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H H C O C O H OH H H H CH 2 OH H HO
H
H
C
O
C
O
H
OH
H
H
H
CH 2 OH
H
HO
HO
HO
carbon #5
HO
HO
H
OH
H
H
OH
CH 2 OH
L-galactose
D-galactose
H
H
C
O
CH 2 OH
C
O
H
OH
H
OH
H
CH 2 OH
C
O
H
HO
HO
HO
H
H
H
HO
H
OH
H
OH
OH
CH 2 OH
HO
H
OH
H
CH 2 OH
L-glucose
L-fructose
D-glucose
CH 2 OH O OH H H OH H HO H H HO -D-glucose
CH 2 OH
O
OH
H
H
OH
H
HO
H
H
HO
-D-glucose

carbon #5

CH 2 OH O H H H OH H HO OH H HO
CH 2 OH
O
H
H
H
OH
H
HO
OH
H
HO

-D-glucose

CH 2 OH C O HO H H H OH OH CH 2 OH
CH 2 OH
C
O
HO
H
H
H
OH
OH
CH 2 OH

D-fructose

carbon 6

HOH 2 C O OH carbon 2 H HO H CH 2 OH carbon 5 OH
HOH 2 C
O
OH
carbon 2
H
HO
H
CH 2 OH
carbon 5
OH
H
carbon 1
carbon 4
carbon 3
D-fructose
HOH 2 C
O
OH
H
HO
H
CH 2 OH
OH H
-D-fructose
HOH 2 C
O
OH
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
HOH 2 C
O
OH
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
CH 2 OH C O H H H OH OH OH CH 2 OH
CH 2 OH
C
O
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
CH 2 OH

D-fructose

HOH 2 C O CH 2 OH H HO H OH OH H -D-fructose
HOH 2 C
O
CH 2 OH
H
HO
H
OH
OH
H
-D-fructose

H

C O H H H OH OH OH CH 2 OH D-ribose
C
O
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH
CH 2 OH
D-ribose
HOH 2 C O H H H H OH OH OH
HOH 2 C
O
H
H
H
H
OH
OH
OH

-D-ribose

-D-ribose

HOH 2 C O OH H H H H OH OH
HOH 2 C
O
OH
H
H
H
H
OH
OH

ribose

HOH 2 C O OH H H H H OH H deoxyribose
HOH 2 C
O
OH
H
H
H
H
OH
H
deoxyribose

Deoxyribose—a ribose that has lost an oxygen.

HOH 2 C O OH H H H H OH OH ribose HOH 2 C O
HOH 2 C O OH H H H H OH OH ribose HOH 2 C O
HOH 2 C O OH H H H H OH OH ribose HOH 2 C O