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This course focuses on the thermodynamic design of internal combustion engines t
o produce specified amounts of torque and power at specified speeds.
You will learn the thermodynamics of engine design and then apply it to a coordi
nated companion engine design project.
The design project starts with the simplest thermodynamics model, air-standard c
ycle analysis, expanded to calculate variations of pressure, temperature, work a
nd torque with crankshaft angle. Design then progresses to include time-dependen
t heat addition which simulaties fuel and air combustion with ideal breathing. T
he last part of the design project adds realistic engine heat loss, gradual valv
e opening and closing operation, and pressure difference controlled breathing to
produce performance predictions that better match the patterns of variation wit
h speed found in real engines.
Office Hours
Mon. & Fri. 10 AM-12 PM
Wed. 10
11 AM and by appt.
Colin R. Ferguson & AllanT. Kirkpatrick , Internal Combustion Engines Second Edi
tion, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York (2001).
Course Objective:
The objective is twofold:
To teach you to design an internal combustion engine to meet specified p
ower and torque at speed specifications with constraints on size and/or efficien
To teach you what process irreversibilities are most responsible for dic
tating the size of an engine.
Course Outcomes:
You learn how to design an engine by modeling the processes which occur within i
t, and adjusting the engine geometry and operating parameters within specified c
onstraints to achieve the desired performance outcomes.
You become familiar with the thermodynamics of engine operation, heat ad
dition by combustion, ideal breathing, and pressure difference controlled breath
ing through gradually opening and closing valves.
You gain experience in applying the thermodynamics of engine operation t
o design an engine to meet specified power and torque at specified speeds. You w
ill also gain insight into how process irreversibil-ities change predicted perfo
Finally, you gain some insight into what parameter changes are required
to make a modest power and torque intensity design perform at a higher level of
power and torque output.
Course organization:
The course consists of a lecture, homework, prelim format along with a semester
long engine design project.
During the lectures, engine performance analysis principles and design procedure
s are described and applied using example problems; pages 4 & 5 contain a detail
ed schedule of topics, homework and prelims.
Homework problems are assigned most weeks to give you practice and feedback in a
pplying the analysis and design principles; these assignments will be collected
as listed under Items Due on pages 4 & 5, graded and returned to you the following
class period. The homework is mainly to help you prepare for the prelims, but c
ounts a small amount toward the course grade. Solutions to the homework problems
will be posted in the Assignments folder of the MEE 434 Course Conference on Fi
rst Class.
Three prelims, based largely on the homework problems, give you feedback on your
mastery of the thermodynamic design principles. The prelim exams are open book
and open notes and examine your ability to think with the principles and apply t
hem to solve short problems, targeted to be do-able in a class period. The preli
m structure is three numeric problems for about 90 % of its grade and a couple o

f short word answer questions for the remaining 10 % of the grade. Attempting a
prelim with no practice on homework problems, is not likely to produce a satisfa
ctory outcome.
The engine design project has three parts, using three analysis models ranging f
rom very idealistic to realistic.
Air Standard Otto cycle design: Performance of a single cylinder is comp
uted following air-standard Otto cycle processes. The cylinder size is adjusted
to make an integer number of cylinders satisfy the perfomance goals within speci
fied constraint tolerances. Performance analysis can be performed with a spreads
heet which can also present graphs of cylinder state details.
Realistic heat addition rate and ideal breathing cycle design: Computati
on of realistic finite rate heat addition by complete combustion of fuel and air
and ideal breathing are added to the spreadsheet. All processes are adiabatic.
Indications of residual exhaust and fresh charge mass variations with throttling
and pressure boosting are revealed. Residual exhaust adds the requirement to it
erate the spreadsheet to converge to the correct states with the residual exhaus
Realistic heat loss rate and pressure difference controlled breathing cy
cle design: A FORTRAN computer program which contains these additions to cycle a
nalysis is executed using a compiler freely downloadable from the Force Project
website This program can be run with three levels of cycle perforance output.
Cycle power and torque output over a specified range of engine speed with specif
ied engine geometry intake and exhaust manifold conditions.
Cycle power and torque output with press, temp, and volume behavior with crank a
ngle in a second file.
Breathing behavior during that portion of the cycle, including cylinder press, t
emp, and vol, and gas veloc, mass flow and mass of products and reactants in the
cylinder and each manifold.
The parts of the design project are assigned early in each of the three topic di
visions of the course, and use the modeling principles taught in the lecture, ho
mework and prelim part of the course. Each design project part is due roughly a
week after the prelim over that topic area to give a chance to tune it up follow
ing what was learned as a result of the prelim.
Homework assignments
6 %
Prelims 1 & 2 - 25 % each, 3- 22 %
Design project 3 parts
Air Standard Otto cycle design 6 %
Realistic heat addition rate and ideal breathing cycle 8 %
Realistic heat loss rate and pressure difference controlled breathing cy
cle design
8 %
Numeric to letter course grade conversion:
93 to 100 = A 90 to 92 = A87 to 89 = B+ 83 to 86 = B
80 to 82 = B77 to 79 = C+ 73 to 76 = C
70 to 72 = C67 to 69 = D+ 63 to 66 = D
60 to 62 = D< 60 = F
Regular submission of homework for grading with most problems solved or 70 % sol
ved, results in the higher grade when one is within 1point of the higher grade.
What is expected of you:
I don t take class attendance, but I will be supplementing the textbook substantia
lly, and you will be responsible for all material covered in class as well as th
at assigned in the textbook. Frequent absences from class could seriously jeopar
dize your ability to do well on tests and the design project due to unfamiliarit
y with the material.
If anyone wishes to seek accommodation for any situation please see me as soon a
s possible and I will work with you as best I can.

Class Topic



Items Due

Tue. 01-13-15 Introduction review syllabus, design project; operational
parameters torque ?, piston speed Up, power , brake mean effective pressure bme
Text 1.2 & 1.3 Chpt 1 Probs 2, 8 & hndout prbs on operational params.
Thu. 01-15-15 Operational parameters. bsfc vs ?, Wnet vs torque; Air S
td Otto Cycle variation of
P, V, T, Wnet, ? with r Text 1.3 & 2.2 Engine design proj part 1, Air-std Otto
cycle probs
Tue. 01-20-15 Engine geometry V(?) dependence on b, s, l, r, q; P, T,
torque and work for air std Otto cycle as f(???b, s, l, r)
Text 1.1, 1.3 &1
Probs on effects of b, s, l, r on P, T & V
Probs assgnd 1-13 & 1-15
Thu. 01-22-15 Development of a spreadsheet for a 4 stroke cyle based
on air standard Otto cycle analysis
Text 1.1 & 2.2 and handout
Tue. 01-27-15 Spreadsheet for Otto cycle; Air standard Diesel cycle P,
V, T, Wnet, ? variation with r Text 2.2 & 2.3 Air-std. Diesel cycle probs. fro
m handout
Probs assgnd 1-20-15
Thu. 01-29-15 P, T ? and Wnet for air std Diesel cycle as f(?) modific
ation of Otto cycle spreadsheet to model air-standard Diesel cycle
Text 2.3
Tue. 02- 03-15 Diesel cycle spreadsheet; Air std Atkinson cycle P, V, T
, Wnet, ? variation with rc and ? = re/rc Your text discusses the Miller cycle
Handout Air-std Atkinson cycle prob
Air-std. Diesel cycle probs.
Thu. 02-05-15 Air std Atkinson cycle prob. reviewed in class, wrap up
for prelim 1 and Air-std. Otto cycle design project
Text 2.5
Prob of 02-03 (in-class soln. review)
Prelim 1
Thu. 02-12-15 Review of Prelim1, Start of complete combustion reaction
Text 3.3, 3.4 & handout Engine design project, part 2
Tue. 02-17-15 Complete combustion reaction chemistry, dealing with ble
nds of pure HC fuels; change of thermodynamic properties between reactant and pr
Probs 3.5, 3.6 & probs on react. chem. of fuel blends
oduct gas mixtures
Eng. dsgn. proj. part 1
Thu. 02-19-15 P, V, T relationships for reactant and product gas mixtu
res, combustion product temp. & press. results from adiabatic fuel combustion
Text 3.7,
cp, cv, ?, R of react. & prod. gas mixtures probs
Tue. 02-24-15 Realistic rate of heat addition in spark ignited engines
& in compress. ignited engs, spark timing and crank angle duration of combustio
n in spark ignited engs.
Text 9.5
Ignition timing and heat releas
e duration probs
Probs of 02-17& 19- 15
Thu. 02-26-15 Development of spreadsheet for P, V, T, Wnet, ? and?? fo
r ideal breathing cycle, inclusion of realistic heat addition rate and change fr
om react.to prod.gas properties Handout
Probsof 02-24-15
Tue. & Thu. 03-03 & 05-15
03-10 & 12-15
Spring Recess
Tue. 03-17-15 Iteration to correct mass of residual exh. gas in the cy
linder, using ideal breathing cycle spreadsheet Throttling and pressure boosting
of the intake manifold
Work of ideal breathing strokes from handout
Thu. 03-19-15 Review of ideal breathing work problems; Performance and
residual exhaust mass changes with throttling and pressure boosting the intake
Prob of 03-17 (in-class soln. review)
Tue. 03-24-15 Prelim 2
Thu. 03-26-15 Prelim 2 review, Start of heat loss rate model Text 8.2
, 8.3 & ht. loss rate handout
Tue. 03-31-15 Realistic heat loss rate inclusion in engine cycle model
Structure of Fortran program Real ICE Text 8.6 & hndout
Heat loss rate h
andout probs, Engine Desgn Proj 2
Thu. 04-02-15 Realistic Vavle Opening and closing
crank angles, valve
lift, flow limiting areas, model used in Real ICE,
Text 7.2 & handout
Valve probs. on Av, Af, Cd, Cf; function of size and lift

Tue. 04-07-15 Pressure difference controlled breathing subsonic flow a
nd choked flow Text 7.2
Probs. on breathing flow as a function of press.
diff. Probs. of 03-31& 04-02-15
Thu. 04-09-15 No class
Tue. 04-14-15 Valve overlap and effect on engine performance, camshaft
geometry relative to crank angle
Handout Cam lobe angle vs crank angle re
lationship probs.
Probs of 04-07-15
Thu. 04-16-15 Performance increase with supercharging and turbochargin
g, P, T and ? changes during compression, turbine and compressor relationship in
a turbocharger Text 7.7
Probs of 04-14-15.
Tue. 04-21-15 Supercharger and Turbocharger types, performance of comp
ressor Handout(s)
Thu. 04-23-15 Prelim 3
Tue. 04-28-15 Prelim 3 Review
Engine Design Proj 3
Thu. 04-30-15 Large industrial and marine diesel engines
Class Topic
Items Due
Mon. 01/12/15 Introduction to course, design issues, several engine t
ypes, sizes
Text Ch 1 & in-class pwrpt presentation
Wed. 01/14/15 Engine performance parameters and relationship to net wo
rk and heat addition of a thermodynamic engine cycle Text, 1.2&1.3 Chpt 1,
Probs 2, 8 & performance probs.
Fri. 01/16/15 Cylinder volume variation with crank angle ? and pistoncylinder geometry, b, s, l, r Txt, pp. 1-5 class notes
Probs on effects
of b,s, l, r on P, T & v Otto cycle
Mon. 01/19/15 No class; Martin Luther King Jr. Day
Wed. 01/21/15 Air std. Otto cycle P, V, T, work, therm. effic. variati
on with comp. ratio r Text 2.1
Air Std. Otto cycle probs. from handout
Prbs assignd 1/14/15 & 1/16/15
Fri. 01/23/15 P, T, torque and work for an air standard Otto cycle as
functions of ?, b, s, l r
1.1 & 2.1
Engine design project part 1
Mon. 01/26/15 Development of a spreadsheet to detail performance throu
gh a 4 stroke air std. Otto cycle
Class notes & handout P,V,T,torq. prob
s., from handout
Air Std Otto cycle probs., handout
Wed. 01/28/15 Detailed effects of changing b, s, l and r on P, T, work
and torque
Class notes
Fri. 01/30/15 Air std. Diesel cycle P, V, T, work, therm. effic. varia
tion with r and heat addition ratio
Text 2.2
Air Std. Diesel cycle pr
obs. from handout
P,V,T,torq. probs from handout
Mon. 02/02/15 P, T, torque and work for an air standard Diesel cycle a
s functions of ?, b, s, l, r, ? Class notes
Wed. 02/04/15 Modification of the spreadsheet to handle a 4 stroke air
std. Diesel cycle
Class notes & handout
Air Std Diesel cyc. prob
s., handout
Fri. 02/06/15 Detailed effects of changing b, s, l and r on P, T, work
and torque
Class notes
Mon. 02/09/15 Air std Atkinson cycle P, V, T, work, effic. variation w
ith r and comp/expans ratio
Class notes & handout
Wed. 02/11/15 Prelim 1 over above material
Fri. 02/13/15 Review of Prelim 1
Mon. 02/16/15 Reaction chemistry of complete combustion of fuel and ai
r to products, Effect of oxygenated fuels on reactant and product mixture thermo
dynamic properties
Text 3.3, 3.4 & handout Engine design project, part 2
Engine design project, part 1
Wed. 02/18/15 P, V, T relationships for reactant and product gas mixtu
Class notes & handout Adiabatic, complete combustion probs.
Fri. 02/20/15 Temperature and pressure resulting from const. P & con
st. V adiabatic combustion
Text 3.7, Table 3.5, App. F
Mon. 02/23/15 Realistic empirical rate of heat addition for spark igni
ted engines and for compression ignited engines - based on engine cylinder press

ure measurements
Text 9.5
Adiabatic complete comb. probs
Wed. 02/25/15 Realistic empirical rate of heat addition spark timing a
nd combustion crank angle duration as a function of engine speed
Fri. 02/27/15 Development of a sprdsht - P, V, T, work, torque of idea
l breathing Otto cycle,
Class notes
Breathing P,V,T, work probs. fro
m handout
Mon. 03/02/15 through Fri. 03/13/15
Spring Recess
Mon. 03/16/15 Development of a sprdsht - P, V, T, work, torque of idea
l breathing Otto cycle, Incorporation of timing and duration of heat addition
Class notes & handout? res
Breathing P,V,T, work probs.
Wed. 03/18/15 Throttling & press. boosting intake manifold - affect re
sidual exhaust as well as P & T
Rev., ignit. tim. & ht. release
Fri. 03/20/15 Prelim 2
Mon. 03/23/15 Review of Prelim 2
Wed. 03/25/15 Realistic rate of heat loss from or gain by gases, chang
es due to gas motion as well as T; includes effects of friction Text 8.2
Engine design project part 3
Fri. 03/27/15 Incorporation into the engine performance model of appro
priate Qdot(?)
Engine design project part 2
Mon. 03/30/15 Structure of FORTRAN program Real ICE
Wed. 04/01/15 Realistic valve opening and closing - crank angles, lift
, limiting flow areas, camshaft geom. Text 7.2 & handout
Valve timing - c
rank angles, lift, areas limiting flow, camshaft geom.
Fri. 04/03/15 Pressure drop controlled breathing - subsonic flow
Class notes & handout Pressure drop controlled breathing - subsonic flow
Mon. 04/06/15 Pressure drop controlled breathing choked or sonic flow
" Pressure drop controlled breathing choked or sonic flow
Wed. 04/08/15 Realistic breathing in model, must use pressure differen
ces between cylinder and the manifolds to calculate mass flows
Valve & breathing flow probs
Fri. 04/10/15 No class
Mon. 04/13/15 Valve overlap offers many different flow scenarios for e
ngine gases
Class notes and a handout
Wed. 04/15/15 Changing engine performance by changing valve timing
Examples from program Real ICE
Fri. 04/17/15 Increasing performance by supercharging then cooling the
intake air, affects valve timing
Suprchrging then cooling effect
on intake manifold
Mon. 04/20/15 Increasing performance with a turbocharger and air coole
r, affects valve timing differently
Int. & exh. mnfld chgs. from trb
ochrg & cooling
Wed. 04/22/15 Wrap up of realistic modeling of engine cycle performanc
Rev. of super- & turbocharg. probs
Fri. 04/24/15 Prelim 3
Mon. 04/27/15 Review of Prelim 3
Wed. 04/29/15 No class, Maine Day
Fri. 05/01/15 Large industrial and marine diesel engines
Engine design project part 3