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The main power limitation to these two devices is T1. These are actually minature "Audio Transformers"

The main power limitation to these two devices is T1. These are actually minature "Audio Transformers" connected in reverse to step up the 12 volts to around 400 volts, with no load.

These are not ideal parts for this purpose as they don't have the ability to produce the high currents that would result in a more sustained spark on the output.

This Medium powered version has a center tapped primary with dual transistors, resulting in a more efficient circuit. For Simplicity and "Off the Shelf", this was the best I could do.

If your an adventurist, you could wind a small transformer for any of these units below. This would allow for higher efficiency and more current draw.

On the "Low Power" Stun-gun, Current draw is about 80 Ma at 9 volts.

On the "More Power" Stun-gun, Current draw is about 225 Ma at 9 volts. With dual batteries, Better yet, 6 to 8 "AA" cells

If your an adventurist, you could wind a small transformer for any of these units below.
"High-Voltage Zappers" "It doesn't take much to generate enough high-voltage to curl your hair." by Charles

"High-Voltage Zappers"

"It doesn't take much to generate enough high-voltage to curl your hair."

by Charles D. Rakes

Rewritten by Tony van Roon (VA3AVR)

The two circuits listed here are for the experimenter having a touch of Ben and Nikola's

fascination for working with high-voltage. But unlike those two brave pioneers who flirted with lightning and gigantic spark coils, our high-voltage circuits are mild in comparison, having outputs of less than 50 kilovolts (KV). Even so, don't ever become careless when working with high voltage. To do so could be dangerous to your health and your good nature. So please take care. A circuit that generates a high voltage by discharging the energy stored in a large-value capacitor through the primary winding of a high-turns-ratio step-up transformer is known a a Capacitor-Discharge (CD) system. It's the same concept used by many of the high- performance auto-ignition systems to produce a super-hot spark. It's also the same kind of system used by some of the top-of-the-line electric fence chargers. And let us not forget one of the most popular persona-defense devices now on the market, the electronic Stun-Gun, which also generates its zap with capacitor-discharge circuit.

How we make the Zap As shown in the circuit of Fig. 1 , step-down transformer

How we make the Zap

As shown in the circuit of Fig. 1, step-down transformer T1 drops the incoming line voltage to approximately 48 VAC and, in the process, adds a degree of safety through the transformer's primary-to-secondary isolation from the power line. T1's 48-volt secondary is rectified by diode D1; the resulting DC chargers capacitor C1, through current-limiter R1, to a voltage level pre-set by R4. When the voltage on R4's wiper reaches about 8.6 volts, Q1 begins to turn on, drawing current through R7 and the base-emitter junction of Q2. Then Q2 turns on and supplies a positive voltage on the gate of silicon-controlled rectifier Q3. The positive gate voltage causes Q3 to conduct, thereby discharging C1 through the primary winding of step-up transformer T2; the end result is a high-voltage arc at the output terminal (X). The value of the high voltage developed at T2's output is determined by the value of C1, the voltage across C1, and the turns ratio of T2. The frequency or pulse rate of the high voltage is determined by the resistance of T1's primary and secondary windings, the value of R1, and the value of C1. The lower the value of each item, the higher the output pulse rate; the peak output voltage will remain unchanged only if C1's value remains unchanged.

Parts List, Fig. 1

All resistors are 1/2-watt, 5%, unless otherwise noted R1 = 100 ohms, 5 watts, brown-black-brown

R2,R5 = 3K3 (3.3K), orange-orange-red R3 = 10K, brown-black-orange R4 = 10K, potentiometer R6 = 33K, orange-orange-orange R7 = 15K, brown-green-orange R8 = 100K, brown-black-yellow R9 = 2K2 (2.2K), red-red-red

Capacitors C1 = 220 or 440uF, 75-100 volts, electrolytic, or 10uF 220VAC motor capacitor (see text)

Semiconductors

D1 = 1N4003, silicon rectifier

D2 = 1N756, 8 volt zener diode Q1 = 2N2222, NPN transistor Q2 = 2N3638, PNP transistor SCR1 = NTE5463, 10-amp, 200 volt, silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR)

Other Components

T1 = Step-down transformer, 48VAC, 300mA T2 = Auto ignition coil, or substitute (see text)

Building the CD System

The circuit shown in Fig. 1 is non-critical, so any parts layout and mounting can be used; perfboard wiring board will probably make for the easiest assembly. But no matter what kind of construction is used, keep T2's output terminal (labeled X) at least 3 inches clear of all circuit components, yourself, and anything else that can conduct electricity. The transformer used for T2 can be almost any 6- or 12V auto-ignition coil, but one designed with a high turns ratio for a capacitor-discharge ignition system will produce the greatest output voltage. The CD coil that we used produced a spark 1-1/4 inches in length from the output terminal to the coil's common terminal. An old (but good) TV flyback transformer can also be used for T2. Simply wind about 10 turns of test-lead wire around the transformer's ferrite core and connect the free ends of the wires to the points labeled "A" and "B" in Fig. 1. Some experimenting with the number of turns may be necessary to obtains good results with that type of transformer. Our experiments with the TV flyback produced a voltage that would jump a 3/4 inch gap. If a small-engine repair business is located in your area, see if the owner or mechanic will give you a few of the old ignition coils. If you obtain several old coils, one of more should be unusable. To produce a high voltage with a small-engine ignition coil, connect the primary leads to terminals "A" and "B", and a 1/2 to 3/4 inch spark should be possible. To make a "magnetic charger", select one of the ignition coils that has a good primary winding and carefully remove the secondary winding from the coil's core. Connect the primary to terminals "A" and "B". Position any object that you want to magnetize on the exposed core laminations and apply power; you should hear a "Zap" sound as the magnetic pulses hit the metal object.

Maximum Spark

If you want to achieve a maximum spark, select a CD ignition coil, and use a 440uF, 75-

100WVDC electrolytic capacitor for C1. Using a DC voltmeter, monitor the voltage across C1. Adjust R4 so that the Q3 fires when the charging voltage across C1 reaches between 50-55 volts. That setting should produce a spark 1-1/4 to 1-1/2 inches long every second or so. To obtains a faster pulse rate, with some reduction in the output, change C1 to a 10uF, 220VAC motor capacitor (or any other lower value with a rating of 75 volts or more). Experiment with different component values to obtain the desired results. An excellent electric fence charger can be made by building the CD circuit in a suitable case and selecting a 220uF capacitor for C1. Adjust R4 for one to two pulses per second.

Battery-powered High Voltage A high-voltage generator circuit that can operate from a battery or other low-voltage DC source is shown in Fig. 2. Output voltage great enough to jump a 1-inch gap can be obtained from a 12-volt power source, and with a higher pulse rate that the circuit in Fig. 2.

A 555 timer IC is connected as an astable multivibrator that produces a narrow negative pulse at pin 3. The pulse turns Q1 on for the duration of the time period. The collector of Q1 is direct-coupled to the base of power transistor Q2, turning it on during the same time period. The emitter of Q2 is direct-coupled through current-limiter R5 to the base of power- transistor Q3. When Q3 turns on, there is a minimum resistance between its collector and emitter. That causes a high-current pulse through the primary of T1, which generates a very high pulse voltage at T1's secondary output terminal (labeled (X). The pulse frequency is determined by the values of R1, R2, and C2. The values given in the Parts List were chosen to give the best possible performance when an auto ignition co8ild is used for T1. Here too, a CD-type ignition coil will produce the greatest output voltage. Performance wiring board construction is a good choice for this circuit, but remember to be careful when working near the output terminal of T1 while the power is on.

A 555 timer IC is connected as an astable multivibrator that produces a narrow negative pulse

Parts List, Fig. 2

All resistors are 1/2-watt, 5%, unless otherwise noted R1 = 10K, brown-black-orange R2 = 4.7K, yellow-purple-red R3 = 1K, brown-black-red R4 = 100 ohms, brown-black-brown R5 = 15 ohms, 5 watts, wire-wound R6 = 270 ohms, red-purple-brown

Capacitors

C1,C3 = 0.22uF, 100 volts, Mylar C2 = 0.47uF, 100 volts, Mylar C4 = 470uF, 25 volts, electrolytic

Semiconductors

IC1 = 555 timer (not the CMOS type) Q1 = 2N3638, or NTE129, PNP transistor Q2 = 2N3055, or NTE130, NPN power transistor Q3 = 2N3055, or NTE130, NPN power transistor with heatsink

Other Components

T1 = Auto ignition coil (see text)

Stun gun (taser)

The stun (also known as taser) can paralyze the attacker with paralyzing electric shock. Brief contact with the stun gun output voltage he gets an electric shock that temporarily paralyzes him to deter further attacks. Prolonged contact with the stun gun output voltage (more than 1s) leads to muscle spasm, the attacker falls to the ground. Up to several minutes he is unable to coordinated movement.

The stun principle:

Stun gun works as a two-stage voltage converter. The first stage with the high frequency switching transformer increases the voltage of the battery to a higher voltage of a few hundred volts to several kV. This voltage is charging a capacitor. After being charged the capacitor is discharged into the second (pulse) transformer to increase the voltage to approximately 10 - 50kV. (Numbers on the Stun gun as 100 000 V or even 2000 000 V are fictitious, voltage 2 000 000 V would create discharges of more than 2m long - manufacturers are just competing in the silly numbers of volts the general public does not understand.) Repetition rate is about 5 - 40Hz.

Types of stun guns:

There are 3 basic types: Thyristor (SCR) ones, spark gap ones and multiplier ones. spark gap stun guns are just the cheapest types are very unreliable and ineffective. Thyristor is replaced by a spark gap. Battery voltage is boosted using transistor converter. For the ignition of the spark gap, a higher voltage (at least 1kV) is needed and is therefore sometimes an auxiliary multiplier is attached to the secondary of the first voltage transformer. After charging the capacitor to a voltage sufficient to ignite the spark gap it discharges into the capacitor in the pulse transformer. The principle is similar to the Tesla coil. Thyristor stun guns are more reliable and more efficient - the spark gap is replaced by thyristor (SCR). Capacitor voltage is not so high, just about 250 - 500V. Thyristor is driven by a diac, neon lamp or resistive divider (for thyristor control with sensitive electrode). multiplier stun guns have only one transformer with a higher output voltage, followed by a high-voltage multiplier cascade of diodes and capacitors. Their output is a DC voltage. Thanks to the capacitors in multipliers the sparks are very loud. In direct contact with the skin, however, capacitors are not discharged in pulses, but continuous current flows, which can significantly reduce the effect. It is therefore necessary to only get the electrodes close to the attacker body, but not touch him directly.

My stun gun:

I chose thyristor (SCR) version. I made a voltage converter with a MOSFET, because "children's" push-pull converters with bipolar transistors used in commercial stun guns have an efficiency of around 20%. The effectiveness of my converter is about 75%. Working frequency is about 80 - 120kHz. As a second stage switch I used a thyristor with a gate driven by 4 glow neon lamps in the series (their ignition voltage is about 95V, a total of 380V). Pulse repetition rate is about 30 - 50Hz. Inverter transformer is on ferrite EE core with cross-section of the the middle column 20 to 25 mm2. The air gap is in the middle column of the core and is about 0.5 mm thick. Primary has 2x 12 turns of wire diameter of 0.4 mm, a secondary is 700 turns of wire 0.1 mm. Secondary is is wound in several layers, which are isolated from each other - otherwise the wire enamel can break down under such voltage. Secondary polarity must be observed! HV pulse transformer with voltage of many kV can be hard to make. You can use the high voltage transformer for Xenon strobe lamps ingition. I used 2 such transformers with primaries in parallel and secondaries in series. The stun gun has two electrodes: one called test, which are closer to each other. Among them he discharge forms during no-load operation. Discharge limits the maximum voltage and also serves to deter an attacker. Second, the main electrodes facing forward. The distance between them is considerably larger than the distance between the test ones. From those electrodes the current flows into the body of attacking people :). Stun gun can be powered by 6 cells 1.5 V or 6 to 7 cells 1.2 V (NiCd or NiMH). Very suitable are 2 cells of Li-ion or Li-pol connected in series (2x 3.6 - 3.7 V). The stun gun draws a high current around 1.5 A from the battery, so ordinary 9V battery can not be used.

WARNING! Instructions for the production of this device is intended only to demonstrate the principle of its function. The device is not intended for use on any persons or animals. Output voltage can cause serious injury or death. Capacitors can remain charged even after switching off and disconnecting the battery. The device does not belong to children. All experiments with the stun gun you do at your own risk. The author of this website does not take any responsibility for your harm. You do everything on your own risk and responsibility.

The schematic of the homemade stun gun (taser). Testing in breadboard

The schematic of the homemade stun gun (taser).

The schematic of the homemade stun gun (taser). Testing in breadboard

Testing in breadboard

PCBs of the stun gun and the 9V / 400V transformer.

PCBs of the stun gun and the 9V / 400V transformer.

Test the assembled module with attached transformer (transformer is used for ignition of Xe lamp: 190V9V to 13.5kV Inverter Circuit This high voltage source is formed by an inverter, around the transistor, which provides pulses of 150V to the inverter formed by the thyristor and capacitor in series with the transformer 2. This pulse output of 4.5kV to be multiplied with the network so as to achieve the output voltage of 13.5kV. Neon lamps (marked LN) form the thyristor triggering pulses. The transformer T1 has a ratio 3000:500 Ω of the type used in audio output transistor. T2 is a transformer flash lamp trigger a secondary 6kV. This inverter circuit requires a 9VDC power supply with current 0.01A " id="pdf-obj-11-2" src="pdf-obj-11-2.jpg">

Test the assembled module with attached transformer (transformer is used for ignition of Xe lamp: 190V / 6kV)

This high voltage source is formed by an inverter, around the transistor, which provides pulses of 150V to the inverter formed by the thyristor and capacitor in series with the transformer 2. This pulse output of 4.5kV to be multiplied with the network so as to achieve the output voltage of 13.5kV. Neon lamps (marked LN) form the thyristor triggering pulses.

The transformer T1 has a ratio 3000:500 Ω of the type used in audio output transistor. T2 is a transformer flash lamp trigger a secondary 6kV. This inverter circuit requires a 9VDC power supply with current 0.01A