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Reproductive System

I. Male Anatomy
**(Know all structures on page 776 (fig. 43.3)
A. Scrotum
1. Composed of loose skin and connective tissue.
2. Two sacks each holds one teste.
3. Each teste is kept at ~3C below normal body temperature. Why?
4. The cremaster muscle, contracts and relaxes regulating testicular temperature.
B. Internal structure of the testes (Page 778 figure 43.5a)
1. Review Sperm formation from notes on meiosis.
2. The testes are composed of hundreds of coiled up seminiferous tubules.
a) 300 million sperm are produced each day.
3. Sertoli(Nurse) Cells
a) Protect and nourish the sperm as the develop.
4. Interstitial Cells of Leydig
a) Secrete testosterone
b) Are the testes endocrine or exocrine glands?
C. Products of the testes
1. Spermatozoa (be able to label the spermatozoa figure 43.5 on page 778)
2. Testosterone
a) Responsible for primary sex characteristics.
b) Responsible for secondary sex characteristics
(1) widening of shoulders, narrowing of hip.
(2) deepening of voice
(3) facial and pubic hair
c) Stimulates sperm production
D. Path of sperm flow
1. Seminiferous tubules
2. Epididymis
3. Vas deferens
4. Ejaculatory ducts
a) Muscular tubes that force the sperm into the urethra
5. Urethra
a) ~8 inches long and passes through the penis.
E. Male accessory glands
1. Two seminial vessicles, one prostate, two bulbourethral (Cowpers Gland)
2. Produce an alkaline sugar rich solution. called semen
a) 50-100 million sperm per ml of semen.
(1) below 20 million you are considered sterile.
II. Female Anatomy (page 780 fig. 43.7)
A. Ovaries
1. Functions:
a) Produce ovum
b) Secrete female sex hormones
(1) estrogen and progesterone
B. Uterine tubes or Fallopian tubes or oviducts
1. Function: carry ovum from ovary to uterus.
a) Site of fertilization.
2. Two tubes, 10 cm in length that extend from the ovary to the uterus.
C. Uterus
1. Functions: site of egg implantation and fetal development
2. Forms part of the placenta and muscle layer produces labor

D. Vagina
1. Receptacle for penis
2. Muscular lined with mucous membrane.
3. Very flexible-Why?
E. Hymen: thin fold of vascularized mucous membrane.
F. Vulva
1. External genitalia
a) Mons pubis- adipose tissue covered with hair.
b) Labia majora
(1) female homolog to scrotum
(2) contain sebaceous & sweat glands
c) Labia minora
(1) no hair, containing sebaceous glands
d) Clitoris
(1) Erectile tissue homologous to penis
G. Pathway of Ovum
1. Egg is release from ovary
2. Frimbriae
a) finger-like projections around ovary.
b) direct ovum into infundibulum.
3. Infundibulum
a) funnel-like opening at the ovary end of the oviducts.
b) cilia pulls eggs in.
4. Oviduct
a) Lined with cilia and moves the egg by peristalsis.
5. Uterus

Menstrual Cycle/Ovarian Cycle

I. Background Information
A. Hormones coordinate the timing of the release of an egg with the development of the uterine wall.
B. Hormone sources:
1. GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone)
a) produced in the hypothalamus.
2. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone)
a) Produced by anterior pituitary gland.
3. Estrogens
a) produced by ovaries
4. Progesterone
a) Produced by ovaries
5. HCG (human chorionic gonadotropin)
a) Produced by the growing embryo.
II. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
A. Menstrual Phase (days 1-5)
1. A sudden drop in progesterone and estrogen levels stimulate the degeneration of the stratum
functionalis of the uterus
2. At the same time: GnRH production increases and stimulates the anterior pituitary to
produce FSH.
a) FSH stimulates the development of ovarian follicles.
3. The follicles starts to produce estrogens.
a) Eventually only one secondary follicle will survive.
B. Preovulatory Phase (days 6-13)
1. FSH and LH production stimulates the follicle to mature and produce increasing amounts
of estrogens.
a) Estrogens stimulate the repair and growth of a new stratum functionalis.

2. High levels of estrogens inhibit GnRH production which in turn inhibits FSH production.
3. But the peak in estrogens stimulate a surge and peak in LH on the 13th.
C. Ovulation
1. The surge in LH stimulates ovulation on 14th day.
2. LH stimulates the formation of the corpus luteum from the ruptured follicle.
D. Postovulatory Phase (days 15-28)
1. The corpus luteum produces progesterone and small amounts of estrogens.
2. Functions of progesterone:
a) High levels inhibit ovulation. Why?
b) Stimulates vascularization of endometrium. Why?
c) Stimulates glycogen storage. Why?
d) Increases fluid retention (ring a bell)
3. Option one; pregnancy does not occur.
a) High levels of progesterone inhibit GnRH production.
b) A drop in GnRH causes a drop in LH.
c) A drop in LH causes the corpus luteum to become the corpus albicans.
d) With the destruction of the corpus luteum, progesterone and estrogen levels drop.
E. What happens next?
1. Option two; if fertilization does occur.
a) The developing mass of cells produces Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.
b) HCG maintains the corpus luteum.
c) Therefore progesterone and estrogen levels are maintained.
d) After about the 12th week of pregnancy, the placenta produces progesterone and
estrogens and the corpus luteum disintegrates.