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Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ebola virus
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is the

sole member of the Zaire ebolavirus species, and the most dangerous
of the five known viruses within the genus ebolavirus.[1] Four of the
five known ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic
fever in humans and other primates, known as ebola virus disease. The
virus and its species were both originally named for Zaire (now the
Democratic Republic of Congo), the country where it was first
described,[1] and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the
closely related Marburg virus;[2][3] the virus (but not its species) was
renamed to "ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion. The species is a
virological taxon species included in the genus Ebolavirus, family
Filoviridae (whose members are called Filovirus[4]), order
Mononegavirales.[1] Its natural reservoir is believed to be bats,
particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans
and from animals to humans, through body fluids.
The EBOV genome is approximately 19,000 base pairs long. It
encodes seven structural proteins: [nucleoprotein]] (NP), polymerase
cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24,
and RNA polymerase (L).[5] The Ebola Virus genetics is difficult to
study due to the virulent nature of the virus.
Because of its high mortality rate, EBOV is also listed a select agent,
World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring
Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), a U.S. National Institutes
of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Category A Priority Pathogen, U.S. CDC Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as
a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.

Species Zaire ebolavirus

Virus classification

Group V ((-)ssRNA)








Zaire ebolavirus

Member virus (Abbreviation)

Ebola virus (EBOV)

1 Structure
2 Genome
3 Entry
4 Replication
5 Ecology
6 Ebola virus disease
7 History
7.1 Previous names

Phylogenetic tree comparing the Ebolavirus and

Marburgvirus. Numbers indicate percent confidence
of branches.

8 Species inclusion criteria




Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

9 See also
10 References
11 External links

EBOV carries a negative-sense RNA genome in virions that are cylindrical/tubular, and contain viral envelope,
matrix, and nucleocapsid components. The overall cylinders are generally approx. 80 nm in diameter, and having
a virally encoded glycoprotein (GP) projecting as 7-10 nm long spikes from its lipid bilayer surface.[6] The
cylinders are of variable length, typically 800 nm, but sometimes up to 1000 nm long. The outer viral envelope
of the virion is derived by budding from domains of host cell membrane into which the GP spikes have been
inserted during their biosynthesis. Individual GP molecules appear with spacings of about 10 nm. Viral proteins
VP40 and VP24 are located between the envelope and the nucleocapsid (see following), in the matrix
space.[7] At the center of the virion structure is the nucleocapsid, which is composed of a series of viral proteins
attached to a 1819 kb linear, negative-sense RNA without 3-polyadenylation or 5-capping (see following);
the RNA is helically wound and complexed with the NP, VP35, VP30, and L proteins;[8] this helix has a
diameter of 80 nm and contains a central channel of 2030 nm in diameter.
The overall shape of the virions after purification and visualization (e.g., by ultracentrifugation and electron
microscopy, respectively) varies considerably; simple cylinders are far less prevalent than structures showing
reversed direction, branches, and loops (i.e., U-, shepherd's crook-, 9- or eye bolt-shapes, or other or
circular/coiled appearances), the origin of which may be in the laboratory techniques applied.[9] The
characteristic "threadlike" structure is, however, a more general morphologic characteristic of filoviruses
(alongside their GP-decorated viral envelope, RNA nucleocapsid, etc.).[10]

Each virion contains one molecule of linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA, 18,959 to 18,961
nucleotides in length. The 3 terminus is not polyadenylated and the 5 end is not capped. It was found that 472
nucleotides from the 3' end and 731 nucleotides from the 5' end are sufficient for replication.[11] It codes for
seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3 leader NP VP35 VP40
GP/sGP VP30 VP24 L trailer 5; with the leader and trailer being non-transcribed regions, which
carry important signals to control transcription, replication, and packaging of the viral genomes into new virions.
The genomic material by itself is not infectious, because viral proteins, among them the RNA-dependent RNA
polymerase, are necessary to transcribe the viral genome into mRNAs because it is a negative sense RNA virus,
as well as for replication of the viral genome. Sections of the NP and the L genes from filoviruses have been
identified as endogenous in the genomes of several groups of small mammals.[12]

There are two candidates for host cell entry proteins. The first is the host-encoded NiemannPick C1 (NPC1),
a cholesterol transporter protein, appears to be essential for entry of Ebola virions into the host cell, and for its
ultimate replication.[13][14] In one study, mice that were heterozygous for NPC1 were shown to be protected
from lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus.[13] In another study, small molecules were shown to



Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

inhibit Ebola virus infection by preventing viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) from binding to NPC1.[14][15]
Hence, NPC1 was shown to be critical to entry of this filovirus, because it mediates infection by binding directly
to viral GP.[14]
When cells from Niemann Pick Type C patients lacking this transporter were exposed to Ebola virus in the
laboratory, the cells survived and appeared impervious to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1
to enter cells; mutations in the NPC1 gene in humans were conjectured as a possible mode to make some
individuals resistant to this deadly viral disease. The same studies described similar results regarding NPC1's
role in virus entry for Marburg virus, a related filovirus. A further study has also presented evidence that NPC1
is critical receptor mediating Ebola infection via its direct binding to the viral GP, and that it is the second
"lysosomal" domain of NPC1 that mediates this binding.[16]
The second candidate is TIM-1 (aka HAVCR1) [17]. TIM-1 was shown to bind to the receptor binding domain
of the EBOV glycoprotein, to increase the receptivity of Vero cells. Silencing its effect with siRNA prevented
infection of Vero cells. TIM1 is expressed in tissues known to be seriously impacted by EBOV lysis (trachea,
cornea, and conjunctiva). A monoclonal antibody against the IgV domain of TIM-1, ARD5, blocked EBOV
binding and infection.
Together, these studies suggest NPC1 and TIM-1 may be potential therapeutic targets for an Ebola anti-viral
drug and as a basis for a rapid field diagnostic assay.

Being acellular, viruses such as Ebola do not replicate through any type of cell division; rather, they use a
combination of host- and virally encoded enzymes, alongside host cell structures, to produce multiple copies of
themselves; these then self-assemble into viral macromolecular structures in the host cell.[8] Specific steps for
Ebola virus include:
The virus attaches to host receptors through the glycoprotein (GP) surface peplomer and is endocytosed
into macropinosomes in the host cell.[18]
Viral membrane fuses with vesicle membrane, nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm.
Encapsidated, negative-sense genomic ssRNA is used as a template for the synthesis (3'-5') of
polyadenylated, monocistronic mRNAs.
Using the host cell's ribosomes, tRNA molecules, etc., the mRNA is translated into individual viral
Viral proteins are processed, glycoprotein precursor (GP0) is cleaved to GP1 and GP2, which are then
heavily glycosylated using cellular enzymes and substrates. These two molecules assemble, first into
heterodimers, and then into trimers to give the surface peplomers. Secreted glycoprotein (sGP) precursor
is cleaved to sGP and delta peptide, both of which are released from the cell.
As viral protein levels rise, a switch occurs from translation to replication. Using the negative-sense
genomic RNA as a template, a complementary +ssRNA is synthesized; this is then used as a template for
the synthesis of new genomic (-)ssRNA, which is rapidly encapsidated.
The newly formed nucleocapsids and envelope proteins associate at the host cell's plasma membrane;
budding occurs, destroying the cell.



Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ebolavirus is a zoonotic pathogen. Intermediary hosts have been reported to be "various species of fruit bats
[...] throughout central and sub-Saharan Africa", but infection in bats has not been proven yet.[19] End hosts are
humans and great apes, infected through bat contact or through other end hosts. Pigs on the Philippine islands
have been reported to be infected with Restonvirus, so other interim or amplifying hosts may exist.[19]

Ebola virus disease

Ebola virus is one of the four ebolaviruses known to cause disease in humans. It has the highest case-fatality
rate of these ebolaviruses, averaging 83% since first described in 1976, although fatality rates up to 90% have
been recorded in one epidemic (2002-03). There have also been more outbreaks of ebola virus than of any
other ebolavirus. The first outbreak occurred on 26 August 1976 in Yambuku.[20] The first recorded case was
Mabalo Lokela, a 44year-old schoolteacher. The symptoms resembled malaria, and subsequent patients
received quinine. Transmission has been attributed to reuse of unsterilized needles and close personal contact.

Zaire ebolavirus is pronounced /zr ibolvars/ (zah-EER ee-BOH-l-vy-rs). Strictly speaking, the
pronunciation of "Ebola virus" (/ibol vars/) should be distinct from that of the genus-level taxonomic
designation "ebolavirus/Ebolavirus/ebolavirus", as "Ebola" is named for the tributary of the Congo River that is
pronounced "bola" in French,[21] whereas "ebola-virus" is an "artificial contraction" of the words "Ebola" and
"virus," written without a diacritical mark for ease of use by scientific databases and English speakers. According
to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the
name Zaire ebolavirus is always to be capitalized, italicized, and to be preceded by the word "species". The
names of its members (Zaire ebolaviruses) are to be capitalized, are not italicized, and used without articles.[1]
Ebola virus (abbreviated EBOV) was first described in 1976.[2][3][22] Today, the International Committee on
Taxonomy of Viruses lists the virus is the single member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, which is included into
the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The name Ebola virus is derived from the
Ebola River a river that was at first thought to be in close proximity to the area in Democratic Republic of
Congo, previously called Zaire, where the first recorded Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred and the
taxonomic suffix virus.[1]
The species was introduced in 1998 as Zaire Ebola virus.[23][24] In 2002, the name was changed to Zaire

Previous names
Ebola virus was first introduced as a possible new "strain" of Marburg virus in 1977 by two different research
teams.[2][3] At the same time, a third team introduced the name Ebola virus.[22] In 2000, the virus name was
changed to Zaire Ebola virus,[27][28] and in 2002 to Zaire ebolavirus.[25][26] However, most scientific articles
continued to refer to Ebola virus or used the terms Ebola virus and Zaire ebolavirus in parallel. Consequently, in
2010, the name Ebola virus was reinstated.[1] Previous abbreviations for the virus were EBOV-Z (for Ebola
virus Zaire) and most recently ZEBOV (for Zaire Ebola virus or Zaire ebolavirus). In 2010, EBOV was
reinstated as the abbreviation for the virus.[1]



Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Species inclusion criteria

To be considered a member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, a virus of the genus Ebolavirus is required to
fulfill certain requirements: [1]
it is found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, or the Republic of the Congo
it has a genome with two or three gene overlaps (VP35/VP40, GP/VP30, VP24/L)
it has a genomic sequence that differs from the type virus by less than 30%
Furthermore, the virus' genome cannot diverge from that of the variant Mayinga (EBOV/May) by more than
10% at the nucleotide level for it to be considered an Ebola virus. [1]

See also
Ebola virus disease
2014 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak

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Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


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External links
ICTV Files and Discussions Discussion forum and file distribution for the International Committee on
Taxonomy of Viruses (http://talk.ictvonline.org/default.aspx)



Ebola virus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ebola: Africas Bloody Disease (http://www.alldocumentaries.org/ebola-africas-bloody-disease/)

Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever CDC.gov (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/)
The Ebola Virus (http://visualscience.ru/en/projects/ebola/poster/) 3D model of the Ebola virus, prepared
by Visual Science, Moscow.
ICTV Files and Discussions Discussion forum and file distribution for the International Committee on
Taxonomy of Viruses (http://talk.ictvonline.org/default.aspx)
Treatment and prevention of Ebola fever (http://www.doctor121.com/2014/08/treatment-andprevention-of-ebola-fever.html)
FILOVIR scientific resources for research on filoviruses (http://www.filovir.com/)
"Zaire ebolavirus" (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?
mode=Info&id=186538). NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 186538.
"Ebola virus sp." (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Browser/wwwtax.cgi?
mode=Info&id=205488). NCBI Taxonomy Browser. 205488.
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