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Fluid Flow in Pipes

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Fluid Flow in Pipes

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The Darcy-Weisbach Equation

and the

Fluid-Flow Calc v1.0 Tool for Engineers

by

Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E.

A SunCam online continuing education course

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A.

Introduction

This course is intended for mechanical and civil engineers who want to learn more about

Sizing Piping Systems with the Darcy-Weisbach equation. Design issues covered

include, understanding the equations, purpose and history, sizing residential, commercial

and industrial piping systems. This course qualifies for four (4) hours Professional

Engineering CEU credits. Upon completion of this course, you will have a thorough

understanding of the design aspects related to Sizing Piping Systems with the DarcyWeisbach equation and others relating to its application.

B.

General

Because of the great variety of fluids handled in modern industrial processes (heating and

air conditioning, piping systems, etc.) a single equation used for any flow in piping

systems would obviously have an advantage over other equations. Such an equation is

the Darcy-Weisbach equation for liquids only in this course. The equation can be derived

rationally by means of dimensional analysis; however, one variable in the equation, the

friction factor, must be determined experimentally. Today with the invention of the

calculator, computers and software and spreadsheets, etc. this is not a problem. This

equation has a wide application in the field of fluid mechanics.

The Fluid Flow Calc tool was developed using the Darcy-Weisbach and other equations

and utilizes the following variables:

Q

V

D

L

= Viscosity of the fluid, cP

= Quantity of flow, gpm, gph, cfs and B

= Velocity of flow, mean velocity of the flow in the pipe, fps

= Pipe inside diameter, in and ft

= Fitting total K coeffs

= Fitting total L/D values

= Length of pipe, ft

P = Pressure drop, feet of fluid and psi in fluid

R = Roughness factor, , ft

The input looks at the data and tracts it to determine proper input. Five types of

calculations can be performed as follows:

1. Sizing pipe for Pressure Drop, requires , , Q, D, L and R

2. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Flow, requires , , V, D, L and R

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3. Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Pipe Diameter, requires , , Q, V, L and R

4. Sizing pipe for Maximum Pressure Drop, requires , , Q, L, P and R

5. Sizing pipe for Maximum Flow, requires , , D, L and R

The input tracks and displays one of the following messages:

1. Too Much Data

2. Default Used

3. Need to Check Your Input

If the data input is entered correctly, one of the following messages will be displayed.

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Flow

Sizing pipe for Maximum Velocity for Pipe Diameter

Sizing pipe for Maximum Pressure Drop

Sizing pipe for Maximum Flow

There are three buttons on the screen, one for Default Density data, one for Viscosity, and

one for the Roughness factor. Density is 62.37 lb/cu ft. Viscosity is 1.1 at 60 oF and

Roughness factor 0.00015.

Note: The Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet has three (3) Macros for the three Default

Buttons and the following security screen will appear. The Enable Macros button

should be pressed to operate correctly if the Security Level is Set above (Low).

C.

Units

The following units will be used during this course:

gpm

gph

cfs

gpm

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to

to

to

to

cfs

gpm

gpm

B/h

=

=

=

=

gpm / 448.8

gph / 60

cfs x 448.8

gpm x 1.42857

Page 4 of 36

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gph

D.

to

B/h

gph x 42

The solution to any fluid problem requires an understanding and knowledge of the

physical properties of the fluid under consideration. Therefore, an accurate value for the

properties affecting the fluid is essential to problem solving. Numerous publications

have tables and charts for this purpose. The following is the fluid physical properties that

we will be using throughout this course:

1.

2.

Viscosity, cP

Weight density, lb/cu ft

Viscosity: Viscosity expresses the readiness with which a fluid flows when it is acted

upon by an external force. The coefficient of absolute viscosity or, simply, the absolute

viscosity of a fluid, is a measure of its resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by

either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is

thickness or internal friction. Thus, water is thin, having a lower viscosity, while

honey is thick, having higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the

greater its ease of movement.

Although most fluids are predictable in their viscosity, in some, the viscosity depends

upon the previous working of the fluid. Wood pulp slurries and ketchup are examples of

fluids possessing such thixotropic properties of viscosity.

Note: Thixotropic is the property of certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under

normal conditions, but flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated,

or otherwise stressed.

Considerable confusion exists concerning the units used to express viscosity; therefore,

proper units must be employed whenever substituting values of viscosity into formulas.

In the CGS or cgs (centimeter-gram-second) or metric system (proposal made in 1832 by

the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss), the unit of absolute viscosity is the

poise (it is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille) and is often used with the (metric

prefix centi-) which is equal to 100 centipoises. The centipoise is properly abbreviated

cP, but the alternative abbreviations cps, cp and cPs are also commonly seen.

The poise has the dimensions of dyne seconds per square centimeter or of grams per

centimeter second. It is believed that less confusion concerning units will prevail if the

centipoises is used exclusively as the unit of viscosity. For this reason and since most

handbooks and tables follow the same procedure, all viscosity data in this course is

expressed in centipoises.

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The English units most commonly employed are slug per foot second or pound force

second per square foot; however, pound mass per feet second or poundal second per

square foot may also be encountered. The viscosity of water at a temperature of 68 oF

is:

1 centipoises =

=

=

0.000 672 poundal second per square foot

'e

0.000 0209 pound force second per square ft

0.01 poise

0.01 gram per cm second

0.01 dyne second per sq cm

Kinematic viscosity is the ratio of the absolute viscosity to the mass density. In the

metric system the unit of kinematic viscosity is the stoke. The stoke has dimensions of

square centimeters per second and is equivalent to 100 centistokes

centistoke s =

=

'

S

Specific gravity: the specific gravity S, in the foregoing formula is based upon water at a

temperature of 39.2 oF (4 oC), whereas specific gravity used throughout this course is

based upon water at 60 oF. In the English system, kinematic viscosity has dimensions of

square feet per second.

Weight density, specific volume, and specific gravity: The weight density or specific

weight of a substance is its weight per unit volume. In the English system of units, this is

expressed in pounds per cubic foot and the symbol designation used in the course is

(Rho). In the metric system, the unit is grams per cubic centimeter and the symbol

designation used is centimeter and the symbol designation used is (Rho prime).

The specific volume V , being the reciprocal of the weight density, is expressed in the

English system as the number of cubic feet of space occupied by one pound of the

substance, this is:

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volume; however, the number of cubic centimeters per gram of a substance can readily be

expressed as the reciprocal of the weight density, that is:

'

The variations in weight density as well as other properties of water with changes in

temperature are shown in Table 1, in Appendix A. The weight densities of other

common liquids are shown in Table 2, in Appendix A. Unless very high temperatures are

considered, the effect of pressure on the weight of liquids is of no practical importance in

flow problems.

Specific gravity is a relative measure of weight density. Since pressure has an

insignificant effect upon the weight density of liquids, temperature is the only condition

that must be considered in designating the basis for specific gravity. The specific gravity

of a liquid is its weight density at 60 oF (unless otherwise specified) to that of water at

standard temperature of 60 oF.

S

p2

p1

Where

p1

p2

=

=

water at 60 oF

The specific gravity is measured with the hydrometer and there are three scales used

commonly in this country. The API scale which is used for oil. The Baume (Be) scales,

one for liquids heavier than water and one for liquids lighter than water. The relationship

between the scales and specific gravity are:

For oils:

G = 141.5 / (131.5 + Degrees API)

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For liquids lighter than water:

60 oF

For liquids heavier than water:

60 oF

E.

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation is named after Henry Darcy of France and further refined

into the form used today by Julius Weisbach of Saxony in 1845. Historically this

equation arose as a variant on the Prony equation (Gaspard Clair Francois Marie Riche de

Prony, 1755-1839). Initially, data on the variation of f with velocity was lacking, so the

Darcy-Weisbach equation was out performed at first by the empirical Prony equation in

many cases. Although in the later years it was eschewed in many special case situations

in favor of a variety of empirical equations valid only for certain flow regimes. Notably

the Hazen-Williams equation named after (Allen Hazen and Gardner Stewart Williams)

or the Manning equation (Gauckler-Manning formula) named after (Philippe Gauckler in

1867 and Robert Manning in 1890) most of which were significantly easier to use in

calculation.

The name of the equation through time is also curious and may be tracked in hydraulic

and fluid mechanics textbooks. Early texts generally do not name the equation. Starting

in the mid 20th century some authors including at least one German named it "Darcy's

Equation", an obvious confusion point with "Darcy's Law". Rouse in 1946 appears to be

the first to call it "Darcy-Weisbach", but that naming did not become universal until the

late 1980's. It is a good enough name, but as pointed out previously, it leaves out many

important contributions.

From a practical standpoint, the Darcy-Weisbach equation has only become popular since

the advent of the electronic calculator, computer and software like the spreadsheet. It

requires a lot of number crunching compared to empirical relationships, such as the

Hazen-Williams equation, which are valid over narrow ranges. However, because of its

general accuracy and complete range of application, the Darcy-Weisbach equation should

be considered the standard and the others should be left for the historians. A recent

interesting discussion on the topic was presented by Liou (1998), Christensen (2000),

Locher (2000) and Swamee (2000).

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The Darcy-Weisbach equation is considered the best empirical relation for pipe-flow

resistance. In terms of head units it is:

Pipe Friction

2

L v

hf f

D 2 g

where

hf

f

L

D

v

g

=

=

=

=

=

=

friction factor, dimensionless

length of pipe, (in feet)

internal diameter of pipe, (in feet)

average velocity in feet per second, (in fps)

acceleration due to gravity in feet per second per second, 32.17

feet/second/second

L v 2

h p f

D 2 g

where

Velocity

The following are equations used to calculate mean velocity of flow in several units:

q

= 183.3 2

d

q

A

B

= 0.286 2

d

A

B

=

=

Q

0.408 2

d

where

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rate of flow in barrels (42 gallon) per hour (B)

Copyright 2011 Lawrence H. Smith, Sr., P.E.

Page 9 of 36

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Q

q

v

V

d

=

=

=

=

=

rate of flow in cubic feet per second (cfs)

mean velocity of flow, in feet per second (fps)

specific volume of fluid, in cubic feet per pound

inside diameter of pipe, (in inches)

/d

where

/d

=

=

inside diameter of pipe, (in inches)

The relative pipe roughness is the ratio of the pipe surface roughness, to its diameter,

d, or /d. See Table 4, in Appendix A for some common pipe relative roughness

factors.

Reynolds Number

dv

Re 123.9

where

d

v

=

=

=

=

average velocity in feet per second, (in fps)

fluid density at mean temperature, (in lb/cu ft)

viscosity, (in cP)

Friction Factor

The Darcy-Weisbach formula can be rationally derived by dimensional analysis, with the

exception of the friction factor f, which must be determined experimentally. The friction

factor for laminar flow condition (Re < 2000) is a function of Reynolds number only:

whereas, for turbulent flow (Re > 4000), is also a function of the character of pipe walls.

A region known as the "critical zone" occurs between Reynolds number of approximately

2000 and 4000. In this region, the flow may be either laminar or turbulent depending

upon several factors; these include changes in section or direction of flow and

obstructions, such as valves in the upstream piping. The friction factor in the region is

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indeterminate and has lower limits on laminar flow and upper limits based on turbulent

flow conditions.

At Reynolds numbers above approximately 4000, flow conditions become more stable

and a definite friction factor can be established. This is important because it enables the

spreadsheet to determine the flow characteristics of any fluid flowing in a pipe providing

the viscosity and weight density at flowing conditions are known.

If the flow is laminar (Re < 2000); the friction factor may be determined from the

following:

f

64

Re

When the flow is turbulent (Re > 4000), the friction factor depends not only upon the

Reynolds number but also upon the relative roughness, /D the roughness of the pipe

wall , as compared to the diameter of the pipe D . For very smooth pipes such as

drawn brass tubing, the friction factor decreases more rapidly with increasing Reynolds

number than for pipe with comparatively rough walls.

Since the character of the internal surface of commercial pipe is practically independent

of the diameter, the roughness of the walls has a greater effect on the friction factor in the

small sizes. Consequently, pipe of small diameters will approach the very rough

conditions and, in general, will have higher friction factors than large pipes of the same

material

The most useful and widely accepted data of friction factors for use with the DarcyWeisbach equation was presented by L. F. Moody. Professor Moody improved upon the

well established Piggott and Kemler friction factor diagram by incorporating more recent

investigations and developments of many outstanding scientists. See the Moody Friction

Factors Diagram in Appendix A.

For turbulent flow smooth pipe with the Blasius equation

f

0.3164

Re 0.25

= 0.0032

for Re up to 105

0.221

for 105 < Re < 3 X 106 at least

Re 0.237

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1/

f = 1.14 2 log( D / )

Colebrooks natural function:

1/

E.

9.3

Re / D f

Valves and Fitting

The pressure drop through valves and fittings are usually handled by finding the length of

straight pipe of the same diameter that would have the same pressure drop as the

appropriate fitting at the same flow rate. This length is referred to as the equivalent

length and is added to the actual pipe length in using the Darcy-Weisbach equation.

So-called minor losses occurring at the entrance to pipe, change in pipe diameter or

other changes in shape are usually expressed by the following:

v2

hf K

2g

therefore

L

K f for turbulent flow

D

where

hf

v

g

K

L/D

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=

=

=

=

=

average velocity in feet/second in a pipe of corresponding diameter

32.17 feet/second/second

resistance coefficient for valve or fitting

is the equivalent length in pipe diameters of straight pipe which

will cause the same pressure drop as the valve or fitting under the

same flow conditions

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The K is a factor that varies for each case. Values of K are available in fluid mechanics

texts as well as in handbooks as monographs that allow determination of equivalent

length of pipe and fittings. The K resistance coefficient for a given line of valves or

fittings, tend to vary with the size as does the friction factor f for straight pipe, and that

the equivalent length L/D tend toward a constant for the various sizes of a given line of

valves or fittings.

L/D Values for Fitting and Valves

The L/D values are available in fluid mechanics texts as well as in handbooks in Table

form based on a particular fitting type.

In the flow range of complete turbulence as defined by the friction factor chart, the K

coefficient for a given size and the L/D is constant and that K varies in the same manner

as the friction factor. However, since the tendency is in this direction, it is believed to

provide more accurate solutions than would the assumption that K is constant for all

Reynolds numbers. Therefore, within this course we will be using the fittings and valves

L/D values. See Table 9 in Appendix A for typical valves and fittings L/D values and

Table 8 in Appendix A for Typical Pipe Entrance and Exits K Coefficients.

When we have a fitting or valve with a K coefficient the L/D would be:

L/ D

K

f

where

f

K

L/D

=

=

=

resistance coefficient for valve or fitting

is the equivalent length in pipe diameters of straight pipe which

will cause the same pressure drop as the valve or fitting under the

same flow conditions

L

Re L

D s 1000 D t

where

f

K

Re

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=

=

=

resistance coefficient for valve or fitting

Reynolds number

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(L/D)s =

straight pipe under laminar flow conditions where Reynolds

number is less than 1000.

subscript (t) refers to the equivalent length in pipe diameters

determined from tests in the turbulent flow range.

(L/D)t =

In some branches of the valve industry, particularly in connection with the control valves,

express the capacity of a valve and the terms of flow coefficient Cv. The Cv of a valve is

defined as the flow of water at 60 oF, in gallons per minute at a pressure drop of one

pound per square inch.

Cv

29.9d 2

f

L

D

29.9d 2

K

Strainer pressure drop should be obtained from the manufacturer data sheets to determine

proper value to use. The pressure drop depends on the type of strainer, size, flow rate,

service, filtration (screen loss factor for the mesh used) and viscosity of the fluid.

Increase in Friction Loss Due to Aging of Pipe

The deterioration of pipes with age depends upon the chemical properties of the liquid

flowing and the characteristics of the material from which the pipe is made. In general,

the flow carrying capacity of a pipe line decreases with age due to roughening of the

interior surface caused by corrosive products, tubercules and the like or an actual

reduction in area caused by chemical deposits. The effect corresponds to a variation in

friction factor due to increasing relative roughness.

A wide variation in waters over the country makes it impossible for any precise

estimation of this aging effect. No reputable authority will go on record to endorse

friction factors for other than new pipe. This fact, however, does not eliminate the

deterioration of friction factor and some means of estimation is required. Whenever

records are available on the aging effects of local or similar waters it is recommended

they be studied and applied as a correction to the computation of friction loss for new

pipe from the Darcy-Weisbach equation or any other. This is a sound and logical

approach for a specific problem.

In many instances, either the economics of the project does not warrant the expense of

this detailed investigation or there are no available records on local or similar waters. For

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those occasions, Table 7 in Appendix A may be used with caution and discretion. It is

based upon the best available data.

It will be obvious there is no sudden increase in aging effect between 10 inch and 12-inch

pipe as indicated from Table - 7. The values shown are composites of many tests

grouped by the experimenter. A reasonable amount of interpretation and logic must be

used in selecting and applying a multiplier for each specific problem.

It must also be borne in mind that some test data on aging of pipe may vary up to fifty

percent from the averages as shown in Table - 7.

Therefore, based upon the above-mentioned aging information it is recommended that 15

percent be added to pipe friction loss.

Recommended Water Maximum Velocities

1.

2.

The effects of erosion.

Table - 5 in Appendix A, lists recommended velocity ranges for different services. The

design of the water piping system is limited by the maximum permissible flow velocity.

The maximum values listed in Table 6 is based on established permissible sound levels

of moving water and entrained air, and on the effects of erosion.

Erosion in water piping systems is the impingement on the inside surface of the tube or

pipe of rapidly moving water containing air bubbles, sand or other solid matter. In some

cases, this may mean complete deterioration of the tube or pipe walls, particularly on the

bottom surface and at the elbows.

Since erosion is a function of time, water velocity, and suspended materials in the water,

the selection of design water velocity is a matter of judgment. The maximum water

velocities presented in Table 6 is based on many years of experience and they ensure

the attainment of optimum equipment life under normal conditions.

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Sample Problem - 1

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to build a new two tank atmospheric system for

storing water at 70 oF in a Tank designated as A and then have 0.56 cfs of water pumped to

the second floor to another Tank designated as B. The piping system will have Schedule S-40

pipe with a roughness factor of 0.00015 ,ft and the pipe is 100 feet long and is 3 inches with a

inside diameter of 3.068 inches. The system has a square-edged entry from Tank A, 3 - 90 deg

elbows, 2 gate valves, and 1 check valve in the piping, and free discharge at Tank B. See

Figure 1 below for the geometry of the piping system.

Calculate the pump head in feet.

Figure 1

The engineer for the project, used a density of 62.23 lb/cu ft, 1.0 cP and L/D of 135 for the check

valve, L/D of 13 for each of the gate valves, L/D of 20 for the 3 - 90 deg elbows which totaled

221 L/D and a K of 0.5 for the square-edged entry. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to

calculate the velocity, total equivalent length, pressure drop, relative roughness, Reynolds

number and the friction factor.

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Viscosity = 1.0 cP

Quantity of flow = 0.560 cfs

Pipe Diameter = 3.068 inches

Fitting Total K Coeffs = 0.50

Fitting Total L/D values = 221

Length of Pipe = 100 ft

Roughness Factor = 0.00015 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Total equivalent length = 166.6 ft

Pressure drop = 22.73 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0005867 /D

Reynolds number = 258,324 Re

Friction factor = 0.019 f

Total Static head

hs = (50 + 10 + 5) = 65

Total Head Loss

Th = hs + hf

Th = 65 + 22.75

Th = 87.75 Feet of fluid

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Sample Problem - 2

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to pump 600 Barrels/hr of oil through a straight

horizontal steel pipeline 450 feet long to an open tank. The tank is 20 feet above the pump

discharge with a free discharge into the tank. The velocity shall be 7 fps maximum and with a

check valve, 1 gate valve, and 3 - 90 deg elbows in the piping system. See Figure 2 below for

the geometry of the piping system.

Fluid properties are as follows:

Density

Viscosity

=

=

42 lb/cu ft

30 cP

Figure 2

Determine the pipe size, pump total head with the fittings:

The engineer for the project, used a schedule 40 steel pipe with , ft of 0.00015, L/D of 135 for

the check valve, L/D of 13 for the gate valves and L/D of 20 for the 3 - 90 deg elbows, which

totals 208 L/D. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v.1.0 tool to calculate the maximum pipe size for

the 7 fps mean velocity, Pressure drop, Relative roughness, Reynolds number and Friction factor

for the above conditions.

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Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Density = 42 lb/cu ft

Viscosity = 30 cP

Quantity of flow = 600 Barrels/hr

Velocity of flow = 7.00 fps

Fitting Total L/D values = 208

Length of Pipe = 450

Roughness Factor = 0.00015 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Pipe inside diameter = 4.950 inches

Total equivalent length = 535.8 ft

Pressure drop = 35.47 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0003636 /D

Reynolds number = 6,010 Re

Friction factor = 0.036 f

inches. Therefore, the engineer selected a 5-inch

pipe to meet the velocity requirements.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

New Conditions

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Velocity of flow = 6.73 fps

Total equivalent length = 537.5 ft

Pressure drop = 32.46 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0003566 /D

Reynolds number = 5,896 Re

Friction factor = 0.036 f

Total Static head

hs = 20

Total Head Loss

Th = hs + hf

Th = 20 + 32.46

Th = 52.46 Feet of fluid

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Sample Problem - 3

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant is going to install a new chiller to supply two cooling

coils. The chiller will have a flow of 175 gpm with a pressure drop of 20 feet of fluid. Coil - A

will have a flow of 100 gpm with 12 feet of fluid pressure drop and Coil B will have a flow of

75 gpm with 12 feet of fluid pressure drop. Each coil will have a control valve to control the

flow with a pressure drop at the flows of 3 feet of fluid each. The piping will be schedule S-40

steel and will be designed with a maximum pressure drop of 4 feet of fluid per 100 feet. See

Figure 3 below for the piping geometry and nodes.

Node 0 1

Node 1 2

Node 1 2

Node 2 3

from the Chiller will have 2 gate valves, 6 90 deg elbows, 1 check valve and

1 tee with flow through run and 300 feet of pipe.

for Coil A will have 2 gate valves, 1 control valve and 1 balancing valve, 2 tee with flow through branch, 8 90 deg elbows and 250 feet of pipe.

for Coil B will have 2 gate valves, 1 control valve and 1 balancing valve, 2 tee with flow through run, 6 90 deg elbows and 310 feet of pipe.

to the pump will have 2 gate valves, 1 strainer, 1 - tee with flow through run, 6

90 deg elbows and 600 feet of pipe.

Figure - 3

The engineer for the project, used a water density of 62.30 lb/cu ft, viscosity of 1.00 cP, , ft of

0.00015 for the pipe, L/D of 13 for the gate valves, L/D of 18 for the balancing valves, 135 for

the check valve, L/D of 20 for the 90 deg elbows, L/D of 20 for the tees with flow through run,

L/D of 60 for the tees with flow through branch and 0.5 feet through the strainer. He used the

Fluid Flow Calc v.1.0 tool to calculate the maximum pressure drop size for the 4 feet of fluid

pressure drop for the above four-pipe section.

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The project engineer then input the data into the Fluid Flow Calc tool for each of the Nodes to

determine the pipe sizes. He entered this information into a spreadsheet as shown below.

Node 0 1

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Viscosity = 1.00 cP

Quantity of flow = 175 gpm

Length of Pipe = 100 ft

feet of fluid = 4.00

Roughness Factor = 0.00015 , ft

Node 0 1

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Pressure drop = 4.00 feet of fluid

The project engineer then input the flow quantities

with each of the pipe sizes along with the fittings,

L/D valves and length of pipe for each node

section into the Fluid Flow Calc tool. After

getting the results, he entered this data into his

spreadsheet as shown below. As can be seen

below, Coil A has the maximum pressure drop

along with Nodes 0 1 and 2 3. The pump total

head is 54.64 feet of fluid.

Node 0 1

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Viscosity = 1.0 cP

Quantity of flow = 175 gpm

Pipe Diameter = 4.026 inches

Fitting Total L/D values = 301

Length of Pipe = 300 ft

Roughness Factor = 0.00015 , ft

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Node 0 1

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Total equivalent length = 401.0 ft

Pressure drop = 6.98 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0004471 /D

Reynolds number = 137,040 Re

Friction factor = 0.019 f

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A SunCam online continuing education course

Sample Problem 4

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant needed a new city water distribution system. The pipeline

will be 1,500 feet in length to connect the plant to the city water main. The pipeline has 2 Gate

valves, 4 - 90 deg elbows, 1 tee with flow through branch. The total water flow will be 400

gallons per minute (gpm) for the normal operation and the Fire Department required an

additional capacity of 1,500 gallons per minute. The maximum total pressure drop from the

main to the plant shall not be over 22 (psi) with a maximum flow of 3,900 gpm from a flow test.

The engineer for the project selected asphalt coated cast iron pipe with a roughness factor of

0.0004. Water density of 62.37 lb/cu.ft. and cp of 1.00. For the fittings, he used an L/D of 13 for

the two gate valves, L/D of 20 for the 4 - 90 degree elbows and L/D of 60 for the tee, which

totals 166 L/D. He applied a safety factor of 15% to the fluid flow. He used the Fluid Flow Calc

v1.0 tool to calculate the pipe size required for the project.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Viscosity = 1.00 cP

Quantity of flow = 2,185 gpm

Fitting Total L/D values = 166

Length of Pipe = 1,500 ft

Pressure drop = 22 psi

Roughness factor = 0.0004 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Pipe inside diameter = 9.633 inch

Relative roughness = 0.0004983 /D

Reynolds number = 715,912 Re

Friction factor = 0.017 f

Pressure drop = 22.00 psi of fluid

a 10-inch diameter pipe with an inside diameter of 10 inches. Again, he entered the new pipe

size into the Fluid Flow Calc tool to determine the maximum flow with the limitations of 22 psi.

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Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Quantity of flow = 2,414 gpm

Total equivalent length = 1,638.3 (ft)

Relative roughness = 0.00048 /D

Reynolds number = 761,916 Re

Friction factor = 0.017 f

Pressure drop = 22.14 psi of fluid

plant growth capacity of only 229 gpm.

Therefore, the engineer looked at a 12-inch pipe

to allow for plant growth and he used the Fluid

Flow tool to determine the maximum pressure

drop through this pipe size and maximum flow of

3,900 gpm.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Quantity of flow = 3,900 gpm

Pipe inside diameter = 12.0 inches

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Total equivalent length = 1,666.0 (ft)

Relative roughness = 0.0004 /D

Reynolds number = 1,025,778 Re

Friction factor = 0.016 f

Pressure drop = 22.59 psi of fluid

be of adequate size to meet the current flow

requirements and future growth of the plant to

1,715 gpm maximum. The project manager

decided to accept the recommendations and install

a 12-inch pipe line.

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Page 24 of 36

A SunCam online continuing education course

Sample Problem - 5

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has new a sump pump with a capacity of 400 gpm with a

total dynamic head of 95 feet that needs to be installed in a 12-foot deep sump and pump the

discharge to a gravity sewer located 1,200 feet from the top of the sump at elevation 0 feet. The

discharge pipe will have 1 check valve, 1 gate valve, 10 90 degree long radius elbows and a

sharp edged exit discharged into the sewer. The pipe material will be schedule 40 PVC. The

velocity shall not be under 2 fps minimum and the maximum shall not be over 8 fps. See Figure

4 below for the geometry of the piping system.

Fluid properties are as follows:

Density

Viscosity

=

=

62.38 lb/cu ft

1.00 cP

Determine the pipe size for the above velocity restrictions and be within the total dynamic head

of the pump.

Figure - 4

The engineer for the project used a roughness factor of 0.000,005 , ft for the pipe, 135 L/D for

the check valve, L/D of 13 for the gate valves and L/D of 20 for the 10 - 90 degree elbows, which

totals 348 L/D. He used a K of 1.0 for the sharp edged exit to the sewer. He applied a safety

factor of 15% to the feet of fluid pressure drop. The total dynamic head less the 30 feet of static

head witch equals 55.25 feet of fluid pressure drop maximum (95 30) * 0.85 He used the Fluid

Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the required pipe size for the project velocity restrictions.

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Page 25 of 36

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Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Density = 62.38 lb/cu ft

Viscosity = 1.00 cP

Quantity of flow = 400 gpm

Fitting total K coeffs = 1.00

Fitting Total L/D values = 348

Length of Pipe = 1,200 ft

Pressure drop = 55.25 feet of fluid

Roughness factor = 0.000,005 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Velocity = 8.03 fps

Pipe inside diameter = 4.510 inches

Total equivalent length = 1,356.1 ft

Pressure drop = 53.61 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0000133 /D

Reynolds number = 279,977 Re

Friction factor = 0.015 f

a 5-inch diameter pipe with an inside diameter of

5.016 inches. Again, he entered the new pipe size

into the Fluid Flow Calc tool to determine the

pressure drop.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool New

Conditions - 5.016 inches in the Pipe inside

diameter

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Velocity of flow = 6.49 fps

Total equivalent length = 1,373.2 ft

Pressure drop = 32.40 feet of fluid

Relative roughness = 0.0000120 /D

Reynolds number = 251,734 Re

Friction factor = 0.015 f

Total Static head

hs = 30

Total Pump Head

Th = hs + hf

Th = 30 + 32.40 + (32.40 * .15%)

Th = 67.26 Feet of fluid < 95 feet

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A SunCam online continuing education course

Sample Problem 6

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has a new 8-inch S.A.E 70 Lube Oil line that will supply

600 barrels per hour through 200 feet of Schedule 40 pipe 8-inch pipe, in which an 8-inch

conventional globe valve is installed.

Fluid properties are as follows:

Density

Viscosity

=

=

56.2 lb/cu ft

470 cP

The engineer for the project used a pipe inside diameter of 7.891 in, roughness factor of

0.00015 , ft and L/D of 340 for the globe valve and used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to

calculate the total equivalent length of pipe, relative roughness, Reynolds number, friction factor

and pressure drop.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Viscosity = 470 cP

Quantity of flow = 600 (B)

Pipe Diameter = 7.891 (in)

Fitting Total L/D values = 340

Length of Pipe = 200 ft

Roughness Factor = 0.00015 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Relative roughness = 0.0002281 /D

Reynolds number = 322 Re

Friction factor = 0.199 f

Pressure drop = 9.69 feet of fluid

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Sample Problem 7

The Kentucky Water Processing Plant has a system that needs to pump 2.5 cfs of water at 50 oF

from a reservoir with an elevation of 50 feet and needs to pump the water to a reservoir with an

elevation of 150 feet. The suction pipe to the pump is 8 inches diameter with a length of 1,000

feet and the discharge pipe is 6 inches diameter and is 2,000 feet long. The suction pipe has 1 gate valve, sharp edged entrance and the discharge pipe has 1 gate valve, 1 check valve, 12

90 decrees long radius elbows and sharp edged exit. The pipe material shall be clean cast iron

pipe. See Figure 4 below for the geometry of the piping system.

Fluid properties are as follows:

Density

Viscosity

=

=

62.38 lb/cu ft

1.3 cP

What is the maximum feet of fluid loss for the two pipes with and without the static head of the

system?

Figure - 4

The engineer for the project selected a roughness factor of 0.00085 for the pipe. For the fittings,

he used an L/D of 13 for the two gate valves, L/D of 20 for the 12 - 90 degree elbows, L/D of 135

for the check valve and used a K of 0.50 for the sharp edged entrance and a K of 1.00 for the

sharp edged exit. He used the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0 tool to calculate the pressure drop for the

two pipes.

The suction pipe total K is 0.50, L/D is 13 and pipe inside diameter is 8 inches.

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Page 28 of 36

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Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Density = 62.38 lb/cu ft

Viscosity = 1.30 cP

Quantity of flow = 2.5 cfs

Pipe Diameter = 8.00 (in)

Fitting total K Coeffs = 0.50

Fitting Total L/D values = 13

Length of Pipe = 1,000 ft

Roughness Factor = 0.00085 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Total equivalent length = 1,024.1 (ft)

Relative roughness = 0.0012750 /D

Reynolds number = 340,640 Re

Friction factor = 0.022 f

Pressure drop = 26.39 feet of fluid

pipe inside diameter of 6 inches.

Input to the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Density = 62.38 lb/cu ft

Viscosity = 1.30 cP

Quantity of flow = 2.5 cfs

Pipe Diameter = 6.00 (in)

Fitting total K Coeffs = 1.00

Fitting Total L/D values = 388

Length of Pipe = 2,000 ft

Roughness Factor = 0.00085 , ft

Output from the Fluid Flow Calc tool

Total equivalent length = 2,215.8 (ft)

Relative roughness = 0.0017000 /D

Reynolds number = 454,187 Re

Friction factor = 0.023 f

Pressure drop = 255.4 feet of fluid

26.39 + 255.4 = 281.79 ft

The total feet of fluid loss with the static head of

the system = (150-50) + 281.79 or 381.79 ft.

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Page 29 of 36

A SunCam online continuing education course

Conclusion

The objective for this course has been to develop a better understanding of the use of DarcyWeisbach equation for flow of fluids in piping systems and to give attendees a new tool for

salving problems and answering questions.

With the use of calculators and computers along with software the Darcy-Weisbach equation

should be considered the standard predictor of flow in pipes and now the Fluid Flow Calc v1.0

Tool makes it easier to use the Darcy-Weisbach equation along with the appropriate other

equations in this course than ever before.

A final word of caution: Never rely entirely on this or any software package to give you the final

answers to engineering questions. Use it to optimize and explore nut than perform your own

computations to verify and cross-check results. As a professional engineer our profession exists

to protect the safety, well-being and other interests of the general public. So your integrity is

being viewed when performing computations and designed.

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Page 30 of 36

A SunCam online continuing education course

Appendix A

Physical Properties of Water

Specific

Weight

Weight

Temperature

Volume

Pound per

Density

of Water

Cu

Gallon

lb/cu ft

ft/pound

32

0.01602

62.42

8.345

40

0.01602

62.42

8.345

50

0.01603

62.38

8.340

60

0.01604

62.34

8.334

60

0.01606

62.27

8.325

80

0.01608

62.19

8.314

90

0.01610

62.11

8.303

100

0.01613

62.00

8.289

110

0.01617

61.84

8.267

120

0.01620

62.73

8.253

130

0.01625

61.54

8.227

140

0.01629

61.39

8.207

150

0.01634

61.20

8.182

160

0.01639

61.01

8.156

170

0.01645

60.79

8.127

180

0.01651

60.57

8.098

190

0.01657

60.35

8.068

200

0.01663

60.13

8.039

Note: Weight per gallon is based on 7.48 gallons per cubic feet

Specific gravity of water at 60 oF = 1.00

Weight Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids

Temp

Weight

Specific

Liquid

Deg.

Density

Gravity

F

lb/cu ft

Mile

..

64.2 to 64.6

.

Olive Oil

59

57.30

0.919

SAE 10 Lube

60

54.64

0.876

SAE 30 Lube

60

56.02

0.898

SAE 70 Lube

60

57.12

0.916

Table 2 Weight Density and Specific Gravity of Liquids

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Viscosity of Liquids

Liquid

Water

Gasoline

Kerosene

Bunker C Fuel

Fuel 5 (Max) or 6 (Min)

SAE 10 Lube

SAE 30 Lube

SAE 70 Lube

Centipoise cP

1.10

0.62

2.2

1500

300

95

450

2000

Temp

Deg. F

60

60

60

100

80

60

60

80

Relative Roughness of Pipe Materials

Material

Glass, new commercial pipe surfaces, drawn typing

(brass, copper, lead)

Asphalted cast iron

Cast iron

Commercial steel or wrought iron

Concrete

Drawn Tubing

Galvanized iron

Riveter steel

Schedule 40 PVC

Wood stave

e, ft

0.000,005

0.0004

0.00085

0.00015

0.001 0.01

0.000,005

0.0005

0.003 0.03

0.000,005

0.0006 0.003

Service

Velocity Range (fps)

Pump discharge

8 12

Pump suction

47

Drain line

47

Header

4 15

Riser

3 10

General service

5 10

City water

37

Table 5 Recommended Water Velocity

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Normal Operation hr/year

Water Velocity (fps)

1500

15

2000

14

3000

13

4000

12

6000

10

8000

8

Table 6 Maximum Water Velocity To Minimize Erosion

Age of Pipe in Small Pipes 4-in

Large Pipes 12-in to

Years

to 10-in

60-in

New

1.00

1.00

5

1.40

1.30

10

2.20

1.60

15

3.60

1.80

20

5.00

2.00

25

6.30

2.10

30

7.25

2.20

35

8.10

2.30

40

8.45

2.40

45

9.25

2.60

50

9.60

2.86

55

9.80

3.26

60

10.00

3.70

65

10.05

4.25

70

10.10

4.70

Note: Multiplies for use with new pipe loss. Use this table with extreme care.

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Resistance Due to Pipe Entrance and Exit

Type

Picture

Inward Projecting Pipe Entrance

K

0.78

0.50

0.23

0.04

1.00

1.00

Rounded Exit

1.00

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Page 34 of 36

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Equivalent Length in Pipe Diameters (L/D) of Valves and Fittings

Type

Description

Angle valves

with no obstruction in flat, bevel, or plug type seat

Globe valves

Gate valves

Check valves

Strainer

Butterfly Valve

Cocks

Fittings Elbows

Fitting Standard

Tee

Fitting Bands

L/D

145

200

with wing or pin guided disc

Wedge, Disc, Double Disc, or Plug Disc

Fully open

Three-quarters open

One-half open

One-quarter open

Conventional Swing

Clearway Swing

Globe Lift or Stop; Stem Perpendicular to Run or

Y-Pattern

Angle Lift or Stop

340

450

In-Line Ball

With poppet lift-type disc

With leather-hinged disc

8-inch and larger

Straight-Through

Three-Way

90 Degree Standard Elbow

45 Degree Standard Elbow

90 Degree Long Radius Elbow

90 Degree Street Elbow

45 Degree Street Elbow

Square Corner Elbow

With flow through run

With flow through branch

Close Pattern Return

13

35

160

900

135

50

Same as

Globe

Same as

Globe

150

420

75

40

44

140

30

16

20

50

26

57

20

60

50

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Page 35 of 36

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www.SunCam.com

Page 36 of 36

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