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GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture )
GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture )
GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture )
GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture )
GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture )

GENERAL ZOOLOGY (lecture)

Zoology - Gr. zoo +logus - study of animals - science that is concerned with
Zoology - Gr. zoo +logus - study of animals - science that is concerned with
Zoology - Gr. zoo +logus - study of animals - science that is concerned with
Zoology - Gr. zoo +logus - study of animals - science that is concerned with

Zoology

- Gr. zoo +logus

- study of animals

- science that is concerned with animal life

- broadest field in science

Branches of Zoology Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow) - study of structure and function of cell
Branches of Zoology Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow) - study of structure and function of cell
Branches of Zoology Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow) - study of structure and function of cell
Branches of Zoology Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow) - study of structure and function of cell

Branches of Zoology

Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow)

- study of structure and

function of cell

Branches of Zoology Cytology Gr. Kytos (hollow) - study of structure and function of cell

Embryology

Gr. Embryon- growing in - study of the

development of an

animal from fertilized egg to birth or hatching

adult, transformation to three years adult nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through
adult,
transformation to
three years
adult nearly
old
completed
sexual reproduction
(meiosis through
fertilization)
organ
cleavage
formation
tadpole
zygote
nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through fertilization) organ cleavage formation tadpole zygote
nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through fertilization) organ cleavage formation tadpole zygote
nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through fertilization) organ cleavage formation tadpole zygote
Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope
Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope
Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope
Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope

Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope

Histology Gr. histos, tissue - study of tissues as revealed by the microscope
dorsal surface midsagittal plane Anatomy Gr. anatome “dissect/separate” - study of structure of entire organism
dorsal surface midsagittal plane Anatomy Gr. anatome “dissect/separate” - study of structure of entire organism

dorsal surface

midsagittal plane

Anatomy Gr. anatome “dissect/separate” - study of structure of entire organism and their parts

posterior frontal plane transverse plane ventral surface
posterior
frontal plane
transverse plane
ventral surface

anterior

study of structure of entire organism and their parts posterior frontal plane transverse plane ventral surface
Parasitology Gr. Para - beside sitos – food - study of animals that live in
Parasitology Gr. Para - beside sitos – food - study of animals that live in
Parasitology Gr. Para - beside sitos – food - study of animals that live in
Parasitology Gr. Para - beside sitos – food - study of animals that live in

Parasitology Gr. Para - beside sitos food - study of animals that live in or another organisms at the expense of the host

Gr. Para - beside sitos – food - study of animals that live in or another
Molecular Biology - study of the subcellular details of animal structure and function

Molecular Biology - study of the subcellular details of animal structure and function

Molecular Biology - study of the subcellular details of animal structure and function
Genetics Gr. genesis – origin - study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from
Genetics Gr. genesis – origin - study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from
Genetics Gr. genesis – origin - study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from
Genetics Gr. genesis – origin - study of the mechanisms of transmission of traits from

Genetics

Gr. genesis origin

- study of the mechanisms of

transmission of traits from

parents to offspring

duplicated
duplicated

chromosome

chromatin

Physiology

Gr. Physis nature

- study of the function of

organisms and their parts

Physiology Gr. Physis – nature - study of the function of organisms and their parts
Physiology Gr. Physis – nature - study of the function of organisms and their parts
Physiology Gr. Physis – nature - study of the function of organisms and their parts
Physiology Gr. Physis – nature - study of the function of organisms and their parts
Physiology Gr. Physis – nature - study of the function of organisms and their parts
Ecology - study of the interaction of organism with their environment

Ecology - study of the interaction of organism with their environment

Ecology - study of the interaction of organism with their environment
Systematics - study of the classification and evolutionary interrelationships among animal groups

Systematics - study of the

classification

and evolutionary interrelationships among animal groups

Systematics - study of the classification and evolutionary interrelationships among animal groups

Paleontology

- study of fossils

Paleontology - study of fossils Fossil hunters find the fossil. They measure its 14C/12C ratio to
Paleontology - study of fossils Fossil hunters find the fossil. They measure its 14C/12C ratio to

Fossil hunters find the

fossil. They measure its 14C/12C ratio to determine the half-life reductions

since death. The ratio

turns out to be one-eighth of the 14C/12C ratio in living organisms. Thus the

mollusk lived about 16,000 years ago.

Fig. 17-4d, p.262

Entomology - study of insects

Entomology - study of insects Types of Insect Development Growth and molting egg young adult Incomplete
Types of Insect Development
Types of
Insect Development
Growth and molting
Growth and molting
of insects Types of Insect Development Growth and molting egg young adult Incomplete metamorphosis egg nymphs

egg

young

adult

Incomplete metamorphosis
Incomplete metamorphosis
Growth and molting egg young adult Incomplete metamorphosis egg nymphs adult Complete metamorphosis egg larvae adult

egg

nymphs

adult

Complete metamorphosis
Complete
metamorphosis
Growth and molting egg young adult Incomplete metamorphosis egg nymphs adult Complete metamorphosis egg larvae adult

egg

larvae

adult

Herpetology - study of amphibians and reptiles adult, transformation to three years adult nearly old

Herpetology - study of amphibians

and reptiles

adult, transformation to three years adult nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through
adult,
transformation to
three years
adult nearly
old
completed
sexual reproduction
(meiosis through
fertilization)
organ
cleavage
formation
tadpole
zygote
nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through fertilization) organ cleavage formation tadpole zygote
nearly old completed sexual reproduction (meiosis through fertilization) organ cleavage formation tadpole zygote
Protozoology - study of protozoa long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast mitochondrion eyespot nucleus ER
Protozoology - study of protozoa long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast mitochondrion eyespot nucleus ER
Protozoology - study of protozoa long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast mitochondrion eyespot nucleus ER
Protozoology - study of protozoa long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast mitochondrion eyespot nucleus ER

Protozoology

- study of protozoa

long flagellum contractile vacuole chloroplast mitochondrion eyespot nucleus ER pellicle Golgi body
long flagellum
contractile
vacuole
chloroplast
mitochondrion
eyespot
nucleus
ER
pellicle
Golgi body

Ichthyology - study of fishes

Cartilaginous fishes

Most are marine predators

Cartilaginous skeleton

Main groups:

Skates and rays

Sharks

Chimaeras (ratfishes)

Bony fishes

- includes 96 percent of living fish species

Three subclasses:

Ray-finned fishes

Lobe-finned fishes

Lung fishes

subclasses: Ray-finned fishes Lobe-finned fishes Lung fishes dorsal fins caudal fin pectoral fin (pair) anal fin
dorsal fins caudal fin pectoral fin (pair) anal fin pelvic fin (pair)
dorsal fins
caudal fin
pectoral
fin (pair)
anal fin
pelvic fin (pair)
Ornithology - study of birds Mammalogy - study of mammals
Ornithology - study of birds Mammalogy - study of mammals

Ornithology

-

study of birds

Ornithology - study of birds Mammalogy - study of mammals

Mammalogy

-

study of mammals

Invertebrate Zoology

- study of animals without backbone

Invertebrate Zoology - study of animals without backbone Vertebrate Zoology - study of animals with backbone

Vertebrate Zoology

- study of animals with backbone

Invertebrate Zoology - study of animals without backbone Vertebrate Zoology - study of animals with backbone
Animal Classification  Taxonomy - field of Biology that deals with classifying organisms - Systematic

Animal Classification

Taxonomy

- field of Biology that deals with classifying organisms

- Systematic Biology

- names, groups organisms according to:

a. Characteristics

b. Evolutionary History

Importance:

1. Universal system for naming and classifying organisms is

necessary to have clear communication among scientists.

2. Eliminate the use of common names and confusion in the scientific world.

 Carl Von Linne(Carols Linnaeus) - Swedish Biologist established a simple system for classifying and
 Carl Von Linne(Carols Linnaeus) - Swedish Biologist established a simple system for classifying and

Carl Von Linne(Carols Linnaeus)

- Swedish Biologist established a simple system for classifying and naming organisms

- Father of Taxonomy

- Hierarchy or Ranking System

- morphology

- established a system of groups called TAXA

- category into which related organisms are placed

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genera Species K ing P hilip C ame O ver
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genera Species K ing P hilip C ame O ver
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genera Species K ing P hilip C ame O ver
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genera Species K ing P hilip C ame O ver

Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genera

Species

King Philip Came Over For Grandma’s Soup

What is the Scientific Method? 27
What is the Scientific Method? 27
What is the Scientific Method? 27
What is the Scientific Method? 27

What is the Scientific Method?

What is the Scientific Method? 27

Scientist have to take the time to think logically when they are investigating a question or

problem.

to take the time to think logically when they are investigating a question or problem. 

Identification of the problem

 Hypothesis formulation hypothesis - tentative answer to question - scientific or educated guess that
 Hypothesis formulation hypothesis - tentative answer to question - scientific or educated guess that
 Hypothesis formulation hypothesis - tentative answer to question - scientific or educated guess that
 Hypothesis formulation hypothesis - tentative answer to question - scientific or educated guess that

Hypothesis formulation hypothesis - tentative answer to question - scientific or educated guess that can be tested

The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their
The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their
The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their
The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their

The next step scientists take is to create and conduct an

experiment to test their

hypothesis.

take is to create and conduct an experiment to test their hypothesis.  Hypothesis testing/experimentation 30

Hypothesis testing/experimentation

Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get
Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get
Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get
Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get

Once a scientist completes an experiment, they often repeat it to see if they get the

same findings and results.

repeat it to see if they get the same findings and results.  Hypothesis acceptance, modification

Hypothesis acceptance, modification or rejection

- verification, or checking things out to make sure everything is valid and will happen again and again

Generalization or Formulation of Conclusion

Based on Analyzed Data

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Are made up of cells

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made of
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Are made up of cells Unicellular – organisms that are made of

Unicellular organisms that are made of only one cell

Multicellular organisms that are made of more than one

cell Colonial unicellular organisms that live in a group

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Organization

condition in which parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and parts interact to perform specific functions

in which parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and parts interact to
Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism maintains thephysical and chemical properties two or

Molecule

Organelle

Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism maintains thephysical and chemical properties two or more

Cell

Tissue

Organ

Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism maintains thephysical and chemical properties two or more
Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism maintains thephysical and chemical properties two or more

Organ System

Organism

Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism maintains thephysical and chemical properties two or more

maintains thephysical and chemical

properties

two or more atoms bonded together

-several molecules bonded together will

form the building blocks of a cell

- small structures contained within a cell

- basic unit of all living things

- cell is a collection of organelles

functioning together

- group or aggregate of cells with similar structure and functions

two or more types of tissues that perform

one or more functions

several organs working together to perform a specific function

- made up of complex organ systems mutually dependent on one another

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Reproduce to produce new organisms

OF LIVING THINGS Reproduce to produce new organisms Sexual reproduction – two cells from different

Sexual reproduction two cells from different individuals combine to form the first cell of a new organism

individuals combine to form the first cell of a new organism Asexual reproduction – all or

Asexual reproduction all or part of the organism is used to make a new organism

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Growth and Development Growth – some cells get larger and other
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Growth and Development Growth – some cells get larger and other
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Growth and Development Growth – some cells get larger and other
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Growth and Development Growth – some cells get larger and other

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Growth and Development

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Growth and Development Growth – some cells get larger and other new

Growth some cells get larger and other new cells are added Development cells and body parts become specialized for certain jobs

cells get larger and other new cells are added Development – cells and body parts become
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Obtain and Use Energy from Environment Metabolism – ability to use
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Obtain and Use Energy from Environment Metabolism – ability to use
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Obtain and Use Energy from Environment Metabolism – ability to use
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Obtain and Use Energy from Environment Metabolism – ability to use

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Obtain and Use Energy from

Environment

OF LIVING THINGS Obtain and Use Energy from Environment Metabolism – ability to use energy to

Metabolism ability to use energy to perform vital functions

2 phases:

ability to use energy to perform vital functions 2 phases: 1.Anabolism – process of making complex

1.Anabolism process of making complex substances from simpler

substances

process of making complex substances from simpler substances 2.Catabolism – breaking down complex substances into

2.Catabolismbreaking down complex substances into simpler substances

complex substances from simpler substances 2.Catabolism – breaking down complex substances into simpler substances
complex substances from simpler substances 2.Catabolism – breaking down complex substances into simpler substances
complex substances from simpler substances 2.Catabolism – breaking down complex substances into simpler substances
complex substances from simpler substances 2.Catabolism – breaking down complex substances into simpler substances
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Autotroph – organism that can make its own food from it’s environment

Autotrophorganism that can make its own food from it’s environment

organism that can make its own food from it’s environment Heterotroph – organism that has to

Heterotroph organism that has to obtain its energy from another organism

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CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Respond to the Environment

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Respond to the Environment Stimulus – anything in the environment that causes

Stimulus anything in the environment that causes a reaction from an organism

– anything in the environment that causes a reaction from an organism Reflex – automatic response

Reflex automatic response to a stimulus

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Homeostasis – maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Homeostasis – maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Homeostasis – maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Homeostasis – maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Homeostasis – maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body.

Homeostasis maintenance of a relatively constant

environment within the body.

When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to
When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to
When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to
When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to
When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to
When your
body gets too
warm due to
activity or stress,
you will sweat
to cool it down.
When your body gets too warm due to activity or stress, you will sweat to cool