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Before 1965 US was referred to as nation of immigrants

first wave of immigration = pilgrims (some cited this as the root of

religious extremists in the US)
second wave from Europe as indentured servants
third wave = slaves from Africa
fourth wave = northern and western Europe (Germany, Norwegians,
Ireland [can be analogy to influx of current Mexican immigrants])
Irish was discriminated by Angelo Catholics
Immigrants immigrate b/c there is a reason they need to
leave their country.
*Notion of white is fairly recent
Chinese Exclusion Act = first piece of legislation aimed against immigrants,
pushed by CA b/c blamed Chinese for pushing down wages
Immigration Act 1924 = excluded immigrants in the US
1965 Congress allowed for family reunification

Leading origin of immigrants to US


Family reunification = 2/3 of legal immigration

Foregin nationals who become legal permanent residents = 66%, exceeds
LPRS based on employment or humanitarian reasons
Until 1930s, most immigrants were male
in squo immigrants tend to be younger than native population (increases the
replacement rate of the U.S.)

public attitudes on immigration were influenced the most by 9/11 (shifted

immigration debate most substantially. prior to 9/11, 62% of Americans
supported immigration)

NAFTA (passed by Clinton in 1990s) objective was to stimulate the econ via
free trade, comparative advantage -> division of labor; in 1993 there were
3.9 mil illegal immigrants. in 2008 there were 12 mil (over half from Mexico).
Price of corn in Mexico fell 70% after NAFTA. In rural areas, population
working in agriculture fell over 20%. 8.1 million farm jobs decreased to 6.2
mil, inverse to a rise in population.
This was the result of the US farmbill, a omnibus bill. Allocates 100 bil dollars
of ag. subsidies to stable crops in the U.S. no chance for Mexicos crops to
compete on the US market illegal immigration influx


can become illegal through
1) enter w/out authorization or inspection (200k-500k)
2) to stay beyond an authorized period of entry (4-5.5 mil)
3) by violating the terms of legal entry (4.5-6 mil)
illegal immigrant = illegal alien = undocumented immigrants*most politically

Ways to Curb Immigration:

Borders 3 gateway operations; enforces immigration, drug cartels
5,000 immigrant deaths across the us Mexican border over the last 13
a overhaul mandate (secure fence act of 06) was passed, but would
cost too much to be implemented
Deportation increased dramatically in the Obama administration
Self-Deportation (Arizona law: SB1070 made it a state misdemeanor for a
alien to be in in Arizona without carrying the required documents and state
law enforcement has a burden to attempt to determine a persons

immigration statuson reasonable suspicion; similar law has been passed in

Court determined 5-3 that federal law contradicts the misdemeanor
and says that in some situations police cant arrest without a warrant, and
that its unlawful to apply for work w/out fed authorization; agreed that state
police to investigate if there is reasonable suspicion and stop detain and

Intergovernmental Coop
Alternative methods of legal entry (vehemently opposed by Obama in 06)
Sanctuary cities


Senates plan: current undocumented in the US with otherwise clean record
can pay a fine and back taxes; a path to full citizenships can be achieved
after the fines have been paid
5 areas of consensus btwn senate and the pres.

border needs to be secure

employers need to check the immigration status of employees
has to be a path to citizenship
a sustainable immigration system
the republican party cant get majorities without 27% of the Latino vote

Sequestration, gun control, will drain Obamas pol cap & kill possibilities of
House of Rep electiosn every 2 years means conservatives arent willing to
If all 12 million illegal immigrants, 7 mil will be covered by medicare or
Medicaid sig. increase in healthcare

Immigration intro:

Every day a border patrol agent sees a child crossing the border on a bicycle.
Everyday he asks the child if hes smuggling something, and the child says
No Im just on a bike. One day the child stops crossing the border, and the
agent hears from another Have you heard of the smuggler of illegal Mexican