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Society 4.

0
(R)Evolution of Society?

Concordia-Grundtvig Workshop IV
Karlsruhe, 5th March 2014

Univ.-Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Sabina Jeschke


Institute Cluster IMA/ZLW & IfU
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
RWTH Aachen University

www.ima-zlw-ifu.rwth-aachen.de

Outline

I.

II.

The Drivers: From Industry 4.0 to Everything 4.0

From Science Fiction,

its realization

over to its technological consequences

Consequences: Selected Impressions of a Society 4.0

Economy

Social Trends

Culture

Infrastructure & Mobility

Technology

III. Summary

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

The fourth industrial (r)evolution

Industry 4.0 - Everybody and everything is networked

The first three industrial revolutions came about as a result of mechanisation,


electricity and IT. The introduction of the Internet of Things is ushering in a fourth
industrial revolution. Industry 4.0 will address and solve some of the challenges
facing the world today such as resource and energy efficiency, urban production
and demographic change.
Henning Kagermann et.al., acatech, 2013

Vision of Wireless Next Generation System (WiNGS) Lab


at the University of Texas at San Antonio, Dr. Kelley

Weidmller, Vision 2020 - Industrial Revolution 4.0


Intelligently networked, self-controlling manufacturing systems

local
to global
around 1750

local
to global

around 1900

around 1970

today

1st industrial revolution

Power revolution

Digital revolution

Information revolution

Mechanical production
systematically using the
power of water and steam

Centralized electric power


infrastructure; mass production
by division of labor

Digital computing and


communication technology,
enhancing systems intelligence

Everybody and everything is


networked networked
information as a huge brain

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

The fourth industrial (r)evolution

The Drivers.

Communication technology
bandwidth and computational power

Embedded systems

Watson
2011

miniaturization

Semantic technologies
information integration

Google Car
2012

Towards intelligent and (partly-)


autonomous systems AND systems of systems
around 1750

around 1900

around 1970

today

1st industrial revolution

Power revolution

Digital revolution

Information revolution

Mechanical production
systematically using the
power of water and steam

Centralized electric power


infrastructure; mass production
by division of labor

Digital computing and


communication technology,
enhancing systems intelligence

Everybody and everything is


networked networked
information as a huge brain

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Cyber-Physical Systems

Towards complex and networked social-technical systems

lets have a look


Communication

Consumer

Energy

Infrastructure

Health Care

Manufacturing

Military

Robotics

Transportation

[CAR2CAR, 2011] and [ConnectSafe, 2011]

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

The fourth industrial (r)evolution

Not Restricted to Industry: Cyber Physical Systems in All Areas


Back to: The earth converted into a huge brain (Tesla 1926)
Integrating complex information from multiple heterogenous sources opens multiple possibilities of optimization:
e.g. energy consumption, security services, rescue services as well as increasing the quality of life
Smart
metering

Building
automation

Smart grid
Room
automation

Smart
environment

and more
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Outline

I.

The Drivers: From Industry 4.0 to Everything 4.0

From Science Fiction,

its realization

over to its technological consequences

II. Consequences: Selected Impressions of a Society 4.0

Economy

Social Trends

Culture

Infrastructure & Mobility

Technology

III. Summary

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Society 4.0 (R)Evolution of Society?

A New Agenda for Society in

Social Trends
Urbanisation
Demographic Change
New Consumption Patterns

Economy

Culture

Crowdsourcing

Digital Culture

Hybrid Organizations

Individualization

Knowledge Based Economy

Social & Cultural Disparities

Smart World

Technology

Smart City/Mobility/Factory

Technology Convergence

Ubiquitous Intelligence

Organic Computing

New Work World

Energy Harvesting

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Economy in Society 4.0

Crowdsourcing,

Enhanced communication accelerates innovation

Economic growth is decoupled from environmental and material consumption


it is re-shaped through virtual worlds technology
and it is re-coupled to sustainable economic development and personal and social well-being

Crowdsourcing

Internal R&D department is (partly)


relieved to customers
Parts of the development-work is taken
over to external (online) communities

Various categories:
Collective Knowledge
Creative Content-Marketplace
Open Innovation & Ideas
Crowdfunding
Engagement & Charity

Example: InnoCentive (exchange-place


to solve research-problems)
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Economy in Society 4.0


, New Business Ecosystems and

Knowledge Orientation

Hybrid Organizations

Creation of the fourth sector


Adress a variety of societal challenges
New value-chain partnerships
around the globalized world

Complexity of management models


New business-models examples:
Globalization, Personalization, Pay by
the hour,

Knowledge Based Economy

Future outsourcing hotspots (defined by


specialization in niche markets):
Eastern and Central Asia
Latin America

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

New global knowledge elite


the creative class
Rising levels of education around the
world and lifelong-learning
(Open and Closed) innovation as a key
driver and competition factor
Data and knowledge based value
creation
Most innovative comapanies base on
User-driven connection of IT-services
(Salesforce.com)
Life-transforming products (Alexion)

10

Social Trends in Society 4.0

Urbanization,

11

Enhanced networks form a new basis for infrastructure

Systematic approaches to design and management in cities through distributed intelligence


Cultures and people remain diverse and heterogeneous (becoming even more diverse)
Chances for new markets

Urbanisation

Strong growth of megacities and urban


conglomerations
Greater structural problems in
rural areas

New forms of residence, living and


participation (e.g. eGovernment)
Smart cities with massive impact on
mobility, working life and societies
New privacy challenges

Mega regions with mega corridors


Tight sensor networks for smart cities

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Social Trends in Society 4.0

, Demographic Changes and New Consumption Patterns


Demographic Change

Growing global population


but declining populations in the west
Aging populations
Increasing migration streams

Information and experience distribution


over time and space
eLearning, Blended, Moocs,
3D-based communication/cooperation

New Consumption Patterns

In the European and high-wage


countries, new automation technology
contributes to bridging the gaps

Shifts in consumer spending/preferences


Individualized products
Growing collaborative consumption
Catch-up consumption in newly
industrialised countries

Hybrid and virtual models


3D printing etc. change the living room
into a manufactury
Production partly leaving the factory hall

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Rapid prototyping
Small batch series, e.g. spare parts for oldtimers

12

Culture in Society 4.0

Digital natives,

13

Alternative communication generates new cultural models

Global communication leads to globalization of education


Distance measures not longer dominated by geographical distances
Distances in mindsets become even more visible
New cooperation axes outside the original/traditional boundaries
Digital Culture

Digital technologies pervade and


connect all aspects of daily life
Development of various digital lifestyles
Digital natives: New forms of social
communication, participation and
organisation
New learning/problem solving styles
NLP, Web 4.0 on its way
Semantics makes search more efficient
Google philosophy spreading even more
Melting of all types of information,
seamless integration
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Culture in Society 4.0

, Individualization and Diversity

14

Individualisation

Individualism a global phenomenon


Few strong, many lose relationships

Complex biographies and identities


DIY economies
From mass markets to micro markets
Postponement production
Solving the scale scope dilemma of
production through Industry 4.0 etc.

Postponement example Benetton:


cost-effective mass customisation tool
to handle regular fluctuations under
normal circumstances (Tang 1996: 38)

Social & Cultural Disparities

Competing and merging value systems


Growing polarisation of rich and poor

Revival of trends originated from former


phases of industrialization
Growing polarisation in skills through IT
based communication
Dominance of intelligence, intellect,
creativity and mental flexibility
Less secure up to precarious lifestyles

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Social fragmentation across different


life situations
Reduction of jobs in low-wage sector

Smart World in Society 4.0

Smart Infrastructures,

15

Smart and autonomous systems enter the scene

Energy infrastructure smarter, low-carbon energy systems


Security enhancing safety through autonomous intelligent systems
Efficiency e.g. a holistic approach improves overall transport, usage of road space, traffic routes etc.
Individualization through intelligent individualized production

Smart City/Mobility/Factory

Big data aggregation and analysis


Process mining in factories, mobility
scenarios etc., condition monitoring
Closed-loop control system

Autonomous intelligent robots allow to


fabricate products on demand
Artificial intelligence
New intense human robot interaction

Smart cities - vision of sustainability


Factory of the Future, Industry 4.0
Google Car, car-2-X communication
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Smart World in Society 4.0

, Ubiquitous Intelligence and New Work World


Ubiquitous Intelligence

Emergence of the internet of things


Breakthrougs in artificial intelligence
and robotics
Realization of Cyber Physical Systems
Creation of intelligent infrastructures
New interfaces and intelligent
environments
Transition towards cloud-based IT

New Working World

Highly flexible working practices


New ergonomical, managerial and
organisational patterns

Advances in automation
Collaborative methods of working
Enhanced human robot cooperation
Contribution to demographic Change
Digitalisation of the world of work
New recruiting structures la Amazon

Active Sourcing 4.0


Robots outside fences/cages
Mobile robotics

The scientific perspective: Its all about


making things intelligent. Intelligence/
AI is a cross-disciplinary challenge

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

16

Technology in Society 4.0

Technology Convergence,

17

VERYTHING in communication with everything

New phase of miniaturization allows for new applications, reduction of material consumption
Energy harvesting concept in everyday life
Integration of paradigms from nature
Enhanced biotechnology applications

Technology Convergence

Miniaturization of components incl.


nanotechnological approaches and
metamaterials
Communication web-based

Everything talks with everything


Small devices
Flexible electronics
Smart materials

Embedded systems
Internet of Things contributions of
objects to a world wide intelligence
Biotechnology already entering all fields

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Technology in Society 4.0

, Organic Computing and Energy Harvesting


Energy Harvesting

Using residual energy from the


environment
Multiple kinds of energy harvesting:
photovoltaic, kinetic, thermoelectric
Examples: wireless autonomous sensors
and other devices, biomedical implants
from environment and machines up
to human energy harvesting
Indefinitely operation of sensor nodes

Organic Computing

Besides others: Mani Srivastava


Professor of Electrical Engineering &
Professor of Computer Science, Circuits and
Embedded Systems, UCLA

Bionics enters design and technology


Decentralisation of complex scenarios
Peer2peer designs in technology,
symmetrical actor-network concepts

Swarm intelligence
Bionic Learning Network FESTO
Sustainability and Resource-efficience in
architecture, automotive lightweight,

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Learning form nature: Natural paradigms


as key characteristics of innovation
in hardware, software, algorithms,
procedures, behaviour

18

Outline

19

I.

II.

The Drivers: From Industry 4.0 to Everything 4.0

From Science Fiction,

its realization

over to its technological consequences

Consequences: Selected Impressions of a Society 4.0

Economy

Social Trends

Culture

Infrastructure & Mobility

Technology

III. Summary

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Summary

Society 4.0 Evolution of Interconnected Consciousness


Up to now

Version 4.0

Scharner: From Ego-system to Eco-system


Economies: How to Build Collective Leadership
Capacity (2012)

20

Social Market

Connected Eco-System

Collective and awareness

Networking as central aspect


State Centric

Regulation and hierachy


Community- System

Global
awareness

Focus on own community

Community
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Summary

Not only science

21

Expectations

Diversity

24/7 availability, 100% reliability,


100% connectivity, instantaneous response,
store anything and everything forever

Young to old, able and disabled, rich


and poor, literate and illiterate,

Privacy
Individual private levels,
context-situative

Society
Science

How can we provide people and society


with Cyber-Physical Systems they can
trust?

Technology

Challenges
Boundaries are unknown and always changing
Complex systems are unpredictable

(How) can we build systems that interface between


the cyber world and the physical world? Ideally, with
predictable, or at least adaptable behavior.
Adapted from [CPS Summit, 2008]

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Summary

Cybernetics as a way to handle complex systems

22

Comprehensive scientific methodology at IMA/ZLW & IfU


Enhancement of control engineering towards complex and heterogeneous systems

present

History
Founder: Norbert Wiener et.al. in the
1940s

Industry 4.0

Cyber Physical Systems


gr.: [kybernts]
helmsmanship

Short innovation cycles

Central principle:
System-oriented approach
No requirements to the type of system
Back coupling and circular causality of selfadjusting systems

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Summary

Leading to new models in science and education


In the 2nd industrial revolution,
we have been networking the
resources of power.
In the 4th industrial revolution,
we will network the resources of
intelligence.

The innovation and development of Cyber-Physical Systems will


require computer scientists and network professionals to work
with experts in various disciplines . This, [], will
revolutionize how universities educate engineers and scientists.
[Rajkumar, Cyber-Physical Systems: the next computing revolution, 2010]

[S. Jeschke, EuMW, 2013]

Interdisciplinarity
Multiple,
hybrid

Life Long
Learning
24/7 access to
information
Networked,
interdependent

Expanding
Literacies

Operations
research
Artificial
Intelligence

Learning
Paradigms

Adaptive &
flexible

Abstraction

Soft Skills
Dealing with
Diversity

Creativity
Innovation

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Neurosciences
Biological
inspired systems

21st Century

Personalized

Dealing with
Uncertainty

23

Language
Skills

Communication

Cooperation
Changing
roles

24

Thank you for your Attention!

Univ.-Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Sabina Jeschke


Head of Institute Cluster IMA/ZLW & IfU
phone: +49 241-80-91110
sabina.jeschke@ima-zlw-ifu.rwth-aachen.de
Co-authored by:

Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Thiele


Research Group Knowledge Engineering
phone: +49 241-80-91168
thomas.thiele@ima-zlw-ifu.rwth-aachen.de
Markus Kowalski M.Sc.
Research Group Knowledge Engineering
phone: +49 241-80-91186
markus.kowalski@ima-zlw-ifu.rwth-aachen.de

5th March 2014


www.ima-zlw-ifu.rwth-aachen.de
S. Jeschke

Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Sabina Jeschke

25

1968

Born in Kunglv/Schweden

1991
1991 1997
1994
10/1994
1997

Birth of Son Bjrn-Marcel


Studies of Physics, Mathematics, Computer Sciences, TU Berlin
NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA/USA
Fellowship Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes
Diploma Physics

1997 2000
2000 2001
2001 2004
04/2004
from 2004

Research Fellow , TU Berlin, Institute for Mathematics


Lecturer, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA/USA
Project leadership, TU Berlin, Institute for Mathematics
Ph.D. (Dr. rer. nat.), TU Berlin, in the field of Computer Sciences
Set-up and leadership of the Multimedia-Center at the TU Berlin

2005 2007

Juniorprofessor New Media in Mathematics & Sciences &


Director of the Media-center MuLF, TU Berlin
Univ.-Professor, Institute for IT Service Technologies (IITS) & Director of the Computer
Center (RUS), Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Stuttgart
Univ.-Professor, Institute for Information Management in Mechanical Engineering (IMA)
& Center for Learning and Knowledge Management (ZLW)
& Institute for Management Cybernetics (IfU), RWTH Aachen University

2007 2009
since 06/2009

since 10/2011

Vice dean of the department of Mechanical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University

since 03/2012

Chairwoman VDI Aachen


5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

References

26

[Alberti, 2011]

Elisa Alberti, Smart Mobility Vision Report Deliverable of the Project Smart Metropolitan Areas Realised
Through Innovation & People, 2011

[BMI, 2011]

Federal Ministry of the Interior, Demography Report - Federal Government Report on the Demographic
Situation and Future Development of Germany, Rostock, 2011.

[Gleich, 2010]

Gleich et al., PricewaterhouseCoopers AG Wirtschaftsprfungsgesellschaft, European Business School


Geschftsmodellinnovationen - Neue Wege am Markt beschreiten, 2010.

[Grimme, 2012]

Grimme-Institut, Gesellschaftg fr Medien, Bildung und Kultur, Im Blickpunkt: Crowd Sourcing


Marl, 2012.

[Malone, 2013]

Thomas W. Malone, MIT Center for Collective Intelligence, The future of work: How can we create more
intelligent organizations? 2013.

[ISI, 2006]

Steffen Kinkel, Gunther Lay, Fraunhofer Institut System- und InnovationsforschungTechnologietrends in


der Produktion, Karlsruhe, 2006.

[PTIDES]

http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Projects/Data/101935.html; last visited on 22th February 2013

[WBCSD, 2010]

World Business Council for Sustainable Development; Vision 2050 Neue Agenda fr Unternehmen,
2010.

[Weller, 2013]

Ingo Weller, Digitalisierung und Vernetzung: Chancen und Potentiale fr Mitarbeiter und Human Resource
Management, Presentation at the conference Mnchener Kreis - Fachtagung Oktober 2013
Mnchen, 2013.

[VDI, 2011]

Wolfgang Luther et al., VDI Technologiezentrum, Nanotechnologie in der Natur Bionik im Betrieb
Dsseldorf, 2011.

[VDI, 2012]

VDI Positionspapier, Zukunft der Bionik - Interdisziplinre Forschung strken und Innovationspotenziale
nutzen, 2012.

[Z_punkt]

Z_punkt The foresight company, MEGATRENDS update.

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Scientific challenges and achievements

Two worlds coming together


Physical world

27

Cyber-physical

Manufacturing process

Digital world
Internet

Embedded Systems

Material behavior

Service-oriented

Simulation
Automation
Semantics

Unique Identifier

Things

Closed System

Open System

controllable and partly predictable by simulation

difficult to control or to predict system behavior

IOT

CPS
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Scientific challenges and achievements

Two worlds coming together

Timed communication and


information exchange

Well-known and controlled


interaction between participants

Static
(changes are controlled)

28

VS

Time delayed communication

Interaction between unknown


participants

Dynamic
(continuously changing)

Beyond traditional technical systems:

Systems of distributed intelligence

Closed System

Open System

controllable and partly predictable by simulation

difficult to control or to predict system behavior

IOT

CPS
5th March 2014
S. Jeschke

Summary

Research on an Interdisciplinary Sandwich with Changing Paradigms29


Embedded systems

Communication technology

Semantic technologies representing the field


of artificial intelligence

bandwidth and
computational power

information integration

miniaturization

Physical world

Cyber-physical
Reactivity

Digital world

Schedulability
Diagram adopted from R. Alur, Uni. Penn

Time Concepts in
Computer
Sciences

Material
beyond nature

CPS

@ ABB

Bottom up vs.
Top down

Living with
Uncertainty

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Bionic Principles

IOT

Summary

Challenges of Cybernetics

30

Cybernetics - Management of Uncertainty


Handling of uncertainties resulting from internal processes, changing environment and highly
time-dependent processes is a core issue in organizational and system design.

on the way to a learning system

Analysis of interdependencies

Multiple recurrence levels

Iterative feedback loops

Self-regulation

Experimental approach
1. Starting experiments,

2. Tight result sensorics,


3. If necessary: fast re-adjusting

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

Renunciation from a master plan

Enabling culture!

Culture of fault tolerance!

Digital Natives change the world

Today, science fiction tomorrow reality?


http://www.visori3d.com/

http://www.moviepilot.de/

http://www.moviepilot.de/

http://tecnoblogtic.wordpress.com/

http://androidworld.nl/

http://www.smartplanet.com/

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/

http://www.zeitnews.de/

http://www.ingenieur.de/

http://lava360.com/

how we shape
our environment.

how we perceive
our environment.

4.0
changes

http://www.imcdb.org/

http://www.forbes.com/

how we (and
our environment)
move.

how we
communicate with
our environment.

http://www.hoerbuecherblog.de/

31

http://www.mercedes-benz.com/

http://www.moviegod.de/

5th March 2014


S. Jeschke

http://hqwallpapers.org/