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NOKIA WCDMA BASE STATION

Product Overview

Document Number/Version
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1999 Nokia Networks Oy

Product Overview

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the
product and its version defined in the introduction of this document. This document is intended for
the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the
document is submitted, and no part of it may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or means
without the prior written permission of Nokia Networks. The document has been prepared to be
used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility
when using it. Nokia Networks welcomes customer comments as part of the process of
continuous development and improvement of the documentation.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability, capacity, or
performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be considered binding but
shall be defined in the agreement made between Nokia Networks and the customer. However,
Nokia Networks has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the
document are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Nokia Networks will, if
necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the document.
Nokia Networks' liability for any errors in the document is limited to the documentary correction of
errors. Nokia Networks WILL NOT BE RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS
DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING
MONETARY LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it.
This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright according to
the applicable laws.
NOKIA logo is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation.
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective
companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright Nokia Networks Oy 1999. All rights reserved.

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1999 Nokia Networks Oy

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Product Overview

CONTENTS
1.

GLOSSARY .............................................................................................................. 3

2.

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 6
2.1. General ............................................................................................................. 6
2.2. Summary of the Nokia WCDMA Base Stations .............................................. 7

3.

NOKIA ULTRASITE WCDMA BASE STATION.................................................. 8


3.1. Applications...................................................................................................... 8
3.1.1.

Coverage Solution.............................................................................. 9

3.1.2.

Capacity Solution ............................................................................... 9

3.2. Physical Construction..................................................................................... 10


3.3. Capacity and Configurations .......................................................................... 11
4.

TRIPLE-MODE NOKIA ULTRASITE GSM ........................................................ 16

5.

NOKIA METROSITE WCDMA BASE STATION ............................................... 17


5.1. Applications.................................................................................................... 17
5.2. Physical Construction..................................................................................... 17
5.3. Capacity and Configurations .......................................................................... 18

6.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE................................................................... 19


6.1. Local Management Tool ................................................................................ 19
6.2. External Alarms and Controls ........................................................................ 20
6.3. Upgrading SW................................................................................................ 20

7.

TRANSMISSION.................................................................................................... 21

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Product Overview

7.1. Introduction .................................................................................................... 21


7.2. Transmission Interfaces.................................................................................. 21
8.

RADIO INTERFACE.............................................................................................. 23
8.1. RX Performance ............................................................................................. 23
8.2. Transmitting Power ........................................................................................ 23
8.3. Diversity ......................................................................................................... 23

9.

CONNECTIONS ..................................................................................................... 25
9.1. Power Supply ................................................................................................. 25
9.2. Interfaces ........................................................................................................ 26

10.

SITE SOLUTIONS.................................................................................................. 28
10.1. Masthead Amplifier (MHA)........................................................................... 28
10.2. Nokia UltraSite Support ................................................................................. 28

11.

GSM CO-SITING.................................................................................................... 30

12.

RELIABILITY......................................................................................................... 33

13.

ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS............................................................... 34
13.1. EMC Compatibility ........................................................................................ 35
13.1.1. EMC Emission ................................................................................. 35
13.1.2. EMC Immunity ................................................................................ 35

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Product Overview

1.

GLOSSARY
ANT

Antenna

ATM

Asynchronous Transfer Mode, transfer mode in which


the information is organised into cells: it is asynchronous
in the sense that the recurrence of cells containing
information from an individual user is not necessarily
periodic.

AXC

ATM Cross-Connection. This entity consists of AXU and


1 to 5 IFU units.

BTS

Base Station

Bias-T

A component to isolate RF signal from DC current when


both are present in the same conductor.

Diplexer

Combines two RF signals to one conductor. Can be used


if there is enough frequency separation between the
signals.

EMC

Electro-Magnetic Compatibility

HLR

Home Location Register

IMA

Inverse Multiplexed ATM

IP

Internet Protocol

Iu

Interconnection point between the RNC and the Core


Network. It is also considered as a reference point.

Iub

Interface between the RNC and the BTS

Iur

A logical interface between two RNCs. Whilst logically


representing a point-to-point link between RNCs, the
physical realisation may not be a point-to-point link.

LMT

Local Management Tool

LNA

Low Noise Amplifier

MHA

Masthead Amplifier

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MTBF

Mean Time Between Failures, the expectation of the


operational time duration between two consecutive
failures of a repairable item, measured in hours, years
etc.

NMS

Network Management System

PDG

Packet Data Gateway

PDH

Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

Q1-Bus

Control bus for Site Support and Radio Links

RAKE

Rake, a receiver structure for CDMA system

RAN

Radio Access Network

RF

Radio Frequency

RNC

Radio Network Controller

RX

Receiver

SCP

Service Control Point

SDH

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, transmission technique


in which there are specified limits to the timing
relationship of the corresponding significant instants of a
signal.

SRC

Smart Radio Concept

STM

Synchronous Transfer Mode

STM-1

Synchronous Transport Module-1. An ITU-T defined


SDH physical interface for digital transmission in ATM
at the rate of 155.52 Mbit/s.

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System

UTRAN

UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network: UTRAN is a


conceptual term identifying that part of the network
which consists of RNCs and Node BTS between Iu and
Uu. The concept of UTRAN instantiation is currently
undefined. (SMG2 ARC). URAN AND RAN are also
used for the same purpose. RAN is preferred and used in
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Nokia WCDMA BSS documentation.


VC

Virtual Channel, unidirectional transport of ATM cells


associated by a common unique identifier value

WAM

Application Manager unit in BTS

3G-SGSN

WCDMA Packet Data Access Node

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Product Overview

2.

INTRODUCTION

2.1. General
WCDMA technology is used on the air interface to build 3rd generation wireless
communication systems. An integrated entity in the system is RAN (Radio Access
Network) which includes Base Stations, Radio Network Controller and Cellular
Transmission (see Figure 2-1).
Nokia has planned its whole infrastructure keeping in mind the existing mobile
networks. This means that in Base Station design co-siting and utilisation of
existing infrastructure have been one of the major drivers. Special attention has
been paid to all the areas like transmission, antenna implementation and utilisation
of existing Base Station sites.
Packet Subsystem
GSM
mobile

Co-sited GSM + WCDMA


Base Station Subsystem

SGSN

Base Station
Controller (GSM)

SIM Card
GSM / UMTS
mobile

GSM Base Station

Internet
Internet
(TCP/IP)
(TCP/IP)

GGSN

Network Subsystem
(GSM )
Mobile Switching Centre
Home Location Register
(GSM)

BSC

MSC

HLR

IWU/TC

UMTS
mobile

RNC
UMTS (WCDMA)
Base Station
Radio Network
Controller (WCDMA)

Landline
Landline NW
NW
(PSTN/ISDN)
(PSTN/ISDN)
IN Service Control Point

Figure 2-1. RAN System in WCDMA.


This document focuses on describing the WCDMA Base Station. The document
provides information on BTS functionality, configurations and extension
possibilities. This will also give insight to some of the accessories that are very
closely used together with Base Stations.

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2.2. Summary of the Nokia WCDMA Base Stations


The Nokia WCDMA Base Station family consists of different types of Base
Stations:
Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station Indoor
Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station Outdoor
Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station Midi Indoor
triple-mode Nokia UltraSite GSM Base Station
Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station Indoor
Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station Outdoor
All these BTSs support cost-effectively operators' investment to the WCDMA.
When acquisitioning a BTS site, the most suitable Base Station can always be
selected from the Nokia WCDMA BTS family.
These Base Stations feature extensive coverage solutions with best possible
receiver sensitivity. If further extension to coverage is needed, together with
optional Masthead Amplifier (MHA), coverage can be still expanded. The high
output power of UltraSite WCDMA Base Stations can be utilised to maximise cell
coverage.
For capacity solutions the BTS platform provides from the beginning very highcapacity configurations. Thus operator's future expansion needs are secured already
with this Nokia WCDMA Base Station family.

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Product Overview

3.

NOKIA ULTRASITE WCDMA BASE STATION

3.1. Applications
The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station is designed for coverage and capacity
solutions.
For the initial launch of the WCDMA, Base Stations will be optimised for fast and
easy rollout allowing the WCDMA to be deployed rapidly over the initial service
area. The wide product range of Base Stations easies the operator's site
acquisitioning in urban, suburban and rural environments.
UltraSite
WCDMA
BTS Indoor

UltraSite
WCDMA
BTS Midi
Indoor

Triple-Mode
UltraSite GSM
BTS

UltraSite
WCDMA
BTS Outdoor

Figure 3-1 Nokia UltraSite Macrocellular Solution

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3.1.1.

Coverage Solution
Nokia has developed for coverage solution
Optimum receiver sensitivity
Mast Head Amplifier
Smart Radio Concept (SRC)
Balanced downlink power with uplink performance.
Smart Radio Concept (SRC)
SRC has the following benefits: improved cell coverage, reduced equipment cost
and reduced radio network complexity and flexible capacity upgrade path.

3.1.2.

Capacity Solution
Even though coverage is usually the main concern when deploying a cellular
network, BTS is designed to also provide high capacity. With its maximum
configuration it can meet very high capacity demands.
For example, the 1+1+1 carrier configuration has a 50 Erlang capacity per sector.
This corresponds to 2000 users under one cell (sector); i.e. total 6000 users are
served by one BTS (speech usage, assumption is 25 mErl per user with 1%
blocking).
Multiple configurations are supported by Nokia WCDMA Base Stations. This is
explained in more detail in section 3.3.

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Urban
WCDMA MS
Rural

Sub-Urban
Indoor BTS

Outdoor BTS

Figure 3-2. Building coverage and capacity with WCDMA Base Stations

3.2. Physical Construction


Physically, the Base Station is constructed of self-standing core structure and
modular plug-in units.
The BTS uses the same plug-in units in different UltraSite Indoor, Outdoor and
Midi Indoor configurations. This reduces the number of different units required and
lowers the maintenance cost for the operator.
No back-access to the BTS is required so that cabinets can be installed against a
wall. For instance commissioning can be accomplished from the front and top of
the cabinet.
The heart of the mechanics is the self-standing core structure. A metal panel set on
this structure provides EMC shielding and makes it an indoor cabinet. The
alternative outdoor panel/door set (a coat) makes the cabinet IP 55 weatherproof.
A Nokia UltraSite Support cabinet can be used together with Nokia Base Station
cabinet. It contains power supplies which provide DC power for the Base Station;
batteries and space for supporting functions like external transmission equipment.
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The Support cabinet can be either an indoor or outdoor version correspondingly


with the Base Station cabinet. Together these two cabinets form a complete Base
Station site and only antenna system and AC-power supply need to be provided for
them.
Table 1. Dimensions and weights of the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base
Stations.
Indoor

Outdoor

Midi Indoor

Dimensions [w x h x d] 600 x 1800 770 x 1940 600 x 1100


[mm]
x 620
x 880
x 620
Empty Cabinet [kg]

135

205

80

1+1+1 Configuration [kg]

230

300

180

2+2+2 Configuration [kg]

290

360

t.b.a

3.3. Capacity and Configurations


The indoor and outdoor cabinets support the same configurations. They are
designed for flexible expansion and easy configuration to support various numbers
of carriers per sector. Also the number of sectors can be defined freely within
capacity limitations. Typical capacity of the WCDMA carrier is illustrated in
Figure 3-3. Capacity is defined with 50 % uplink load which is a practical load to
dimension a network. Higher capacity can be achieved by the individual carriers
(soft capacity) even up to 2 Mbit/s.

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Product Overview

800kbps

Capacity per carrier

50 Erlang

Soft
Capacity

Data

Voice

100% Voice

100% Data

Figure 3-3. Typical air interface capacity of one WCDMA carrier.


Number of subscribers supported by one WCDMA carrier is highly dependent on
the data rate per user. Also, only an average can be estimated and, at cell level, the
capacities can vary significantly because of the soft capacity feature of WCDMA.
Thus only an example of carrier capacity can be calculated with the following
assumptions:
50/50 voice/data split
300 kbit/s average throughput for non real-time data.
25 Erl. for voice services.
Thus, one carrier can support 1000 data users with the following assumptions:
100 simultaneous sessions, average data rate per session is assumed to be 3
kbit/s. The session is estimated to last less than 10 minutes.
900 in idle mode
90 to 95 calls are inactive, thus not using radio resources
5 to 10 calls are in active session with radio resource allocated. The
assumed data rate in active session varies between 64 - 144 kbit/s and the
active session is estimated to last a few seconds.
Simultaneously 1000 voice users can be supported with the assumption of 25
mErl. per user load.
The capacity of the Nokia WCDMA Macro BTS is designed to be flexible. The
first release of the product will support configurations with up to six carriers. The
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Product Overview

second release, which is fully upgradeable to the first release cabinets, will then
expand capacity to big configurations like 4+4+4+4+4+4 with multiple cabinets.
The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS platform supports the future large
configuration needs already from the beginning.
Table 2. Configuration table for the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station
Configuration

Number
of
cabinets

Output
power
per
carrier

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.1

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.2

3 carrier omni

20 W

576

1152

3 sector 1 carrier
(1+1+1)

20 W

576

1152

3 sector 1 carrier
(1+1+1)

40 W

576

1152

6 sector 1 carrier
(1+1+1+1+1+1)

20 W

576

1152

3 sector 2 carrier
(2+2+2)

20 W

576

1152

3 sector 4 carrier
(4+4+4)*

20 W

1152

2304

3 sector 4 carrier
(4+4+4)*

10 W

576

1152

6 sector 2 carrier
(2+2+2+2+2+2)*

10 W

576

1152

6 sector 2 carrier
(2+2+2+2+2+2)*

20 W

1152

2304

6 sector 4 carrier
(4+4+4+4+4+4)*

10 W

1152

2304

6 sector 4 carrier
(4+4+4+4+4+4)*

20 W

2304

4608

* Available in Release 2.
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Note 1, Configurations with up to 6 carriers (6 sector 1 carrier OR 3 sector 2


carrier) will be available in Release 1. Larger configurations will be
supported in Release 2.
Note 2, Depending on the network capacity requirements the number of
installed capacity can be lower than the maximum. can be matched with
the air interface capacity.

Table 3 Configuration table for the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Midi Base
Station Indoor
Configuration

Number
of
cabinets

Output
power
per
carrier

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.1

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.2

3 carrier omni

20 W

288

576

3 sector 1 carrier
(1+1+1)

20 W

288

576

2+2+2*

20 W

576

1152

2+2+2*

10W

576

1152

* Available in Release 2.
The front view of Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station Indoor is provided in
Figure 3-4.

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Figure 3-4. The front view of Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS Indoor cabinet.

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4.

TRIPLE-MODE NOKIA ULTRASITE GSM


Nokia UltraSite GSM BTS Indoor cabinet can house up to 12 TRXs, or up to 6
GSM/EDGE TRXs and 6 WCDMA carriers (Release 2), or they can be configured
to hold up to 6 TRXs and an optional integrated battery backup system. Nokia
UltraSite GSM BTS provides a smooth evolution from GSM to WCDMA with the
capability to simultaneously enclose both GSM and WCDMA carriers in a single
Indoor cabinet.

GSM/EDGE

WCDMA part
Figure 4-1 The Triple-Mode Nokia UltraSite GSM Base Station with WCDMA
functionality
Indoor

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Dimensions [w x h x d][]

600 x 1700 x 580

Empty Cabinet [kg]

110

1+1+1 Configuration [kg]

t.b.a

2+2+2 Configuration [kg]

t.b.a
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5.

NOKIA METROSITE WCDMA BASE STATION

5.1. Applications
Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station is designed for micro and macro-cellular
solutions. Because of its compact size and light weight, it is suitable for
installations in locations with limited space and it can be used for multiple purposes
such as:
Focused coverage enhancement infill coverage
Indoor coverage from outdoors
Roadside coverage
Microcellular networks

5.2. Physical Construction


The Nokia MetroSite WDMA Base Station uses the same plug-in units as other
Nokia's WCDMA BTS types except the linear power amplifier and power supply.
The BTS is physically small and light-weight. It is designed for both indoor and
outdoor installation environments. Power feed, antenna and chaining cables are
connected through the bottom of the cabinet.
The appearance of the BTS has been designed to be unobtrusive. Its mechanical
structure supports installation on poles or walls. These features ease the siteacquisition process by making it possible to utilise different site locations.

Indoor

Outdoor

Dimensions [w x h x d] 320 x 750 x 420


[mm]

420 x 800 x 470

Weight [kg]

50

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Product Overview

Figure 5-1. The Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station Indoor

5.3. Capacity and Configurations


Capacity is optimised for main application areas. In Table 4 the supported capacity
and configurations are listed.
Table 4.

The Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station capacity and


configurations

Configuration

Number
of
cabinets

Output
power
per
carrier

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.1

Max. HW
channel
capacity / HW
Rel.2

1 carrier omni

5W

64

128

2 carrier omni (Rel. 2)

2.5 W

64

128

1+1+1

5W

192

384

2 + 2 + 2 (Rel. 2)

2.5 W

192

384

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6.

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

6.1. Local Management Tool


The Local Management Tool (LMT) concept means that the BTS and the
Transmission Management tool are integrated so that the physical interface (cable
and connectors) are the same but there are two different applications running on the
PC in Windows environment. The user has all the required software tools to
configure the BTS on his PC.
The PC is connected to the BTS by means of a RS232 cable or by an Ethernet
connection.

Figure 6-1. Base station can be controlled locally by using a PC with LMT
software

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6.2. External Alarms and Controls


The BTS inputs and outputs may be configured and tested locally on the BTS site
with the LMT. In normal operation, the Base Station external alarms and control
outputs are managed from the NMS after they have been configured according to
the operator's needs. There are total 24 user-definable external inputs and 6 usercontrollable outputs available. These can be freely configured to support different
observation or control needs at the Base Station site.

6.3. Upgrading SW
Only downloadable SW is used in the BTS. This means that all the software can be
downloaded and updated from the NMS remotely. This will be done in a
centralised way so that several Base Stations can be upgraded with a new software
package at the same time or one by one as preferred by the operator.
The Base Station keeps current and old SW package in its flash memory plus a
back-up copy of the most recent version which is in use. In case of, for example, a
power outage this package will be brought into use in a few seconds from the flash
memory. New downloading will take place from the NMS if the software is
upgraded to a new version (or doing the integration phase when taking a new Base
Station into service).
Downloading of the new software package can be done as a background process
which does not disrupt the traffic in the BTS. After the software package is
downloaded to the BTS's flash memory it can be activated.
The SW package of the BTS can be upgraded also locally using the LMT. Local
software downloading is done typically only when NMS connection is missing i.e.
during the commissioning.

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7.

TRANSMISSION

7.1. Introduction
The transport between RNC and Base Stations (Iub interface) is based on ATM. A
solution which allows to use the already available PDH or SDH based transmission
networks has been chosen. The UMTS ATM Iub traffic can be transported over the
existing transmission systems by using inverse multiplexing (IMA). Hence there is
no immediate reason to change or modify the existing access network, except for
the necessary capacity upgrades due to increased traffic. Some network topology
changes maybe required. The RAN (BTS-RNC) transmission can be based on star,
chain, tree and loop topologies.
The physical transmission links can be shared between the UMTS generated traffic
and the second generation mobile traffic and/or fixed traffic.
Each WCDMA Base Station has an internal ATM cross-connect node. Through the
interfaces available for this ATM switch, the Base Station can be connected to the
available PDH and SDH transmission networks. A wide range of transmission
media is available from Nokia and many of the solutions can be easily connected
and/or fully integrated into the Base Station.

7.2. Transmission Interfaces


A variety of Transmission Interfaces will be available to connect the WCDMA
Base Station to the existing transmission networks. Each UltraSite WCDMA Base
Station will have 5 slots and UltraSite WCDMA Base Station Midi will have two
slots which can be used for transmission interface units. In the Nokia MetroSite
WCDMA BTS there will be place for one transmission interface unit.
The following transmission interfaces will be provided:
8*E1/JT1 with IMA (JT1 = Japanese 1.5 Mbit/s PDH)
4*JT2 with IMA (JT2 = Japanese 6.4 Mbit/s PDH)
3*STM-1 (VC-4)
3*STM-0 (VC-3) (Japan)
3 * Nokia Flexbus with Inverse Multiplexed ATM (IMA) connection to
Nokia Microwave equipment (available in Release 2)
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Taking the number of interfaces per plug-in unit into account, the maximum
configuration could be five interface plug-in units in one Nokia UltraSite WCDMA
Base Station cabinet. I.e. there could be 5 x 8 x E1 = 40 E1 connections available in
one cabinet for example. If entirely used for SDH connections, there could be total
15 STM-1 connections. However switching capacity in the AXC is limited to 1.2
Gbits/s. This sets the maximum of ATM cells that can be handled.
It is possible to use fractional E1's to add full and/or partial E1's filled with
WCDMA traffic to the existing GSM traffic without disturbing existing GSM
traffic. Circuit emulation can be used to add the GSM traffic to the WCDMA
(ATM) traffic.

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8.

RADIO INTERFACE
The WCDMA system is specified to operate within the following frequency band.
RX Frequencies:

1920-1980 MHz

TX Frequencies:

2110-2170 MHz

With the 190 MHz duplex separation, Nokia Base Station supports the whole
frequency band fully with its all configurations.

8.1. RX Performance
The BTS receiver sensitivity is at least -128 dBm in static channel with the
following conditions:
0.1% BER for 8 kbit/s codec (30 ksps for data + 15 ksps for control)
Average White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel type
2-branch receive diversity with non-correlated signals fed to antenna
connectors

8.2. Transmitting Power


Output power in different configurations is described in Table 2, Table 3 and Table
4.

8.3. Diversity
The WCDMA system concept inherently enables the use of several types of
diversity. Using a single carrier frequency within the network allows for soft
handovers between Base Stations and softer handovers between different sectors of
the same Base Station. The soft handover case can be considered to be macro
diversity, while the softer handover case can utilise other types of diversity, such as
antenna diversity and multipath diversity. Antenna diversity utilises several receive
antennas. To receive gain from multipath diversity, the receiver must detect the
different delays of the multipath components. This is possible, because of the high
bandwidth of the received signal.
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The soft handover is shown by user A in the figure below. There exists a soft
handover region at the edges of the Base Station cells where the mobile unit is
communicating with both Base Stations simultaneously. In the downlink, the
mobile receives the signal from two Base Stations and gets performance gain from
antenna and multipath diversity. In the uplink, the signal from the mobile is
detected separately in both Base Stations and macro diversity gain is achieved by
combining the results in the Radio Network Controller.
User B in the figure is utilising softer handover. The downlink case looks about the
same as soft handover from the mobile unit point of view. In the uplink, the signal
is combined within the same Base Station, which allows for performance gain from
spatial, antenna and multipath diversity. Extra antenna and multipath diversity gain
can be achieved by combining multipath components from all the antennas in the
same RAKE receiver.

Sector1
B

BS

BS

Sector2

RNC

Figure 8-1. Soft and softer handovers are presented in above figure. This
provides diversity gain in RNC and BTS level correspondingly.
Antenna and multipath diversity are the forms of diversity utilised in the RAKE
receiver. A selected number of multipath components from any of the antennas are
chosen by the RAKE for allocation. All allocated multipath components are
despread and demodulated independently. The resulting demodulated symbols from
each branch are combined using maximal ratio combining. Each symbol to be
combined represents the energy collected from a different delay from any of the
antennas giving both antenna and multipath diversity gain.
Two port receive diversity is a standard feature. Four port receive diversity is part
of optional Nokia Smart Radio Concept (SRC).
It is possible to handle softer handover combining for six sectors.

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9.

CONNECTIONS

9.1. Power Supply


The BTS can be operated using the following nominal supply voltages in indoor
and outdoor cabinets. Following input voltages are possible to connect to the Base
Station cabinet:
48V DC power (with positive or negative grounding)
200240V AC power
If the UltraSite Support cabinet is used together with the Base Station, then AC
supply is connected into the UltraSite Support System cabinet.
Power consumption figures for different Base Station configurations are given in
the table below.
Table 5.

The Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station power consumption

Configuration

Indoor

Outdoor

Omni, 1 carrier

1990 W

2110 W

1+1+1

3970 W

4040 W

2+2+2

6560 W

6660 W

6x1

6560 W

6670 W

Table 6.

The Nokia MetroSite WCDMA Base Station power consumption

Configuration

Indoor

Outdoor

Omni, 1 carrier

800 W

930 W

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Product Overview

9.2. Interfaces
NOTE

In the Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Station all the


connections are done through the top of the cabinet and in the
Nokia WCDMA MetroSite Base Station allthe connections are
done through the bottom of the cabinet..

Iub - connection to RNC


The connector for the Iub is found at the top of the cabinet. Transmission
configurations are explained in chapter "Transmission Interface".
LMT Local Management Tool interface
There is a connection for a Local Management Tool for commissioning, operations,
maintenance and testing of the BTS. It gives access for testing and manipulating the
BTS via a local LMT terminal. Both RS232 type serial connection and Ethernet
connection are possible.
Antenna connectors
Antenna feeders are connected to BTS antenna connections. The maximum number
of antenna connections depends on cabinet type. Antenna connectors are of 7/16
type in UltraSite and N-type in MetroSite. For RX connections between the
cabinets there are also rf connectors available to connect several cabinets together
(to achieve higher capacity configurations).
Control bus for Site Support and Radio Links
The connection between the Base Station cabinet and site support system cabinet,
and also between the BTS and any Nokia Radio Link equipment on the site. This
interface carries initialisation and control data and signalling from the Base Station
cabinet to the site support system cabinet and to the Radio Link equipment. It also
carries alarms from the site support system cabinet and the Radio Link equipment
to the Base Station. The connector can be found at the top of the Base Station
cabinet and at the top of the site support cabinet.
Power Feeding
The power supply for the Base Station is connected to the power feed connectors at
the top of the cabinet. Voltages can be connected to the DC connectors or AC
connectors.
External Alarms and Controls

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External alarms and control signals. For collecting simple ON/OFF type external
alarms (24) from any equipment external to the BTS, and for providing ON/OFF
type control signals (6) for controlling any external devices.

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Product Overview

10. SITE SOLUTIONS


10.1.Masthead Amplifier (MHA)
To extend the coverage capability an optional masthead amplifier is provided. It is
a one-box unit, to be installed at the top of a tower. The purpose of this unit is to
compensate the loss of the received signal in the antenna cables and to improve link
budget. Masthead Amplifier can be used with duplexed connections into antennas
i.e. transmitter and receiver are in the same antenna connection.

MH
A

MH
A

Bias-T
Bias-T

Site
Outdoor
Support
BS

Figure 10-1. Using MHA with Nokia Outdoor Base Station and Support
cabinet

10.2. Nokia UltraSite Support


Nokia provides a complete Base Station site package to operators. This includes
power systems, batteries, transmission, antenna systems and complementary
systems like installation materials. The Nokia UltraSite Support cabinet is
developed to provide power system, battery back-up and space for external
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transmission equipment. This space can be utilised with Nokia supplied


transmission equipment and with other suppliers equipment as well.
In WCDMA, the UltraSite Support cabinet has been designed to support both
indoor and outdoor versions of the BTS. Functionality of both versions of UltraSite
Support is exactly the same. The only difference is that the indoor model is
designed to be used in the same environmental conditions as the UltraSite
WCDMA Base Station Indoor. The UltraSite Support Outdoor cabinet is again
designed to match the outdoor specifications of the BTS. The Base Station cabinet
and the Support cabinet fit together as a single entity with exactly the same physical
appearance. The figure below shows the similarity between UltraSite Support and
Outdoor cabinets.

Figure 10-2. Nokia UltraSIte WCDMA Base Station Outdoor cabinet with
Support cabinet
All connections between the cabinets are done under the cabinet roof. From the
NMS management point of view both cabinets can be treated as a single Base
Station site. The NMS is capable of collecting alarms and doing necessary control
functions for the Support cabinet as well as the Base Station.
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Product Overview

11. GSM CO-SITING

Diplexer

Diplexer
Bias-T

Abis/Iub
To/From
BSC/RNC

Diplexer

Diplexer
Bias-T

Bias-T

Pwr

Iub

GSM
BTS

Bias-T

MHA

MHA

When utilising existing GSM Base Station sites the compatibility of the WCDMA
Base Station to existing Nokia BTSs is a major issue. Nokia has designed the
WCDMA Base Station so that it can be installed as easily as possible to an existing
site. The figure below illustrates the principle how this can be achieved.

WCDMA

BS

Figure 11-1. Combining WCDMA Base Station with GSM Base Station to
same antenna feeder with diplexer and Bias-T
Compatibility has been considered for the following areas:
Mechanics
Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS has similar floor space requirement as
corresponding GSM BTSs have, and share the same fixing points.
Dimensions of cabinets are about the same as in GSM.
The appearance of Nokia UltraSite WCDMA BTS and GSM BTS cabinets
is the same.
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Power System
When Nokia UltraSite WCDMA Base Stations are installed to existing GSM sites,
the same kind of connections and power supplies can be used.
Existing alarm connections can be connected to the WCDMA BTS as
well, like fire alarm, door alarm etc. Customer-specific alarm input and
control output electrical specifications are the same, thus allowing full
interchangeability between connections.
Common UltraSite Support cabinet can be used for both GSM and
WCDMA.
Antennas
To minimise the work to add WCDMA antennas to GSM Base Station sites, some
of the existing antenna infrastructure can be reused.
A diplexer is an attractive way to add a WCDMA BTS to existing sites if
the additional loss can be tolerated in the antenna line. Actual losses are
dependent on the combination but for example in the GSM 900 /WCDMA
case typical loss is less than 0.5 dB. Nokia will supply diplexers to all
needed combinations.
Bias-T is a component to be able to feed power to MHA in antenna tower
using antenna feeder. Nokia BTS supports these kinds of connections up to
maximum number of antennas.

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Product Overview

Figure 11-2

WCDMA BTS can be co-sited with GSM

Commissioning, Integration and Management


The Local Management Tool, LMT, will provide support for both WCDMA and
new generation GSM systems. This would allow personnel to do commissioning
and integration with the same tools i.e. same PC. They would only use different
application software for the different Base Station technologies.
Transmission
Transmission in existing sites can be efficiently utilised when WCDMA is added.
This has been a very important transmission design criteria for WCDMA Base
Stations.
The Nokia WCDMA BTS is capable of connecting to existing PDH/SDH
networks. If there is excess capacity or possibility to increase capacity in
those networks, WCDMA Base Stations are able to use it.
Same kind of physical interfaces will be used in both GSM and WCDMA
systems. This will allow easy connection to the existing transmission.
Transmission capacity can be shared by using fractional E1's or circuit
emulation.

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12. RELIABILITY
The BTS is designed to meet the availability targets of the highest standard.
Simplicity and the speed of maintenance procedures are the prerequisites for the
high availability of the Base Station. The maintenance is improved by modularity
of the equipment, automatic fault detection procedures and elimination of the
downtime by using redundancy of the units.

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Product Overview

13. ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS


The Nokia WCDMA Base Stations have been designed to meet operational
requirements in different environments. Different models are available for indoor
and outdoor usage. Outdoor usage means that the cabinet is exposed fully to the
outside air and climate. No additional protection against weather is required. The
Table 7 lists the environmental specifications for the Nokia BTS.
Table 7.

Environmental specifications and requirements


Indoor Cabinets

Outdoor Cabinets

Temperature Range [C]

-5 - +50

-33 - +50

Transportation

ETSI 300 019-1-2, Class


2.2, climate conditions
according to class 2.3

ETSI 300 019-1-2, Class


2.2, climate conditions
according to class 2.3

Storage

ETSI 300 019-1-1, Class


1.3E, IEC class 1M4

ETSI 300 019-1-1, Class


1.3E, IEC class 1M4

Operational

ETSI 300 019-1-3, class 3.2

ETSI 300 019-1-4, class 4.1


and IEC class 4M3

Night Time (1+1+1 config.


in +15 C)

56 dB(A)

56 dB(A)

Day Time (1+1+1 config. in


+23 C)

65 dB(A)

65 dB(A)

Ingress Protection
[According to
Specification]

IP20

IP55

Safety [According to
Specification]

IEC-950, UL1950 and


EN6950

IEC-950, UL1950 and


EN6950

Earthquake Requirements
[According to

ETSI 300 019, 1-3/1-4

ETSI 300 019, 2-3/2-4

Noise

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Specification]

13.1.EMC Compatibility
EMC compatibility of the Nokia WCDMA Base Station is according to following
specifications:

89/336/EEC (1989): Council Directive on the approximation of the laws of the


Member States relating to electromagnetic compatibility

13.1.1. EMC Emission

EN500081-1 (1992): "Electromagnetic compatibility Generic emission


standard. Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry".

EN55022 (1994): "Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance


characteristics of information technology equipment".

CISPR Publication No. 16-1 (1993): Specification for radio disturbance and
immunity measuring apparatus and methods". (Note that this corresponds to the
Japanese VCCI requirements).

IEC 61000-3-2: "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3: Limits - Section


2: Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current =< 16 A) ".
IEC 61000-3-3: "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) - Part 3: Limits - Section
3: Limitation of voltage fluctuations and flicker in low-voltage supply systems
for equipment with rated current =<16 A"
13.1.2. EMC Immunity

EN 50082-1 (1992): "Electromagnetic compatibility Generic immunity


standard. Part 1: Residential, commercial and light industry".

EN 61000-4-3 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing


and measurement techniques Section 3: Radiated, Radio-frequency
electromagnetic field immunity test".

EN 61000-4-2 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing


and measurement techniques Section 2: Electrostatic discharge immunity test +
Basic EMC Publication".

EN 61000-4-4 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing


and measurement techniques Section 4: Electrical fast transient/burst immunity
test + Basic EMC Publication".

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EN 61000-4-6 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing


and measurement techniques Section 6: Immunity to conducted disturbances
induced by radio-frequency fields".

EN 61000-4-11 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4:


Testing and measurement techniques Section 11: Voltage dips, short
interruptions and voltage variations, immunity tests".

EN 61000-4-5 (1996): "Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Part 4: Testing


and measurement techniques Section 5: Surge immunity tests".

IEC 1000-4-9: Pulse magnetic field immunity test.

IEC 1000-4-8: "Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Part 4. Testing and


measurement techniques Section 8: Power frequency magnetic field immunity
test, Basic EMC Publication"

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