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FLOW METER SELECTION

SEMINAR

Alan Graff
RL Stone Co
I&C Sales Manager
Upstate NY & New England

RL Stone Co. New England

Corporate Office: 115 Ainsley Drive, Syracuse, NY 13210 Tel: 888-404-8882 Fax: 315-479-5402 www.rl-stone.com

Process/HVAC Products and Solutions

Armstrong Steam and Condensate Group: Traps, Liquid Drainers, Steam


Distribution & Condensate Return Manifolds, Air Vents, Strainers, Wireless
Trap Monitors, Spargers, Separators
Armstrong Humidification Group (Vermont only): Direct Steam, Ionic Bed
Electric, Gas-Fired, Steam to-Steam, Evaporative Cooling Fogging, Unfired Steam Generators
Armstrong Condensate Management Group: Mechanical & Electrical
Condensate Pumps and Packages, Flash Tanks, Condensate Coolers
Armstrong Heat Transfer Group: Unit Heaters, Door Heaters and Make-Up
Air Heaters, Heavy-Duty Steam and Hot Water Coils, Replacement Coils,
DuraMix VIFB Coils, Fumigation Heat Treat Systems
Armstrong Hot Water Group: Instantaneous Hot Water Heaters, Direct
Fired Gas High Efficiency Hot Water Heaters, Thermostatic Mixing Valves, The
Brain & MEGAMIX Digital Electronic Mixing Center, Steam & Hot Water Hose
and Mixing Valve Stations
Armstrong Pressure Temperature Control Group: PRVs, Pneumatic and
Electric Industrial Control Valves, Temperature Regulators, Radiator Control
Valves
Armstrong Service Group: Steam System Optimization, Contracting:
Installation Construction, Engineering Audits and Steam Surveys, Heat Treat
Audits

Cataract Steel

Compressed Air, Gas & Heat Transfer Products, Industrial Heat


Exchangers, Pressure Vessels, Air Receivers
New and Replacement Steam, Water and DX Coils, Remote Condensers,
Fluid Coolers, Evaporative Coolers

Diversified Heat
Transfer

Heat Transfer Equipment, Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers, Plate and
Frame Heat Exchangers, Steam and Hot Water Generators
Refrigerant Leak Detection Monitoring Systems

Thermacor
Process

Pre-Insulated Above and Below Ground Piping Systems,


Containment Piping, High Temperature Polyisocyanurate
Foam, Pressure Testable Joints, ERM Leak Detection

TMI, Inc

Strip Doors, Air Doors, Screens and Curtains, Modular Enclosures,


Clear and Colored Flexible PVC Film, Noise Control Products
Flow Sensors & Instrumentation, Accelabar Zero Straight Run
Flow Meter, Utility Flow Metering Systems
Gauges: Pressure, Vacuum, Digital and Analog Indicators, Mini and
Industrial Diaphragm Seals, Pressure Transducers, AccessoriesPressure Snubbers, Gauge Cocks, Needle Valves, Siphons, Petes Plugs,
Bimetal Thermometers and Temperature Transmitters

R. L. Stone Services

Design Build, Installation, On-Site Seminars and Training, Energy


Audits, Steam Trap Surveys, Control Panels, SCADA System

A Leading Supplier of Flowmeters


to HVAC & Industrial Marketplace

Magmeters
Vortex & Swirl
Turbine
Thermal & Coriolis Mass
BTU Meter
Pitot, Wedge
Orifice Plates, Venturi
Positive Displacement
Rotameter, Variable Area

Define Application Basic Facts


Flowing Media (Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc)
Density - pressure and temperature
Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown
needed)
Accuracy how stated? % of range or span
Repeatability
Straight run requirements & available
Economic Considerations Initial cost, maintenance
cost & operating costs

Why are we here?


There is no 1 meter that will meet every
application
Every application needs to be looked at
individually
We can make some generalizations !!!!!!

FLOW MEASUREMENT

HOW MUCH (TOTAL)


HOW FAST (RATE)

Flow Through A Pipe

Idealized

Real World

Pipe

Velocity Profile

Flow Profile Correlation

Steam
Water
Heavy Crude

Velocity profile is a predictable function of Reynolds


number. Fluids with the same Reynolds number will have
similar velocity profiles.

General Flow Terminology

Reynolds Number (RE) A single dimensionless


parameter formed as the ratio of inertial to
viscous forces . Magnitude indicates whether
flow is laminar or turbulent
RE=

Inertia Forces
Viscous Forces

Fluid
Density
(p)

Fluid
Velocity
(V)

Characteristic
Dimension*
(D)

Fluid Viscosity ()

* Usually inside pipe diameter.

Characterization of Fluid Flow

Types of Flow
RE < 2100

Laminar

Transitional

RE >3000

Turbulent ***

*** Well documented & proven fully


developed flow profiles

Volumetric Flowrate (Q)

V
A
Q

Volume = Area x Length


Volume Flow = Area x Velocity

Mass Flowrate (m)


Q=VA
Mass Flow m =

Qp
= AV

V
A
m

Where

m
Q

= Mass Flow
= Volume Flow
= Fluid Density

Mass = Volume x Density

Mass vs Volume Flowmeters


Why are we concerned?
How much does it really matter?
Flow through a 4 line measured in a Averaging Pitot
Flow Rate

1000 cfm

1000 cfm

Pressure

5 psi

5 psi

Temperature

100 F

70 F

DP in WC

12.181

11.532

There is a 6% error just by changing density / temperature slightlycan


you meter cope??

General Flow Terminology

Factors affecting flowmeter performance


Process
Liquid
Gas

Density

media

Temperature
Velocity

(Specific Gravity)
Viscosity
Pressure

Flowmeter Performance

Accuracy
Repeatability
Linearity
Rangeability

Types of Accuracy

% Rate
% Full Scale
% Span
% Max DP

Accuracy
% Rate

The percent accuracy value is constant and


applied to the actual (or indicated) flowrate
Flowrate
1% rate
1 GPM
Example: 100 GPM
50 GPM
0.5 GPM
10 GPM
.01 GPM

% Full Scale The absolute value of error (as expressed in


engineering units)
Flowrate
Example: 100 GPM
50 GPM
10 GPM

1% Full Scale
1 GPM
1 GPM
1 GPM

% Rate
1%
2%
10%

Accuracy
Percent Error Versus Flow

Poor Repeatability Means


Poor Accuracy
Good Accuracy Means
Good Repeatability
Good Repeatability Does Not
Necessarily Mean Good Accuracy

Volumetric Flowmeters

DP
Turbine
Vortex / Swirl
Magnetic
Target
Ultrasonic
Displacement

Note: can be inferred mass with compensating transmitter

Differential Pressure Flowmeters


Flow Measurement Principles
Q=K
ORIFICE PLATE
(or FLOW TUBE)

VENA
CONTRACTA

Direction of Flow

MANOMETER
(or DP TRANSMITTER)

DP Primary Elements

Various
Orifice
Configuration

Flow
Tube

Flow
Nozzle

Venturi
Flowmeter

DP Primary Elements
Averaging Pitot

Accelabar Combined
Pitot & Venturi

Wedge Element

DP Flowmeters
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE

ADVANTAGES
Use On Liquid, Gas, and Steam
Suitable for Extreme Temperatures
and Pressures
No Moving Parts
Low Cost

DISADVANTAGES
Limited Rangeability
Effected By Changes In Density,
Pressure, and Viscosity
Maintenance Intensive

Magnetic Flowmeters

Theory of Operation

Magmeter Requirements

Process must be a liquid


Minimum conductivity
Meter must be full

Magnetic Flowmeters
MAGNETIC

ADVANTAGES
No Moving Parts
Very Wide Rangeability
Ideal For Slurries
Unobstructed Flow Path

DISADVANTAGES
Liquid Must Be Conductive
Physical Pressure and Temperature
Limits

Magnetic Flowmeters
Advantages Over Other Technologies

No moving parts
No pressure drop
Flowrate independent of viscosity, temperature, and density
Minimum upstream piping requirements
Electronics interchangeable without regard to size
Measure dirty liquids with solids
Measure highly corrosive fluids
Very large turndown
Linear output

Vortex Meter

Vortex Meter
Principle of Operation
Q=VxA

Vortex

Vortex / Swirlmeter
VORTEX / SWIRLMETER
ADVANTAGES
No Moving Parts
For Liquid, Gas, or Steam
Uneffected by Pressure, Temperature,
or Density Changes.
Wide Rangeability

DISADVANTAGES
Span Limitations Due to Viscosity
Flow Profile Sensitive (Vortex)

Swirlmeter
Principle of Operation
Preamplifier
Housing
Swirler

Sensor Deswirler
Backflow

r
VA
VT
p

=
=
=
=

local radius
axial velocity of flow
angular velocity of flow
static pressure

Swirlmeters

Benefits
High Accuracy 0.50% of Rate
No Moving Parts
Minimal Upstream Piping
Measures Low Flows
Versatile
Electronics can be used for Diagnostics
Works with Entrained Liquids

Swirlmeter
Cut-Away View

Technical Data
Measures liquids, gases and steam
Available integral, remote, or flow
computer electronics
Accuracy 0.50% rate
Sizes 0.75" thru 16.0"
Minimal upstream piping req.
Flow as low as 1 GPM
Excellent in light gas applications

Installation Length
Swirlmeter
Swirlmeter

Vortex 4
Process
control valve

5D

1D

3D

1D

50 D

5D

25 D

5D

15 D

5D

90 elbow
min. 1.8 D

Reduction
3D

1D

Turbine Meter

Turbine Meter
Principle of Operation

Rotor velocity is proportional to fluid velocity

Turbine Meter

High accuracy (.5% of rate)


High rangeability (up to 50:1)
Compact design
Fast response time
Broad range of sizes
Clean water applications only
NIST Traceable Factory Calibration
Low cost, Easy to install
In and out of line, under pressure

Turbine Meter

Performance Considerations

Straight pipe run requirements


Process fluid lubricity
Reynolds number constraints
Viscosity
Density
Maintenance & recalibration

Turbine Flowmeters
TURBINE
ADVANTAGES
High Accuracy
Suitable for Extreme
Temperatures and Pressures
Can Be Used On Gas or Liquid

DISADVANTAGES
Only For Low Viscosities
Moving Parts
Sensitive to Flow Profile

Positive Displacement Flowmeters

PD Flowmeters

Types
Helical gear
Nutating disk
Oscillating
piston
Oval gear
Rotary

Positive Displacement Meter


Typical Principle of Operation

Schematic of a
nutating-disk meter

Schematic of a
rotary-vane flowmeter

Schematic of a
lobed-impeller flowmeter

PD Flowmeters

Advantages
Ideal for viscous fluids
Custody transfer
Batching
Minimal straight piping
requirements

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Types

Doppler
Time of
flight

Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Principle of Operation

Doppler
Flowmeter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters
Principle of Operation

Transit-Time
Flowmeter

Ultrasonic Flowmeters

Performance Considerations

Reynolds number constraints


Entrained gas or particles for doppler
Clean liquids for time of flight
Installed without process shut down
Straight upstream piping
requirements

Ultrasonic
ULTRASONIC
ADVANTAGES
No Moving Parts
Unobstructed Flow Passage
Wide Rangeability

DISADVANTAGES
For Liquids Only (limited gas)
Flow Profile Dependent
Errors Due To Deposits

Mass Flowmeter
Direct Measurement

Thermal Dispersion
Coriolis

Coriolis Mass Flowmeter

Coriolis

Coriolis
CORIOLIS

ADVANTAGES
Direct Mass Measurement
High Accuracy
Additional Density Measurement
Uneffected By Flow Profile

DISADVANTAGES
High Purchase Price
High Installation Cost
Size Limitations
Vibration Sensitive

Thermal Dispersion

Thermal Dispersion Mass Flowmeter

Gas application only


Relatively inexpensive
Easy to install and remove under pressure
Accuracy 0.5%
Turndown, 100:1
Capable of monitoring extremely low flows
True mass flow meter (compensates for
temperature/pressure)

Piping Considerations
Always need a full pipe

Proper up / down diameter

BTU Monitoring

Summary Each Application is


Different
Flowing Media (eg Steam, Water, Air, Gas etc)
Density - pressure and temperature
Flow Range, minimum to maximum (turndown needed)
Accuracy how stated? % of range or span
Repeatability
Straight run requirements & available
Maintenance and reliability

General HVAC Recommendations

Steam : Accelabar or Swirl


Chilled or Hot Water: Hot Tap Insert Turbine
Natural Gas or Air: Thermal Dispersion
Fuel Oil: Coriolis or Wedge