passive -contract I was making subject


1s.
2s.
3s.

1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

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415

416

Reference Grammar

376

VERBS IN IN FULL

376. I give
Present active I give (stem -)
Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Present middle/passive I give, am given (stem -)


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

Imperfect indicative active I was giving (stem -)

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376

Reference Grammar

417

Imperfect indicative middle/passive I was giving/was given (stem -)

Aorist active I gave (stem -)


Indicative
Imperative

()
Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Aorist middle I gave (stem -)


Aorist indicative middle

Innitive

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

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418

Reference Grammar

376

Aorist passive I was given (stem -)


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Future active

(etc., like )
Future middle I shall give

(etc., like )
Future passive I shall be given

(etc., like )

Perfect forms (all regular, as for ) I have given, etc.


Perfect active

Perfect middle/passive

Pluperfect active

Pluperfect middle/passive

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377

Reference Grammar

377. I put, place


Present active I put, place, stem Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Present middle/passive I place for myself/am placed, stem Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

Imperfect indicative active, stem - I was placing

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419

420

Reference Grammar

377

Imperfect indicative middle/passive, stem I was placing for myself/being placed

Aorist active, stem - I placed


Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Aorist middle, stem - I placed for myself


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

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377

Reference Grammar

Aorist passive, stem - I was placed


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Future active
(etc., like )
Future middle
(etc., like )
Future passive
(etc., like )

Perfect forms (all regular, as for )


Perfect active

Perfect passive
(see 313)
Pluperfect active

I set up, make x stand

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421

422

Reference Grammar

378

ACTIVE (TRANSITIVE)

378.
Present active , I am setting x up: stem Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Imperfect indicative active , I was setting X up

Aorist active , I (did) set x up : stem Indicative


Imperative
Optative
Subjunctive

- (-)
()

(-)

()
Innitive

Participle
(-)

Future active , I will set x up: stem (exactly like in all forms)
Indicative
, etc.
Optative
, etc.
Innitive

Participle
(-)

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379

Reference Grammar

PASSIVE (INTRANSITIVE)

379.
Present passive , I am being set up: stem Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

Imperfect indicative passive, I was being setting up


Aorist I was set up, (regular, like )


Future I shall be set up, (regular, like )
Indicative
, etc.
Optative
, etc.
Innitive

Participle

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423

424

Reference Grammar

380

MIDDLE (TRANSITIVE OR INTRANSITIVE)

380.
Present middle , I set X up for myself or
I am setting myself up : stem Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

Imperfect indicative middle: I was setting X up for myself or


I was setting myself up

Aorist middle (transitive) , I did set up X for myself:


stem Indicative
Imperative
Optative
Subjunctive

Innitive

Participle

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380381

Reference Grammar

Future , I shall set up for myself, stand up


(regular, like )
Indicative
, etc.
Optative
, etc.
Innitive

Participle

INTRANSITIVE USAGES, I STAND/WAS STANDING/STOOD

381.
Perfect intransitive , [Here] I stand: stem Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

()
()
()

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Pluperfect intransitive , [Here] I was standing:


stem -,

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425

426

Reference Grammar

381382

SECOND AORIST

Second/root aorist intransitive , I stood: stem -/Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

I RELEASE, LET GO

382.
Present active I release, let go: stem Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Present middle/passive I aim at/am released: stem Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

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382

Reference Grammar

Imperfect indicative active I was letting go/releasing

Imperfect indicative middle/passive I was aiming at/being let go

Aorist active: stem - (note: the augmented form is - or -)


I released, let go
Indicative
Imperative

()

()
Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Aorist middle: stem - I was aiming at


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle

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427

428

Reference Grammar

382383

Aorist passive: stem - I was released, let go


Indicative

Imperative

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Future indicative active


(regular, like )
Future indicative middle
(regular, like )
Future indicative passive
(regular, like )

Perfect indicative active


(regular, like )
Perfect indicative middle/passive
(regular, like )
Pluperfect indicative middle/passive
(regular, like )

I SHOW

383.

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383

Reference Grammar

I SHOW

383.
Present active, stem Indicative

()

()

Imperative

Innitive

Optative
o

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Present middle/passive, stem Indicative

Imperative
o

Innitive

Optative

Subjunctive

Participle
o o

Imperfect indicative active

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429

430

Reference Grammar

Imperfect indicative middle/passive

Aorist active
(like )
Aorist passive
(like )
Future active
(like )
Future middle
(like )

Perfect forms (all regular, as for )


Perfect active

Perfect middle/passive

Pluperfect active

Pluperfect middle/passive

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383

384

Reference Grammar

431

THE ENDINGS OF NON-INDICATIVE FORMS (ASPECTUAL)

384. In general, these forms point to the aspect of the action (340[i]). The endings
are added to the appropriate unaugmented stem of the verb.
Innitive
Present, Future
active
middle/passive

-
-

First Aorist
active
middle
passive

-
-
-()

Second Aorist
active
middle
passive

-
-
-()

Perfect
active
middle/passive

-
-

Participle
Present, Future
active
- - - (-)
middle/passive -- - -
First Aorist
active
middle
passive

-() -()- () ([]-)


-()- - -
-() - - ([]-)

Second Aorist
active
middle
passive

- - - (-)
-- - -
- - - (-)

Perfect
active
- - - (-)
middle/passive -- - -

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432

Reference Grammar

384

Imperative
Present
active
middle/passive

- - - -
-- - -

First Aorist
active
middle
passive

- - - -
- - - -
- - - -

Second Aorist
active
middle
passive

- - - -
-- - -
- or - - - -

Optative
Present, Future, Perfect active
- o -o
-o
or
or
or
-o -o o

-o -o -o

Present, Future, Second Aorist


-o -oo -oo -o -o -oo
First Aorist active
- - (-) -() - - - (-)
First Aorist middle
- -o -o - - -o
First and Second Aorist passive
-- - - - -

Subjunctive
Active (and Aorists passive)
- - - - - -()
Middle/passive
- - - - - -
Note that it is only in indirect speech that participles, innitives and optatives can
take on a specically temporal function. In all other cases, their function is aspectual i.e. they give a particular view about the way in which the action is taking
place, not when it is taking place. In general, see 415417.

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384386

Reference Grammar

IRREGULAR VERBS

385.
I am

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Present
Indicative

()

()
Innitive

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Past I was
()

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Future I shall be

o
Innitive

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

o
oo

Participle
- o

386.
I shall go (present in non-indicative forms)

1s.
2s.
3 s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Future
Indicative

()

()
Innitive
to go

Imperative

Optative
/

Subjunctive

()

Participle
going (-)

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433

434

Reference Grammar

386387

I shall go (present in non-indicative forms) (continued)


1s.
2s.
3 s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Past I went
()
()
()

()

387.
I know

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Present
Indicative

()
Innitive

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperative

Optative

Participle
- (o-)

Past I knew
()
()
()
()
()
()

Future I shall know


1s. or
2s. etc. etc.

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Subjunctive

()

388389

Reference Grammar

435

388.
I say

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Present
Indicative

()

()
Innitive

Imperative

Optative

Subjunctive

()

Participle
(-)

Note
The form , , (-) for participle is found: also o often in Homer. Both have the same meaning as .

1s.
2s.
3s.
1pl.
2pl.
3pl.

Imperfect I said

or

Note
In Homer middle forms often occur, e.g. o for .

Aorist I said
1s.
2s. etc. (regular)
Future I shall say
1s.
2s. etc. (regular)

IMPORTANT PRINCIPAL PARTS

389. The following list gives the main principal parts of verbs learnt in the rst
half of the Course, which may be said to be difcult. A few other verbs are
also included for reference, and should be learnt as well.

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Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

Perfect

Aorist passive

announce

lead

()
sing

-/-

praise

take
(mid. choose)

()
lift, remove

-/-

perceive

disgrace
(pass. be
ashamed)

()-

(pass.)

hear

be caught

change,
exchange

err, miss

ward off
(mid. defend
oneself)

spend

put up with

open

(pass.)

fasten, light
(mid. touch)

-/-

(mid.,
pass.)

please

()-

seize

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437

Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

Perfect

Aorist passive

rule, begin
(usu. mid.)

-/-

(mid.)

arrive

go

-/-

throw, pelt

-/-

harm

-/-

wish

-/-

marry

laugh

become

recognise

-/

write

bite

-/-

(pass.)

fear

-/-/
-

show

receive

-/-

want, need
(mid. ask;
it is necessary)

(mid.)

teach

give

-/-

,
(mid.)

do, act

be able

-/-

I was able

I wished

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389

Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

Perfect

Aorist passive

allow

arouse

I am a wake

wish

be

-/-

() (impf.)

shall go

(impf.)

terrify

(pass.)

drive

-/-

drag

hope, expect

know,
understand

-/-

follow

( impf.)

work (pass, be
made)

go

ask

-/-

eat

-/

nd

have, hold

( impf.)

live

-/-

be pleased,
enjoy

(-)
be seated

I knew

(impf.)

/
(impf.)

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I enjoyed

389
Verb

B
Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

say

bury
(-)
die

Aorist

Reference Grammar
Perfect

439

Aorist passive

,
,
I said he said
-

(pass.)

shoot, let go,


send

-/-/-

set up (intrans.
stand)

-/-/

(intrans.)

(intrans.)

burn

call

-/-

toil

lie, be placed

(impf.)

weep

()
(pass.)

steal

cause to lean
(pass. lean, lie)

-/-

hit

o-/o-


judge

()-/-

o
gain

(o-)
kill

(o)-/
-

(o)

()
()o

()o

obtain by lot

take

escape notice of
(mid. forget)

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389

Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

say

-/-/-

leave

learn

ght

() o

intend

()-

it concerns

remain

remind (mid.
remember)

()-

(mid.)

(mid.)

distribute

think,
consider

know

(impf.)

think

(impf.)

(-)
destroy (mid.
perish)

-/-

(mid.)

(mid.)

swear

()

see

raise
(mid. rise,
rush)

-/-

(mid.)

(mid.)

owe

()-

(would
that)

incur charge of

experience,
suffer

o
o

Perfect

Aorist passive

o
I have left/have
failed

I thought

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Reference Grammar

Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

Perfect

send


drink


fall

ll

burn up

(pass.)

sail

act, fare

-/-

(I
have fared)

hear, inquire

sell

Aorist passive

break

I am broken


throw

-/-

()

()
view

pour a libation

send

save

cut

place, put,
make

-/-

(mid.)

bear

-/

pay

-/-

()

()

()

()

wound

(pass.)

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441

442

Reference Grammar

389

Verb

Main stem
(no aug.)

Future

Aorist

Perfect

turn

-/-

(I
was turned)

rear, nourish

run

happen, chance

strike

promise

reveal (mid.
appear, seem)

(intrans.)

bear, carry

ee, run off

say

-/-

(impf.)

anticipate

()-

()
-/destroy, corrupt

produce
(mid. be, be
naturally)

-/()

(mid.)

rejoice, bid
farewell

use; consult
oracle (act. give
oracle)

()-

buy

-/-

Aorist passive

()

(mid.)

I rejoiced

() (impf.)

I have bought-/I
have been bought

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443

PREPOSITIONS

390. It is worth noting that prepositions were originally adverbs and so used just
in conjunction with verbs. So, in Homer, one frequently nds what looks
like a preposition but is in fact an adverb, modifying the verb. The original
meaning of the adverb (where it is possible to determine it) is indicated in
the rst column. Observe how the original adverbial meaning is modied
according to the case the preposition takes.
Accusative

(around)

about, near

about evening
o
those around Plato,
followers of Plato

(up)

up, through, by

up the river

through the war

by hundreds

Genitive

(against)

instead of, for the sake of



instead of war

for the sake of a
brother

(from)

from

from the city

(through)

because of, through



because of this

through (time, place)



through the night

through the table

/
(into)

into, until, up to

into Sicily

until dawn

up to 100

to the house of
Ao
to the house of Hades

Dative

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Accusative

390
Genitive

Dative

(in)

at the house of

In Croesus house

in, in the power of



in Sparta

in winter

in my power

/
(from out
of)

from

from Sparta

from, with an eye on,
present circumstances

(at, on)

on; for the purpose of,


because of

on the sea

for dinner

because of these things,
on these conditions

at, against, over

on; in the time of; at


against, at the king

over five years


on the altar

in my time

at leisure

(down)

down, by; according to



down river

by sea

according to the laws

down from, beneath,


against

down from the rock

beneath the earth

against me

(among)

for, after

for, after gold

after the war

with, in company with



with his friends

(alongside)

to, throughout, against



to my friends (house)

throughout the year

against the law

from beside, from



from beside the ships

from the students

with, near

with us, at our house

(around,
about)

about, near

near the wall

about this time

concerning

concerning father

to value highly

about, concerning

fearing for (concerning)


the army

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390391

Accusative

(before)

(to, at,
by)

Reference Grammar

Genitive

445

Dative

in front of, before



in front of the doors

before supper
towards; with a view to

towards the city

with a view to the present

in name of; from; under the


protection of; to the advantage
of

in the name of the gods!

from Zeus or under Zeus
protection

to our advantage

(with the
help of)

by, in addition to


by the re

in addition to this

with the help of; in company


with
with the
help of the gods
with us

(over)

over, exceeding

over the sea

beyond ones power

on behalf of; over



on behalf of the city

over my head

(under)

up to and under, at

under the walls

at night

under, by

under the earth

by this man

PARTICLES

391.
General remarks7

1. Particles are short invariable words which:


(i) connect an item of utterance to a preceding item, whether that item is
uttered by the same speaker or by a different speaker (and, but, so
etc.)
(ii) qualify an item (even, also, anyway, etc.)

7 This section was contributed by Sir Kenneth Dover.

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391

(iii) colour an item, expressing what is commonly expressed in spoken


English by volume and tone of voice (he told me!, he told me, etc.)
and in written by, e.g., italics, exclamation-marks, inverted commas,
etc.
, , ,

2. Four particles , , , normally come rst in the sentence or


part of the sentence to which they belong. and introduce questions,
e.g.
; Did you hear?
; ; But who told you? Socrates
himself?
3. but and and are widely used as in English, e.g.
o not we, but they
; but who told you?
o we and they
and with that answer he went away
4. may be repeated to give the sense both and , e.g.
he was looking both for us and for them
5. is also used in the senses actually, also, even, etc., and where English
raises the volume of the voice, e.g.
I was looking for him too (or for him also,
also for him)
I was (actually) looking for him
; What do you (actually) want? (or, What is it that you
want?)
its disgraceful (even) to speak of things
like that
I wouldnt care (even) if he did die
Post-positives , , o

6. Most other particles are postpositives, i.e. they cannot come immediately
after a pause, and usually come close after the word which does follow the
pause. The three most important are , and o.
7. is translatable by and, but, or not by anything, according to context; one
might call it the basic connective between sentences, e.g.
; But what if he were to die?
, hes asleep, and/but Im awake
(and) having heard it he went away

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447

8. When is combined with a negative, the form / is used if the preceding item is negative, but otherwise / follows , e.g.
that isnt what I said, nor would I commend it (or and I wouldnt commend it)
, that is what I said, but Socrates
did not commend it
9. / is the opposite of in some of the senses of 5 above, e.g.
o I wasnt looking for him either
; What will you say if he doesnt even
answer?
10. introduces the reason for the previous utterance (for, because), e.g.
he ran away, for/because they were pursuing
him
11. In a response to a previous speaker is sometimes translatable as Why,
, Yes, , No, , e.g.
; Why, what would he do?
; Yes, of course (or Yes, indeed; lit., For how not?)
No, they dont let me
12. is the converse of , introducing the consequence of the previous utterance (therefore, so, then), e.g.
they were pursuing him, so he ran away
13. The consequential sense of is, however, sometimes very faded, so that
it approximates to then in the sense next, or to Well, or So in colloquial English narrative.
Other connectives , , ,

14. Other important particles with a connective sense are , , and


.
15. is often translatable as then or so, especially (though not only) when
the speaker perceives a conclusion to be drawn from a situation or preceding
argument, or when he envisages a possibility, e.g.
so wealth is not a blessing after all
o Im told by them that he didnt
receive anything, it
seems
but if by any chance you are in the wrong (or

if actually, if after all)


16. is commonest in questions or negations responding to a previous
speaker, e.g.

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391

; So how did he manage? (or, How did he manage,


then?)
No indeed! (according to context, No, I wont!, No, he
didnt!, etc.)
17. is mostly found in combinations with other particles (see below), but
note one independent usage with interrogatives and one with negatives, e.g.
() ; (but) what, then(, if not that)?
o neither Kallias nor
Philinos nor, indeed, Socrates
18. introduces an exposition or a stage in an exposition, like English
Now, , Well, now, , Well, then,

19. is a peculiar particle in that it may either connect an item to what precedes
or look forward to what follows (the former usage is not very common in
prose), e.g.
and he is dead
(both) I and you
20. / is used in pairs or series in the sense neither nor , not or
, not , nor , nor e.g.
you didnt see us or them (or you saw
neither us nor them)
, , ,

21. The commonest particles of which the main function is to colour the item
with which they occur rather than to connect it with what precedes are , ,
and .
22. sometimes has a limiting sense, like anyway, at least, at any rate in
English, but is used in Greek far more than those expressions in English, e.g.
you defeated him (implying even if you didnt
defeat anyone else or I dont know if you defeated anyone else)
23. is also common in responses to a previous speakers utterance, especially
to a question, e.g.
;
.
;
.

What do you think hes doing?


Criticising the general.
Is anyone in?
No, nobody.

24. Thirdly, corresponds to an exclamation-mark with words which convey


praise, blame or some other emotional reaction, e.g.

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449

Why, you are stupid!


Well done!
25. is equivalent to an increased volume of voice on the preceding word, or
to an emphatic gesture designed to sustain or revive the hearers attention. It
is used especially with quantitative words (most, many, least, often,
only, etc.), with points of time (giving then and now a colouring of then
at last and just now), and with expressions such as it is obvious or now,
consider It is rarely translatable. There is one special usage in which it
has the effect of showing that the word which it accompanies is quoted from
someone else, or represents someone elses way of thinking, and this usually
imparts a tone of scepticism or sarcasm.
26. accompanies the rst item of a pair, usually when there is a contrast, but
when the word which it accompanies is repeated the effect may be cumulative rather than contrastive, e.g.
,
the Spartans praise him, but he doesnt please the Thebans
, some things he produces
very carefully, but there are other respects in which he is careless
, many were killed and
many captured
27. o expresses the speakers feeling that the hearers attitude or conduct ought
to be affected by what is said: a threatening Let me tell you!, a rm but
friendly do remember or a gentle You do realise, dont you? Sometimes,
however, it conveys little more than Look, ,. , you know, , , you
see, or after all in English.
Particle combinations

28. A very large number of combinations of particles occur, and some of them
are written as a single word: + as , + as and
+ as . + is also written , and + as or
(see 32 below).
29. is an emphatic at least, at any rate.
30. is an emphatic and, sometimes implying and yet (a contrast with
what precedes) and sometimes and moreover (the second premise of an
argument from which a conclusion is going to be drawn).
31. can function as a connective, meaning but, however, but also as
emphasising a demonstrative or personal pronoun, e.g.
; What, me?

Yes, you!
32. When the sequence of letters occurs, the sense sometimes requires
therefore not but sometimes therefore. The latter sense can often be got

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391392

by punctuating the utterance as a question, not as a statement (turning so he


was not successful into wasnt he successful, then?), but ancient grammarians recognised a usage = , with (accented on the negative) = + .
33. In other combinations the second element is most commonly , , ,
or .
34. + may = , e.g.
, Id like to, but I cant
35. In + , has its normal sense (11) and as in 5.
36. + and + , usually found in response to a previous speaker, correspond to Yes, and and Yes, but respectively.
37. and are not distinguishable in translation from and
respectively, but imparts a lively tone, Look, !, See, !, sometimes And, whats more
38. is an emphatic and; there is considerable overlap of meaning
between and .
39. The combination , when it does not combine the usual senses of
and o (12f., 26) as it very often does has a special sense,
in which the speaker corrects previous words of his own or of another
speaker, e.g.
; Did I say lately? Why, it was
only the other day! (lit., yesterday and the day before yesterday!)
(Demosthenes)
This correction often takes the form of suggesting that the previous speaker has
not gone far enough, and thus expresses emphatic agreement, e.g.
;
.

Dont you think so?


Very much so. (or Yes, certainly!)

()

392. This word has a wide range of meanings, which are summarised here:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

= as, when, since, because (+ind. or part.) e.g. ,


when he came, he entered; as it seems to me;
=how! e.g. how ne are the trees!;
= that e.g. he said that (cf. );
= to, in order to ( + fut. part.), e.g.
he came in to learn what had happened;
=to, in order to ( + subj./opt.), e.g.
he came in to learn what had happened (cf. );
= as as possible ( + superlatives), e.g. as many as
possible;

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451

(vii) = to ( + acc), e.g. he came to Philostratos


(house);
(viii) (as ) = so, thus;
(ix) = so as to ( + inf.; see 396).
PARTICIPLES

393. The main uses of the participle are as follows:


(i)

as an adjective, when it may best be translated by a relative clause, e.g.


a well-educated man, or a man who has
been well educated

(ii)

as a noun, when it is used with the denite article, e.g.


those who run, runners

(iii) to show the aspect of an action, e.g.


he did this being/while/when he was
basileus
(iv) to denote cause, e.g.
[ or ] he did this because he
wished to win
(n.b. and are often attached to these usages)
(v)

to denote purpose (usually + future participle), e.g.


() he did this to win

(vi) conditionally, e.g.


winning (i.e. if he had won) he would have
escaped
(n.b. negative is when such participles are conditional)
(vii) concessively, when they mean although, despite, and are often used with
, e.g.
() , being able (i.e. although/despite
being able) to escape, we stayed
(viii) The genitive absolute: in all the above cases, the participle and its noun go
into the genitive when the clause which they form is not connected grammatically to the rest of the sentence, e.g.
, o the
enemy having departed, the soldiers pitched camp. The participle
clause, expressing the idea of time (when the enemy) or cause

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393394

(because the enemy), has no grammatical link with the main verb:
so it goes into the genitive. Contrast e.g.
[to] me asking, he replied. Since the speaker replied to me asking,
the participle clause is connected grammatically with the main verb, and
goes in the dative.
(ix) Observe the following idioms:
sooner (anticipating)
secretly (escaping notice)
to ones regret (weeping)
, , , , with
; what has one experienced to ? what has made one ?
(lit. suffering what?)
(x)

(xi)

A number of verbs take a participle to complete their meaning. Among


these are:
happen, chance, actually to; e.g. he actually did
escape
escape the notice of; e.g. I did not see him
escaping (lit. he, escaping, did not escape the notice of me)
anticipate, do something rst; e.g. I escape
before you
seem, appear; e.g. they seem to be in
ight (and are)
/ be obviously, openly; e.g. he is
obviously running away
In indirect speech; see 397(iii-iv).

INFINITIVES

394. The main uses of the innitive are as follows:


(i)

to express the English to in certain contexts controlled by verbs, e.g.


it is good to ght, ghting is good (where
ght(ing) is the subject of the sentence)
I wish to ght (where ght is the object of
wish)
we order you to stay
he prevented them from going
o he is not born to be a slave
it is time to depart

it is necessary for us to go

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it is permitted for me to speak


he seems to be wise
he appears to be good (but isnt)
(ii)

in certain constructions with adjectives, e.g.


clever at speaking
able to do this
knowing how to speak and be silent

(iii) to limit the extent of application of a word, e.g.


words useful to hear
an action difcult to do
a wonder to behold
(iv) in certain parenthetical phrases (usually with /), e.g.
so to speak
to make a guess
almost (lit. to want a little)
(v)

as an imperative, e.g.
Dont be soft!

(vi) with the denite article, standing as a noun, e.g.


this is injustice
because of his alienness
desire for drink
by ghting
(vii) note the number of possibilities with verbs of prevention or hindrance:

he prevents you from doing this



(N.b. is quite common in expressions implying hindrance, prevention, denial.)
(viii) in indirect speech; see 397(iii-iv).
Note
The negative with an innitive is nearly always .

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IMPERSONAL VERBS

395.
These verbs have a regular innitive; but in nite tenses they have forms in 3s.
only, and their sole participle is in the neuter accusative s. for use in absolute
participle constructions (verbs with a full set of forms use the genitive in absolute
constructions, 393[viii]):
Present

Future

Past

Participle

Innitive

The subjects of such verbs appear in the accusative or dative; and the verb which
follows the impersonal goes into the innitive, e.g.
it is possible for me to go
it being necessary for me to go (accusative absolute)
I think [it] to be permitted for him/that he is
permitted to go
The most common impersonal verbs are:
+Acc. and inf.

must, ought

must, ought
+Dat. and inf.

it is permitted, possible
it is proper
it is appropriate
it seems best
these also appear in regular forms and
it happens
are not restricted to impersonal use only

RESULT CLAUSES

396. These express the idea so that or so ... that and indicate the result of an
action. The that clause is expressed in Greek by , which can take
either an innitive (change of subject in the accusative) or an indicative.
The innitive usage is best translated as to, but the difference between the
two is often marginal, e.g.

he is so foolish
that he forgets his books

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as to forget his books.

These clauses are usually set up by so, or by a word such as ,


(so great, so many), (of such a kind).

INDIRECT SPEECH

397. One can distinguish between three basic types of utterance: statements,
questions, and commands (i.e. orders).
These can be quoted directly (when, as a rule, inverted commas will be used;
e.g. he said, What shall I do? I shall go ...), or indirectly (e.g. he wondered what
to do, and decided that he would go ).
In Greek, indirect questions and orders are expressed in largely the same way
as English; so too are those indirect statements introduced by the Greek
that, but there are a number of verbs which use different methods of expressing
indirect statements.
(i) Verbs taking (), and indirect questions

Verbs taking , and indirect questions, quote what was originally said, only
changing the person, e.g.
he said that he would come
The original statement was I shall come. Changing the person only, Greek
writes he said that he shall come; this converts to the English form he said that
he would come.
he asked where Socrates was going
The original question was Where is Socrates going? This becomes indirectly
he asked where Socrates is going (no need to change persons here); English
changes this to he asked where Socrates was going.
Note that, in secondary sequence, verbs in indirect statement and question
clauses can be turned into the optative without affecting the meaning, e.g.
/ He said that he would come
/ asked where he was going
(ii) Indirect orders

Indirect orders are expressed as in English, i.e. by the use of the innitive, e.g.
I order you to depart
(iii) Accusative + innitive or participle

More difcult are those cases in which a that clause is expressed in Greek not
by that, but by putting the verb of the that clause into an innitive form (cf.

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Latin accusative and innitive) or a participle form. There is an English parallel


for the innitive usage here; e.g. he knows that I am wise, or he knows me to
be wise. In these cases, the innitive will show the time at which the action took
place by its tense, e.g.
he said me to have gone/that I had gone (orig. you
went)
he said me to be going/that I was going (orig. you are
going)
he said me to be about to come/that I would come
(orig. you will come)
Some verbs take a participle in the that clause rather than an innitive, e.g.
I know you being stupid/that you are stupid
he learnt Neaira being about to
come/that Neaira would come to Athens
N.b. all the above examples have put the subject of the that clause into the
accusative because the subject of the indirect speech is different from that of the
speaker. Where the subject of the that clause is the same as that of the main
verb, no subject in the that clause will be stated; or if it is, it will be in the nominative, e.g.
he said he had gone (both hes are the same person)
he said that he had gone (the hes are different
people)
I know being wise [nom.], i.e. I know that I am wise;
cf. I know that you are stupid
Indirect speech is very common in Greek; and it is very likely suddenly to
emerge in a quite unexpected context.
Watch out for the accusative and innitive/participle construction all the
time. When you come across it, begin your translation with the English
that . This will remind you that you are in indirect speech.
(iv) Verbs taking innitives and participles

(a) The following verbs generally take the innitive in indirect speech:

say that
think that
promise to
hope to
determine how to, recognise how to
learn how to

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know how to

Note
The negative with inns. in indirect statements is , not (as one might expect
with inns.) because the negatives in indirect speech reect the direct use.
(b) The following generally take the participle in indirect speech:

hear that
ascertain that
perceive that
know that
ascertain that
announce that
learn that

Note the distinction between:


, , + participle, which all mean it seems to be
the case that, with the strong implication that it really is the case; and
, , + innitive, where the implication is that it is
not really the case.
TEMPORAL CLAUSES

398.
Denite temporal clauses

(i) Denite temporal clauses express the time at which an event took place. The
verb goes into the indicative, e.g.
, while he waited, we left
, o when they pursued, the enemy
ed
we waited until he told us to
go
But before takes an innitive (change of subject in the accusative),
e.g.
, before departing, he offered up a prayer
, before we departed, he offered up a prayer
Indenite temporal clauses

(ii) Indenite temporal clauses express the idea of generality (i.e. not when,
but whenever), or of uncertainty about the actual completion of the event
which is made to seem to lie in some indenite future (if it happens or not,

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we shall have to see). In both these cases, the verbs in the temporal clause go
into the subjunctive + in primary sequence, or the plain optative in secondary sequence, e.g.
they go out whenever they wish
they went out whenever they wished
we waited until such time as he
should tell us to leave
do not say this before/until
you learn what has happened
Observe that the rules for denite or indenite utterance apply equally to
relative clauses, e.g.
o, whoever does this is stupid
he ordered him to bring a
doctor, whomever he wanted/he ordered him to bring whichever doctor he
wanted
Note
It must be said that Greek is, as usual, exible in its usages on this point: sometimes one nds the subjunctive where one would expect the optative, and sometimes drops out.
PURPOSE CLAUSES

399. A purpose clause indicates an intention in the mind of the speaker, and is
often expressed by the English in order to, or simply to, e.g. He has
come here in order to insult us, or To cross the railway, passengers are
asked to use the bridge.
Subjunctive/optative

Perhaps because an intention is expressed of which the fullment is quite uncertain, Greek uses a quasi-indenite construction in one instance, i.e. + subjunctive in primary sequence (no ) and optative in secondary, e.g.
he is coming to persuade us
he came to persuade us
But Greek also expresses the idea of purpose in two other common ways, i.e.
Participle

(i) + future participle (lit. as intending to ), e.g.


he is coming to persuade us

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Future indicative

(ii) + future indicative (lit. who will/intends to )


the man is coming to persuade us (lit.
who will persuade us)
Notes
(i) , can be used in place of .
(ii) When takes an indicative, it means where.
VERBS OF FEARING

400.
(i) Fearing to do something attracts the innitive, e.g.
I fear to go.
(ii) Fearing in case something may happen in the future attracts the same sort of
construction as purpose clauses, i.e. subjunctive in primary sequence, optative in secondary, e.g.
I am afraid that/lest Socrates may/will
not come
I was afraid that/lest Socrates might/
would not come
Observe the negative in the clause is .
(iii) Fearing that something has happened already attracts the simple indicative,
e.g.
we are afraid that he persuaded us
POTENTIAL (POLITE)

401. with the optative expresses a future action as dependent on remotely


possible circumstances or conditions. In its polite/potential use, it is best
translated by the English may, might, could, would, can, would like to, or
possibly, perhaps. But there are times when it is very difcult to differentiate between this potential use and the straight future will, shall, e.g.
can you tell me?/would you tell me?/tell me!/would you
like to tell me?/will you tell me?
you could not/would not/
cannot step twice into the same river
This potential usage falls into the same category as the conditional usage at
402(i) below. For this reason it may be called potential>conditional.

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CONDITIONALS

402. Conditional sentences (i.e. sentences with an if clause) should be translated by some form of English would or should when they show in
the main clause, as follows:
(i) optatives in the if clause (called the protasis) and the main clause (called
apodosis, or payoff), with in the apodosis too, make the condition
refer to the remote future, and should be translated if were to,
would, e.g.
, if you were to order, I would obey
(ii)

This is the potential>conditional use of the optative (see 401 above).


imperfects in the protasis and apodosis, with in the apodosis, should
be translated if were (now), would (the contrary to fact present),
e.g.
, if you were (now) ordering me, I would
obey

(iii) aorists in the protasis and apodosis, with in the apodosis, should be
translated if had, would have (the unfullled past), e.g.
, if you had ordered me, I would have
obeyed
Notes
(i) These conditions can be mixed. Greek will then treat each clause on its
merits, e.g.
, If you had ordered me, I would (now) be
obeying.
(ii)

When there is no , translate normally without would/should, e.g.


, if you make a mistake, you are a fool.

(iii) Observe that when a non-would/should refers to future time, Greek will
usually treat the if clause as an indenite clause (since there can be little
certainty about the outcome of a future conditional event) and use with
subjunctive, e.g.
, if you (will) persuade me (but I dont know if
you will or not), I shall not go away.
WISHES

403. Wishes for the future in Greek are expressed by the optative (e.g.
may I perish!), or by / / + optative, e.g.
if only I could persuade the man!

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Unattained wishes for the present or past use the imperfect or aorist indicative (cf. unfullled conditions, which they closely resemble), e.g.
if only he were doing this!
if only he had done this!
Alternatively, they can be expressed by using a form of + innitive, e.g.
() would that I were doing this!
( ) would that I had done this!
Observe the difference to the tense which the innitive makes here.
N.b. is never used with wishes.
COMMANDS (ORDERS)

404. Greek uses one set of forms for 2s. person imperatives (Do this! Do
that!) and another for 3rd person orders (Let him/them do this!) and
another for 1st person commands (Let us do this!). The 2nd and 3rd
person forms appear under the imperative forms in the verb tables.
The distinction between orders using the aorist form and the present form
is one of aspect: the aorist form suggests the order applies to a particular
instance, the present to a continued or repeated occurrence (cf. Pick up
that book! and Pick up all the litter!). But when the order is negative
(Dont do that! Let him not do that!) Greek uses + aorist subjunctive
to express the aorist aspect, not + aorist imperative, e.g.
dont do this (once)
dont do this (at all, ever)
Observe also that the subjunctive is used after certain words to express an
order or a quasi-order, e.g.
come, let me do this
; do you wish I should do this?
here is aor. subj., NOT future.
The plain subjunctive is used to express the idea let us , e.g.
let us go
DELIBERATIVES

405. When a rst-person question appears in the subjunctive, it carries the idea
(What) am I to ?, e.g.
; Where am I to turn?

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; What is to become of me? (lit. What am I to become?) If


such a deliberation occurs in past time, Greek uses + innitive, i.e.
what ought I to have ?, e.g.
; Where was I to turn? (lit. Where was it necessary for me to turn?)
If a deliberation in the subjunctive is reported in secondary sequence, it will
turn into the optative, e.g.
he asked me where he was to turn to.
SUBJUNCTIVE AND OPTATIVE USAGES COMPARED

406.
SUBJUNCTIVE

OPTATIVE

Main clause

Main clause

(i) Hortatory Let us .. e.g. Lets


go

Wish for future May you ! (often with


/), e.g. May you
suffer terribly!

(ii) Deliberative What/where (etc.) am I


to? e.g. Where am I
to turn?

Potential/polite (+) Would you/may you/


you will!, e.g. Would you
like to come in?

(iii) Prohibitions Dont! ( + aorist subj.),


e.g. Dont do this!
407 Subordinate clause

Subordinate clause

Primary sequence

Secondary/historic sequence

(i) Purpose We are


here in order to see

Purpose We were
here in order to see

(ii) Fearing I fear that


he may come

Fearing I feared that


he might come

(iii) Indenite (with , + subjunctive)


, Whoever
listens will learn
Wait until I call

Indenite (no , + optative)


, Whoever listened
learnt
You waited for me
to call
(iv) Indirect speech Optative replaces the
indicative or subjunctive of what was
actually said:
You said that they had
arrrived ()
I asked what we were
to do ( ;)

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SUBJUNCTIVE

OPTATIVE

(v) Present indenite/general conditional


sentences , If ever
you [do] speak, I listen

Past indenite/general conditional sentences , If ever you spoke,


I listened

(vi) Future indenite/general conditional


sentences , If
you [will] speak, I shall listen

Future remote conditional sentences


, If ever you were to
speak, I would listen
Note: the present and past would/should
conditions take the indicative +

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Language Surveys1

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE

408. Greek belongs to the great family of Indo-European languages. These


include English, Welsh, Irish, Latin, Russian, Lithuanian, Albanian, and
most modern European languages (notable exceptions being Basque,
Finnish, Hungarian and Turkish), as well as Armenian, Persian and the
languages of north India. Important extinct languages that belong to the
same family include Hittite and Tocharian. Greek has the longest recorded
history of any of them, running from the fourteenth century B. C. down to
the present day. Its apparent similarity to Latin is due, not to any specially
close relationship, but to the fact that both languages ultimately derive
from the same source and are recorded at an early date; Greek and Latin
are both strikingly close to the classical language of India, Sanskrit, and to
the language of Darius I and Xerxes, Old Persian.
The earliest record of the Greek language is contained in the clay tablets
written in the script called Linear B in the palaces of Knossos, on Crete,
and Pylos, Mycenae, Tiryns and Thebes, on the mainland in the fourteenth
to thirteenth centuries. This script is not alphabetic but syllabic, i.e. each
sign represents not a single sound (e.g. t, p) but a syllable (e.g. do,
sa, mu). Mycenaean (as the language of the Linear B tablets is called)
represents an archaic form of the language, but demonstrates rmly that
Greek had developed as a separate language and, indeed, split into dialects well before this date.
409. The alphabet with which we are familiar (each sign representing a single
consonant or vowel) was introduced from Phoenicia (Lebanon), probably in the early eighth century, and this script has been in use in Greece
ever since (although the shapes of the letters and their pronunciation have
changed). The two great poems of Homer were probably composed during
this century, although they contain linguistic and cultural echoes of much
earlier ages; and the written form in which we have them is a later form of
1 These surveys were contributed for the rst edition by members of the Advisory Panel (see Reading
Greek: Text p. xii). They have been revised for this edition by Professor David Langslow. They
remain very largely synchronic that is, descriptive of Greek as it was in a single period (5th-4th
C BC) but here and there a little more historical explanation has been added in the belief that
sometimes a diachronic account ( + through time) can illuminate synchronic understanding.

465

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Greek (third century). The earliest inscriptions we possess are mostly brief
records of names, but before the end of the eighth century someone had
scratched on a vase at Athens a line and a bit of verse (in the same metre as
Homer), given here in the spelling we are used to:
,

Who now of all the dancers sports most delicately, this is his
410. The early inscriptions are written in many different scripts and dialects and
show that down to c. 300 BC every Greek city had its own dialect and often
its own peculiar form of alphabet. We can group the dialects into four main
types:
(i) West Greek, or Doric, the type spoken by most of Athens enemies in the
Peloponnesian War; it was used in literature for choral lyric poetry
(ii) Arcadian and Cypriot, without any literary use
(iii) Aeolic, spoken in Thessaly, Boiotia and Lesbos; the personal lyric poetry
of Sappho and Alkaios (c. 600) is in a form of Lesbian.
(iv) Attic-Ionic, two very closely related dialects: Ionic, spoken in Euboia, the
islands of the central and east Aegean sea, and on the seaboard of Asia
Minor (the west coast of modern Turkey), was used by Homer and all
epic poets, and also by Herodotus and writers of scientic prose. Attic,
the speech of Athens and Attica, is usually the rst dialect met in learning
Greek, this course included. This is because texts surviving in Attic vastly
outweigh those in other dialects, both in quantity and in literary quality.
Attic Greek was used in its purer form by Aristophanes, Plato and the orators, and in modied form by Thucydides and the tragedians, who admitted more Ionic forms (such as sea beside or instead of Attic
). With further slight modication in the fourth and third centuries,
this Ionic-coloured Attic became the standard language of Hellenistic
Greece (i.e. the Greek world after Alexander the Great had vastly extended
it eastwards) and subsequently of most of the eastern Greek half of the
Roman Empire; this was called the common speech.
Its grammar and syntax changed little for over a thousand years, though
there was some development in vocabulary; but the pronunciation underwent major changes, while retaining the old spellings. Thus a knowledge
of Attic will not only enable you to read Athenian literature; it supplies a
key to the other dialects used in literature and to the whole of later Greek
literature.
411. After Greek-speaking Constantinople the last outpost of the Roman
empire fell to the Turks in A.D. 1453, Greek was still maintained as the
language of the Orthodox Church, and continued to be spoken widely.
When Greece was liberated from the ruling Turks in the early nineteenth
century, some tried to revive the old language for ofcial purposes, and
Greeks today still respect ancient forms as more correct than those they

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use colloquially. In some respects, some forms of modern Greek are much
closer to ancient Greek than, say, Italian is to Latin. But though the difference in pronunciation will prevent you from understanding the spoken
language, many public notices will be intelligible, and there is a real sense
of continuity in the modern language. For example, some of the signs to be
seen on shops and ofces in Greece today will be easily understood, such
as, general store (lit. everything-sell-place), or
National Bank of Greece ( table had
already by the fourth century B. C. acquired the sense of bank). A notice
sometimes to be seen in parks or woodland reads
Be kind to the trees
Words found on Mycenaean documents (the earliest Greek we know, dateable to c. 1400) but still in use today with only slight change of pronunciation include:
I have
god
honey
old
ACTIVE, MIDDLE AND PASSIVE VOICES

412. Grammarians traditionally use the term voice to denote the relation
between the subject (in the nominative) and the action denoted by the verb.
Many languages, Greek included, have an:

active voice, used when the subject is the agent, the one performing
the action, and the object, if there is one, is the patient, the one on
the receiving end of the action (e.g. Neaira hates Phrastor, Socrates
deceived the young, etc.); and a
passive voice, used when the patient is made the subject and the agent,
if expressed, is conveyed in an adverbial phrase usually involving the
word by (Phrastor was hated by Neaira, the young were deceived by
Socrates).

In addition to these, Greek also has a so-called:

middle voice (historically identical with the Latin deponent).

413. Originally, a middle ending indicated that the subject was not only the
agent but also the patient or the indirect beneciary of the action of the
verb. This original meaning of the middle can still be seen in a few Greek
verbs which in the middle see the agent:

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c doing something to himself e.g. I wash myself vs. I


wash (someone else);
c doing something for himself, e.g.
means to take hold of, seize; its middle means to
take for oneself, to choose;
(ii) means bring x (to y), but means bring x to
oneself, to win x over to ones own side;
(iii) the act of engaging in a lawsuit is (active), seen from the
point of view of the judges, but (middle) from that of the
litigants, who are in it for their own benet. Consequently, the active
forms mean give judgment, the middle forms mean go to law.
(i)

c In other Greek middle verbs, the old reexive function is no longer


apparent:
(iv) we think that follow is middle in form because it used to
mean keep in sight for myself (the root is - from earlier *sekw-,
which is cognate with that of Latin sequor follow and English see);
(v) but we cannot account for the intransitive I go in these
terms; nor of the thoroughly active verb I receive; nor of
those verbs which have an active form in the present (e.g.
hear, shout), but a middle form in the future ( I
will hear, I will shout) unless Greeks thought e.g. that,
in certain cases like hearing and shouting, they would act in the
future only in their own interests! Note that many verbs occur only in
the middle.
The middle is in fact older than the passive, that is to say, you originally
had only active vs. reexive forms. In the present, imperfect and perfect,
the passive was expressed simply by using the middle without any change
of form. In the aorist, however, the middle forms are middle only, and the
(new) aorist passive was made out of an old intransitive formation in -(still seen in e.g. I was mad, I rejoiced), which is why
it has active endings. Note, however, that quite a number of middle verbs
(, etc.) use passive forms (but with middle sense) in the aorist (see
324). The most recent passive tense, the future, was made by adding future
middle endings to the stem of the aorist passive.
414. Note the confusion that we have been tiptoeing around and through! in
this section: we have been trying to say something about middle functions
(meanings, both original and classical) of middle forms (endings). To
clarify the matter:
c The denition of voice in the rst sentence of this Survey has to do with
its meaning (the agent doing the action). Often, however, the term voice

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is also used of just the endings: -, -, - etc. are said to be active endings, -, -, - etc. to be middle endings.
c The active endings -, -, - etc. are very nearly always active in
function, too (with the stunning exception of their use in the aorist passive). But the middle endings are very often used in verbs which have no
apparent middle meaning: they can be intransitive (like go, cf.
go, which is active in form); or thoroughly active (like
receive, cf. , take, active in form again).
ASPECT: PRESENT, AORIST AND PERFECT

415. In terms of their meanings (and also to some extent in the way they are
formed), the tenses of the Greek verb fall into four systems:
c
c
c
c

System (i): present (with a past-tense partner, the imperfect)


System (ii): future
System (iii): aorist
System (iv): perfect (with a past-tense partner, the pluperfect, and a
future-tense partner, the future perfect).
Each of these systems carries its own particular meaning and this meaning
is conveyed in all relevant moods in the system, including the imperative as
well as the participle and innitive. (The future has neither imperative nor
subjunctive.)
Of these systems, only one has an exclusively temporal force that is
the future. Each of the three other systems may refer in time to either the
present or the past. Observe that in most forms of Greek including Attic,
past time is normally marked by the presence of the augment (Myceneaen
and Homer are the notable exceptions).

The present (imperfective) system

416. The present system enables the speaker to report a verbal action as ongoing, incomplete, interruptible. It conveys what is known as the imperfective aspect. By imperfective aspect, we mean that the action of the verb
(in the present and past) is to be seen as:

a continuing action, a process, e.g. o he is (in the process of)


making; he was (in the process of) running; or
as a process in virtue of its repetition, e.g. there were several
ashes of lightning, it went on lightning for some time.

The aorist system

417. The aorist system, by contrast, reports the action as one to be seen as:

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an event or a fact, not a process, e.g. o he made (often used on


vases with the makers signature); there was (a single ash
of) lightning.
Here it is worth noting that, if the speaker so wishes, he is quite at liberty
to regard any action as imperfective (i.e. continuing) or aoristic (i.e. having
happened as a fact or event). Thus some makers write on their vases o
he was the maker; and lists of Olympic victors can have he was the
victor.)
It is often stated that the aorist participle refers to past time, e.g.
can be translated having said this he went away. But this
arises naturally from the fact that one action must have preceded the other;
it would be equally correct to translate saying this he went away; he
said this and went away; with these words he went away. That the aorist
participle does not have to refer to past time is evident from the common
phrase he said in reply (not having replied! Strictly, of
course, means not reply but rather take up [the place in the
dialogue]).

The perfect system


Present uses of the perfect

418. The perfect is in origin, and to a large extent still in the classical period
not a past tense but a present tense. This is clear from the perfect forms:
c the ending of the 3pl. perfect active is -, cf. e.g. 3pl. pres. they
are putting;
c the endings of the perfect middle, -, -, -, are the same as the
present middle endings;
c perfects are regularly used alongside presents, e.g. [pres.]
[perf.] I feel pleasure and joy (Aristophanes).
The presentness of the original perfect arises because it was used to
denote a state, in particular a present state resulting from a past action. This
explains why some perfects are used with present meaning, e.g.
c I have seen (), (therefore) I know, I have called to
mind, (therefore) I remember, I have roused myself, (therefore) I am awake, I have been made by nature, (therefore) I am
naturally
c The opposition between action (pres./aor.) and state (perf.) survives in
classical Greek in a few verbs such as:
c (present) he is in the process of dying, i.e. he is on his
death-bed
c (aorist) he completed the process of dying, i.e. he died,

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c (perfect) he is in the state of being dead, i.e. he is dead,


c (pluperfect) he was in the state of being dead, i.e. he was [at
that time] dead
(Note that the pluperfect is to the perfect as the imperfect is to the
present.)
419. But there are some wrinkles:
(i)

Some perfects denoting present states are not so obviously related to a past
action, e.g.

I am glad, I am afraid, I am accustomed,


I seem to , or (+dat.) I resemble;
(ii) A few have present meaning, but are not obviously states, e.g. I
order, I shout, I gape;
(iii) The stative perfect is seen sometimes in the passive, when the verb is
rendered better with it is ed than it has been ed, e.g.
he is wounded (i.e. he has received a wound and still suffers from it);
it is written (i.e. it has been written down and can still be
read);
(iv) Occasionally, this passive meaning is seen in perfects with active endings, e.g. it is broken (- break), it is xed
(- x); even I am prisoner, I am convicted (
be captured, convicted); and remember that , middle in form, has
an active perfect, .
These uses of the perfect active (of present states, and with intransitive or
passive meaning) are vestiges of very ancient uses.
Past uses of the perfect

It is important to note, however, that, alongside these few ancient relics, the
perfect (both active and middle/passive) is developing into a past tense already
in the fth century, and by the fourth century can be used in alternation with
the aorist, e.g. [perf.] [aor.] he spent and lied
(Demosthenes).
The aspect system at work

The rst sentence of Thucydides history is an excellent example of the aspectual


systems at work:

, ,

Thucydides of Athens wrote the history (event) of the war between the
Peloponnesians and Athenians, how they went to war (event) against each
other. He began (event) as soon as it was starting (process)

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,

, , .
and had formed the expectation (event) that it would be (future) important
and more notable than any existing in the past (perfect), drawing conclusions (process) from the fact that they were undertaking it (process) at
the height of their powers (process) in every department, and witnessing;
(process) the rest of the Greek nation inclining (process) to one side or the
other, some at once, others having only the intention (process).
OPTATIVE

Forms

420. Originally, the optative was formed by adding a sufx (containing --) and
the past personal endings to the verbal root or stem (the optative is particularly associated with the past tense in certain constructions. See 299).
In athematic verbs, like , the sufx was:
c -- in the active s.
c -- in the active pl.
c -- throughout the middle.
The athematic type is seen also in the optative of:
c contract verbs, e.g. , etc. (373);
c the aorist passive, e.g. , etc. (369).
In thematic verbs, like :
c -- was used throughout active and middle, singular and plural, always
added to the thematic vowel in its -o- form.
The thematic type is also seen in the:
c optative of the 1st aorist, where the alpha takes the place of the thematic
vowel: , etc.
But we still cannot account for the curious alternative endings of the 1st aorist
2s. -, 3s. -() and 3pl. - (368).
Uses

421. In very broadest outline:

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the indicative is the mood for statements;


the subjunctive is the mood for what is prospective (i.e. sometime in the
future) or imagined (let us suppose);
the optative is the mood for wishes of the speaker or contingencies
which are more remotely prospective.

This basic force of the optative surfaces in three ways:


(i) the optative is used to express a wish for the future, e.g.
may I perish! Damn me!
I wish that someone would give me an axe!
Would I might become an eagle!
(ii)

the optative with is used to characterise some event or situation as a


future possibility (the so-called potential>conditional use of the optative,
in which, with triing exceptions, it is always in Classical Greek accompanied by ). English usually employs for this purpose such words as may,
might, can, could, would, should, (sometimes) will, e.g.
you might tell me (i.e. please tell me)
I will tell you now (if you like)
, if you were to go there, I would
follow you
but someone may say that

(iii) in subordinate clauses of various kinds, when the main verb is historic, the
optative may replace the subjunctive or the indicative (see 299).
Note:
(iv) while a potential>conditional optative virtually always has accompanying it, the likes to come very early in the clause and may therefore not
be adjacent to the verb; or it may be repeated, at the start of the clause and
with the verb as well.
(v) the optative usages of types (i) and (iii) never have , i.e. an optative with
is always potential>conditional.
USES OF THE SUBJUNCTIVE

422. As noted in 421 above, the subjunctive mood, in origin and still in the classical period, is used especially of events and situations viewed not as actual
but as prospective or otherwise imagined. In several constructions, accordingly, the dividing line between the subjunctive and the future indicative
can be rather ne; on the whole, the difference is that the future indicative
gives an impression of greater deniteness and certainty.

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(i) In independent sentences

In independent sentences, the subjunctive is used only:


(a) in rst person exhortations ( let us go)
(b) in deliberative questions ( ; what am I to say?)
(c) in prohibitions (aorist only) ( , do not destroy
me, Hermes)
(ii) In subordinate clauses

The subjunctive is found in many types of subordinate clause which have an


indenite or prospective sense, e.g.
(a) indenite relative clauses with (2823, 407[iii])
(b) indenite clauses of time, place (etc.) with (282, 407[iii, v, vi])
(c) conditionals relating to the future (introduced by , , ) (282, 300,
402, 407[v-vi])
(d) fear clauses relating to the future (293)
(e) purpose clauses (sometimes with , though in order that never
takes ; means wherever) (298).
Note
(i) Where accompanies a subjunctive, the particle will almost always come
directly after the conjunction or relative introducing the clause (often the two
fuse together into one word, e.g. , , ).
(ii) In secondary sequence (299), the subjunctive in all these subordinate usages
is generally replaced by the plain optative; this use of the optative is not
potential, and accordingly there is no .
THE USES OF

423. The particle has two entirely different elds of usage, which fortunately
need never be confused:

in one eld the verb associated with will always be subjunctive;


in the other eld the verb will never be subjunctive.

Originally, the two usages were related, but it is better to treat them quite separately.
Attached to a conjunction or relative pronoun
(with the verb in the subjunctive)

has the effect of making the clause indenite (like English -ever e.g. whoever), or prospective (referring to future contingencies when/if ever that may
happen, we dont know rather than present facts), e.g.
(a) , when he came in, we were glad

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This refers to a specic events at a known time in the past; hence, indicative.
(b) , when he comes in (whenever that will be),
we will be glad
This refers to an indenite time in the future; hence, + subjunctive.
(c) in the way they wanted
This refers to a particular type of treatment that was actually applied.
(d) in whatever way they want
This gives carte blanche to apply any kind of treatment.
(e) , if he hasnt paid, Ill sue him
Here the debtor has already in fact either paid or defaulted, though the speaker
does not know which.
(f) , if he doesnt pay, Ill sue him
Here it is still a matter of speculation whether he will pay or not.
An alternative to (f) is:
(g) , if he is not going to pay, Ill sue him
This suggests, in contrast with (f), that the speaker has already half-decided that the
debtor will not pay voluntarily, so the process of law is all the more certain.
Accompanying a verb in the optative
(typically in an independent clause)

424. signals that the optative is potential>conditional (see 186, 402,


421(ii))
Accompanying a verb in a past tense
(impf., aor., plupf. INDICATIVE)

425. signals a hypothetical statement (or question) based on a condition contrary to fact (unfullled), e.g.
,
if the Spartans had done that (which they didnt), you would have
launched 200 ships at once
, , if
I were in the wrong (which I am not), I would not now be standing trial
here, but would be in voluntary exile
Observe:
(a) you will sometimes nd accompanying an innitive or participle. In
such cases
(usually in indirect speech), the force of will be as in 424 or in 425 above, i.e.:

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424: potential>conditional, or occasionally 425: hypothetical


(b) the verb of a clause containing an of type 423 must be subjunctive,
otherwise the simply cannot stand.
(c) often in Homer you will nd or performing just the same functions
as ; but the strict principles laid down above for the use of and of the
subjunctives and optatives do not apply in their entirety to Homer, where
slightly different rules apply to the use of the moods.
VERBS IN - AND VERBS IN -

426. Greek verbs are broadly divided into two formal types:

Thematic verbs like , with 1s. active in - and middle in .


These have a short vowel, or , between the stem and ending, called the
thematic vowel. They include the vast majority of classical Greek verbs;
Athematic verbs like with 1s. active in - and middle in -.
These add the endings directly onto the stem, with no intervening vowel.
They are in a minority, but are vital since they include very common
verbs like be , go , and say and standard words for put
, give , stand , send and show .

427. These two classes differ mainly in the present and imperfect (sometimes
in the aorist, too), where the conjugation of the - verbs is generally less
predictable than that of the - verbs. A historical explanation may help to
clarify the differences.
(i) We know that the original active present endings were -mi, -si, -ti, -men,
-te, -nti.
(ii) In theory, then, if we add the same set of endings to a thematic and an athematic stem, we should expect - I carry (thematic) and - I go (athematic), both very ancient Indo-European verbs, to conjugate as follows:
Predicted thematic
type in proto-Gk

Attested thematic
Gk forms

Predicted athematic Attested athematic


type in proto-Gk
Gk forms

1s.

pher-o-mi

ei-mi

2s.

pher-e-si

ei-si

3s.

pher-e-ti

ei-ti

1pl. pher-o-men

i-men

2pl. pher-e-te

i-te

3pl. pher-o-nti

-
(Doric -)

iy-nti*

*n is vocalic, i.e. hummed as in risen

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This analysis works perfectly in:


(iii) the 1pl. and 2pl.
(iv) the thematic 3pl., since - comes straight from original *-o-nti (cf.
-unt in Latin), by the same set of sound-changes that gives (e.g.) dat. pl.
(lions) from expected *leont-si.
(v) the athematic 3pl., since - can be explained agreeably enough as
being from *-anti, another regular change;
(vi) the athematic 1s.;
(vii) the athematic 2s., since -s- is regularly lost between vowels (see 52);
(viii) the athematic 3s., since -ti in a group of Greek dialects including Attic
regularly changes to -si.
The problems lie with the thematic singulars, i.e. can we explain how:
-o-mi gives
-e-si gives
-e-ti gives

-
-
-?

Scholars argue about this. One approach is as follows:


2s: here the -s- has dropped out but been tacked onto the end, to make it look
like a respectable 2s. respectable because there was -s- in the 2s. originally. (This has happened, for example, with , the 2s. of :
originally the 2s. was , but the -- dropped out to give , and
was then added on again to give .)
3s: here the -t- has dropped out. The reason may be that, since the past ends
2s. -, 3s. -, the present may have been formed 2s. - 3s. - to resemble it.
But the whole topic is much disputed.
THE NEGATIVES AND

428. Greek has two negative particles, o and , which differ mainly in the
contexts in which they are used. Very broadly speaking:

is used IN STATEMENTS hence, with the indicative (except after


if) and with all forms of potential;
is used IN COMMANDS/WISHES hence, with the imperative,
with the optative expressing a wish, usually with the subjunctive, and
hence in conditions and purpose-clauses;
(or , with the same meaning) is used with all forms of the
INFINITIVE except in indirect speech, where the negative is the one
used in the direct context (by the rst two rules).

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429. Why should be used after if, even when the verb is indicative? If you
think of or if as meaning imagine! or let!, you can see that conditions
(if clauses) are originally main-clause commands or wishes: think of
those algebra lessons let x = 2, and let y be not greater than 4, then x + y
is not greater than 6. Clearly, here the clause introduced with let is a command, where we expect , while the result clause, introduced by then,
is a statement and hence takes as its negative. (When conditions refer
to the future, of course, the if clause is naturally subjunctive or optative,
where your instinctive rst choice is .)
430. A participle may be negated by either o or and this is one of the few
cases where the use of one negative or the other matters for the understanding of the text. You will remember that the participle can stand for various
types of clause (see 393) including conditional clauses (if) and causal
clauses (seeing that, when, because):
c When the participle is standing for a conditional clause, its conditional
meaning triggers the use of as its negative; in other words, from the
readers point of view, if a participle is negated with , translate the participle with if. So:
( = )
What shall I do if my father is not in his right mind?
c When the participle is standing for a causal clause seeing that or
when (as a matter of fact) it is negated with . So:
( = )
What shall I do, seeing that my father is not in his right mind?
431. You have already seen how, if the same negative is repeated in a clause, the
negatives either reinforce or cancel each other (see 75). The same is true of
combinations of different negatives ( and ). Look at the following examples:
(i) o with an innitive (common when the main verb is negative) means
the same as alone, e.g.
We do not hate Athens
(wishing) that it should not be great
(ii) with subjunctive (usually aorist) or future indicative gives an
emphatic version of with future indicative, i.e. a strong denial or a
strong prohibition, e.g.
I shall certainly never be caught
Do stop talking nonsense!

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(iii) with verbs of fearing:


I fear he may not win (Let it not be the case
that he does not win!)
MORPHOLOGY OF THE CASES

432. This section gives a brief survey of the forms of the cases, the next section
(43744) comments on their functions.
Greek has ve cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive and dative.
These derive from eight cases in the parent language, Indo-European (IE: see
408 above), which has the ve of Greek + ablative, locative and instrumental.

The Greek genitive results from the merger of Indo-Europeans genitive


and ablative;
The Greek dative results from the merger of Indo-Europeans dative,
locative and instrumental cases.

This may be expressed as follows:


Case endings and functions

IE:
nom., voc., acc., gen., ablative, dat., locative, instrumental
Greek: nom., voc., acc., gen. (absorbs IE abl. function), dat. (absorbs IE loc. and
instr. functions)
When two or more cases fall together in a language, the resulting single new case
will:
(i) retain all of the functions of the several old cases;
(ii) usually have only one ending, which it must choose from the endings of the
old cases. So, in Greek, the dative forms take sometimes an old dative ending,
sometimes the locative ending and sometimes the instrumental, as we shall
see!
433. At rst sight, the Greek declensions give the impression of a bewildering
variety of forms. In order to recognise the cases, it is useful to concentrate
on the similarities and to notice that many of the differences are due to later
changes within Greek (changes of vowels, contractions, etc.).
In Indo-European, we can see faint traces of a single set of endings for all
nouns, but even here it is easier to think in terms of three types corresponding
to the three basic types of Greek. The following tables show roughly the prehistoric endings from which the Greek ones you know and love derive. Here
are three simple examples of how it all works:

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Table for Type 3 nouns

This table comes rst because type 3 nouns add the ending straight onto the
stem, without any intervening letters.
Example: the stem of is -. Add the ending - to make the acc. s.
.
Table for Type 2 nouns

These nouns add a vowel ( or ) to the stem, and then the ending.
Example: - is the stem, add --, then the ending - to make the acc. s.
.
Table for Type 1 nouns

As for type 2, except that the intervening vowel is .


Example: - is the stem, add --, then add the ending - to make the acc.
s. .
Already you can see that, whatever the prehistoric ending-marker of the acc.
s. across all three declensions was, it emerged in Greek as -. In the three tables
below, these prehistoric ending-markers are written in CAPITALS, in the rst
column and each table will turn out to have the same capitals!
Type 3

434. Type 3 nouns originally had a stem ending in a consonant, or in -i-, or in


-u-.
The stems of Types 3a, 3b (), 3c () and 3d () originally
ended in a consonant. Some examples (* indicates a reconstructed form):
c 3a: and were originally *-, *-. The dropped
out and the preceding vowel lengthened to , giving , .
and were originallly *-, *-. With these, the
remained but the dropped out.
c 3b: was originally *, but Greek does not allow any consonant at the end of the word except -, - or -. So the - disappeared,
leaving the bare stem with zero (i.e. no) ending.
c 3c and d: like 3b, is in fact the bare stem, with zero ending; so too
is .
c The stems of Types 3e (-, -), 3f (-) 3g (-) and
3h (-) originally ended in -i- or -u-.

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Prehistoric stem ends in -i-, -u- or a Endings in Classical Greek


consonant; endings in CAPITALS
Singular
Nom.

-S after -i- or -uZERO after a consonant


ZERO in neuters

same, e.g. -
same, e.g. (zero ending)
same, e.g. (zero ending)

Voc.

ZERO

same, e.g. (zero ending)

Acc.

-M

- after -, - e.g. -2
- after a consonant3, e.g. -
same, e.g. (zero ending)

ZERO in neuters
Gen./abl. -OS (or -ES, or -S)

same, e.g. -4

Dat.

-EI

[lost in type 3 nouns]

Loc.

-I

same, e.g. -

Nom.

-ES
-A in neuters

same in m. and f., e.g. -5


same, e.g.

Acc.

-NS

- after a vowel, e.g. 6


- after a consonant, e.g. 7
same, e.g.

Plural

-A in neuters

Gen./abl. -OM

-,8 e.g.

Loc.

-SI

same, e.g. 9

Instrum.

-BHIS

[lost, though appears in Mycenaean]

2 *-m becomes - because m is not allowed at the end of a word.


3 *-m or -n can hardly stand after a consonant! It therefore behaves more like a vowel (think of e.g.
English doesnt) and converts into a short .
4 In many nouns contraction and other changes take place. For example, was originally
*--; the -- dropped out between vowels (a regular feature: see 52); and -
became by contraction . was originally - which became and then , by quantitative metathesis, i.e. the long vowel and the short vowel
change quantities becoming , becoming !
5 More contractions here: from -, from ()-, and in the neuter
, from *()-, *()-.
6 See footnote 5.
7 See footnote 3 above for n changing to .
footnote 3 above.
8 For *-m changing to -, see
9 See 359 for the dat. pl. endings.

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Type 2

435.
Prehistoric stem ends in -o/e-;
endings in CAPITALS

Endings in Classical Greek

Nom.

--S
--M in neuter

same, e.g. --
-- in neuter, e.g. --

Voc.

-e- ZERO

- + zero e.g. -10

Acc.

-o-M

same, e.g. --

Singular

Gen./abl. -o-S-YO [abl. -o d]

Homeric Greek - > Attic - e.g.


-11

Dat.

-o-EI > -OI

Loc.

-o-I [-e-I]

- [-]12

-o-ES (pronouns -OI)

-A in neuters

same as pronouns, e.g. -13


same (but short ), e.g. -

same, e.g. -

Plural
Nom.

--NS

-A in neuters

Gen./abl. -OM

-, e.g. -14
same (but short ), e.g. -

Loc.

same in Ionic, e.g. -

Acc.

Instrum.

-OISI

-OIS

contracted to -, e.g. -
same in Attic, e.g. -

10 The - is the vowel at the end of the stem.


11 Prehistoric *-osio lost the s (see footnote 4 above) to make -, the Homeric form; then the -idropped out to make *-; and this contracted into -.
12 The *-o-i ending survives in e.g. locative at home.
13 Greek adopted the ending used in Indo-European for pronouns, not nouns.
14 The *n of *-o-ns is lost before the nal s (see 3a nouns above for more examples), and the o is
lengthened to , giving -.

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Type 1

436.
Prehistoric stem ends in --;
endings in CAPITALS

Endings in Classical Greek15

Nom.

- + ZERO

same, e.g. - (Ionic -)

Voc.

replaced by the nom.16

Acc.

--M

--, e.g. -- (Ionic -)

Singular

same, e.g. -- (Ionic -)

Gen./abl. --S
Dat.
Loc.

--EI > i
--I > i

same, e.g. - (Ionic -): the


Greek form could come from either

--ES > -s

Greek replaces this with -, imitating


- in ype 2 nouns17

Plural
Nom.
Acc.

--NS

Gen./abl. --S-OM
Loc.
Instrum.

--SI
--BHIS

-, e.g. --
-- > -18
Greek replaces these with - (Ionic
-), imitating - (-) from type
2 nouns, e.g. -

USE OF THE CASES

Nominative case

437. The most important functions of the nom. are:


(i)

to indicate the subject of a sentence (7). Usually, the verb agrees with it
in number (an exception in Attic is the neuter nom. pl., which can take
a s. verb: cf. 35);
(ii) as the case for all nouns, adjectives, articles etc. that agree with the subject, either as appositions or as attributes or complements (see 456);
(iii) as the citation case (e.g. in lists) or as a title or heading: cf. the numerous
inscriptions which start with the phrase good fortune.
15 As we can see in Homer, the original *- regularly became (this continues to occur in Ionic
Greek). But in Attic the change did not occur after , , or . Hence -, -, etc.
16 The *- form of the vocative does occur in a few Greek words, e.g. (O [personied] Justice
and O nymph).
17 The - ending also clearly distinguished the nom. from the acc.
18 The circumex accent on - indicates that it is a contraction of -- < *--m < *--s-m.

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Accusative case

438. The most important functions of the acc. are:


(i)

as the case used for the direct object of the sentence (57).

Note: (a) some Greek verbs take two accusative objects, e.g.
I ask somebody something, I conceal
this (from) you, teach me your
argument.
(b) when we nd a verb joined to two independent accusatives, one
of the two has predicative value:
he has made himself master.
(ii) to indicate extent of space or time, e.g.
He went seventy stades compare in
English he covered seventy stades.
he reigned (for) fty years, rather like he
endured fty years.
(iii) to indicate direction or motion towards. In prose this usage calls for a
preposition (, , etc.) or for a construction where the acc. is followed by the particle -, e.g. (also ) homewards, home,
to Megara, = + to Athens).
(iv) to show the respect in which something is the case, e.g.
Achilles swift in [respect of] his feet, terrible in
[respect of] battle, etc.
(v) as (in limited cases) independent adverbs or prepositions, e.g. initially, in some way, + gen. on the pretext of,
+ gen. for the sake of, on behalf of, on account of. On the so-called
acc. absolute, see 296, 395.
Genitive case

439. Some uses of the gen. have been listed at 180(a-e). Here it is important
to remember (432) that the Greek genitive combines the functions of the
genitive and the ablative in Indo-European. It may be helpful therefore to
distinguish broadly its true genitival uses, on the one hand, and its ablatival
uses, on the other.
Genitive functions

(i)

The archetypal genitive function is to denote:


(a) the possessor of someone or something e.g.
the slave of [belonging to] Socrates;
(b) a close relative of someone, above all the father e.g.
Lysias the [son] of Cephalus.

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Hardly less important is the partitive function:


(a) the beginning [part] of the war;
(b) indicating a part of something which would normally go into the acc., e.g.
they ravaged [part of] the land vs.
they ravaged [all] the land. Cf. the use of de, du etc. in French jai
mang du pain vs jai mang le pain, i.e. all of it.

(iii) to indicate time during which or (in poetry) place within which; cf.
by day, by night (see 191 for the difference in meaning between
acc., gen and dat. in time constructions). This is a sort of partitive function.
Ablative functions

Ablative comes from Latin ablatus, a participle of aufero meaning take, carry
away. So:
(iv) the genitive is used ablativally in making a comparison: cf. sweeter than honey, i.e. taking honey as a point of departure, relatively sweet;
(v) the genitive is used after prepositions signalling separation or movement
away from (cf. , etc.).
Specialised uses

There are other uses of the genitive where it is harder to say whether the function
is originally genitival or ablatival. These include:
(vi) the so-called genitive absolute construction (ablative absolute in Latin): see
2223.
(vii) gen. of price or value (especially with verbs which mean to buy, to sell):
to work for pay, he estimates the
penalty in my case as death; cf. ; how much (does it cost)?;
(viii) gen. of crime (with verbs which mean to convict, to punish, to bring to
trial etc.): cf. to prosecute for impiety, to be tried for impiety.
(ix) As a result of one or other of the functions touched on above, the gen.
comes to be associated with many verbs (and in many instances from an
English point of view to stand in the direct object position). The most frequent of these include the following:
to share, to participate in; cf. , , etc.
to touch, to make contact with, to miss; cf. , ,
etc.
to aim at, to desire; cf. , etc.
to reach, to obtain; cf. , etc.
to start, to begin; cf. , etc.

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to remember, to care for, to forget, to despise; cf. , ,


, , etc.
to admire, to be amazed at, to envy; cf. , (with genitive
of the thing which one envies)
to hear, to perceive, to come to know [the gen. is used of the source of
the sound, sensation or information, the acc. of the sound etc. itself]; cf.
, , etc.
to rule, to have power over; cf. , etc.
to need, to lack; cf. , , , etc.
Dative case

440. As noted above, the Greek dative has taken over the functions of three cases
in Indo-European: dative, locative (to do with place where/time when) and
instrumental. Let us take each of these functions in turn.
True dative

(i)

The most frequent dative function is to indicate the indirect object of a


verb, where English would normally have a phrase introduced by to or
for (cf. 190[a]): he gives these things to them,
he says these things to them.
(ii) Related to this is the notion of advantage or disadvantage to or for the noun
or pronoun in the dative:
this day will be the start of great sorrows for the Greeks.
(iii) Also related to this usage is that of the possessive dative with the verb to
be or related verbs: // lit. these things exist/
come to be/are available for me, i.e. I have these things.
(iv) Notice the possessive nuance in idioms like ; ;
literally what [are] these things to me?, what [is there] to me and you?,
i.e. what have I to do with ?
Locative dative

441. The locative function of the Greek dative is seen in its use to indicate place
where or time when, nearly always with a preposition, e.g. in
Sparta, in the winter. It is rare (and mainly poetic) to nd
the locatival dative without a preposition, although it does occur even in
prose in place-names and time phrases, e.g. in Salamis,
in the third month.
Instrumental dative

442. The Greek dative continues two functions of the old instrumental:
(i)

it may be used (by itself) of the instrument, tool, means or manner in or by


which an action is performed: I was being pelted
by/with the stones, smiting them with the
swords, in haste, with enthusiasm etc. Note: the

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simple instrumental dative can sometimes indicate even a personal agent,


especially with verbal adjectives in -, and when the passive verb is
perfect or pluperfect and is used impersonally: it has been
done by me (normally, of course, the personal agent is expressed with
+ gen.; cf. 221).
it may indicate accompaniment or association (this is sometimes called the
comitative dative: Latin comes, stem comit- companion). This is the use
that we nd after the preposition together with, with the help of, e.g.
together with, with the help of, the god.

Note: a relic of the bare comitative usage is seen in the construction of


with the dat.: they captured one ship (lit.)
along with men themselves, i.e. together with its crew, crew and all.
The dative with various verbs

443. Some verbs are regularly construed with the dative where English in
equivalent sentences would have a direct object or prepositional phrase.
The most frequent meanings are:
to help, to please, to displease, to reproach, to be angry at, to envy: cf.
, , , , etc.
to obey, to serve, to trust, to advise: cf. , , ,
etc.
to meet: cf. , etc.
to follow, to accompany, to lead: cf. , , etc.
Vocative case

444. The vocative is peculiar in terms of its function in that it need not occur in
a sentence but can be used on its own in exclamations or when addressing a
person or thing ( Z, ). Even when it occurs in a sentence,
its link with it is tenuous; it could be removed without making the sentence
ungrammatical. Its zero ending is eloquent reection of the fact that it does
not assign any function within the sentence to the person or thing called.
In Attic the vocative is normally used after the particle ; absence of
denotes either strong emotion or a desire to keep the person addressed at a
distance.
USES OF THE DEFINITE ARTICLE

General features

445. Greek has only one article, the (the denite article), which as
an adj. always agrees with its noun in gender, number and case. When
English uses a (the indenite article), Greek uses either the noun
without an article or (less often) the indenite pronoun a, a certain,
some.

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There is a certain amount of agreement between Greek and English use


of the denite article, but important differences, too. Here are some of the main
ones:
(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

(v)
(vi)

Greek can (but need not) use the article with personal names and place
names: Solon, Asia. Cf. German (der) Michael,
(der) Schuhmacher (optional), French la France (obligatory).
Greek can use the article with abstract nouns: courage,
grace (cf. German die Liebe, French lamour).
Greek uses the article before possessive adjectives: [the]
my house (cf. Italian la mia casa).
In general statements, Greek tends to use the article while English often
omits it: women (i.e. the class of all women) vs.
the Persians or Persians.
Greek does not use the article with nouns used as predicates:
o the day became night ( could not have the article).
A neat consequence of (iv) and (v) together is a very frequent type
of sentence where Greek and English are diametrically opposed, e.g.
sailors make/are the best captains.

The article as noun

446. (i) Any Greek adj. can be used as a noun (understanding the reference to be
man in the masc., woman in the fem., and thing in the neut.), and the article
is no exception although it must then be accompanied by an adverb, or a
genitival or prepositional phrase, or a particle, e.g.
the man on deck;
the women here;
, lit. the things of the Athenians (the meaning of is
determined by the context);
o those round Herakleitos (i.e. Herakleitos and his
school);
the things/events in Sparta;
and the very common the one the other.
(ii) A prominent and important feature of classical Greek is that the article goes
much further than other adjectives in being used with almost any kind of
word (not only adjectives and adverbs, but also participles, innitives, whole
phrases) to form noun phrases, e.g.
the wise man;
those on the spot;
the man who is speaking;
the fact of dying, death.

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(iii) In this way Greek even introduces the aspectual distinctions of verbs into
noun constructions and can distinguish for instance between
(the process) and (the event). The article also allows a noun to be
determined by an adverb: he who is really a pilot, a
real pilot.
(iv) The neuter singular article in particular may be used to form phrases which,
though not nouns in origin, are treated as such, e.g.
lit. I approve the too much less
than the nothing in excess , i.e. I approve of excess less than of moderation;
lit. and amazing it
appears to me also the some people to have been convinced, i.e. and I
also nd it amazing that some people were convinced.
While speakers of other languages, including Latin and English, have to cast
about for other forms of expression, Greek speakers and writers and philosophers
could make almost anything into a neuter singular noun. This device gave the
language immense exibility of syntax and style.
The position of the article

447. (i) Normally the article precedes the noun but notice that in a simple group
comprising article, adjective and noun the position of the article will
depend on the function of the adj.:
, , (rare) all mean the wise
man a noun phrase, not a complete sentence as the adj. is attributive
(cf. 111).
But and mean the man is wise. Here
is used as a predicate (is predicative) and produces a complete sentence,
as it contains a predicate.
(ii)

Some adjectives (often originally pronouns) , , ,


take the predicative position:
, this man (note that and contain
the article as their rst element).

Notice, on the other hand, the contrast between the same man and
, the man himself.
(iii) Finally, a reminder of masc. , fem. in the expressions , and he
, she said. These forms (orig. *sos, *s) are demonstrative pronouns closely related to the def. art. They are quite unrelated to the relative
pronoun (orig. *yos, *y). Try to keep them separate in your mind!

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VOCABULARY BUILDING

448. The following list of prexes and sufxes attached to nouns, adjectives,
adverbs and verbs will help you to determine the meaning of roots or stems
which you recognise but the shape of which may be slightly unfamiliar.
Following this list of prexes and sufxes a table of useful common roots/
stems is given.
Formation of nouns

The following sufxes will be frequently met:


(i) to denote actions:
- f. (3e) training ()
- f. (1b) work ()
- m. (2a) pursuit ()
(ii) to denote the result of an action:
- (-) n. (3b) thing (done) ()
(iii) to denote the agent:
- m. (3a) saviour ()
- m. (3a) orator (cf. )
- m. (1d) maker, poet ()
(iv) to denote means or instrument:
- n. (2b) plough ()
(v) to denote profession or class of a person:
- m. (3g) priest ()
- m. (1d) citizen ()
(vi) to denote a quality:
- f. (1b) wisdom ()
- (-) f. (3a) equality ()
- f. (1a) moderation ()
(vii) to denote place where an activity occurs:
- n. (2b) law-court ()
- n. (2b) barbers shop ()
(viii) to denote a small example (familiar, affectionate or contemptuous):
- n. (2b) child ()
- n. (2b) small house ()
- m. (2a) youth ()
- f. (1a) young girl ()

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(ix) to denote son of (often used as a personal name, cf. English names in
son)
- m. (1d) son of Boreas ()
- m. (1d) son of Priam ()
(x) to denote the feminine form:
- (-o) f. (3a) young girl ()
Formation of adjectives

449. Adjectives are formed by composition (putting two roots together) and
derivation (by adding sufxes):
Composition

Here two roots are compounded, or juxtaposed, and the meaning is deduced from
their combined sense. These roots may derive from nouns/adjectives or verbs or
prepositions:
(i)

If the rst root is a noun or adjective, it has:


either the bare stem, e.g. -, from broad; or
a vowel -o- added to the stem or replacing the vowel of the stem, e.g.
-- man-slaying, cf. -; -- escorting souls,
cf. -.

(ii)

If the rst root is a verb, the verb-form sometimes ends in - or -, e.g.


- bringing victory
- trailing robes

(iii) Prepositions are very commonly used in compounds and sometimes have
special meanings (see 452 below).
Note especially:
(iv) the frequent adjective formation with - good, e.g. having
good deities, happy ( is still an adjective in Homer, but survived only as
the adverb in Attic)
(v) the prex - or -, which carries a negative force, e.g. unmarried, unnamed; but beware of the small number of words
where - means one and the same, together with, e.g. wife (lit.
bedfellow bed).
Derivation: adjectival sufxes

450. (i) to denote a general relationship between the adj. and the base:
-: enemy ()
-, natural ()
(ii)

to denote material:

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-: of stone ()
- or with contraction -: golden ()
(iii) to denote inclination, or tendency:
-: mindful (cf. --)
(iv) to denote aptitude:
-: useful ( or )
(v)

to denote passive state or capability:


-: divided ()
visible ()

(vi) to denote obligation:


-: that is to be honoured ()
Formation of adverbs

451. Most adjectives form adverbs by:


c Replacing the ending of the nom. with -, e.g. ,
. But:
Those in - replace - with -, e.g. .
The neuter accusative s. or pl. may be used adverbially as well, e.g.
much, greatly, alone.
(iii) Special types are:
-, -, -, e.g. like a dog, unanimously
-, -, e.g. secretly (cf. hide).
(iv) There are also many adverbs that do not form part of a regular pattern, e.g.
quickly, at once, in every respect.

(i)
(ii)

Formation of verbs

452. (i) Verbs are formed from nouns (or adjectives) by such sufxes as these:
-
-
-
-
-()
-
-

honour
work
enslave
reign
buy
enrich
make large

()
()
()
( )
()
()
(, -)

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(ii) These sufxes denote a wish:


-
-

to want to be a general ()
to want to laugh ()

(iii) Verbs are frequently compounded with prepositions, the sense of which
is sometimes subtle and difcult to render. Apart from their normal senses,
note the following special senses of prepositions when used in compounds to
form both verbs and adjectives:
withdrawal

retreat

repetition

come to life again

exchange

give in return

equality

god-like

against

opponent at law

return

give back

completion

nish off

for the defendant

defend oneself

separation

break up

disagreement

disagree

succession

take the place of

completion

accomplish

opposition

march against

addition

learn besides

superiority

survive

thoroughness

learn thoroughly

to destruction

destroy utterly

change

change ones mind,


repent

share

have a share in

deviation

overstep, transgress

intensity

very beautiful

abandonment

betray

anteriority

foresee

excess

overshoot, exceed

subjection

subject

moderation

whitish

stealth

withdraw secretly

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Changes in root syllables

453. You will have noticed that the root syllables of Greek words are sometimes
modied, especially in their vowels. This is familiar in English, where we
have such patterns as sing, sang, sung, song or foot, feet. The
details in Greek are quite complicated, but it is worth noting the patterns in
which:
c -- is replaced by -o- or by zero, i.e. this vowel disappears completely;
and
c the zero vowel is replaced by , especially where , , , or are
involved.
The following table gives a few examples:

zero

hover

wing

leave

(perf.)

(aor.)

run away

(aor.) cf.
ight

bring

- -bringing

chariot (lit. twocarrier)

(acc.) father

(acc.) of a noble
father

(gen.) (dat.
pl.)

missile

cast

throw

cut

slice

(aor.)

grief

suffer (perf.)

(aor.)

kill

murder

(aor.)

The last example shows another strange feature, the alternation of with .
Similarly we nd alternating with , e.g.
who?
pay
ve

where?
penalty
fth

Latin transcriptions

454. The Greek words that have been borrowed into English have normally
come by way of Latin; only a few (e.g. kudos) are taken directly from the
Greek form. Similarly, the proper names of Greek are frequently given a
Latin form in English, which is occasionally different from the Greek (e.g.
Achilles for ), although it is increasingly common to nd Greek-

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style rather than Latin-style transcription in modern scholarship on Greek


history and Greek literature (e.g. Akhilleus rather than Achilles). For this
reason, it is important to know both Greek-style and Latin-style conventions for transcribing from the Greek to the Roman alphabet. Most equivalents are obvious, but the following table sets out the main differences:
Greek letters

Greek-style transcription

Latin-style transcription

th

th

ph

ph

kh

ch

ou

ai

ae or

oi

oe or

os

us

on

um

Vowel-length is not shown and the corresponding English vowels are often
different, since they tend to be lengthened when stressed and shortened when
unstressed, e.g. becomes Hmrus, English Hmer; becomes
English Sln. For transcriptions used in this course, see 342.

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary


of all Words to be Learnt

FINDING THE LEXICON FORM OF A VERB

The essence is to isolate the present stem, since it is most often this form which will
be shown in the lexicon.
(i) Look at the front of the word, and remove any augment, or reduplication.
could be the augmented form of , ,

o
,

,
Bear in mind that the augment might be hidden by a prex such as , ,
, , , so check the prex as well.
= --, i.e.
= --, i.e.
from + , =
Here is a list of common prexes, with their various forms:




- -

(ii)

Having made an adjustment for augment/reduplication and prex, examine


the stem and the ending. Remove any personal endings.
(iii) If the remaining stem ends in , , , especially if an follows, it is probably
an aorist. Try dropping the (e.g. -- = ) or converting to
(-- = ). Try restoring a terminal or (-- =
), and a terminal to (-- = ).
If the stem ends in some form of , remember that may hide or
( = ), may hide or ( = ). For common
consonant changes, see 359(x).

497

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(iv) If there is no augment, check the endings for some sign of (, ) or contract in the stem, when it may be future. Check also endings for signs of
participle, innitive, etc. and remember that the stem you so isolate may be
present or aorist or perfect or future (see 384).
(v) If you are still stumped, isolate the stem and look that up in the vocabulary.
Highly irregular stems have been placed there for your peace of mind.
(vi) Bold square brackets (e.g. [3A]) refer to the chapter where the word was
learned.
= see principal parts at 389.
= these forms appear only with the prex as shown, but should still be looked
up without the prex at 389.
* = see 391.
at Athens [12I]
pathetic, miserable, wretched [15C]
- aor. stem of [7H]

gather, collect [18D]


good; noble; courageous [2B]

be
downhearted, gloomy, disheartened
(-), image, statue (3b) [18D]
[16B]
(-) report, announce [19F]
, lack of spirit, depression (1b) [16G]
, messenger (2a) [17C]
,
respect for others, shame (acc. ;
come! (s.) [3A]
gen.
; dat. ) [18E]
bring for oneself, lead; marry [20B]
[20A]

, gathering (-place); market-place; agora


(-) choose [11C]
(1b) [8A]
(-) take, capture; convict [9I]
speak (in assembly); proclaim [11A]
(-) perceive, notice (+ acc. or
, hunt (1a) [19E]
gen.) [11C]
from the country; boorish [6A]

ugly (of people); base, shameful


, eld; country (side)(2a) [11A]
(comp.
; sup. ) [13G]
(-) lead, bring [7H]; live in, be at [8C]
be ashamed, feel shame (before)

live in/be at peace [8C]


[12E]
(-), contest; trial (3a) [12C]

ask (for) [9I]


contest, go to law [12C]
,

reason, cause; responsibility (1b) [5C]


, brother (2a) [16D]

o responsible (for), guilty (of) (+ gen.)


be unjust; commit a crime; wrong [8B]
[5A]
(-), crime, wrong (3b)
, spear-point (1a) [19D]
[14A]
perf. of [13I]
unjust [5D]
(--) perf. part. of
impossible [6B]
,
hearing (1a) [16B]
= [8B]
follow, accompany (+ dat.) [17C]
always [1J]
unprovided for [18C]
sing [8B]
hear [1C-D]; listen (to) (+ gen. of person,

= [19B]
gen. or acc. of thing) (fut. ) [9H]
immortal [11A]

accurately, closely [1E-F]


to Athens [12F]
Acropolis, citadel (3e) [1A-B]; [18C]
,
, Athens (1a) [6B]

invalid
[14C]
, Athenian (2a) [2B]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(-) unwilling(ly) [11B]


- aor. stem of
, truth (1b) [7A]
, the truth [1D]
(-) be convicted; be caught [16F]
* but [1C]
each other, one another (2a) [3C]
other, the rest of [3C]
one another [12A]
someone elses; alien [12D]
* o well anyway; however that may be
[16B]
otherwise; in vain [17E]
speechless; without reason [18C]
at the same time [2C]
ignorant [6D]
(-) err; do wrong; make a
mistake [13H]; miss (+ gen.) [19F]
3rd s. (str.) aor of (no
augment)
answer, reply to (+ acc.) [19D]
(-) better [9E]
uncaring [10E]
impossible, impracticable [18C]
keep off, withstand [18B]
(-) surround (+ acc.) [20C]
, handmaiden (2a) [20C]
both [9I]
(+ ind.) conditional; (+ opt.)
potential>conditional [8A-C, 12G]; (+ subj.)
indenite [14]
(-) go up, come up [1A-G]
(-) aor. part. of
force, compel [10B]
necessary [17A]
, necessity (1a) [7B]
it is obligatory (for x [acc. or dat.] to
[inf.]) [7B]
(-) pick up [7G]
innocent [16H]
(-) take back, up [13B]
(-) spend, use, kill [18B]
(-) wait, hold on [9F]
(-), lord, prince, king (3a) [9D]
persuade over to ones side [9C]
, princess (1c) [20E]
retreat [2D]

499

o brave, manly [7D]


, wind (2a) [20F]
I stood up (aor. of )
I am standing (perf. of )
(-) standing (perf. part.
of )
(+ gen.) without [11B]
put up with (+ gen.) [18E]
(-), man (3a) [3A-B]
, man, fellow (2a) [1G]; , woman
[13F]
(-) get up, stand up, emigrate
[8B]
foolish [17E]
, lawlessness (1b) [4C]
(+ gen.) instead of, for [16H]
, contestant in lawsuit (2a) [12C]
above [9B]
worth, worthy of (+ gen.) [8C]
unarmed [18C]
(-) announce, report [17B]
(-) forbid [17A]
(-) lead, take away [4C]
(-) childless [13B]
demand (X [acc.] from Y [acc.]) [16D]
() afar off [20G]
(-) all, the whole of
[10A]
aor. of
aor. of
aor. of
be absent [16D]
inexperienced in (+ gen.) [13E]
-, -, , freedman, freedwoman
(2a) [16A]
- aor. stem of
(-) go away, depart [6C]
(-) refrain, keep away from
(+ gen.) [10A]
aor. of
inf. of /
imper. of /
=
(-) aor. part. of /

(+ gen.) from, away from [1G]


(-) leave, depart [7G]

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look steadfastly at (and away from


everything else) [11A]
(-) give back, return [13A]
- aor. stem of
- aor. stem of
fut. inf. of
- aor. stem of
(-) die [1A-G]
(-) answer [7D]
, reply, answer (3e) [17C]
(-) kill [4D]
- aor. stem of
take [16H]
o- aor. stem of
- I shall kill, ruin, destroy [8C]
(o-) kill, ruin, destroy; mid./
pass. be killed (aor. ) [11B]; perf.
I have been killed, I am done for ()
make a speech in defence, defend
oneself [9H]
, speech in ones defence (1b) [9I]
- aor. stem of
acquit, release [9J]
perf. of I am lost [13H]
send away, divorce [13A]
have no resources, be at a loss [2B]
, lack of provisions, perplexity (1b) [2]
(-) run away, run off [9E]
reveal, show [7B]
(-) carry back [17A]
(-) escape, run off [4C]
go away, depart [1A-G]
vote against; reject [13D]; acquit
(+ gen.) [14B]
touch (+ gen.) [20E]
light, fasten, x [5B]
aor. of
* then, consequently (marking an inference)
[6D]; straightaway [20A]
* = ? (direct q.) [1B]
, silver, money (2b) [12H]
, please (+ dat.) [11C]
, courage, excellence, quality (1a)
[7D]
best, very good [1J]
seize, plunder, snatch [17C]
just now, recently [10B]

, beginning, start [12C]; rule, ofce,


position [13E]; board of magistrates (1a)
(mid.) begin (+ gen.) [9G]; (+ inf./part.)
[9I]; (pass.) be ruled over [11C]
rule (+ gen.) [11C]; begin (+ gen.) [12E]
(-), archon (3a) [13F]
, irreverence to the gods (1b) [4D]
() commit sacrilege upon [12D]
impious, unholy [13E]
, illness, weakness (1b) [13C]
be ill, fall ill [13C]
weak, ill [18A]
greet, welcome [12A]
, female citizen (1a) [12F]
, male citizen (2a) [12F]
, city (3f) [4A-B]
safe, secure [20A]
but [9F]
since, seeing that (+ part.) [18D]
hold in dishonour, dishonour [4B]
, loss of citizen rights (1b) [12E]
deprived of citizen rights [12D]
again, moreover [9I]
speak, say [20G]
again [2C]
, courtyard (1a) [17A]
o tomorrow [5D]
but, then [20G]
at once [17D]
him, her, it, them [4D]
self [7H]
the same [7H]
(-) take X (acc.) from Y (acc.)
[12D]; claim
aor. of
aor. inf. f
(-) drag off [4D]
- aor. stem of
(-) release, let go [17A]
(-) arrive, come [3A]
aor. of
relinquish claim to (+ gen.), revolt
from (+ gen.) [13A]

B
walk, go (fut. ) [10A]
deeply [1E-F]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

deep [5A]
(-) go, come, walk [1A-B]
(-) hit, throw [19F];
go to hell! [6A]
, barbarian, foreigner (2a) [2C]
, weight, burden (3c) [15C]
heavy, weighty [5A];
take badly, nd hard to bear [9C]
, king [4D]; king archon (3g) [13E]
be king, be king archon; be queen
() o secure [2B]
best [8A]
(-) better [8A]
use force [6C]
o, life; means, livelihood (2a) [5A]
look (at) [1C-D]
(-) aor. part. pass. of

shout (for) [3D]


, shout (1a) [2]
, help, rescue operation (1b) [16C]
run to help (+ dat.) [1E-F]
discuss, take advice [17E]
, member of council (1d) [16F]
, council (1a) [13F]
wish, want [7A]
slowly [2B]
short, brief [16B]
, mortal, man (2a) [20E]
, altar (2a) [4D]

=
(1c) = , (1a) [20E]
(-) marry [13D]
, marriage (2a) [5A]
* for [1C]; * really, I assure you [7B]
* at least (denotes some sort of reservation)
[1G, 5D]
perf. of [13H]
, events, occurrences (2b) (perf.
part. of ) [16B]
perf. of (part. or
) [19F]
(-), neighbour (3a) [3A-B]
(-) laugh [7F]
- aor. stem of

501

, birth (3e) [18A]


o noble, ne [15A]
, member of a genos (1d) [13C]
, genos [13C]; race, kind (3c)
(-), old man (3a) [6D]
(-), taste, sample (3b) [11C]
taste [11C]
, farmer (2a) [4A]
, land, earth (1a) [1A-B]
- aor. stem of
(-) become, be born, happen, arise
[2]
(-) know, think, resolve [1I]
= [19C]
(-), grey-eyed [20C]
sweet [10E]
o legitimate, genuine [13C]
(-) aor. part. of

, judgment, mind, purpose, plan (1a)


[6D]
* at any rate [10E]
, knees (2b) (sometimes [3b])
[20D]
(-), old woman (3a; but acc. s. ;
acc. pl. ) [10B]
, indictment, charge, case (1a) [9H]
indict x (acc.) on charge of
y (gen.) [9H]
indict, charge [9H]
- propose (a decree); write [16C]
(-), woman, wife (3a) [4A]

(-), god, demon (3a) [4A]


(-) bite, worry [6A]
, tear (2b) [15C]
weep [15B]
* and, but [1A]
fut. of
it is necessary for x (acc.) to (inf.) [7B]
(-) show [16E]
terrible, dire, astonishing, clever
[3B]; clever at (+ inf.) [9F]
ten [17C]
, bed, bedding (2b) [20A]
, tree (2b) [18B]

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, right hand (1b) [6D]


right-hand [6D]; clever [8C]
need, ask, beg for (+ gen.) [10E]
it being necessary [16C]
(-), skin (3b) [18B]
, bond (2a) [18E]
, mistress (1c) [15A]
, master (1d) [4B]
here, over here [1B]
receive [5D]
* then, indeed [3E]
o clear, obvious [1H]
show, reveal [1E-F]
technical, of a workman
[18E]
, craftsman, workman, expert, (2a)
[18E]
, people [6B]; deme [8B] (2a)
of course, surely [7D]
* then [6D]
(+ acc.) because of [2D]; (+ gen.) through
[8C]; ; why? [1G]
(-) cross [7H]
(-) slander [7A]
, slander (1a) [7C]
be in x (adv.) state, mood [16G]
(-) judge between, decide [14D]
prevent [16F]
converse [5A]
(-) leave [16D]
intend, plan [5C]
, intention, plan (1b) [5C]
(-) do, perform, act [13G]
(-) dispose, put x (acc.) in y
(adv.) state [17B]
, delay, pastime, discussion, way of
life (1a) [17C]
pass time, waste time [12H]
differ from (gen.); make a difference;
be superior to (gen.) [12B]
(-) get away, ee [17A]
(-) destroy; kill [4B];
corrupt [7C]
, means of escape, ight (1a) [18B]
, teacher (2a) [7E]
teach [5D]
(-) give, grant [10E]

be punished, pay the penalty [13I]


(-) go through, relate (fut.
) [16A]
(-) go through, relate [2]
plup. pass. of [19A]
explain, relate, go through [14B]
be a juror; make a judgment [9C]
o just [5D]
, justice (1a) [18E]
judicial [12A]
, law-court (2b) [8B]
, juror, dikast (1d) [8B]
, lawsuit; justice; penalty (1a) [5A]; ne,
case [17C]
be punished, pay the penalty [13I]
punish, exact ones due from
( + gen.) [5A]
administer, run [13F]
o godlike [20C]
because [5A]
pursue [1C-D]; prosecute [9H]
- aor. stem of
it seems a good idea to x (dat.) to do y
(inf.); x (dat.) decides to (inf.) [9A-E, 10A]
seem, consider (self) to be [7C]
, o house, home (2a) [15A]
, reputation, opinion (1c) [7A]
, slave (2a) [4C]
enslave (for oneself) [2A-D]
(-) aor. part. of
(-), play, drama (3b) [9A]
, drachma (coin) (pay for two days
attendance at ekklesia) (1a) [11B]
(-) do, act [6D]
be able [7H]
, power, ability, faculty (3e) [18A]
able, possible [18B]
two [7H]
sink [1G]
unlucky [5A]
3rd pl. aor. of
bestow, give as a gift [18C]
, gift, bribe (2b) [10B]

E
- augment (remove this and try again under stem
of verb)

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(+ subj.) if (ever) [14C]


himself/herself/itself [7A]
allow [9F]
enrol, enlist, register [13C]
engage, promise [13A]
nearby [3C]; near + gen. [8C]
shut in, lock in [9E]
aor. of
[1B]
I at least, for my part [1D]
aor. pass. of
fut. of
aor. of
(-) wish, want [9H]
3rd pl. aor. of
aor. of
, manner, habit (3c) [13E]
if [6D]
2nd s. of ,
- aor. stem
opt. of
inf. of
aor. of
(-) knowing (part. of
) [7C]
very well, then! [11B]
(+ opt.) I wish that! would that! if only!
[12G]
probable, reasonable, fair [12E]
() twenty [16F]
reasonably, rightly [13G]
perf. of [13H]
aor. of
ov allotted, appointed [18C]
, clothes (3b) [20B]
be [1J]
I shall go (inf. ; impf. I went) [7C]
to be (inf. of )
- aor. stem of
speak! tell me! [3C]
aor. of
I have said (perf. act. of )
I have been said (perf. pass. of )
[13H]
, peace (1a) [8C]
live in, be at peace [8C]
(+ acc.) to, into, onto [1G]

503

(-) one [18E]


, impeachment (1b) [16G]
(-) impeach [16F]
(-) introduce [12D]
I go onto, on board [1C-D]
(--) perf. part. of

- aor. stem of
(-) enter [5D]
aor. of
impf. of /
aor. of
- aor. stem of
inf. of /
(--) aor. part. of /

fut. of
(-) behold, look at [20E]
- aor. stem of
(-) fall into, on [15B]
(-) bring, carry in [5A]
then, next [6C]
whether ... or [12B]
impf. of
(+ gen.) out of [1G]
o each [14B]
o o each/both (of two)
- aor. stem of
(-) throw out [6A]; divorce
[13A]; break down, break open [17A]
(--) aor. part. pass. of

receive in turn [7F]


(-) give in marriage [13A]
- aor. stem of
undress [10E]
there [16G]
o that, (s)he [3C-E]
o that there (pointing)
there, (to) there [8A]
, assembly, ekklesia (1b) [8B]
send out, divorce [13B]
aor. stem of
(-) be thrown out, divorced
[13A]
supply, provide [18B]
(-) pay [17C]

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(-) run out [9G]


(-) carry out; (often: carry out for
burial) [9F]
(-) escape [9E]
carry off [17C]
- aor. stem of
(o-) willing(ly) [13C]
aor. of
aor. of
(-) smaller; fewer; less
[13I]
aor. of
, examination, refutation (2a) [14E]
refute, argue against [14C]
- aor. stem of /
, freedom (1b) [2]
o free [2D]
set free [2]
perf. of [14A]
aor. pass. of
come! (s.) [1A-G]
- aor. stem of
aor. of
E (E-), Greece (3a) [14A]
E (E-), Greek (3a) [1J]
hope, expect (+ fut. inf.) [9I]
(-), hope, expectation (3a) [12I]
aor. of
myself [6D]
(-) embark [3E]
aor. of
= [19B]
= [20F]
my, mine [2C]
o skilled, experienced [1I]
- aor. stem of
(-) () () fall into, on, upon [7F]
, market-place (2b)
open, obvious [13E]
(+ dat.) in, on, among [1G]; (+ gen.) in the
house of [19B]
meanwhile [8A]
- stem of one
o (+ gen.) opposite, in front of [8C]
o inside [5D]
- aor. stem of
be in [5B]

(+ gen.) because, for the sake of (usually


follows its noun) [9G]
o aor. of
, security, pledge (2b) [16F]
there [15B]; where [19F]
here [9F]
take to heart, be angry at [16H]
= [20B]
here, at this point [9D]
from then, from there [7B]
(-) place in, put in [17B]
(-) meet with, come upon
(+ dat.) [9A-E] [12A]
=
(-) lead, bring out [9E]
suddenly [10B]
deceive, trick [9J]
aor.
aor. pass. of
aor. act. of
convict, refute, expose [13A]
- aor. stem of
(-) go out, come out [9C]
it is possible for x (dat.) to (inf.) [9F]
question closely [7C]
- aor. stem of
(-) nd out [6C]
aor. of
1st. aor. of
inf. of /
it being permitted, possible [16C]
(+ gen.) outside [16A]
seem; resemble (+ dat.)
o it seems, is reasonable [16A]; it is right for
(+ dat.) [14F]; [20B]
(-) order [17D]
aor. of
(-) praise, agree [7F]
- aor. stem of
(-) return [7H]
aor. of
since [8C]; when [9C]
(+ subj.) when(ever) [14C]
when [2D]; since, because [3C]
(-) attack [17A]
then, next [1A]
when, since [19B]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(-) go against, attack [2]


aor. of
(-) hold on, restrain, check [16B]
(+ acc.) against, at, to [2D]; (+ gen.) on [8C];
in the time of [19D]; (+ dat.) at, near, on [16F];
for the purpose of [14A]
(-) prove, show, demonstrate
[13C]
come to town, be in town [12I]
reasonable, moderate, fair [16G]
aor. of
desire, yearn for (+ gen.) [16B]
call upon (to witness) [4D]
(-) forget (+ gen.) [12G]
, concern, care (1b) [14E]
care for (+ gen.) [13B]
careful [14B]
(-) review [18A]
know how to (+ inf.); understand [9J]
- aor. stem
suitable, useful for [16B]
undertake, set to work [18D]
(-) follow (+ dat.) [7G]
, word (3c) (uncontr. pl. ) [19C]
- see or
work, perform [12I]
, task, job (2b) [1I]
fut. of
empty, deserted, devoid of [13B]
(-) go, come [2]
(-) ask [3A]
= [20B]
(-), clothing (3a) [18D]
(-) eat [9F]
ne, noble, good [15C]
fut. of (be) (3rd s. )
aor. of [7G]
= you (s.) are [20E]
3rd s. fut. of (be)
they stopped (3rd pl. aor. of )
perf. part. pass. of
[19B]
(-o-) standing (perf. part. of
)
worst, furthest, last [12D]
aor. of
, prostitute, courtesan (1b) [12F]

, male companion (2a) [12F]


o one (or the other) of two [6D]
one another [12A]
still, yet [3D]
even now, still now [4A]
ready (to) (+ inf.) [8C]
o, year (3c) [17D]
aor. of
aor. of
well [3B]
treat well, do good to [12C]
fare well, be prosperous [19E]
(-) happy, rich,
blessed by the gods [8B]
at once, straightaway [7F]; straight
towards (+ gen.) [16A]
o, good will (1b) [12B]
well-disposed [11B]
with pretty hair [20F]
, abundance, means (1b) [18C]
seemly, proper, becoming [15A]
- aor. stem of
perf. of
(-) nd, come upon [7C]
broad, wide [20G]
act righteously [13I]
fortunate, lucky [15B]
well-disposed [4A-B]
, prayer (1a) [3E]
pray [3E]
=
aor. of
impf. of
equip, get ready [20B]
be naturally (aor. of )
, enmity, hostility (1b) [12C]
, enemy (2a)
hostile, enemy [12C]
(-) have, hold [1A-G]; (+ adv.) be in
X [adv.] condition [13B]
have in mind, intend
= being [19B]
3rd s. impf. of
, dawn [20B]
(+ + subj.) until [16G]; until, while
(+ ind.); (+ opt.) until [17A]
= [19B]

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505

506

A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

quiet, peaceful [9B]


2nd pl. past of or 2nd pl. subj. of
Zs (-), Zeus (3a) [3C-E]

(-) lesser, weaker [6D]


, ne(1b) [13A]

aor.
of
ne, penalise, punish [16F]
,

(=
,
) dawn (acc. ; gen. ; dat.
look for, seek [3D]
o)
[20B]
, animal, creature, living thing (2b) [18B]

H
augment (if not under look under or -)
or [1J]; than [7A]
1st s. past of (be)
or [20E]
he said [7D]
impf. of /
(-), leader (3a) [8A]
lead (+ dat.) [8C]; think, consider [8A]
and [20F]
3rd s. past of
3rd pl. past o
with pleasure, sweetly [2A]
by now, now, already [2A]
past of
most pleasant (sup. of ) [11C]
enjoy, be pleased with (+ dat.) [7D]
, pleasure (1a) [8C]
sweet, pleasant (sup. ) [5A]
least of all, no, not [16H]
come, have come [11A]
aor. of /
, sun (2a) [6C]
(-), day (3b) [20E]
we [1C]
1st pl. past of
, day (1b) [9A-E]
our [1G]
, mule (2a) [9E]
3rd s. past of
I said [7D]
aor. of
impf. of [13A]
, Herakles (3d uncontr.) [8C]
aor. of
3rd pl. past of
2nd s. past of
aor. of
be quiet, keep quiet [2C]
, quiet, peace (1b) [2]

, bedchamber (2a) [15B]


, sea (1c) [1A-G]
- aor. stem of
, death (2a) [9I]
wonder at [6B]
- aor. stem of
, goddess (1b) [2]
watch, gaze at [3B]
, spectator, (pl.) audience (1d) [9A]
o divine [18D]
3rd s. aor. opt. of
aor. part. of
, god (2a) [4B]
, maidservant (1c) [17A]
look after, tend [13C]
v (-), servant (3a) [17B]
place! set! put! (aor. imper. [s.] of )
aor. inf. of
run [19F]
() 3rd s. aor. of (no augment)
, beast (2b) [18D]
2nd pl. fut. of
(-) die [15A]
mortal [4B]
make a disturbance, din [11A]
, noise, din, clamour, hustle and bustle
(2a) [3B]
([]-), daughter (3a) [12D]
, heart; anger (2a) [20C]
, door (1b) [3D]
, sacrice (1b) [3E]
sacrice [3E]
1st pl. aor. subj. of
atter

I
medical, of healing [18E]
, doctor (2a) [17D]
- aor. stem of

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

507

* in fact; yes, certainly [12C]


* and really; as a matter of fact; look! let
us suppose [13A]
* moreover [5D]
* whats more; look! [12B]; yes, and; and
anyway
although, despite (+ part.) [6A]
* and yet [10D]
(-)
unlucky, dogged by an evil daimon [4A-B]
bad, evil, cowardly, mean, lowly [1G]
() treat badly, do harm to
[5B]
badly, evilly [1E-F]
- aor. stem of
(-) call, summon [3D]
most (very) ne, good, beautiful
[2C]
beautiful, good [1A-B]
well, nely, beautifully [1E-F]
(-), head (Attic [-],
[3b]) [20G]
(+ acc.) in, on, by, according to [3C]; down,
throughout, in relation to [12B]; (+ gen.)
below [15A]; down from, against [20G]
(-) go down, come down
[1C-D]
condemn; convict X (gen.) of Y
(acc.) [9I]
K
, ne (1a) [16H]
- aor. stem of
= [20G]

(- ) die away [15A]


(-) cleanse, purify [19F]

lie down [10D]


I have been put (perf. of )
aor.
stem
of
[13H]

(-)
overtake, come across,
(-) having been made
seize
[7H]
(perf. part. of )
(-) recite, list [12G]
sleep [3D]
(-) leave behind, bequeath
be seated [16B]
[14A]
sit down [9C]

fut. of
sit down [9C]

bring
to an end, nish [10A]
(-) be placed, put, made

give
evidence against (gen.)
[12D]
[13D]
(-) set up, make, place, put
(-) being placed, put
X (acc.) in () Y [12D]
(aor. part. of )
(-) see, look down on [8A]

to be put (aor. inf. of )


* and [1A]; also [1B], even

fut. of
* both A and B

, layman, private citizen (1d) [18E]


1st s. aor. of (no augment)
look! here! hey! [3A]
inf. of /
, rites, sacrices (2b) [13E]
, sanctuary (2b) [4C]
imper. s. of /
sufcient; able to (+ inf.) [18B];
capable of (+ inf.) [14D]
come, come to/upon (+ acc.) [20D]
beg, supplicate [13F]
, suppliant (1d) [4C]
(-) come to, arrive at [20E]
aor. of
, cloak (2b) [12A]
= [20D]
(+ subj./opt.) in order to/that [16D]; (+ indic.)
where
o, horse (2a) [5A]
() 3rd pl. of o
1st pl. of o
2nd pl. of o
(-) set up, raise
(-) stand [15A]
strong, powerful [13H]
perhaps [7A]
subj. of /
(o-) part. of /

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508

A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(-) put down, pay, perform


[12I]
(-) carry down [17C]
despise, look down on (+ gen.)
[12E]
demand securities from (+ acc.) [13A]
aor. of
aor. of
I was put (aor. of )
I put (aor. of )
prosecute X (gen.) on charge of Y
(acc.) [9H]
, speech for the prosecution (1b) [9H]
, prosecutor (2a) [12B]
aor. part. of
- aor. stem of
below [11A]
() = (enclitic) [20A]
lie, be placed, be made [17B]
= [20E]
3rd pl. aor. of (no augment)
3rd s. aor. of (no augment)
, boatswain (1d) [3D]
order [3E]
= [20A]
, head (1a) [6A]
(-), herald (3a) [4D]
announce, proclaim [11A]
be in danger, run a risk; be likely to
(+ inf.) [17C]
, danger (2a) [3A]
(-) weep [15C]
close, shut [17A]
, thief (1d) [9I]
steal [6D]
(-) aor. part. pass. of

, theft (1a) [18C]


3rd pl. aor. of (no augment)
2nd pl. imper. of
hear [15A]
common, shared [16D]
=
punish [5B]
collect [16D]
knock (on); cut [5D]
(-), crow (3a)

go to hell!
, maiden, girl, daughter (1a) [13A]
, decoration, ornament; order; universe
(2a) [15A]
= o
= o [19F]
, = , girl, daughter (1a) [20A]
hold sway, power over (+ gen.) [4A]
(- ) stronger, greater
[6D]
(-) judge, decide [13F]
, judgment, decision; dispute; trial (3e)
[16F]
acquire, get, gain [15B]
(-) kill [18E]
(-), possession (3b) [7H]
, captain, helmsman (1d) [1G]
o able, with power, sovereign, by right
[14A]
(-), dog (3a) [9H]
prevent, stop [4B]
=

- aor. stem of
(-) obtain by lot; run as a candidate
for ofce [13C]
bring suit against
- aor. stem of
, Spartan (2a) [3C]
(-) take hold of (+ gen.) [8C]
(-) take, capture [3C]
punish, exact ones due from
( + gen.)
(-), torch (3a) [3A-B]
(-) escape notice of x (acc.) ing
(nom. part.) [4D]
, people, inhabitant (2a) [20F]
- aor. stem of
(-) speak, say, tell, mean [1A-G]
(-) leave, abandon [13C]
3rd s. perf. of
, boat, life-boat (2a) [1G]
- aor. pass. stem of
fut. of
, stone (2a) [11C]
(-), harbour (3a) [3A-B]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

509

(-) send for, chase after [16F];


go among (+ dat.); attack (+ dat. or +
acc.) [20G]
share in (+ gen.) [14B]
= [19D]
o moderate, reasonable, fair [16F]
(+ imper.) dont! [1C]; not [7C]; (+ aor. subj.)
dont! [16B]
not at all, in no way [10D]
M
* neither nor [12A]
(-) no, no one [10E]
by! (+ acc.) [4C]

no longer [9E]
- aor. stem of
*

neither nor [11B]


fut. of

(()-),
mother (3a) [10D]
, student (1d) [5D]

devise,
contrive [18A]

large, big, long [15A]


,

device,
plan
(1a) [10A]
very, quite, virtually [16H]

foul,
polluted
[9E]
() especially, particularly; yes [4B]

small,
short,
little
[12F]
() more, rather than [13I]

(-)
remember,
mention
(-) learn, understand [3C]
[17D]
give evidence, bear witness [13D]
him, her (acc.) (enclitic) [19A]
, evidence, testimony (1b) [12G]

hate [4D]
invoke, call to witness [19F]
,
pay (2a) [14A]
(-), witness (3a) [9H]
,

hatred (3c) [13B]


, ght, battle (1a) [7G]
,

mina
(100 drachmas) (1b) [13A]
o (-) ght [2]
,

mention
(1b) [12G]
gen. s. m. of

remember
[12G]
(-) great, big [3C-E]
aor.
stem
of

, size (3c) [20E]


alone [8C]
o greatest (sup. of ) [8B]
only, merely

2nd s. aor. imper. of

not only but also

(-) allow, let go [19D]


,
word, story (2a) [20B]
(-) greater (comp. f )

surely
not? [8B]
[8B]

o
stupid, foolish [1I]
(-) black [9D]
x (dat.) is concerned about (+ gen.) [14C]
N
be about to (+ fut. inf.); hesitate; intend (+
pres. inf.) [9J]
yes [1I]
blame, criticise, nd fault with (+ acc. , naval battle (1b) [2]
or dat.) [10D]
, ship (3 irr.) [1J]; [3C-E]
* ... on one hand ... on the other [1E]
, sailor (1d) [1A-B]
* however, but [7G]
naval [3C]
(-) remain, wait for [1C-D]
, young man (1d) [5B]
, share, part (3c) [9H]
, young man (2a) [7D]
(+ acc.) after [7H]; (+ gen.) with [8C]; (+
, = , [19C]
dat.) among, in company with [20B]
- aor. stem of
speak to [20G]
, corpse (2a) [4B]
- aor. stem of [20G]
(-) distribute, allot, assign [18A]
beseech [20D]
calculate, reckon, consider [7B]
, calculation (2a) [13B]
, story, tale [2C]; speech, word [3C];
reason, argument [5D] (2a)
left, remaining [17B]
wash (mid. wash oneself) [20F]
release [6A]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

o young [5B]
, dockyard [1A-B]
by! (+ acc.) [4A]
, island (2a) [3A]
=
win, defeat [2B]
, victory, conquest (1a) [2]
plan, devise [20C]; think, mean, intend,
notice [7B]
, distribution (1a) [18C]
be accustomed [19B]
acknowledge, think x (acc.) to be y
(acc. or acc. + inf.) [7G]
, law, convention (2a) [4B]
be sick [13C]
, illness, plague, disease (2a) [4B]
, (, contr.) mind, sense (2a) [5C]
have in mind, intend [6A]
= [20C]
now, then (enclitic) [8C]
now [1G]
(-), night (3a) [3A-B]

=
, foreign woman (1a)
, foreigner, guest, host (2a) [4C]

O
the [1A-B]; in Ionic = he, she, it [20D]
the same
* and/but he [11C]
* ... one... another [8C]
; what? (sometimes in reply to ;) [9F]
this [9J]
this here (pointing)
, traveller (2a) [11B]
, road, way (2a) [11B]
from where [5C-D]; [16C]
= to him, her (dat.) (Ionic) [19A]
(to) where [5C-D] [13E]
a know [1J]
be grateful to (+ dat.)
homewards [3B]
= resemble, be like (+ dat.) [19D]
, relative (2a) [13B]
o related, domestic, family [13B]

, house-slave (1d) [5B]


dwell (in), live [7H]
(-), dwelling (3b) [18C]
, dwelling (3e) [4A-B]
, house (1b) [3B]
, palace (2b) [19F]
, small house (2b) [12I]
at home [3D]
o home, homewards [20E]
o, household, house (2a) [15C]
= reasonable [19F]
(-) pity [8B]
o think [7C]
alas! oh dear! [1F]
o what a! what sort of a! [10C]
be able to (+ inf.) [12D]
be off, depart [17B]
= [19B]
- aor. stem of
- aor. stem of
small, few [4A]
contemptuous [14B]
(aor. ) be killed, die, perish
[11B]
(-) destroy, kill [11B]
whole of [5A]
lament [4D]
(-) swear [13C]
like, similar to (+ dat.) [9E]
agree [7E]
, agreement, harmony (1b) [2]
nevertheless, however [9F]
o, dream (2a) [19A]
(-), name (3b) [9B]
sharp, bitter, shrill [11C]
, weapons, arms (2b) [3B]
from where [5C-D]; [19B]
to where [5C-D]
o of what kind [13E]
o how many, how great [6C]
whenever (+ subj.) [16D]
when [5C-D]; whenever (+ opt.) [16E]
where [5C-D, 6B]
how (answer to ;) [11A]; how (indir. q.)
[5C-D]
(+ fut. ind.) see to it that [12G]
(+ subj. or opt.) = in order to/that [18B]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

( -) see [1E-F]
, anger (1a) [13B]
grow angry with (+ dat.) [12H]
= , gen. of ,
straight, correct, right [4C]
, oath (2a) [12B]
charge, set off [17A]
, mountain (3c) [19F]
who, what, which [10E]
o how great! [2B]; as much/many as [11B]
who/which indeed [10E]
() who(ever), which(ever) [10E]
(+ subj.) whenever [14E]
when [5C-D, 6A]
that [1H]; because [9J]
(, ) no, not [1C]
not only but also [12C]
where (at) [16D]
in no way, not at all [10A]
and not, not even [3C]
nothing [1D]
(o-) no, no one,
nothing [4A-B]
never [5C]
not yet [5A]
= no, not
no longer [2D]
* therefore [7E]
* not therefore [7E]
*o therefore [1D]
= , [19B]
o where [17A]
never [15C]
not yet [5A]
, sky, heavens (2a) [6B]
, property, wealth (1b) [16D]
* neither . .. nor [5D]
(-) no one [15C]
o this; (s)he, it [3C-E]
hey there! you there! [6D]
this here (pointing)
/ thus, so; in this way [2D]
=
owe [5A]
, eye (2a) [20E]
(+ subj./opt.) = (+ ind./subj./opt.)
[20G]; while, until

511

, vision, sight (3e) [19D]

- aor. stem of
, suffering, experience (3c) [8B]
o, child, slave (2b) [9I]
beget, have children [12F]
play, joke at ( + acc.) [1H]
(-), , child; slave (3a) [3A-B]
long ago [19F]
ancient, of old, old [13B]
back, again [7H]
everywhere [8B]
completely, outright [14D]
* very (much); at all [6D]
* certainly, of course [16B]
o for the very last time [15A]
= () [19E]
= [20G]
(+ acc.) along, beside [2A]; against, to;
compared with; except [12D]
(+ gen.) from [9I]
(+ dat.) with, beside, in the presence of [10B]
= it is possible for (+ dat.)
(-) be present, turn up at
(+ dat.) [17B]
(-) hand over [16C]
fut. inf. of
beg [18A]
lie, be placed beside (+ dat.) [17B]
- aor. stem of
(-) take, receive from
[12I]; undertake [19D]
prepare, equip [16C]
, preparation, equipping; force (1a)
[11C]
- aor. stem of
aor. of
be at hand, be present (+ dat.) [7B]
aor. of
- aor. stem of
(-) pass, go by, come forward
[11A]
it is possible for (+ dat.) [19E]
(-) give to, provide [9E]
cause trouble (to) [9E]
, maiden (2a) [20G]

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512

A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

, the Parthenon (3a) [1A-B]


2nd pl. imper. of /
(--) aor. part. of
(-) notice [19D]
(-) aor. part. of
(-) all [9G]
the whole of [9G]
(-) suffer, experience [4D]
([])-), father (3a) [5A]
(-), fatherland (3a) [3A-B]
ancestral, of ones father [15A]
stop, cease (+ part.) [4D]; cease from
(+ gen.) [10D]
stop x (acc.) from y ( + gen.); stop
X (acc.) doing Y (acc. part.) [5B]
(-) trust, obey [5B]; believe [6B]
(+ dat.)
persuade [5D]
(-) test, try [7C]
fut. of or
send [8A]
(-) poor man (3a); (adj.) poor [12G]
, poverty (1b) [12D]
fty [17B]
(+ acc.) about, concerning [1I]
(+ gen.) about, around [8C]
(+ dat.) in, on [20E]; about [18E]
very clear, obvious [13D]
- aor. stem of
tend naturally to (perf. of )
leap, jump [6C]
- aor. stem of
(-) drink [17B]
(-) fall, die [2B]
trust (+ dat.) [12C]
reliable, trustworthy, faithful [17A]
very much, most (sup. of )
[16D]
more (adv.) (comp. of ) [16G]
(-) sail [1A-G]
full of (+ gen.) [8C]
, number, crowd; the people (3c) [4A-B]
(+ gen.) except [9G]
nearby, (+ gen.) near [9C]
o near, close to (+ gen.) [17C]
, vessel, ship (2b) [1A-B]
o rich, wealthy [12G]

wash [20B]
; from where? [3A, 5C-D]; from
somewhere [5C-D]
; where to? [1E] ; to somewhere [5C-D]
make [8C]
make, do [1E-F]
() treat badly, harm
, poet (1d) [7B]
(-), shepherd (3a) [17A]
o; what sort of? [10E]
make war [11B]
of war, military, martial [18D]
, the enemy (2a) [2D]
hostile, enemy [2D]
, war (2a) [2D]
, city, city-state (3e) [4A-B]
, state, constitution (1b) [13G]
be a citizen [13G]
, citizen (1d) [8A]
political, to do with the
[18C]
( -), female citizen (3a) [14C]
many things [1I]
many times, often [7C]
(-) much, many [3C-E]
(adv.) much [9H]
wicked, wretched [9B]
, sea (2a) [20F]
march, journey, go [3B]
provide, offer [18B]
, prostitute (1a) [14D]
far, afar off [6C]
(-), Poseidon, god of sea
(3a) (voc. ; acc. ) [5C]
, husband, spouse (3e) [15A]
gen. s. of
, river (2a) [7H]
once, ever (enclitic) [5C-D, 7B]
when? [5C-D]
whether or [2C]
; which (of two)? [6D]
somewhere, anywhere (enclitic) [5C-D];
[20E]
; where? [1F, 5C-D]
(-), foot (3a) [6A]
(-), thing, matter, affair; (pl.)
troubles (3b) [4A-B]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

cause trouble
, fact, action (3e) [13E]
do, perform, fare [13E]
fare well, be prosperous
, ambassadors (3e) [4D]
, ambassador (1d) [4D]
older, rather old [17A]
(+ inf.) before [13B]
(+ subj.) until [17B]
(+ opt.) until [17B]
(+ gen.) before, in front of [19F]
lead on [16G]
, sheep (2b) [17B]
, forebear, ancestor (2a) [13G]
(-) betray [15B]
- aor. stem of
be ready, eager [16B]
ready, eager, willing [13B]
(-), dowry (3a) [13A]
(+ acc.) to, towards [1G]
(+ gen.) in the name/under the protection of
[9H]
(+ dat.) in addition to, near [9A-E]; [16C];
[17A]
(adverbial) in addition [18C]
address, speak to [10C]
give, attach to (+ dat.) [18B]
- aor. stem of
I spoke x (acc.) to y (acc.)
( Ionic) [20B]
- aor. stem of
(-) go/come towards,
advance [2]
bring near, apply to
pay attention to (+ dat.)
[12B]
it is tting for x (dat.) to (+ inf.)
[18E]
aor. of
previously; before (+ gen.) [20G]
(-) aor. part. of
/
summon, call [17B]
(-) address [15C]
fall upon, embrace [15A]
(-) order (+ dat.) [18A]
(-) run towards [8A]

513

stretch out [19F]


o of the previous day [17C]
formerly, previously [12D]
o rst (of two); previous [12D]
urge on, impel [7D]
, prytanis (3e) [11A]
rst, at rst [6C]
o rst [6C]
- aor. stem of
, gate (1a) [16A]
(-) learn, hear, get to know [13F]
(-), re (3b) [9G]
, re-signal (2b) [3A]
, funeral pyre (1b) [4B]
, tower (2a) [17C]
yet (enclitic) [20E]
sell [9E]
somehow (enclitic) [5C, C-D]
; how? [5C-D]
* ; of course [1J]

P
o easy [6A]
easily [6A]
o very easy [17D]
, rhapsode (2a) [1A-B]; [1H]
(-), orator, politician (3a) [8B]
throw [1A-G]

clearly [1E-F]; [1H]


yourself (s.) [1E]
, moon (1a) [6D]
= of you [19D]
= of you
(-) tell, signal [19F]
, sign, signal (2b) [7H]
be quiet [11A]
o of iron, metal [19D]
, food (2a) (pl. , [2b]) [8C]
be silent [2C]
examine, look carefully at [16B]
, gear, furniture [4A-B]; ships gear (3c)
[16C]
look at, consider
consider, examine [2C]
small, short, little [12F]

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your (s.) [6D]


, wisdom (1b) [7A]
, sophist, thinker (1d) [5D]
wise, clever [5D]
pour a libation [3E]
hurry [3A]
, treaty, truce (1a) [8C]
, libation (1a) [3E]
be concerned; do seriously [12E]
o serious, important [12E]
, zeal, haste, seriousness (1a) [10C]
(-) standing (aor. part. of
)
go, come [15C]
groan [9E]
deprive of [19B]
= he/she stood (aor. of ) (no
augment)
=
stand! (2nd pl. imper. aor. of )
(-), mouth (3b) [16F]
, general (2a) [1J]
, army (1b) [2]
, bed (1a) [18B]
you (s.) [1B]
perf. of
, kinship (1b) [18D]
, relation (3d) [8C]
(-) be with, have intercourse,
dealings with (+ dat.) [12G]
, pardon, forgiveness (1a)
forgive, pardon [9J]
beat up, strike (aor. pass. )
[17C]
agree with, to; yield to (+ dat.) [16F]
collect, gather [16G]
discuss with (+ dat.) [17E]
, discussion, recommendation (1a)
[18E]
, ally (2a) [16C]
send with (+ dat.) [19C]
share enthusiasm of (+ dat.) [17E]
, disaster, mishap, occurrence (1b)
[16A]
=
(+ dat.) with the help of [9A-E]; together
with [18C]

(-) come together [12F]


aor. of
live with, together (+ dat.) [10B]
(-) meet with (+ dat.) [16A]
they (Attic ) (Ionic
) [19D]
to them (dat. of ) [19D]
very much, exceedingly [17C]
- aor. stem of /
near, nearly, almost [5A]
, leisure (1a) [16B]
save, keep safe [1A-G]
, Socrates (3d) [6C]
(-), body, person (3b) [14A]
o safe [1G]
(-), saviour (3a) [3A-B]
, safety (1b) [1A-G]
, good sense, moderation (1a)
[18E]
(- ) sensible, temperate,
modest, chaste, discreet, prudent, law-abiding,
disciplined [15B]

T
wretched, unhappy [9D]
my dear chap (condescending) [8C]
, order, rank, battle-array (3e) [4A-B]
quickly [2D]
, speed (3c) [18A]
* both and [1A]
, wall (of a city) (3c) [10C]
conclude, infer [16G]; assign,
ordain
, evidence, proof (2b) [12F]
, child (2b) [15A]
die, end, nish [17D]
in the end, nally [2B]
= [19D]
, skill, art, expertise (1a) [3C]
today [6D]
a, something (enclitic) [2D]
; what? [1D] why? [6C]
(-) put, place [6C] [12F]
(-) bear, give birth to [15A]
honour [4B]; value, reckon [17B]; (+ dat.)
ne [12D]
, privilege, honour (1a) [14D]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

(-), ne (3b) [12D]


take revenge on [12C]
, revenge, vengeance (1b) [12C]
(-) a certain, someone (enclitic)
[4A-B]
(-); who? what? which? [1B]
, nurse (1a) [17B]
* then (inference) [10D]
= [19D]
= (relative) [20E]
* well then (resuming argument) [12H]
- of this kind [19E]
- of this kind, of such a kind
[9B]
= [19B]
, daring (1c) [2]
dare, be daring, undertake [2D]
so great [12D]
then [5A]
dat. of
meanwhile, during this
, bank (1c) [17B]
- aor. stem of
three [11C]
(-) turn (self), turn in ight [4D]
cause to turn, put to ight
(-) rear, raise, feed, nourish [14D]
(-) run [3D]
serve as a trierarch [16C]
, trierarch (2a) [3D]
, trireme (3d) [11B]
, way, manner (2a) [12H]
, food, nourishment (1a) [18B]
(-) chance, happen (to be ing
+ nom. part.); be actually ing (+ nom. part.)
[4D]; (+ gen.) hit, chance/happen on, be
subject to [9I]
strike, hit [4B]
- aor. stem of
, chance, good/bad fortune (1a) [12A]

Y
treat violently, disgracefully [13A];
humiliate
, aggression, violence, insult, humiliation
(3e) [4D]
, violent, criminal person (1d) [16A]

515

(-), water (3b) [15A]


, son (2a; also, except for acc. s., like m.
forms of ) [5A]
you (pl.) [1D]
o your (when you is more than one
person) [7H]
reply, answer; obey (+ dat.) [16E]
be, be sufcient [19E]; begin (+ gen.)
[12C]
(+ gen.) for, on behalf of [8C]
, servant, slave (1d) [4D]
(-) promise (to) (+ fut. inf.)
[16H]
, sleep (2a) [19D]
(+ acc.) under, along under, up under [16A]
(+ gen.) by, at the hand of [8C]
(+ dat.) under, beneath [15A]
welcome, entertain [19E]
remaining [17C]
, boar (3h) [19D]
o of the next day [17C]
o later, further [9J]
o later, last (of two) [9J]
=
(-) steal, take for oneself by
stealth [9I]

(-) appear, seem [3B]; seem (to be)


(+ nom. part.) [4D]; seem to be but not really
to be (+ inf.) [13F]
(-) reveal, declare, indict [13H]
o aor. part. mid. of ()
saying not, refusing
inf. of
clear, obvious [12F]
3rd s. aor. of (no augment)
you say (2nd pl. mid. of )
allege, claim, assert [13G]
he spoke (3rd s. aor. mid. of )
come! [9B]
(-) carry [4B]; bear, endure [17D];
lead [17A]
be angry, displeased at
(-) run off, ee [1C-D]; be a
defendant, be on trial [9H]
fut. of

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/ I say/I said [7F]


you say [5B]
fut. of
3rd s. aor. opt. of
(-) anticipate x (acc.) by/in ing
(nom. part.) [4D]
love, kiss [5C]; be used to (+ inf.)
[11B]
, friendship (1b) [18E]
, friend (2a) [1A-G]
o dear; ones own
, philosophy (1b) [7D]
, philosopher (2a) [8C]
o most dear (sup. of )
[10C]
fear, be afraid of, respect [2]
(+ subj.) fear that, lest [16B];
(+ opt.) [16H]
terrible, frightening [18C]
, fear (2a) [4B]
, murder (2a) [17D]
utter, mention, talk [16D]
(-), member of phratry (3a)
[13B]
(-), heart, mind (3a) [20C]
think, consider [20D]
think, worry [1A-G]
(-), thought, care, concern (3a)
[6A]
, ight (1a) [18A]
1st s. aor. of (no augment)
, guard (1a) [18C]
(-), , guard (3a) [10C]
guard (Ionic ) [7G]
, nature, character, temperament (3e)
[13A]
bear; mid. grow; (aor. mid.) be
naturally; (perf.) be inclined by nature
[13H]
speak, utter [7H]
, voice, language, speech (1a) [7H]
(-), light (3b) [18C]
(-), man, mortal (3a) [20F]

X
greetings! hello! [8A] farewell!
(-) rejoice [20A]

difcult, hard [8C]


be angry, displeased at [13F]
of bronze [17A]
oblige, please; be dear to (+ dat.)
[19E]
(-), reciprocal action, thanks, grace,
(3a) [16B]
o be grateful to (+ dat.) [16B]
(-), winter, storm (3a) [18B]
(-), hand (3a) [8A]
(o-) worse (comp. of )
[8C]
yesterday [17D]
thousand [17C]
, dance; chorus (2a) [20E]
use, employ (+ dat.) [9E]
, debts (3c uncontr.) [5B]
it is necessary for x (acc.) to (inn.) [9F]
(-), thing (3b) [19B]
, money (3b) [5A]
do business [11B]
pres. inf. of
o protable, useful [6D]
good, ne, serviceable [5B]
3rd s. pres. of
acc. of [20D]
dat. of [20D]
, time (2a) [8B]
gen. of [20D]
golden [20G]
(-), esh, skin, body (3a) [15A]
(Ionic acc. ; gen. ; dat. [20D])
go, come [3A]
, land (1a) (Attic , [1b]) [19C]
, place; space; region [6C]; farm (2b)
[16A]
apart, separately (from) (+ gen.) [16D]

false, lying [12D]


lie, tell lies [13F]
falsely [2C]
vote [10E]
(-), decree (3b) [12D]
, vote, voting-pebble (2a) [9H]
soul, life (1a) [17C]

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A Total Greek-English Vocabulary of all Words to be Learnt

- augment (if not under - look under -)


what ! (+ gen.) [4D]
(+ voc./nom.) (addressing someone) [1B]
thus, as follows [18E]
push, shove [12A]
aor. of
impf. of
, shoulder (2a) [20G]
(-) part. of
= [19C]

517

(-) buy [16C]


how! [1C, 5C-D]; as [6A]; that [7B]
(+ acc.) towards, to the house of [12F]
(+ fut. part.) in order to [13B]
(+ sup.) as as possible [16C]
(+ subj./opt.) = in order to/that [20C]
thus, so [20A]
like, as [2D]
so that, with the result that, consequently
(+ inf./indic.) [16C]

LIST OF PROPER NAMES

Most names of people(s) and all names of places will be found in the running
vocabularies where they occur. The names which recur several times and are not
repeated in the running vocabularies are listed here for convenience of reference.
-, Admetos (2a) (husband of Alkestis)
-, Adrastos (2a) (Unable to escape; member of the Phrygian royal
family and suppliant of Croesus)
A-/-, Athene (1a/b) (goddess of craftsmanship and protectress of
Odysseus)
A-, Alkinoos (2a) (king of the Phaiakians and father of Nausikaa)
A--, Amphitheos (2a) (God on both sides; goes to Sparta to get
Dikaiopolis private peace-treaty)
A-, Apollodoros (2a) (prosecutor of Neaira and Stephanos; friend
of Aristarkhos)
A (A-), Apollo (3a: but voc. usu. A; acc. A)
(god of prophecy, with oracular shrine at Delphi)
A-, Aristarkhos (2a) (friend of Apollodoros, narrator of his legal
troubles at the hands of Theophemos and Euergos)
A-, Aphrodite (1a) (goddess of love; used often as synonym for sexual
pleasure)
(-), Bdelykleon (3a) (Loathe-Kleon; son of
Philokleon)
, Dikaiopolis (3e) (Just citizen; Attic farmer in search of peace)
-, Dionysodoros (2a) (sophist, brother of Euthydemos)
E-s, Epimetheus (3g) (Aftersight; brother of Prometheus)
E-, Hermes (Id) (Zeus messenger)
-, Euergides (1d) (experienced dikast)
-, Euergos (2a) (brother of Theophemos and his helper in seizing
Aristarkhos goods)
-, Euthydemos (2a) (sophist, brother of Dionysodoros)

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-, Theogenes (3d) (basileus archon and for a short time husband of


Phano)
-, Theophemos (2a) (enemy of Aristarkhos and responsible for the
seizure of his goods)
-, river Ilisos (2a) (see map, Text, p. 19)
-, Kinesias (1d) (Sexually active; husband of Myrrhine)
-, Kleinias (1d) (a young friend of Socrates)
-, Kleonike (1a) (friend and fellow-conspirator of Lysistrata)
-, Croesus (2a) (king of Lydia) (see map, Text, p. 157)
-, Komias (1d) (experienced dikast)
(-), Labes (3a) (Grabber; dog indicted on a charge of stealing
cheese)
-, o Lydians (2a) (Croesus people) (see map, Text, p. 157)
-, Lysias (1d) (the famous orator, lover of Metaneira)
-, Lysistrata (1a) (Destroyer of the army; prime-mover of the
womens sex-strike)
M-, Metaneira (1b) (a slave and prostitute in Nikaretes brothel, loved
by Lysias)
-, Myrrhine (1a) (friend of Lysistrata and wife of Kinesias)
-, o Mysians (2a) (see map, Text, p. 157)
-, Nausikaa (1b) (unmarried daughter of Alkinoos, king of the
Phaiakians)
N-, Neaira (1b) (wife of Stephanos; indicted by Apollodoros for living
with Stephanos as his wife and pretending that her children were citizens)
-, Nikarete (1a) (brothel-keeper; former owner of Neaira)
-, Xanthias (1d) (slave of Bdelykleon)
()-, Odysseus (3g) (cunning Greek hero, who wandered for ten years
after the Trojan War before nally returning to Ithaka, his kingdom)
-, Homer (2a) (epic poet, author of the Iliad and the Odyssey)
--, Peisetairos (2a) (Persuade-friend; friend of Dikaiopolis; plans
to leave Athens with Euelpides)
-, Pericles (3d: uncontr.) (political leader in Athens during the midfth century)
-, Prometheus (3g) (Foresight; brother of Epimetheus)
-, Polos (2a) (a rower on board a trireme)
-, Stephanos (2a) (husband of Neaira; indicted by Apollodoros for
living with a foreigner as his wife and trying to pass off her children as citizens)
-, Strepsiades (1d) (Twist and turn; debt-ridden farmer, father of
Pheidippides)
-, Strymodoros (2a) (inexperienced dikast)
-, Sosias (1d) (slave of Bdelykleon)
-, Phaiakians (3a) (Alkinoos people)
-, Phano (acc. -; gen. -; dat. -) (daughter of Neaira;
married to Phrastor, then Theogenes)

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519

-, Pheidippides (1d) (Son of Pheidon and horse; chariot-racing,


horse-mad son of Strepsiades)
(-), Philokleon (3a) (Love-Kleon; jury-service-loving
father of Bdelykleon)
(-), Phrastor (3a) (for a time husband of Phano)
(-), Phrynion (3a) (former lover of Neaira, from whom
Stephanos rescued her)
(-), Khairephon (3a) (good friend of Socrates)

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EnglishGreek Vocabulary

NOTES

(a) This vocabulary has been compiled from all the words needed to complete
successfully all the English-Greek Exercises in Reading Greek. If you nd difculty with a particular phrase, look in this vocabulary under the main word
in the phrase. You will normally nd some helpful suggestions as to how to
tackle it. Remember that you may often have to rethink the English phrasing,
particularly in the prose passages.
Please note that this vocabulary is for use with the Exercises in this book. It
may be misleading to apply it to other prose exercises.
(b) Remember, especially if you try the prose passages, that Greek uses many
more connecting and other particles than English. Try to use at least
, , , , and in your writing, all of which you will meet very
often in your reading. You should also consult 391.
a (certain) (-)
able, be able (+ inf.)
about (+ acc./gen.)
according to (+ acc.)
account, on xs (+ gen.)
accurately
acquit
actually indicating denite statement: use
indicative verb
advocate , (2a)
afraid of, be - (+ acc.)
afraid that, be - + subj./opt.
afraid that not
after (+ acc.)
afterwards, not long
again
against ones will (-)
agree
all (-)
all sorts of use
at all or omit

allow (-)
already
although + part., or plain part.
always
amazed, be
Amazon (-), (3a)
ambassador , (1d)
and
and yet
angry, be made (aor. )
announce, make an announcement
another
answer (-)
anyone in negative sentence use
o (-); if no neg., use
any such thing
Apollodoros , (2a)
appear ;
archon (-), (3a)
argument , (2a)
arrive (-)
521

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English-Greek Vocabulary

as use (-); + ind.;


+ noun
as as possible + sup. adv. /adj.
ask (-)
ask for
assembly , (1b)
astounded at, be (+ acc.)
at (+ acc.)
at once
at the hands of (+ gen.)
Athenian , (2a)
attention, pay use aor. of ;
(+ dat.)
bad
bank , (1c)
Bdelykleon (--), (3a)
be
bear
nd hard to bear (fut. )
because
because of (+ acc.)
become (-)
before (+ inf.)
do x before , (acc.)
doing x (nom. part.)
begin (+ gen. or part.); (+ gen.)
behalf of, on (+ gen.)
beloved use pass. of
best
better, feel (1st pl.
)
big (-)
boat , (2b)
body , (2a)
boy (-), (3a)
bribe , (2b)
bring (-)
bring out (-)
bring to an end
bumpkin
business, move (fut. :
contr.)
but (rst word); (second word)
by (+ acc.)
by land
by! (oath) (+ acc.)

by (agent) (+ gen.)
call upon
captain , (1d)
capture (-) (fut. );
(--) (fut. -)
carefully
carry out
cast (a vote) (-)
caught, be (-)
charge, make a (-)
chase
child , (2b)
childless person (-), (3a)
citizen , (2a)
city , (3e)
claim (fut. )
clear
it is clear that
clearly, be (+ nom. part.); or use

clever
closely ( = nearby)
collect (-)
come (-)
have come
come!
come across (-)
come forward (-)
(to address assembly)
(-)
come in(to) (-)
come on!
come upon (-)
conceive
condemn x (person) to y (punishment)
x (gen.) to y (acc.)
consequently
consider
contest
converse (with) ( + acc.)
corpse , (2a)
corrupt
council , (1a)
countryside , (2a)
court(-room) , (2b)
cowardly

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creditor , (1d)
cross
danger , (2a)
danger (of), be in ( + acc.)
daughter (()-), (3a)
dear
death , (2a)
debts , (3c uncontr.)
deceive
decree , (3b)
deed , (2b); or use n. pl. adjectives
defeat (-)
defence speech , (1b)
make a defence speech
defendant (-), (3a)
demand
depart (-)
deposited, be
despair , (1b)
be in despair
destroy ;
die (-)
difcult
Dikaiopolis , (3e)
dikast , (1d)
din , (2a)
Dionysodoros , (2a)
discover () ([]-)
disdainful
disease , (2a)
dishonour
divorce (-);
do ; (-);
dog (-), (3a)
dont + imperative; + aor. subj.
door , (1b)
downhearted, be (-)
draft
drag away
duty translate must
easy
most easy
end, bring to an
enemies , o (2a)
enmity , (1b)

English-Greek Vocabulary

523

enough ... to + inf.


enter (-) ( + acc.)
equip
equipment , (3c); or use + gen. (of
what it belongs to)
escape (-)
Euelpides , (1d)
ever (enclitic); in indef. sentences add to
conjunction and use subj. verb
everything translate all (things)
evidence , (2b)
evil
except (+ gen.)
expect (+ fut. inf.)
experience , (3c)
expe