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# 2014 Statistical Physics Prof.

Son Seung-Woo ,

HW

## Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos S. H. Strogatz

2.3.1 (Exact solution of logistic equation) There are two ways to solve the logistic
equation = (1 /) analytically for an arbitrary initial condition .
a) Separate variables and integrate, using partial fractions.
b) Make the change of variables = 1/ . Then derive and solve the resulting
differential equation for x.
Solution)
a)

b)

= 1

= ( )

=
( )

1
1
=

(1)
from (2),
(2)

= ( 0 )
0
0

ln

0 ( )
0
=

1 = 1 (0)
0

=
1

1
0

0
= ( 0 )
0

(4)

=
1 1

0
0
0

1
, = 2

=
0

1
= ( )

0
1
0

(3)

1
1
= 0 (0) (4)

2.5.4

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

(Infinitely many solutions with the same initial condition) Show that the

initial value problem = 1/3 , (0) = 0, has an infinite number of solutions. (Hint:
Construct a solution that stays at x = 0 until some arbitrary time 0 , after which it
takes off.)
Solution)
1

= 3

3 =
3 2
3 =
2
2 3/2
( ) =
3
We consider a solution that stay at = 0 until some arbitrary time 0 , after which it
takes off. So,
0,
0 < 0
3/2

( ) = 2
( 0 )
3
Or using Heaviside step function (),

2
2
( ) = ( 0 ) ( 0 )
3
We obtain this solution is satisfied any 0 . So this differential equation has infinitely
many solutions when satisfy the given condition.

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

3.1.3 For each of the following exercises, sketch all the qualitatively different

vector fields that occur as is varied. Show that a saddle-node bifurcation occurs at a
critical value of , to be determined. Finally, sketch the bifurcation diagram of fixed
points versus .
= + (1 + )
Solution)

## We consider given function separately with = , and = (1 + ). If, draw two

graph, maybe can understand = (1 + )more easily. So, = (1 + )
is U-like-curve graph. So, the saddle-node bifurcation is occurred at critical point
= 0. Bifurcation diagram is bottom figure.

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

3.4.5 The exercise is designed to test your ability to distinguish among the various

types of bifurcations - its easy to confuse them! In each case, find the values of at
which bifurcations occur, and classify those as saddle-node, transcritical, supercritical
pitchfork, or subcritical pitchfork. Finally, sketch the bifurcation diagram of fixed
points . .
= + 3 2
Solution)

<0

=0

>0

First, if < 0, there are two fixed points which left one is stable and the other is

unstable. But is increased and is tangent to 3 2 . So, there are half-stable when
= 0 . And, when > 0 , any fixed points do not exist. It is a saddle-node
bifurcation and bifurcation diagram is shown bottom.

3.5.5

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

(Time scale for the rapid transient) While considering the bead on the rotating

2
2+
= ( )

## has solutions that rapidly relax to the curve where

= ( ).

a) Estimate the time scale fo r this rapid transient in terms of , and then express
in terms of the original dimensional quantities , , , , and .
b) Rescale the original differential equation, using as the characteristic time
scale, instead of = /. Which terms in the equation are negligible on this
time scale?
c) Show that if 1. (In this sense, the time scales and
are widely separated.)
Solution)
a), b), c)
Assume that

2

12

= 0 ( )

(1)
(2)

## 1. All three terms are the same order, or

2. Two of the terms are the same order and the last one is negligible.
The first option is impossible (1 2 = = 0 is impossible). And second option is
possible three cases; = 0, 12 1.
If = 0, the equation is same with original case. It is not our interest.
And if = 12, the equation becomes
2
1
+
= ( )
2

## This case is not good because the

The last case, if = 1, then,

term is enormous.

HW

+
= () ;
2

## It is a considerable case. 2 and

term are the same order. And () can be

And

=
=
=

= =

=
=

4.1.3

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

For each of the following vector fields, find and classify all the fixed points,

## and sketch the phase portrait on the circle.

= sin2

Solution)

0 < 2

3
3
y-axis is . And There are 4 fixed point = 0, , , . And = ,
is stable

fixed point and = 0, is unstable fixed point. Phase portrait the circle is bottom.

4.3.7

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

For each of the following questions, draw the phase portrait as function of the

control parameter . Classify the bifurcations that occur as varies, and find

Solution)

0 < 2

=
=1
+
+

## < 1, = 1, ,1 < < 0, = 0, 0 < < 1, = 1, 1 <

i) < 1
In this case, denominator + is always negative, So, its graph is similar
with . So, = 0 is stable fixed point and = is unstable fixed point.

ii) = 1
In this case, denominator + is 0 when = /2. It is stiff and vicinity of
= /2 is not physically. The fixed point is still = 0 is stable and = is
unstable fixed point.
iii) 1 < < 0
In this case, denominator + is 0 when = ( ). It is stiff and
vicinity of = ( ) is not physically. The fixed point is still = 0 is
stable and = is unstable fixed point.
iv) = 0
In this case, = 1 (exactly, except = 0, . And, when = 0, , cannot be
defined. But this case, we do not consider.) And any fixed points do not exist.

v) 0 < < 1
In this case, denominator + is 0 when = ( ). It is stiff and
vicinity of = ( ) is not physically. The fixed point is change! = 0 is
unstable and = is stable fixed point.

vi) = 1
In this case, denominator + is 0 when = 3/2. It is stiff and vicinity of
= 3/2 is not physically. The fixed point is = 0 is unstable and = is
stable fixed point.

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

vii) > 1
In this case, denominator + is always negative, So, its graph is similar
with . The fixed point is = 0 is unstable and = is stable fixed point.
In a viewpoint of fixed point, the bifurcation point is = 0.
In the case of < , = 0 is stable and = is unstable fixed point.
In the case of > , = 0 is unstable and = is stable fixed point.
This bifurcation is transcritical bifurcation.

1
=
=
+ ( ) + 1

+ 1 =
( )

+ 1 =
)
(

0
0
0

+ + 0 = 0
2
2

HW

## 2013505828 KIM Young Jin

2
1
1
2 = | | +

=
=

2
2
2
2
2
0
If we do not consider + 0 and 0 ,

2