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UNESCO-Monaco Cooperation: Capacity-Building for the Fight Against the Illicit

Trafficking of Cultural Objects in Mongolia


Achievement Report 2009-2011
UNESCO Office Beijing, 2012
34 pp.
Keywords:
1. Capacity-Building
2. Illicit Trafficking
3. Cultural Property
4. Awareness-Raising
Editors-in-Chief
Beatrice Kaldun, Programme Specialist for Culture, UNESCO Beijing
Julien Glenat, Project Officer for Culture, UNESCO Beijing
Editorial Team
Sophie Smith, Yooree Lee, Chris Waite, Federica Iellici

UNESCO-MONACO COOPERATION
Capacity-Building for the Fight Against the Illicit Trafficking
of Cultural Objects in Mongolia

Design and Layout


Wind Creation Co., Ltd.
Photos
Photos are provided by UNESCO Beijing and Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO
Cover illustration provided by Baidy Odmandal
Printed in Beijing, China
2012 UNESCO Beijing
The choice and the presentation of the facts and opinions expressed in this publication are not
necessarily those of UNESCO and do not commit the Organization.
The designations employed and the presentation of materials throughout this publication do not
imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNESCO concerning the legal
status of any country, territory, city or area of authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.

Achievement Report
2009 2011
( Phase )

PREFACE
The efficient fight against illicit trafficking of cultural objects requires a number of factors. It requires up to date
knowledge, a sound legal framework, information and technology, amongst other things. More importantly,
the safeguarding of cultural heritage requires close cooperation. Without close and continuing cooperation
between concerned institutions at the national and international levels the fight can never be won. This is one
of the lessons we learned from international experts during the series of six operational, awareness-raising and
information training workshops.
From 2010 to 2011 the six workshops were successfully organized within the framework of the UNESCO/
Monaco Funds-in-Trust project entitled Capacity-Building for the Fight Against the Illicit Trafficking of
Cultural Objects in Mongolia. Approximately 130 professionals from different fields participated in the
workshops. Museum curators, cultural workers, private collectors, school teachers, social workers, researchers,
customs officers and policemen improved their capacity and knowledge for the fight against illicit traffic of
cultural objects. They all understood the importance of cultural heritage and will disseminate the knowledge
and information received from our experienced international teachers to many hundreds of staff of the various
services and institutions throughout Mongolia.
Secondary school teachers who participated in one workshop agreed to circulate more often in their vocabulary
words such as cultural heritage and movable cultural heritage. During another workshop a policeman,
customs officer and museum worker talked together about how to improve their collaboration. While these may
seem not so significant, they are the starting points that will take the fight against illicit trafficking of cultural
objects in Mongolia to a whole new level.
As a State Party to many international treaties and conventions to protect cultural heritages, such as the 1970
UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property, Mongolia has a responsibility before international community. And this project
certainly allowed us to carry out our responsibility with dignity.
In recent times, the number of vandalized ancient tombs, paleontological findings, remains and ruins of palaces
and cities has risen, and with open borders and a market economy it is only becoming increasingly complicated
to fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects in Mongolia. The guidance received from international
experts in applying good practices to secure cultural heritage against crimes, was extremely beneficial. I thank
the international experts who shared their valuable knowledge with us.
Also I express my sincere gratitude to all who offered their contributions to successfully organize the project
Capacity-Building for the Fight Against the Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Objects in Mongolia. The
project implementation in Mongolia comes at a much needed time the importance of the project cannot be
underestimated and appreciation to the Principality of Monaco is extended for this timely and generous support
for this project.

Mr. Gundegmaa Jargalsaikhan


Secretary General
Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO

PREFACE
Mongolia possesses an outstanding natural and cultural, as well as physical and intangible heritage. It
is testimony of an extremely rich history and a nomadic lifestyle that has continued over the centuries.
Unfortunately, if the preservation of the intangible cultural heritage is deeply anchored in the spirit and in the
heart of the Mongolian people, tangible heritage was, for its part, partly looted and destroyed, or not fully
investigated.
The cooperation between Monaco and Mongolia in the field of preservation of cultural heritage began in 2006
through the support of the Government of Monaco for the archaeological excavations campaigns carried out
jointly by the Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology in Monaco and the Institute of Archaeology at the Mongolian
Academy of Sciences.
The projects supported by the Principality aim to protect and to catalogue the objects and sites discovered as well
as to rehabilitate a seventeenth-century Buddhist monastery.
H.S.H. the Prince Albert II, on an official trip to Mongolia in August 2008, reinforced this cooperation between
our two countries by signing a sectoral framework agreement in the cultural field.
In the continuity of the work carried out so far and to support the efforts made by the Mongolian government
towards the signature of international treaties and the improvement of the legislative framework, Monaco decided
in 2009 to support UNESCOs actions in training customs officers, museum staff, civil servants and teachers in
the preservation of the Mongolian heritage.
In a world of globalisation and standardization of lifestyles, the preservation and safeguarding of heritage is
particularly important in order to maintain the uniqueness and the particularity of each country, of each area, and
of each culture.

H.E. Mme Yvette Lambin Berti


Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Permanent Representative of the Principality of Monaco to UNESCO

PREFACE
Cultural property symbolizes a treasured record of our collective past, and its illicit trafficking erodes the sense
of a countrys history and impoverishes its cultural heritage for future generations. The UNESCO Convention
on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural
Property was adopted by the Organization in 1970 to aid the protection and safeguarding of cultural heritage. The
Convention, which was the first international legal instrument dedicated to combating the trafficking of cultural
property, has been ratified by 123 countries, including Mongolia.
In recent years, the illicit trading of cultural property in Mongolia has caused increasing damage to the countrys
cultural identity and historic heritage. Despite the ratification of the 1970 Convention, Mongolias cultural
property has been increasingly affected a result of a lack of public awareness of illicit trafficking issues and a
weakness in coordinated government efforts to adequately address this problem.
In order to address these concerns and to enhance the capacity of Mongolian institutions to protect the countrys
cultural heritage, in 2010 UNESCO partnered with the Principality of Monaco to launch the project CapacityBuilding for the Fight Against the Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Objects in Mongolia. Workshops and activities
conducted under the project have served to improve the capacity of a diverse group of participants and
beneficiaries in the prevention of illegal trafficking of cultural objects. These range from school teachers, customs
officials, police investigators, museum professionals, representatives from cultural institutions to government
officials.
I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to: the project donor, the Office of International
Cooperation of the Principality of Monaco; key international partners: the International Council of Museums
(ICOM); INTERPOL General Secretariat, Works of Art Unit; Carabinieri, Department for the Protection of
Cultural Heritage, Italy; the Centre for National Scientific Research, France; City University London, UK; and
key national partners: the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO; the Mongolian Ministry of Culture,
Sports and Tourism, formerly the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science; the State Investigation Department
of Mongolia; the Centre for Cultural Heritage of Mongolia; the Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum and the Arts
Council of Mongolia. I would also like to thank all groups and individuals involved in hosting the workshops and
all beneficiaries and participants.
The year 2011 represented a milestone in Mongolias commitment to the protection of cultural heritage and
cultural property marking the twentieth anniversary of Mongolias acceptance of the 1970 UNESCO Convention.
On the occasion of the 40th Anniversary of the 1970 Convention UNESCO Director-General Irina Bokova
highlighted the importance of this issue by stating that The fight against this trafficking is a shared responsibility
and each of us must play our part. I am confident that the assistance provided by Monaco and the commitment
of Mongolia will have a long-lasting and beneficial effect on the protection of Mongolias invaluable heritage.

Mr. Abhimanyu Singh


Director and Representative
UNESCO Beijing Office

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE

The training workshops brought together


representatives from various fields but
with the common objective to protect the
cultural objects in Mongolia.
Ms. Damdin Tsedmaa, Head of the
Mongolian National Committee of the
International Council of Museums (ICOM)

Mr. Gundegmaa Jargalsaikhan, Secretary General, Mongolian National Commission


for UNESCO
H.E. Mme Yvette Lambin Berti, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary,
Permanent Representative of the Principality of Monaco to UNESCO
Mr. Abhimanyu Singh, Director and Representative, UNESCO Office Beijing

The illicit owning, selling, purchasing and


trafficking of cultural objects should be
included in [Mongolias] Cultural Heritage
Protection Law.
Reflection from 2010 workshop participant

1. PROJECT BACKGROUND

2. PROJECT OVERVIEW

2.1 Project Objectives


2.2 Project Facts and Figures
2.3 Project Landmarks

3. SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES

Having involved not only museum staff but also police and customs officers in each
workshop, I personally consider that the workshops were significant for the specialization of
participants roles and responsibilities, especially where business of cultural heritage has taken
place globally.
In the future, the Government of Mongolia should focus on providing cultural heritage
education for the public, preparing national trainee teachers and organizing regional training.
These would be practical actions to prevent cultural heritage offences.
Ts.Tsendsuren, State Senior Inspector for Culture,
General Agency for Specialized Inspection

3.1 Summary of Workshops


3.1.1 Awareness-Raising Workshop: The Importance of Movable
Cultural Heritage
3.1.2 Operational Training Workshop: Museum Security and Theft
Prevention of Cultural Objects
3.1.3 Operational Training Workshop: Operational Mechanisms
for the Import, Export and Transfer of Cultural Objects
3.1.4 Awareness-Raising Workshop: Improvement of Transmission
of Information about Stolen or Recovered Objects
3.1.5 Awareness-Raising Workshop: Professional Ethics and Public
Awareness as Important Tools
3.1.6 Normative Training Workshop: Negotiation of Bilateral Agreements
for the Restitution of Stolen Cultural Objects
3.2 Review of Recommendations made at the 2003 Regional Workshop
on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property, and Elaboration of the
2011 Policy Recommendations

3
4
5
6
7
8
10
12
14
16
18

20

4. ACHIEVEMENTS AND IMPACT

24

5. CONCLUSION

27

APPENDICES

28

Appendix 1: List of Experts


Appendix 2: Project Resource Materials

1. PROJECT BACKGROUND

STOLEN

Why a project in Mongolia?

How was the project implemented?

Spurred by a growing international


market and facilitated by
advancing technologies, the
illicit trade in cultural property
is inflicting increasing harm on
Mongolias historic heritage and
cultural identity. With a surface area of more than
1.5 million square kilometers, 8200 kilometers of
international borders and a rich cultural heritage,
crimes of cultural property theft, smuggling and
illegal sales are becoming an increasing concern
for Mongolian authorities. Despite the ratification
of the UNESCO 1970 Convention on the Means
of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import,
Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural
Property, the protection of Mongolias cultural
property suffers from a lack of a comprehensive
governmental approach, modern equipment and
public awareness on issues of illicit trafficking.

With financial assistance from


the Office of International
Cooperation of the Principality
of Monaco amounting to close
to 90,000 (US$ 129,000)
the project activities were
implemented throughout a two-year period from
2010-2011. The overall aim of the project was to
improve the capacities of all major Mongolian
institutions involved in the fight against the illicit
trafficking of cultural objects to protect more
efficiently Mongolias cultural heritage.

As Mongolias cultural heritage is a treasured


record of the collective past of humanity, the illicit
traffic of cultural property is a crime not only
against Mongolia, but also against humanity as a
whole. Stemming from this realization, UNESCO
and Monaco partnered to launch a two-year project
Capacity-Building for the Fight Against the Illicit
Trafficking of Cultural Objects in Mongolia
in 2010, on the 40th Anniversary of the 1970
UNESCO Convention.

Participants in the project included: the Ministry


of Education, Culture and Science, the Ministry
of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Governmental
Implementation Agencies, Agencies for Specialized
Inspection, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences,
the Centre for Cultural Heritage of Mongolia,
the State Investigation Department, the Criminal
Police Department, the Metropolitan and Provincial
Police Divisions, the National Central Bureau of
INTERPOL, Customs Offices, General Office of
Border Protection, cultural organizations, museums,
schools, libraries, universities, NGOs and private
business owners.

The implementation process involved the active


participation of national and local authorities, as
well as provincial museums and schools across
the country. The participation of a wide range of
institutions reinforced the ownership of the project
and the sustainability of the results.

01

2. PROJECT OVERVIEW
Mongolia, a land of beauty and striking contrasts,
possesses a particularly rich and diverse cultural
heritage but is one that is also very vulnerable.
The country is increasingly subject to crimes
of cultural property in all its forms be it theft,
smuggling or illegal sales. According to Mongolian
police authorities, then number of cultural objects
reported stolen in Mongolia each year sits at
approximately 40. While half of these have usually
been recovered within a few years, Mongolian
and international experts agree that this is only a
very small representation of the overall number
of cultural objects that go missing throughout the
country.

02

Most cases simply go unreported or are not


discovered, as is the case for illegal excavations
of archaeological artifacts. Spurred by a growing
and lucrative international market facilitated by
rapidly advancing technologies, the illicit trade of
cultural property is inflicting an increasing amount
of damage to Mongolias unique historical heritage
and cultural identity. Despite the ratification of the
UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting
and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and
Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property in
1991, Mongolias cultural property protection
still suffers from a lack of public awareness of
issues related to illicit trafficking. It is from this
realization that UNESCO and the Principality of
Monaco made a decision to jointly launch a twoyear project on Capacity-Building for the Fight
Against the Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Objects in
Mongolia, on the occasion of the 40th Anniversary
of the UNESCO Convention, in 2010. The project
was established with the aim of addressing the
need for Mongolian institutions to improve their
capacity to protect Mongolias cultural heritage.

Between May 2010 and November 2011, a total


of six training workshops were organized to
raise awareness and enhance the capacities of a
wide range of professionals involved in the fight
against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects.
Key components of the main activities conducted
include: Normative Training; Operational Training;
Awareness-Raising and Information Training.
Participants included school teachers, educators,
museum professionals, customs and police officers,
representatives from cultural institutions, and
government officials.
The fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural
property calls for stronger legislative action,
public awareness, local vigilance and international
cooperation. UNESCO believes that sustainable
results can only be achieved with concerted action
between all key stakeholders. The project pursued
Mongolian cooperation among different entities:
museums, government bodies, the police and
working professionals from relevant venues. It is
this cooperative dimension that served as the focus
in all the training activities organized under this
project.
For local Mongolian authorities, the fight
against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects
is a relatively recent concern. It was therefore
considered crucial to bring international guidance
to ensure the success of the training workshops and
provide opportunities for international networking.
With the engagement of a number of renowned
institutions with rich experience in the field of
heritage protection such as INTERPOL, the
Carabinieri Department for the Protection of
Cultural Heritage from Italy, and well-established

'
international experts Mr. Pavel Jirasek
(museum
security), Mr. Patrick Boylan (ethics) and Mr.
Vincent Negri (legal issues), each event focused
on maintaining a participatory approach. This
enabled fruitful discussions between participants,
who previously had little opportunity to interact
with each other and to reflect on the nature and
modalities of their assignments. The results of this
interaction are promising.
Throughout the workshops, reflections on the laws
and regulations of Mongolia and the importance
of international conventions were contemplated
and special training programs and educational
techniques were discussed extensively and reached
consensus by the workshop participants and
relevant authorities.
A series of publications based on the training
workshops were produced by the local project
team in the final months of the project. All the
information and major documents produced from
the collaboration of efforts over the six training
sessions are available in a Workshop Proceedings
publication, and this serves as a valuable
information database for future reference of the
participants but also other stakeholders in Mongolia
and beyond.
Building on from the content of the 2003
Recommendations on Dealing with the Illicit
Trafficking of Cultural Property, national
experts have made a review of those 2003
recommendations and actions to assess if any or
which actions were undertaken in Mongolia since
2003. This review is addressed to Mongolian
authorities and all institutions sharing a common
responsibility in the fight against illicit trafficking
of cultural objects.

The project Achievement Report serves as a


comprehensive overview of the successes of the
current project in taking essential steps in reaching
the goal of protecting and preserving Mongolias
unique historic heritage and cultural identity.

2.1 Project Objectives


Through the enhancement of normative and
operational capacity-building action, improvement
of the capacities of individuals, organizations and
relevant bodies to combat illicit trafficking of
cultural property in Mongolia was achieved.
The project aimed to:
1.Review the progress and status of the
recommendations that emerged from the UNESCO
Regional Workshop on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural
Property held in Mongolia in 2003;
2.Build capacity of relevant government officials,
law enforcement officers and cultural directors
and staff by implementing capacity-building
workshops for government and museum officials
on the normative and operational dimensions of
combating the trafficking of cultural properties;
3.Raise awareness through the implementation of
relevant activities;
4.Report on, and publish outputs in the form
of reports and publications to highlight
achievements.

03

2.2 Project Facts and Figures

2.3 Project Landmarks

Period of Implementation

March 2010 December 2011

9 November 2009

Signature of Project Agreement between UNESCO and Monaco

Budget

EUR 90,000 (USD 129,000 approx)

23 February 2010

Signature of Project Plan of Operation between UNESCO and the


Government of Mongolia

Donor

Office of International Cooperation of the Principality of Monaco

March April 2010

Start of project implementation

Key Implementation Agency

UNESCO (Beijing Office)

March April 2010

Establishment of a Project Team in Mongolia

May 2010 May 2011

Organization of Workshops

Key International Partners

Carabinieri Department for the Protection of Cultural Heritage, Italy


Centre for National Scientific Research, France
City University London, UK
International Council of Museums (ICOM)
INTERPOL General Secretariat, Works of Art Unit

10 11 May 2010

Commencement of Workshops
Awareness-Raising Workshop: The Importance of Movable Cultural
Heritage

27 29 September 2010

Operational Training Workshop: Museum Security and Theft


Prevention of Cultural Objects

5 7 October 2010

Operational Training Workshop: Operational Mechanisms for the


Import, Export and Transfer of Cultural Objects

30 November
2 December 2010

Awareness-Raising Workshop: Improvement of Transmission of


Information about Stolen or Recovered Objects

15 17 February 2011

Awareness-Raising Workshop: Professional Ethics and Public


Awareness as Important Tools

24 25 May 2011

Normative Training Workshop: Negotiation of Bilateral Agreements for


the Restitution of Stolen Cultural Objects

June December 2011

Review of Recommendations made at the 2003 Regional Workshop on


the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property, and Elaboration of the 2011 Policy
Recommendations

January December 2012

Launch of Publications: Workshop Proceedings, Policy Recommendations,


Project Achievement Report

December 2011 January


2012

Approval by the Authorities of Monaco for the Implementation of Phase


II of the Project (2011-2014)

Key National Partners


(Mongolia)

04

Main Activities

Publications

Arts Council of Mongolia


Centre for the Safeguarding of Archaeological Artifacts
Centre for Cultural Heritage of Mongolia
Customs Organization
General Agency for Specialized Inspection
International Council of Museums Mongolian National Committee
Mongolian Academy of Sciences
Mongolian Ministry of Education, Culture and Science
Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism (since August 2012)
Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO
National Legal Institute
State Investigation Department
Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum
Review of the 2003 Recommendations on Dealing with the Illicit
Trafficking of Cultural Property and Elaboration of the 2011 Policy
Recommendations
Awareness-Raising and Information Training
Operational Training
Normative Training
Reporting and Publications
Workshop Proceedings
Review of the 2003 Recommendations on Dealing with the Illicit
Trafficking of Cultural Property and Elaboration of the 2011 Policy
Recommendations
Project Achievement Report (this publication)

05

3.1 Summary of Workshops

3. SUMMARY OF ACTIVITIES
Awareness-Raising and Information Training
Aim: Enhance awareness of current issues and
equip participants with the tools necessary to
increase information flow of cultural heritage
property issues among the public and within
distinct spheres.
Operational Training
Aim: Provide practical training and assessment
of regulatory and technical procedures required
for the better protection of cultural property
from theft at museums or illicit trafficking across
borders.
Normative Training
Aim: Raise awareness of international legal
instruments among government, police,
customs and museum officials in order to ensure
coherence of standards domestically.

06

Review of normative and operational progress


since 2003 UNESCO Regional Workshop
Recommendations
Aim: Assess results of the recommendations on
illicit trafficking and evaluate progress and gaps
by determining key issues to be addressed by
relevant authorities.
Reporting and Publications
Aim: Maintain a record of workshop outcomes,
information and materials, and distribute
them to participants and the wider public for
future reference. Disseminate the review of
recommendations to government authorities and
relevant institutions.

Awareness Training:
The Importance of Movable
Cultural Heritage in
Mongolia

Operational Training:
Museum Security and Theft
Prevention of Cultural
Objects

Operational Training:
Operational Mechanisms
for the Import, Export and
Transfer of Cultural Objects

Awareness Training:
Improvement of
Transmission of
Information about Stolen or
Recovered Objects

Awareness Training:
Professional Ethics and
Public Awareness as
Important Tools

Normative Training:
Negotation of Bilateral
Agreements for the
Restitution of Stolen
Cultural Objects

Participants:
Teachers, Museum Staff and Museum Studies Students
Key themes:
Sensitisation of the public to the importance of cultural heritage
Key outcomes: Formulation of Sustainable Museums Heritage programs;
Expansion of museums and schools network; Development of
Sustainable Museums Heritage programs

Participants:
Key themes:

Museum Curators, Directors and Staff, Culture Workers


The role and managemement of museums; Anti-theft
measures; Security measures
Key outcomes: Training for museum theft and development of security
measures; Development of preventive measures using Object
Identification and Risk Analysis; Produced risk assessment
methods for museums

Participants:

Government Officials, Customs Officers, Police and Border


Patrol Officers, Staff from cultural organisations
Existing mechanisms to fight illicit trafficking and tools for the
Key themes:
investigation and restitution of trafficked goods
Key outcomes: Short term measures to prevent export of stolen objects; Long
term measures to create a database and Red List; Techniques on
how to restitute Mongolian cultural objects through monitoring
and professional training

Participants:

Police Detectives, Customs Officers, Government Officials and


Museum Representatives
Improvement of transmission of information about stolen and
Key themes:
recovered objects and practical measures to improve capacities
Key outcomes: Proposed amendments to the Criminal Code; Legal regulation
of excavations; Recommendations for further workshop
training and establishing qualified staff in existing institutions

Participants:
Key themes:

Staff from museums and other cultural institutions


National and international instruments for the fight against
illicit trafficking of cultural objects; Future engagement
Key outcomes: Proposals for amendments to legislation and stronger
regulation; Further education for people; Exchange of
information through integrated inventorying and information
database

Participants:

Government Officials, Museum Representatives, Police and


Customs Officers
Awareness of international legal instruments for the protection
Key themes:
of cultural properties
Key outcomes: Analysis of existing bilateral agreements; Creation of action
plans for illegal exportation of objects and trial negotiations for
potential agreements

07

3.1.1 Awareness-Raising Workshop: The Importance of Movable Cultural Heritage


10 11 May 2010
Key Speakers:
Ms. Ts. Enkhchimeg, Director, Cultural Heritage
Program, Arts Council of Mongolia
Mr. J. Batsuuri, Director, Management Office, Orkhon
Valley Cultural Landscape World Heritage Site
Key Themes:
Sensitisation of students to the importance of cultural
heritage
Key Outcomes:
The increase of the capacities of teachers and
educators to sensitize the public, notably children and
young people, to the importance and significance of
Mongolias cultural heritage, in particular movable
cultural property
Key Target Group:
Teachers, Museum Staff and Museum Studies
Graduate Students

08

Teachers and educators open worlds of knowledge


and learning to people of all generations, regardless
of age or background. They play a key role in
delivering the message to the upcoming generation
of young people, and to raise the awareness of
the general public. To pass on this knowledge to
the wider public and in particular the younger
generation, the workshop provided education
professionals with the tools necessary to realise
the action that needs to be taken in their respective
fields.
Conducted at the Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum in
Ulaanbaatar, the first workshop organized within
the project was directed at increasing the respective
capacities of teachers and educators to sensitize
the children and students to the importance and
significance of Mongolias cultural heritage, with a
particular emphasis on movable cultural property.
The involvement of primary and secondary
school teachers from Ulaanbaatar and Mongolian
provinces (Uvurkhangai Aimag) was significant,
as it is considered crucial for the success of such
endeavour to reach out to schools outside of
the capital. A strong representation of museum
educators across Ulaanbaatar was also present.

Participants were given a comprehensive overview


of the different aspects of Mongolias movable
cultural heritage, hearing from international
experts and national professionals from a wide
range of institutions. Providing initially a large
overview of normative instruments and tools
existing at the international and national levels,
the workshop also addressed topics ranging
from the Importance of Cultural Property and
Prevention of Illicit Trafficking, to a Case Study
on the Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape, World
Heritage Site and the Issue of Illicit Trafficking
of Cultural Objects . The diversity of parties
involved in conducting the workshop made
for a comprehensive and informative session,
and allowed for the sharing of successful and
innovative experiences in conducting school
and museum activities, all centred on the aim of
increasing understanding of the importance of
Movable Cultural Heritage in Mongolia.
Particularly beneficial were the practical sessions,
where participants were divided into small groups
to visit museums in Ulaanbaatar and devise
practical ways for teachers to educate and sensitize
young people. To this end, teachers and educators
collaborated to conceive an educational toolkit
named Heritage in a Box containing objects,
maps, postcards and stickers, all accompanied by
historical and cultural explanations and guidelines
for teachers. Through museum visits, lively
discussions and exchanges, participants elaborated
the content of three different potential concepts
for the Heritage in a Box toolkits that can be
used as an interesting and interactive methodology
for participants to use in their respective fields,
especially in schools and museums.
From lively interactions among participants and
national experts, short-term and follow-up action
plans were formulated, such as the need for
presentations on movable cultural heritage and

heritage education programs at secondary school


quarterly meetings. In the longer term, participants
expressed the wish that educational toolkits could
be developed with close collaboration between
teachers and museum staff. Such Heritage in a
Box toolkits could then be delivered to schools
and be rotated on a sustainable basis. It was

Participants visit the Choijin Lama Temple Museum in


Ulaanbaatar to devise methods of sensitizing young people to the
issue of the illicit trafficking of cultural objects

suggested that Mongolian authorities and relevant


cultural institutions would closely monitor the
process and analyse the toolkit projects success
so that the pilot may be recommended at a policy
level, to be possibly integrated into the formal
education program within schools.

Participants visit the Bogd Khan Winter Palace Museum to


research and develop an educational toolkit

09
Participants perusing the exhibits at Bogd Khan Winter Palace
Museum in order to find information for the educational toolkit

Teachers and educators collaborating to create an educational


toolkit

KEY PROPOSALS
Information sharing
Words such as cultural heritage and movable cultural heritage to be circulated in the vocabulary
of history teachers and social workers at school
Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO to seek opportunities to make presentations about
movable cultural heritage and heritage education programs at secondary school quarterly meetings
Development of heritage education activities for museums, in conjunction with teachers and
students
Awareness-Raising
Creation of a sample heritage education box and trainers to be trained. Piloted in one museum and
one school, with the box travelling through selected schools
Close monitoring of the process and analysis of success for future integration into formal programs
within schools

3.1.2 Operational Training Workshop: Museum Security and Theft Prevention of


Cultural Objects
27 29 September 2010
Key Speakers:
'
Mr. Pavel Jirasek,
Former Director of the Department
for Protection of Movable Cultural Heritage, Museums
and Galleries, Ministry of Culture of the Czech
Republic
Key Themes:
The role and management of museums;
Enhancing security measures of museums;
Anti-theft measures
Key Outcomes:
The increase of the capacities of museum directors
and curators to enhance security measures in museums
and thus prevent the theft of cultural objects and their
sensitization to the steps to undertake after a potential
theft has occurred in order to increase the chance of
recovery
Key Target Group:
Museum Curators, Directors and Staff, Culture
Workers

10

The instability of museum security in Mongolia


today is due to a combination of factors including
limited financial capacity, insufficient information,
inadequate training and performance of museum
staff and a failure to maintain national and
international standards. The preservation of
cultural heritage requires cooperation and shared
knowledge. Long-term strategies to ensure security
and safety are the responsibility of all those
who have a role to play in the management and
administration of museums. It is for this reason that
the involvement of museum curators, directors,
staff and culture workers is crucial. The workshop
provided an opportunity for participants to take
away valuable skills to enhance museum security,
as this will ultimately form an integral part of a
wider framework of action concerning the fight
against illicit trafficking.
Central to the workshop was the development of
techniques to ensure better museum management
according to mutually accepted principles
throughout the international community, using the
ICOM Code of Ethics.

Participants were educated on the international


and domestic laws and conventions pertaining to
heritage and culture ratified by Mongolia. Further,
they were informed of the legal procedures for the
selling and exchanging of cultural objects, and
prohibitions for the transfer of ownership rights to
foreigners or stateless individuals. They discussed
that, despite these mitigation mechanisms, the
trade of antique objects has flourished in recent
years, attributed to an environment that allows for
such activity to occur. Moreover, participants were
offered hands-on experience on ways to protect
collections.
Each of the three sessions of the workshop included
four interactive group exercises on museum
security under the guidance of the international
expert. For the first exercise, participants were
divided into groups and were required to design
the components of a new museum, exposing
the group on how to create a collection, protect
cultural heritage, raise public awareness, and use
the museum as a tool for education. In another
exercise, participants were trained to undertake
the steps necessary in the case of museum theft, to
maximize the chance of recovery. Another exercise
involved participants being trained to adopt antitheft measures at museums to combat the theft of
cultural objects, using the Object ID procedure.
Object-ID is a minimum standard of
identification of cultural objects used worldwide: it consists of 9 descriptive categories and
a photograph so that in the event of an object
being stolen, the data can immediately be
transmitted to relevant officials and, if the object
is located, it can be identified by the original
owner.

As a final exercise, participants were split into


groups and sent for an investigative visit to the
National Museum of Mongolia to study and
discuss the overall security such as fire systems,

camera surveillance and security guards. As part


of the training and to further enhance their skills,
participants undertook risk analysis assessments
for their own museums.
The workshop provided an excellent opportunity
for participants to resolve challenging issues,

deepen relationships, network and discuss


possibilities for future cooperation. By encouraging
individuals to interact, there emerged a strong sense
of responsibility and empowerment to participate
in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural
objects.

Participants working in groups on the documentation of


museum objects

Participants assessing the security measures at a museum in


Ulaanbataar

The closing ceremony of the workshop held at the Zanabazar


Fine Arts Museum

Ms. Sophie Robin (Office of International Cooperation,


Monaco) giving concluding remarks at the closing ceremony in
presence of Ms. Chonoi Kulanda, Vice-Minister for Education,
Culture and Science

KEY PROPOSALS
Process and Recording
Improve documentation of museum collections systematically
Adoption of a standard of describing collected objects and establishment of a central database
Follow standards for collection storage under guidance from ICOM Mongolia
Awareness-Raising
Organisation of seminars for developing systems for protecting objects within museums
Organisation of seminars on the long term preservation of collections and organize programs or
workshops
Networking
Mongolian museum employees should be more involved with international networks and actively
participate in international cooperation with ICOM

11

3.1.3 Operational Training Workshop: Operational Mechanisms for the Import, Export
and Transfer of Cultural Objects
5 7 October 2010
Key Speakers:
Col. Luigi Cortellessa, Carabinieri Department for the
Protection of Cultural Heritage, Italy
Lt. Fabrizio Rossi, Carabinieri Department for the
Protection of Cultural Heritage, Italy
Key Themes:
Existing mechanisms to fight illicit trafficking and
tools for the investigation and restitution of trafficked
goods
Key Outcomes:
The increase of the capacities of border police officers,
customs officers and government officials to enhance
the protection of cultural movable heritage through a
sensitization to the use of practical tools facilitating
the prevention of theft of cultural objects, as well as
the search and restitution of stolen items
Key Target Group:
Government Officials, Customs Officers, Police and
Border Patrol Officers, Cultural Workers

Establishing official processes and systems in order


to combat the illicit trafficking of cultural objects
is especially important in the age of globalisation,
where theft and illegal exports occur where there
are loopholes in its prevention.

12

During the workshop experts from the Carabinieri


of Italy addressed key issues of the import, export
and transfer of cultural objects and the important
role of the customs organisation in Mongolia.
Customs, Police and Border Patrol officers from
Ulaanbaatar and from international border areas
participating in the workshop learnt the importance
of cooperation at the national and international level
to maximize the sharing of information, thereby
learning that when law enforcement authorities
work in conjunction with cultural institutions and
relevant national and international partners with a
united purpose only then can substantive results be
achieved.

The three training sessions had a central focus on


the operational use by law enforcement agencies of
international conventions and national legislative
frameworks for the protection of cultural objects.
They provided a greater grasp on the need to
establish reliable inventories with photographic
documentation to facilitate the recovery of stolen
artefacts.

Request for Judicial Assistance in a Criminal


Matter was largely unknown to participants and
will from now on facilitate cooperation in the fight
against transnational crime.
The Carabinieri are the national military police
of Italy, policing both military and civilian
populations. As the first police authority to
establish a department dedicated to the protection
of cultural heritage, they play an important role
in the international network for the protection
of cultural objects from theft, damage and illicit
traffic.

Recovering stolen property, and the identification


and prosecution of perpetrators is a critical part of
protecting cultural heritage procedures. Participants
gained an insight into the level of judicial and
police cooperation that is necessary on an
international and domestic level, the importance of
providing mutual assistance in criminal matters and
the need for states and parties to assist each other
in the fight against international crime.

Participants were taught how to use databases


and the UNESCO/ World Customs Organization
(WCO) Model Export Certificate to better control
the import and export of cultural objects, as well
as modalities of judiciary and extra-judiciary
cooperation in the search and recovery of stolen
objects.
UNESCO/WCO Model Export Certificate:
Currently, in most countries, the same export
form is used for ordinary objects (computers,
clothes, etc.) as for cultural objects. This model
fulfils requirements for identifying and tracing
cultural objects, yet it is not overly complicated
for exporters and customs officials.

An explanation of the benefits of a coherent


national database and identification form
compatible with tools used at the international
level was given and discussed. For example, in
the case of theft a duly completed form becomes
essential and information about cultural property
is immediately available worldwide from the
INTERPOL Stolen Works of Art Database.
Going from theory to practice, participants learned
practical procedures of existing mechanisms used
by the Carabinieri to enhance their capacities to
protect cultural heritage and hinder its illicit traffic.
For instance, the procedure to issue an International

Mongolian Customs Officers a key target group for this


operational training workshop

Closing Ceremony with workshop participants, international


experts from the Carabinieri and UNESCO Beijing
representative at the Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum

KEY PROPOSALS
Legal Framework
Draft and conclude bilateral agreements with neighbouring countries (especially with Russia,
China and Korea)
Improve legal environment and legislation at the national level
National and International Cooperation
Establish mechanisms to improve cooperation and communication between governmental, police
and border authorities and between authorities at upper and lower levels
Engage with INTERPOL representatives to obtain information about recently recovered items and
provide information about lost cultural objects
Recording
Widen the use of Object ID Standard Form by museum staff to catalogue objects
Create a list of cultural objects at risk and compare with the list of cultural items from the
Ministry of Culture and create a Red List of Mongolian objects
Create a database containing information and quality photographs of objects
Security
Improve security systems of cultural institutions

13

3.1.4 Awareness-Raising Workshop: Improvement of Transmission of Information about


Stolen or Recovered Objects
30 November 2 December 2010
Key Speakers:
Mr. Stephane Thefo, Criminal Intelligence Officer,
Works of Art Unit, Drugs and Criminal Organizations
Sub-Directorate, INTERPOL General Secretariat
Mr. Fabrizio Panone, Intelligence Officer, Works of
Art Unit, Drugs and Criminal Organisations SubDirectorate, INTERPOL General Secretariat.
Key Themes:
Improvement of transmission of information about
stolen and recovered objects;
Enhanced understanding of relevant tools
Key Outcomes:
The increased awareness of participants of the
importance of transmission of information on stolen
and recovered cultural objects and an enhanced
understanding of tools facilitating the transmission of
information
Key Target Group:
Police Detectives, Customs Officers, Government
Officials and Museum Representatives

14

Since the adoption of the first Cultural Heritage


Law in 1970, the Mongolian Government has
made progress in the fight against the illicit traffic
of cultural property by adopting strict border
controls, and through relevant administrative and
legal measures. Over the last 20 years however, the
discrepancy between the number of cases of theft,
illicit trafficking and smuggling of historical and
cultural items and the number of prosecuted cases is
steadily increasing. Within this context, it is widely
acknowledged that the lack of communication
between national and international stakeholders
is a constant bottleneck. It is for this reason that
government officials and police detectives were
invited to further develop their knowledge on
management mechanisms and the attention that is
required to tackle the trafficking issue.
Participants interacted with Mongolian and
international experts on the issue of legal and
practical measures against theft and illicit
trafficking. INTERPOL experts discussed with

participants matters of international law with


regard to the illicit trafficking of cultural goods,
providing an international perspective. INTERPOL
representatives further offered insight into
appropriate tools and practices used to fight the
illicit trafficking of cultural goods.

During the workshop a practical exercise was


organized at the Bogd Khan Winter Palace Museum
in Ulaanbaatar which aimed to provide a handson opportunity to identify security weaknesses and
strengths at a museum and for cultural workers and
police officers to discuss potential solutions. Such
exercise was aimed at strengthening institutional
and personal links between museums and law
enforcement agencies.

At the end of the workshop participants developed


and discussed a list of key recommendations for
Mongolia in order to improve the transmission
of information about stolen or recovered objects.
These proposals include in particular the updating
of relevant laws and greater regulation of
transmission processes.

INTERPOL is an international organization


based in France and created in 1923 in order to
facilitate international police cooperation. Since
1947, when the first international notice on
stolen works of art was published, INTERPOL
has been specifically involved in the fight against
the illicit trafficking of cultural objects.

The common assumption that cultural heritage


enjoys high security was challenged in this
workshop. There were extended discussions on the
legal, policy and operational aspects of the fight
against illicit trafficking of cultural objects. The role
of multilateral instruments and bilateral agreements
between Mongolia and partner countries to address
crimes, and to help the identification and restitution
of stolen and trafficked cultural objects were
also mentioned. In this regard, the importance of
introducing standardized tools used by cultural
institutions and law enforcement agencies such as
the INTERPOL Database on Stolen Works of Art
was emphasized, as this allows stolen objects to be
recognized immediately and for subsequent action
to occur with a higher chance of recovery.
INTERPOL Database on Stolen Works of Art:
INTERPOL has developed a highly efficient
system for circulating information on the illicit
trafficking of cultural objects in the form of a
database with more than 35,000 objects stolen
all over the world and accessible to everyone.
INTERPOL and the Italian Carabinieri currently
cooperate on an enhanced version of this
database entitled PSYCHE.

A Mongolian artifact that is an example of those that are most


at risk of being illicitly trafficked, based at the Cultural Heritage
Centre of Mongolia

Bogd Khan Winter Palace Museum in Ulaanbaatar, location of


the practical exercise

KEY PROPOSALS
Legal Framework
Improve upon the existing national legislative framework to acknowledge the specificities of the
protection of cultural heritage, in particular by amending the Criminal Code to specifically mention
legal provisions pertaining to the illicit owning, selling, purchasing and trafficking of cultural objects
Update and amend laws to facilitate the purchase of cultural objects by the State from private
collectors and allocate a larger budget to museums for the purchase of collections, thereby enhancing the
safeguarding of cultural heritage and hinder possibilities of illicit export into foreign countries
Process
Ensure greater regulation, monitoring, transparency, accountability mechanisms and formalisation
of processes and transactions related to cultural objects
Streamline processes for criminal offenses pertaining to cultural objects
Awareness-Raising
Set up a sufficient number of qualified staff trained specifically for the protection of cultural
heritage in concerned institutions, particularly in the State Investigation Department
Sensitize officials from governmental organisations to laws that safeguard cultural heritage

15

3.1.5 Awareness-Raising Workshop: Professional Ethics and Public Awareness as


Important Tools
15 17 February 2011
Key Speakers:
Prof. Patrick Boylan, Professor Emeritus of Heritage
Policy and Management, City University London
Key Themes:
Ethics in the trade of cultural objects;
National and international instruments for the fight
against illicit trafficking of cultural objects
Key Outcomes:
The participants increased awareness on ethical
aspects linked to the preservation of movable heritage
Key Target Group:
Staff from museums, Government Officials, Police and
Customs Officers, Cultural Institutions and Private
Collectors

16

The main aim of the workshop was to increase the


awareness and knowledge of cultural professionals
on ethical aspects linked to the preservation of
movable heritage. Cultural institutions play a
critical role in shaping prevailing attitudes, and
the understanding of the wider public of the ethics
underlying cultural heritage preservation. This is
not only required at a law enforcement level, but
also at the level of cultural professionals, who play
a strong role in the protection of Mongolian cultural
heritage. Public awareness and local vigilance
hold equal importance with cooperation on an
international level and legislative intervention.
During the workshop it was discussed that
safeguarding movable cultural objects is still an
issue in Mongolia. Projects and scientific facilities
have been insufficient to protect paleontological
and archaeological sites, as professionals continue
to find that illicit excavation and smuggling cases
are increasing. A shortage of legal monitoring and
inadequate punishment mechanisms are some of
the challenges facing the protection of the cultural
heritage of Mongolia. The workshop expressed a
clear need for the overall improvement on existing
systems of monitoring, registering, recording,
organising, training and capacity building as well
as legal amendments.

A discussion of international conventions provided


an overview of the international principles and
standards surrounding cultural property. For
example, the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on
Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects
demonstrates how stolen cultural objects must be
returned. The workshop explored how the best
dealers are those that have the ethical dimensions
of their work in mind when working with the
cultures that they deal with. A thorough discussion
of the ICOM Code of Professional Ethics, which
provides ethical guidance for museums and
highlights the responsibility of each museum staff
member, was held.
ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums was
adopted in 1986 and revised in 2004. It
establishes the values and principles shared by
the International Council of Museums (ICOM)
and the international museum community. It is a
reference tool translated into 36 languages and it
sets minimum standards of professional practice
and performance for museums and their staff.

Sessions on (i) the international trade of art and


antiques, (ii) the important role of the UNESCO/
WCO Model Export Certificate, (iii) the use of new
technologies in the fight against illicit trafficking
all exposed the participants to new techniques
and ideas. Such techniques are essential to the
operation of museums and are an ethical and legal
responsibility.
By the conclusion of the workshop, participating
professionals were able to suggest short-term
and long-term measures to improve Mongolian
capacities to fight against the illicit import, export
and trade of cultural objects. The workshop was a
step towards equipping cultural professionals with
the relevant tools and understanding mechanisms
necessary to preserve cultural property.

Speech by Mr. B. Tsoodol from the State Investigation


Department at the opening ceremony

Group discussions between police officers and culture


professionals

Speech by Police Colonel T. Enkhtur, Head of the State


Investigation Department, at the closing ceremony

Group photo of the participants of the workshop at the closing


ceremony

KEY PROPOSALS
Legal Framework
Ratify the UNIDROIT (International Institute for the Unification of Private Law) Convention on
Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects
Amendments to Criminal Code strengthening provisions on illegal exploration, excavation and
attempted export of cultural and paleontological heritage
Legal regulation of clandestine excavations and cooperation with related organizations
Information sharing
Cooperate further with UNESCO and ensure Mongolias entry in UNESCOs online Database of
Cultural Heritage Laws
Spread the knowledge and training on all aspects of threats to cultural heritage staff of services
and institutions all across Mongolia
Increased circulation of information on Mongolian cultural and natural heritage (through brochures
for example) in public spaces
Process and Recording
Monitor and insure exported cultural objects
Create mechanism for documentation of cultural objects (photographs and descriptions)
Awareness-Raising
Raising public awareness and education on cultural heritage and the importance of its preservation
and protection
Develop publications or leaflets on relevant issues and national law and regulations

17

3.1.6 Normative Training Workshop: Negotiation of Bilateral Agreements for the


Restitution of Stolen Cultural Objects
24 25 May 2011
Key Speakers:
Prof. Vincent Negri, Professor in International Law,
Study Centre on International Judicial Cooperation,
National Centre for Scientific Research, France
Key Themes:
Awareness of international legal instruments for the
protection of cultural properties
Key Outcomes:
Participants familiarized themselves with international
legal instruments, learnt the methodology for the
creation of action plans leading to potential bilateral
agreements and practiced trial negotiations for the
restitution of stolen objects
Key Target Group:
Government Officials, Museum Representatives,
Cultural Institutions, Academia and Police and
Customs Officers

18

Nations recognise the importance of preserving


valuable cultural and historical properties,
monuments and intangible heritage remnants
of the unique character that makes up a culture.
Safeguarding historical and cultural property is no
longer an issue for one nation, but is an issue at
an international level. It is particularly important
for government officials, police, customs officers
and staff from law and cultural institutions, as well
as museums, to engage with the issues pertaining
to the negotiation of bilateral agreements for the
restitution of stolen cultural objects.
The normative training workshop aimed to solidify
understandings of the content and principles of
the international laws protecting cultural heritage,
as well as the bilateral agreements that serve as a
method of dispute resolution for the restitution of
cultural property to their countries of origin. In the
awareness that Mongolia has lost much precious
cultural heritage many participants agreed that a
stronger commitment and action on returning the
stolen cultural objects should be made.

The participants were reminded of how cultural


property is protected by administrative and criminal
laws in Mongolia. This also included learning about
the value of international treaties and conventions
and how these provide an overarching framework
under which domestic laws can provide guidance
for standards and definitions. These treaties and
conventions serve an instrumental purpose with
indirect judicial effects the negotiation of bilateral
agreements with other countries and international
partners. Participants were also taught about the
role of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee
for Promoting the Return of Cultural Property to
its Countries of Origin or its Restitution in Case of
Illicit Appropriation.

two part exercise. Part one was to present a case


where an object has been illegally exported and the
second part was thinking of arguments that could
be used to negotiate a bilateral agreement for the
restitution of stolen cultural objects. An example
from these exercises can be seen in the photos
below.

Members of the State Investigative Department participating in


the workshop

At the conclusion of the workshop proposals were


made including that Mongolian cultural properties
should only belong to Mongolian citizens, the state
itself or state and local museums, that ownership
of cultural property should be clearly determined
and that property registration should be properly
maintained.

Participants from various organizations taking part in a group


exercise

UNESCO Intergovernmental Committee for


Promoting the Return of Cultural Property
to its Countries of Origin or its Restitution in
case of Illicit Appropriation: the Committee
seeks ways and means of facilitating bilateral
negotiations, promoting multilateral and bilateral
cooperation with a view to the restitution or
return of cultural property as well as fostering a
public information campaign on the issue, and
promoting exchanges of cultural property.

During the workshop participants were involved


in two group exercises focusing on the technical
aspects of negotiating bilateral agreements for
the restitution of stolen cultural objects. The first
exercise focused on analysing bilateral agreements
between two countries on the restitution of stolen
cultural objects and the participants were asked
to review and discuss weak areas and gaps. The
bilateral agreements used for the exercise were
those between Mexico and Guatemala, Thailand
and Cambodia and the USA and Mali.
During the second exercise participants were
divided into three groups and were asked to do a

19
The Honorary General Consul in Mongolia for Monaco
emphasizes the importance of cultural heritage at the closing
ceremony

Members of the Mongolian Government, UNESCO Beijing and


foreign experts handing out certificates to participants at the
closing ceremony

KEY PROPOSALS
Legal Framework
Ratification by Mongolia of the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention pertaining to stolen and illicitly
exported cultural objects
Negotiation of bilateral agreements for the restitution and return of cultural objects stolen or
illicitly exported in accordance with Article 9 of the 1970 UNESCO Convention
Awareness-Raising
Organisation of a practical workshop on the negotiation and drafting of bilateral agreements based
on concrete cases and legitimate claims from Mongolia
Process and Recording
Development of a database of cultural objects for purposes of inventory

3.2 Review of Recommendations made at the 2003 Regional Workshop


on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property, and Elaboration of the
2011 Policy Recommendations
During the UNESCO Regional Workshop on
the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property, held
from 30-31 October 2003, in Ulaanbataar, a set
of recommendations were formulated by the
participants from East Asia and international
2003 Recommendations
We the participants of the UNESCO Semi-Regional
Workshop on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property held from
30-31 October, 2003, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and organized
by UNESCO and the Mongolian National Commission for
UNESCO
Recommended to States and those dealing with these
issues, notably museum and archive professionals, police and
customs officials and non-governmental organizations to:
R1. Promote international, regional and bilateral cooperation
for the exchange of information relating to cultural objects
whether illicitly trafficked or displaced as a result of armed
conflict, occupation, or colonial practices and in doing so
consider using available regional collaborative frameworks;

20

R2. Implement campaigns aimed at raising awareness of the


general public decision makers, law enforcement officers
and local communities of the importance of the protection
of cultural property, and especially the problem of its illicit
traffic;
R3. Ensure the compatibility of relevant national legislation
with international law in force;
R4. Clarify ownership of cultural property for effective
enforcement of national legislation and declare in such
legislation State ownership of un-excavated cultural
property so as inter alia to facilitate its recovery in foreign
jurisdictions and to support prosecution of persons that deal
in stolen, illegally excavated or illicitly trafficked cultural
property;
R5. Invite the Director General of UNESCO to facilitate the
making of a comparative analysis of national cultural
heritage legislation in the North-East Asian sub-region and
to develop illustrative, selected world-wide case studies of
the return of cultural property to assist in capacity building;
R6. Elaborate specialized training programs on legal protection
and security measures for cultural heritage direction
to museum professionals, police and customs officials,
emphasizing the need to respond rapidly to requests for
information on specific cultural property;

experts to encourage ways of preventing the illegal


trafficking of cultural property in the region.
Following the 2003 workshop Mongolia altered the
Recommendations into national specific actions.
2003 Mongolian Recommendations
Recommended to the Government of Mongolia to:
M1. Ensure the compatibility of relevant legislation of
Mongolia with respective UNESCO guidelines,
recommendations and international conventions
introducing amendments or developing new statutes;
M2. Promote the ratification of the 1995 UNIDROIT
Convention and the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the
Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage in the
potential short run;
M3. Constitute bilateral or multilateral agreements on return
or restitution of stolen and illicitly exported cultural
property to its country of origin and promote relevant
preventative measures;
M4. Review the issue of antiquity trade in order to improve
the control of illicit trafficking of historical and cultural
property and amend the Law on Special Licensing of
Economic Activities;
M5. Elaborate and implement specialized training and
cognitive programmes for the enhancement of knowledge
and education directed at the staff of the relevant
professional agencies (customs, police, museums,
archives, etc.) and the public in order to intensify the
combating of illicit trafficking in cultural property;
M6. Facilitate efficient cooperation and the sharing of
information among INTERPOL, International Council of
Museums (ICOM), International Council on Monuments
and Sites (ICOMOS), World Customs Organization
(WCO), etc., to locate, identify and repatriate illicitly
trafficked or stolen cultural property and provide those
organizations with information on relevant Laws of
Mongolia, Export and Import Permit, and Certificate etc.;

R7. Encourage the use of all means available to locate, identify


and repatriate stolen or illicitly trafficked cultural property
including, but not limited to, the use of Object ID and
cultural property databases, the sharing of information on
the Internet and the use of networks such as INTERPOL,
the International Council of Museums (ICOM), the
International Foundation for Art Research (IFAR), the
International Council on Archives (ICA), the International
Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) and the World
Customs Organization (WCO);
R8. Facilitate efficient cooperation among the services involved
in the protection of cultural property on an organization
basis by, inter alia, establishing a national unit or committee
including representatives of authorities concerned with the
protection of cultural property (for example, police and
customs officers, antiquities authorities, Ministry of Culture,
Ministry of Justice) to work together in the fight against the
illicit traffic of cultural property and to ensure that contact
details of the committee are forwarded to UNESCO to
enable effective communication.

As part of the project a review of the


recommendations and Mongolian Actions and
their subsequent implementation was made to
determine the current status of cultural heritage
protection in Mongolia. To this end, a team of three
national experts from the Ministry of Education,
Culture and Science, the National Legal Institute
and the Specialized Inspection Department of
the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science,
reviewed progress made by Mongolia since 2003 in
the protection of cultural heritage and specifically
in the fight against its illicit trafficking. National
experts considered that Mongolian authorities have
made significant progress in particular to enhance
the comprehensiveness of the legislative framework
and in the improvement of capacities in museums in
Ulaanbaatar. However, the team of national experts
unanimously agreed that the legislative framework
should be further improved to meet international
standards, that awareness about the issue of illicit
trafficking should be better raised in particular
in Mongolian Provinces and that mechanisms at
the national level should be established to facilitate
cooperation.

M7. Establish an Information Database on locating,


identifying and registering illicitly trafficked or
misplaced cultural property of Mongolia and establish
a national unit or committee including representatives
of authorities concerned with the protection of cultural
property (for example, relevant ministries, police
and customs officers, researchers and the public) for
the responsibility of researching and ensuring the
organization of restitution of such property;
M8. Establish an information network among the relevant
state institutions based on the state registration and
information database and ensure they are updated;
M9. Improve the safeguarding of historical and cultural
property sites and customs control ensuring appropriate
equipment;
M10. Provide financial support to establish a consolidated
registration and information database for the cultural
objects of Monasteries.

Following this initial assessment, the team


of national experts developed a list of policy
recommendations addressed to all stakeholders
involved in the fight against the illicit trafficking
of cultural objects. This was carried out based
on recommendations elaborated by national
participants during each of the six workshops
organized under the project from 2010-2011, and
based on recommendations developed by all 7
international experts who successively conducted
the training sessions under the project. The team
of national experts developed a list of policy
recommendations addressed to all stakeholders
involved in the fight against the illicit trafficking
of cultural objects. The 20 recommendations are
organized around 4 main themes: (i) strengthening
the legislative framework, (ii) upgrading the
registration and information system for cultural
objects, (iii) enhancing security and storage
environment of institutions housing cultural
heritage, (iv) intensifying public involvement and
cooperation. These new policy recommendations
constitute an overall roadmap for the national
authorities to better combat the illicit trade of
cultural property in Mongolia.

21

2011 POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS


Having considered the results of the activities undertaken within the implementation of the Recommendations of
UNESCO Sub-Regional Workshop held in Ulaanbaatar in 2003,
Considering the inputs and outcomes of the 2010-2011 UNESCO Workshops on the Capacity-Building for the
Fight against Illicit Traffic of Cultural Objects in Mongolia,
Recommend to the Government of Mongolia to undertake the following actions to regulate the pressing issues
in the fight against illicit traffic and the improvement of the protection and preservation environment of cultural
heritage:

22

Enhancing the Legislative Framework and Legal Regulations:


1. Ensure the cultural policy is at the centre of State policy and promote active participation of citizens,
governmental and non-governmental organizations in its implementation through establishing a favourable
economic, social and legislative environment;
2. Conduct an assessment on the status of the implementation of national legislative acts as well as international
conventions to which Mongolia is a Party;
3. Within the framework of current legislative regulations, reconsider the current sanction status of cultural
heritage crimes, increase the penal and administrative sanctions for the violation by citizens, officials and
economic entities amend the Criminal Code of Mongolia introducing a new article on crimes against cultural
heritage;
4. Establish a system according to which a license, as in the Law on Licensing of Economic Activity, should
be issued every time historical and cultural property is exported, and an activity report, sealed by a relevant
authority, that verifies the return of previously exported cultural objects should be required to issue an export
license anew;
5. Specify the status of exporting historical and cultural property in the Regulation on Issuing an Export License
for Historical and Cultural Objects (documentation, control code, clearance declaration), adopt the Model
Export Certificate for Cultural Objects developed jointly by UNESCO and the World Customs Organization
(WCO) consistent with Article 6 of the 1970 UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and
Preventing the Illicit Export, Import and Transfer of Ownership of the Cultural Property;
6. Establish an appropriate legislative regulation for cultural heritage risk assessment;
7. Specify the legislative status, the rights and responsibilities of antique stores and dealers, monitor antiques
auctions and explicitly upgrade the legislative regulations framework for the functioning of antiques auctions;
8. Promote the ratification of the 1995 UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects
and the 2001 UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage.
Upgrading the Registration and Information System:
9. Based on the national registration-information database of cultural heritage, create an information database for
locating, identifying and registering outbound historical and cultural properties;
10. Complete a national list of illegally removed cultural objects based on the model of the ICOM Red List of
objects at risk and publicize the list at local and international level for relevant professionals and institutions;
11. Establish a professional and financially independent National Committee with access to INTERPOLs Database

on Stolen Works of Art, composed of public officials whose function is to search for stolen or illicitly exported
cultural objects, organize the restitution of such properties and monitor the movement of cultural objects;
12. Improve the documentation of cultural property and organize a campaign nationwide on cataloguing of cultural
objects consistent with the Object ID international standard and disseminate the results along with documented
information to concerned institutions (law enforcement, customs, cultural etc.) as well as to international
information networks;
13. Create an electronic information system of historical and cultural heritage and provide specialized inspection
agencies, border protection agencies and customs offices with pertinent information.
Ensuring the security, storage and protection environment of concerned institutions for the protection and
preservation of historical and cultural property:
14. Conduct a case study on the conservation and protection of collections nationwide and based on the study
result, elaborate and adopt a national programme Mongolian Museums Reform for the improvement of the
preservation and protection of historical and cultural property;
15. Develop guidelines, methodology and curriculum for the conservation and protection of cultural heritage;
organize thematic short or long term workshops and train professionals for introducing international networks
on the protection of cultural heritage;
16. Ensure the security of the concerned institutions for historical and cultural heritage protection, improve their
alarm and protection system standards, establish a professional collection storage environment harmonizing
with international standards; and provide contemporary protection techniques.
Intensifying the public involvement and cooperation:
17. Publish simple publications or leaflets with simpler texts promoting relevant national legislations or produce
a simplified video documentary on Unique invaluable historical and cultural objects of Mongolia based on
scientific justification to introduce the uniqueness and value of historical and cultural heritage etc.;
18. Ensure that Mongolias entry in the UNESCOs online Database of Cultural Heritage Laws is constantly
updated, publicize legal restrictions on movements of national historical and cultural properties for foreign
museum collectors, dealers, tourists, etc.;
19. Develop a mid-term cooperation strategy on strengthening the correspondence among the Ministry of Culture
and other concerned ministries, police and customs organizations and intensify the work of entry in integrated
information network for the cooperation;
20. Develop a training module for cultural heritage trainers; organize serial regional workshops, broadcast serial
programmes through television or the internet in order to promote education for cultural heritage.

23

4. ACHIEVEMENTS AND IMPACT


To contribute to the sustainability of the results
achieved by the project activities, three publications
were developed and produced in English and
Mongolian.
1. Workshop Proceedings
Based on the six workshops organized under the
project, presentations and materials have been
collated and compiled into a single publication
thoroughly reviewed by all international
experts involved in the project. These workshop
proceedings constitute a reference tool not only for
project participants but also for the wide range of
professionals directly or indirectly involved in the
protection of cultural heritage in Mongolia and in
the combat against its illicit traffic in the world.

Project
Achievement
Report

2. 2011 Recommendations on Dealing with the


Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Property
The publication of the 2011 review of the above
recommendations was directed at those working in
the governmental, bureaucratic and judicial sector
to encourage implementation of the necessary
changes and reforms in these fields.
3. Project Achievement Report
The content of the Workshop Proceedings
document and the 2003 Recommendation Review,
along with relevant national and international
legal instruments form the two main tenets of the
project. The Achievement Report is a culmination
of these materials. It provides highlights and key
achievements of the project.

The diagram below provides an overview of the broader achievements resulting from the activities of the
project. The results arising from the implementation of the workshops and publications will continue to
have an impact on the development of the fight against illicit trafficking in Mongolia in the long term. The
immediate outcomes will provide a standard for sustainable progress and an impetus for continued social
and systemic change within relevant institutions, organisations and individuals.

Assessment of achievements since the 2003 Workshop Recommendations

Policy Review

Development of policy recommendations for main stakeholders involved in the


protection of cultural heritage

Increased capacity of legal officials, museum officials, museum staff, security guards,
customs officers, arts dealers and educators to combat illegal trafficking of cultural
property through training workshops

Capacity-Building

Development of practical techniques to carry out commitment to establishment of


international practices in Mongolia
Provision of official publications, networking opportunities with international experts
and among target groups, and workshop certificates

For the general public in


Mongolia and beyond

Raised awareness of movable cultural property among teachers


Raised awareness of ethical issues of cultural property among art dealers and museum
staff

24
Awareness-Raising

Workshop
Proceedings

2011 Policy
Recommendatons

Materials and reports produced, based on activity outcomes and policy


recommendations

For professionals in
Mongolia and beyond

For decision-makers at the


national and local level in
Mongolia

Increased information flow regarding illicit trafficking

Published articles, delivery of information via website, awareness raising campaigns,


interviews and increased media attention

Increased collaboration between governmental authorities, culture professionals,


educational institutions and law enforcement bodies at the national level

Networking

Linkages established with international institutions actively involved in the


protection of cultural heritage and with long experience in the fight against illicit
trafficking (INTERPOL, Carabinieri Department for the Protection of Cultural
Heritage)

25

Different workshops and activities were carefully crafted to best suit the appropriate target groups, in order
to maximise the development of different skill and knowledge sets, and fill in any outstanding gaps that
were evident in respective fields. This focused method produced the most fruitful outcomes for enhancing
the capacities of participants to contribute to the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects.
The following chart provides an overview of various stakeholders involved in the various types of
workshops and recommendation review, according to what was best suited to the parties.

Target Group

Police
Customs Officers
Teachers
Museum Staff and Professionals
Government Authorities
Culture Professionals

26

Media Professionals
Private Individuals

2011 Policy
Recommendations

Operational
Training

Normative
Training

AwarenessRaising

5. CONCLUSION
The project has effectively carried out its primary
objective of furthering the cause for fighting the
illicit trafficking of cultural property in Mongolia.
It has achieved this via a process that ensures a
refined method of targeting the needs and issues
that existed at the outset. Economic and social
development in Mongolia created a need for the
protection and preservation of cultural objects and
heritage in the country. The needs of the Mongolian
government and other relevant national partners
were assessed and addressed.
The 2003 Recommendations provided a benchmark
of normative and operational goals that needed to
be achieved. Using the content of these goals as
a foundation, the project implemented capacitybuilding workshops for government and museum
officials on the normative aspects of combating
the trafficking of cultural properties and providing
operational training to museum staff, security
guards, border patrol and customs officers, in order
to improve their skills and knowledge in their
respective fields. The awareness-raising workshops
were created to enhance information and data flow
not only among participants, but to allow for the
sustainable and ongoing development of public
awareness. The publications provide a means of
assessing progress and reviewing development. The
recommendations, proceedings and outcomes will
ensure that the information is utilised in the future.
The 2003 Recommendations and actions were
reviewed and evaluated by international experts
for the benefit of developing appropriate legal
mechanisms to align with the overall aims of the
project. The project achievement report will be
prepared in Mongolian and English.

Moving forward, a new project will aim to provide


ongoing support by strengthening Mongolian
capacities in the fight against the illicit trafficking
of cultural objects. The next component of the
project will involve developing tangible projects
which will solidify the normative and operational
outcomes seen from the UNESCO-Monaco FundsIn-Trust Capacity-Building for the Fight Against
the Illicit Trafficking of Cultural Objects in
Mongolia.
A video clip will be produced and launched and
will contain valuable content that will allow for
effective dissemination of information to the wider
public. Viewers will be exposed to the link between
cultural heritage and national/personal identity, and
the ethical aspects of protecting cultural property
from harm. Further, a Cultural Heritage in a
Box will be created as an educational tool for
children and young people objects, images and
multimedia materials will provide activities to be
used within the school curriculum. It will constitute
an outreach tool to be used within educational
institutions for students in Mongolia, as well as
families.
The projects conclusion will result in the
increased capacity and knowledge of individuals
and institutions to combat illegal trafficking within
their respective fields in Mongolian society. A
strengthened network of national and international
entities will strengthen Mongolias ratification
of international conventions on the protection
of cultural property. Moreover, increased public
awareness will mean that the significance of
movable cultural property will form a part of
Mongolias identity for generations to come.

27

Appendix 1: List of Experts


List of International Experts

APPENDICES

Appendix 1: List of Experts........................................................................................................... 29


List of International Experts.......................................................................................... 29

List of National Experts................................................................................................. 30

Appendix 2: Project Resource Materials...................................................................................... 31

28

'
Mr. Pavel Jirasek
Former Director, Department for the Protection of
Movable Cultural Heritage, Museums and Galleries,
Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic

www.mckr.cz/en/
pavel.jirasek@mkr.cz

Colonel Luigi Cortellessa


Carabinieri Department for the Protection of Cultural
Heritage, Italy

www.carabinieri.it
luigi.cortellessa@carabinieri.it

Lieutenant Fabrizio Rossi


Carabinieri Department for the Protection of Cultural
Heritage, Italy

www.carabinieri.it
fabrizio.rossi1@carabinieri.it

Mr. Stephane Thefo


Criminal Intelligence Officer, Works of Art Unit, Drugs
and Criminal Organizations Sub-Directorate, INTERPOL
General Secretariat

www.interpol.int
s.thefo@interpol.int

Mr. Fabrizio Panone


Criminal Intelligence Officer, Works of Art Unit, Drugs
and Criminal Organizations Sub-Directorate, INTERPOL
General Secretariat

www.interpol.int
f.panone@interpol.int

Mr. Patrick Boylan


Professor Emeritus of Heritage Policy and Management,
City University, London

http://www.city.ac.uk/
p.boylan@city.ac.uk

Mr. Vincent Negri


Professor in International Law, Study Centre for
International Judicial Cooperation, CNRS/National
Centre for Scientific Research, France

http://www.cnrs.fr/index.php
vincent.negri@orange.fr

29

Appendix 2: Project Resource Materials

List of National Experts


Governmental Authorities

Illicit Trafficking Information

Z. Oyunbileg
Senior Specialist Culture and Arts Policy Department, Minister
of Education, Culture and Science

zbileg@yahoo.com

UNESCO`s Action on the Illicit Traffic of Cultural Property

Ts. Tsendsuren
State Senior Inspector for Culture, General Agency for
Specialized Inspection

http://www.inspection.gov.mn
tsendsuren0525@yahoo.com

International Normative Instruments for the Protection


of Cultural Heritage

Law Enforcement Divisions


B. Bayarbat
Police Captain, Agent for Combating against Illicit Trafficking
of Historical and Cultural Objects, Criminal Police Department

nuur_002000@yahoo.com

D. Borkhuu
Chief of Ecology Crime Division of State Investigation
Department

boogii_police@yahoo.com

Cultural Institutions

The UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural


Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)

http://portal.unesco.org/culture/admin/
ev.php?URL_ID=35744&URL_DO=DO_
TOPIC&URL_

The UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting


and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/
movable-heritage-and-museums/illicit-trafficof-cultural-property/1970-convention/

The UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported


Cultural Objects (1995)

http://www.unidroit.org/english/conventions/
1995culturalproperty/1995culturalproperty-e.
pdf

G. Enkhbat
Director, Centre for Cultural Heritage of Mongolia

http://www.monheritage.mn
enkhbat@monheritage.com

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection of the


Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)

J. Batsuuri
Director, Management Office, Orkhon Valley Cultural
Landscape, World Heritage Site

http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_
ID=13520&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_
SECTION=201.html

j_batsuuri@yahoo.com

The UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of the


Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)

http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_
ID=17716&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_
SECTION=201.html

The UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion


of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)

http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_
ID=31038&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_
SECTION=201.html

Research Institutions

30

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/
themes/movable-heritage-and-museums/
illicit-traffic-of-cultural-property

D. Tamir
Researcher, National Legal Institute

tamir_0318@yahoo.com

Ts. Chinzorig
Researcher/Registrar, Paleontological Center, Mongolian
Academy of Sciences

http://www.mas.ac.mn
paleolab@magicnet.mn

National, City and Local Museums


D. Tsedmaa
Head of ICOM Committee in Mongolia and Former Director,
Theatre Museum

dtsedmaa@yahoo.com

Guide Documents - Codes of Ethics and International


Standards
UNESCO Handbook, Legal and Practical Measures Against
Illicit Trafficking in Cultural Property

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/
images/0014/001461/146118e.pdf

UNESCO-WCO Model Export Certificate

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/
themes/movable-heritage-and-museums/
illicit-traffic-of-cultural-property/practicaland-ethical-instruments/unesco-wco-modelexport-certificate/

Object ID Standard The International Standard for


Describing Art, Antiques, and Antiquities (ICOM, Getty,
UNESCO)

http://archives.icom.museum/object-id/

ICOM Code of Ethics for Museums

http://icom.museum/fileadmin/user_upload/
pdf/Codes/code2006_eng.pdf

UNESCO International Code of Ethics for Dealers in


Cultural Property

http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/
movable-heritage-and-museums/illicit-trafficof-cultural-property/practical-and-ethicalinstruments/unesco-international-code-ofethics-for-dealers-in-cultural-property/

Educational Institutions
B. Naranchimeg
Director, Secondary School of Kharakhorin soum, Uvurkhangai
aimag

b_nrnchmg@yahoo.com

Non-Governmental Organisations
Ts. Enkhchimeg
Director of Cultural Heritage Program, Arts Council of
Mongolia

http://www.artscouncil.mn
heritage@artscouncil.mn

O. Odgerel
Arts Education Program Director, Arts Council of Mongolia

http://www.artscouncil.mn
heritage@artscouncil.mn

S. Bat-Erdene
Centre for the Safeguarding of Archaeological Monuments

tlbaagii@yahoo.com

31

Protection of Cultural Heritage Resources


UNESCO Database of National Cultural Heritage Laws

http://www.unesco.org/culture/natlaws

Basic Actions concerning Cultural Objects being offered for


Sale over the Internet (INTERPOL-UNESCO-ICOM)

http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/
MULTIMEDIA/HQ/CLT/pdf/basic-actionscultural-objects-for-sale_en.pdf

Restitution of Cultural Property


Information Kit on the Return or Restitution of Cultural
Property

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/
images/0013/001394/139407eb.pdf

Rules of Procedure for Mediation and Conciliation for


Promoting the Return of Cultural Property to its Countries of
Origin or its Restitution in Case of Illicit Appropriation

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/
images/0019/001925/192534E.pdf

Intergovernmental Committee for Promoting the Return of


Cultural Property to its Countries of Origin or its Restitution
in Case of Illicit Appropriation

http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/
ev.php-URL_ID=35283&URL_DO=DO_
TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

Museum Management
Running a Museum: A Practical Handbook

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/
images/0014/001410/141067e.pdf

Running a Museum: A Trainers Manual

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/
images/0014/001478/147869E.pdf

UNESCO Cultural Heritage Protection Handbook Vol.


I: Security at Museums

http://unesdoc.unesco.olg/
images/0019/001484/148462 MGT.pdf

32

33

STOLEN

Monaco Funds-In-Trust
In line with its long-time support and commitment towards UNESCOs
mandate, the Principality of Monaco has generously contributed to the
Organisations various extra-budgetary programmes especially in Africa
and Asia, with particular focus on education and heritage preservation.
In 2009, the Principality supported UNESCOs actions in the fight
against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects in Mongolia to protect
Mongolias cultural heritage more effectively. For this purpose, the Office
of International Cooperation of the Principality of Monaco contributed
90,000 for the implementation of the project activities from 2009-2011 and a second phase has
already been approved.

UNESCO Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and


Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of
Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)
The Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing
the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural
Property was adopted by UNESCO in 1970 in order to curb the
increasing illicit international trafficking of cultural property
and thus to protect and safeguard the global cultural heritage.

34

To date, the Convention, which was the first international legal


instrument dedicated to combating the trafficking of cultural property, has been ratified by 123 Member
States, including Mongolia in 1991.
Under the provisions of this pioneering international treaty, States Parties cooperate to protect the
cultural property on their territory and fight its illicit import, export and transfer.
The Convention requires its States Parties to take action mainly through adopting protection measures in
their territories; controlling movement of cultural property; and returning stolen cultural property.

UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported


Cultural Objects (1995)
UNIDROIT was invited by UNESCO to develop the Convention on Stolen or
Illegally Exported Cultural Objects in 1995, as a complementary instrument to
the 1970 Convention. The UNIDROIT Convention supplements the provisions
of the 1970 UNESCO Convention by formulating minimal legal rules on the
restitution and return of cultural objects. It guarantees the rules of private
international law and international procedure which make it possible to apply
the principles set down in the UNESCO Convention.

Training workshops organised

International experts involved as trainers

130

Mongolian professionals trained

20

Policy recommendations as road


map for the future

Publications produced and disseminated

35