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A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE Settings and Rituals SPIRO KOSTOF ‘Oxford University Press Osird_ New York ‘hens Auckland Bangkok Bombay Caleuta Cape Town Dares Salam Delhi Florence "Hong Kong anbul Karachi Kuala Limur Mads Madnd Melbourne ‘Mexico City Navobi Pars Singapore Taiper Tokyo Toronto and associated companies in Bern tadan Copyright © 1985, 1995 by Oxford University Press, Inc Published by Ostord University Pres, Ine, 198 Maio Avenue, New York, New Yr 10016-4514 Oxiordi 2 registered vademark of Oxiord Univesity Press Al sights reserved. No par of his publication may be reproduced, sored ia teieval syste, o wansmited in any orm ot by any means, ‘econ, mechanical, photocopying, recording. o otherwise, without the prior persion of Oxird University Press Library of Congress CatalognginPublcation Oats Kost, S040. | histor of architecture: stings adits / pio Kostot conginal ramings by Richard Tobias 2nd ed. revision by Greg Castil, Pam. Includes index. 'SBN-13 978-0-19-508578-1; 978-0-18-508379-6 (pbk) 1. Architecture History 1. Casilla, Greg. Tite Naz00K65 1995" 720'9-de20. 9438787 coms 10 Protein the Unitas States of America ‘on acc-ree paper PREFACE ‘This book is something of a compromise. Ieis a general survey of architectural his: tory that tries to reconcile the traditional grand canon of monuments with a broader, ‘more embracing view of the built environ ment It does so by making no strict distinc tions between architecture and building, between architecture and urbanism, bs ‘ween high cultures and low. Hagia Sophia and Versailles are here, but so ate igloos and nineteenth-century malt-kilns; the du: ‘al palaces of Urbino and Mantua ate dis: ccussed within the larger frame of the city tommy; the Romans share their chapter with their “barbarian” adversaries, the Dacians, and the tribes of the sub-Sahara, | wanted to tla story—the epic story of humans taking possession of the land and shaping, communities through the act of building. The aims are set out in Chapter 1, al inclusiveness is not one of them. | had to confine mysel 10 a relatively small number Of sites and buildings in order to be able to ook at them in some detail. It was impor tant that this treatment of selective places be full. Architectural style comes in of course; that was the core of my training, But Tam as concerned with use and structure and urban process, with motivation and ritual sequence. 1 would not be at all un- happy if the book were to be seen as an ‘offering of cultural history Despite its seemingly ecumenical reach, this cannot claim to be a world history of architecture. That task would entail a fat balance in the account of architectural 13 ditions in all ages and on al continents. We are preoccupied with our own Western tradition. ven with the most permissive attitude, other cultures stand as foils to this, perhaps inevitable sell-absorption, My lin ‘ted goal was to resist presenting the West- fer achievement as if it were an insulated and wholly logical progression, We have always been bound up with other lands; and the order we have created gains in un. derstanding when itis assessed in the light of alternate orders. As a symbolic recog tion ofthis interdependence, | have avoided discussing non-Western traditions tidily in their own individual chapters. It seemed to me that the excitement of controntation might outweigh the obvious advantage of Separate linear nartaives. So | have brought together medieval Florence and Cairo, Pal: ladio and Sinan, ‘ have also committed one further breach ‘at historical practice. In order to keep the discussion of one place intact, | have into: ‘duced some architects ahead of their sect chronological slot. | hope old hands will not bbe unduly distressed to meet Giulio Ro- ‘mano at Mantua belore they meet Bra ‘mante in Rome. Through the years, Richard Tobias has been a steady collaborator. This is as much his book as itis mine, His drawings go be: yond mere illustration. They strengthen and any the approach of this historical sur. vey, ad they convey information far in ex cess of the limits of the text We agreed on some things at the begin- ing and stayed with them. Except when they remained diagrammatic, all plans would be oriented toward the north, They ‘would also indicate setting—land contours ‘or neighboring structures. Where possible this setting is original to the building. In cases where we could not reconstruct what was there at the time, say for Chaves Ca- thedral or the imperial kullies of istanbul, ‘we settied for the best premodern context ‘we could find. Finally, we wanted to con- vey the sense of the siow, accretive devel- ‘opment of familiar monuments and sites by showing in sequence the principal sages in their planning history. The multipart draw- ings of Karnak and the Piazza San Marco are examples. It should be self-evident that a history of this kind reaps the collective effort and wisdom of schelars in several fields. Since the mature of the book precluded the cus- tomary apparatus of notes and extensive bibliographies, 1 must acknowledge my fenormous debt to them all here, a debt which in a number of cases approaches dependence. | must also single out atleast some among he many colleagues and friends who offered help at various stages ff the project: Mare Teeib, Andrew Stew: art, Walter Horn, Stanley Saitowitz, Hsia CChu-loe, and lan’ Roberson-Smith. Readers (of drafts include Christian Ono, Richard C. Carrot, Osmune Overby, Christopher Mead and Henry A. Millon, A most patient and sym pathetic review came from Elizabeth M Brown; her serutiny improved the book tang bly, and 1am de-ply grateful to her. The long process wore out several assist: ants. will always remember them with gratitude: Wendy Tsuji, Deborah Robbins, Michael Brooder, Carol Silverman, who valiantly tackled ‘the index, and. D'vora Treisman, In the final stretch, Mari Ade- ‘gran and Susan Shoemaker lent their skill Yo the complet on of some of the draw: Ings. To Doughs MacDonald, | owe the most. He has worked long and hard on sources, illustraions, and the glossary, and ably served a liaison withthe publisher. On that side, our maim ally was Kathy Kuht2. My fond thanks alse to my editors, irs, James Raimes, who took the project through its critical starting phase almost ten years ago, and, more recent, Joyce Bey To my student, past and future, this book {is fondly dedicat-d: it was weitten with them foremost in mind Berkeley Sk. October 1988 | | PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION In May 1991, Spiro Kostof delivered his last lectures for ""A Historical Survey of Architecture and. Urbanism’—the lang running course at the University of Cali fornia at Berkeley that some twenty years earlier had provided a springboaed for the first edition of this book. The final lec- tures, covering the state of affairs from after World War Il to the present, had been thoroughly revised 2 year earlier, land Professor Kostof felt that they were 2 ‘great improvement. His enduring goal had been to construct an architectural history that avoided “strict distinctions between archirecture and building, between archi tecture and urbanism, between high cul: tures and low.” The closing chapter of the first edition of A History of Architecture, written in the early 1980s, fell short of that resolution, having shrunk in scope to 2 review of “the works of the masters,” just the kind of history he had set out to challenge Inthe years following the publication of this book’s first edition, Professor Kostof undertook projects that confronted archi- tecture’s current events head-on. These included America by Design, a 1987 PBS series and a companion publication of the same name, as well as The City Shaped and The City Assembled, a two-volume study of urban form and its social mean ings. Both efforts sent him traveling 10 sites that embodied the exceptional as well as the ordinary in late-twentieth- Century environmental design. The surer footing gained from this research was evi dent inthe updated lectures for Berkeley's survey course, and a revised edition of A History of Architecture incorporating these changes was put on the calendar as his next assignment. In June 1991, Spiro Kostof was diag- sea. nosed with cancer. He died six months later at his home in Berkeley. As his re- search assistant of five years’ standing, | was asked to prepare the manuscript of The City Assembled for publication, Soon aterward, | decided t0 take on, as well, Professor Kostot’s planned revision of 4 History of Architecture. In both cases, | have attempted to chart a conservative ‘course, limited wherever possible to re constructing his arguments and the spir- ited style with which he addressed them. Professor Kostof’s working methods ‘greatly simplified my task. His habit was to prepare complete scripts for his lec: tures, which he then would commit to memory. These typescripts established the narrative framework and basic text for the final chapters of this edition. Another use- {ul resource was the collection of lecture Videotapes now archived at Berkeley's Bancroft Library. Kostof’s lectures were recorded in 1990 and 1991, ostensibly for the benefit of students who had missed class, but just as much to give him the opportunity to review and fine-tune his performance. More than one digression from his script, as documented on tape, has found its way into this edition. None- theless, the text of a lecture, however pol: ished, is not that ofa textbook. Whenever a site or atopic glossed in class demanded more detailed description, | have added it, following the vector and tenor of Kostof's argument to the best of my abilities. For their help in refining the finished text, | must thank Karl Weimer, as well as Gary Brown, Marta Gulman, Kathleen James, Roger Montgomery, and Steven Tobriner all at Berkeley's College of Environmental Design. Richard Tobias, Professor Kostat's original collaborator on illusteations for this publication, again contributed his skills and patierce. | also owe a debt of iratiude to Nezar Al Sayyad, Travis Amos, Ken Caldwell, Sam Davis, Diane Favro, Alan Gottlieb, Alan Hess, Carol Hershelle Krinsky, Emily Lane of Thames and Hudson, Nina Libeskind, George Loisos, Christopher Mead, Jean-Pierre Protzen, Matyly snow and Ciaire Dannen- baum of Berkeley"s Environmental Design Slide Library, Stephen Tobriner, Susan Ubbilohde, Dell Upton, and Fikret Yegul for their help in assembling photographs for this second edition. Kathryn Wayne land Elizabeth Byrne of the Environmental Design Library at Berkeley were, as al ‘ways, generous with their assistance. And Joyce Berry of Dxlord University Press, now @ veteran of three Kostof publica: tions, again proved her considerable edi torial and diploriatic talents. Every effort ofthis sort deserves a dedi cation. In keeping with my role as the facilitator rather than the author of this volume, I will defer on that count to Pro- fessor Kostof, whose meditations were captured on videotape in May 1991 in one (of hi final public Fectures. Last week was the last lecture of the great Vincent Scully: a trie mind, 3 terre image nation. His coutse closed after being taught Since the early 1910s, He retired unvilingly He wanted 10 g0 on and on until he dies, 35 most of us do. For whatever it's worth, | dedi ate these final lectures to him, my one-time teacher, longtime adversary, anda man who Aid more for archi ectural history than most of 1s put together Berkeley Cctober 1994 9