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Appendix A – Report Contents and Content

MONTHLY PROGRESS REPORT - Content

PREAMBLE - a cover sheet with key information on the works.

General - Period for the report, costs to date, monthly & cumulative progress of work, & assessments of progress and forward projections of progress plus actions required to achieve programme. Content of report with respect to quality, safety, environmental, visits, events etc.

Description of the works - brief description of the works in terms of overall project/scheme context, length/span, weights, volumes, areas etc plus start date, completion date duration and contract sum.

Contractual Organisations - tabular listing of Employer, Engineer, Architect, Contractor, others as appropriate (Nominated subcontractors, QS etc.).

1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Highlights of the month in terms of achievements, slippage in terms of safety, progress, quality and actions taken to correct any slippage. Include significant claims or variations. Can be itemised for larger projects under the following headings

1. Highlights/Synopsis - brief description of the month's work

2. Work in Progress - activities in progress on site, offshore, design, fabrication etc

3. Contract Status - in terms of overall progress against baseline/recovery programme. Rate of progress in monthly and longer-term view and required/promised measures to rectify. Table of planned key dates/milestones and those achieved plus forecasted dates. Schematic cartoon showing areas of work and progress (Progress Diagram) plus indicative photographs and Summary Progress Chart ('S' Curve and Major activities with percentages). Table of subcontractors etc.

4. Payment Forecast - comment on payment to date and effect on cash flow/budget

5. Claims & Variations - Number and status (rejected, under review, accepted).

6. Quality Assurance - departures or compliance

7. Safety - accidents incidents and follow up on previous incidents. General view on safety 'attitude' or awareness.

8. Environmental - compliance with codes/standards. Complaints and actions taken.

2.1

Achievements

Actual overall progress as a percentage compared with planned. Milestones achieved or significant events in terms of completed work or deliveries.

2.2

Works in Progress

2.2.1

Site Activities

2.2.2

Offshore Manufacture

2.2.3

Offshore procurement & Delivery

2.2.4

Design Activities

2.3

Contractual Status of Programmes

2.3.1

Works Programme - current programme and status, make-up/short term/recovery programmes for certain elements etc.

2.3.2

History of Submissions - past programmes, received dates and status (accepted/rejected/superseded).

2.4

Progress Assessment (CPM Analysis) - based on ? programme - to be stated

2.4.1

Milestones Achievement

2.4.2

Element of Work #1 - progress slippage, knock-on effect, overall situation

2.4.3

Element of Work #2 - progress slippage and knock-on effect, overall situation

2.4.4

Element of Work #3 - progress slippage and knock-on effect, overall situation

2.4.5

Critical Areas

2.4.6

Rates of Progress - Trends

2.4.7

Forecast & Required Rates of Progress

2.4.8

Overall Outlook

2.5

Workforce & Quantities

2.5.1

Contractor's Workforce on Site - by area and/or trade

2.5.2

Analysis of Workforce - actual, planned and required

2.5.3

Quantities Placed to Date - planned vs actual by area and type (steel/concrete/caldding)

2.6

Issues, Actions & Status (those affecting or likely to affect the overall progress of works)

2.6.1

Issue - issue of principal concern,e.g. concrete strength, design information, rates of progress, labour force, offshore procurement etc. Action - what has been done / what is being done / what needs to be done Status - effectiveness of action taken, when action will be taken

2.7

Claims & Variations

Numerical listing of claims notified and status. Identifaction of claims by title plus time &/or cost related. Extension(s) of time plus effect on key dates etc included as a Table

2.9

Quality assurance & Inspection

2.9.1

Documentation

2.9.2

Programme

2.9.3

Review of ITP / Procedures

2.10

Safety

2.10.1

Accidents & Incidents

2.10.2

Safety Risks - reviewed against programme

2.10.3

Safety Plan - updates

2.10.4

Meetings

2.10.5

Inspections

2.10.6

Accident statistics

2.11

Environmental Issues

2.11.1

Water - Status/Equipment/Monitoring/Compliance/Complaints

2.11.2

Air

2.11.3

Noise

2.12

Materials

2.12.1

Laboratory

2.12.2

Quality Control

2.12.3

Test Results - by Material ; Number/compliance/deviations/Action

3.0

COST STATUS

3.1

Financial Summary

3.2

Tender Total & Estimated Final Contract Sum

3.3

Variation Orders

3.3.1

Pending

3.3.2

Issued

3.5

Estimated Payment Forecasts

3.6

Claims Notifications, Settlements & Resolutions

4.0

APPENDICES

Management Control Reports (Current Month Only)

4.1 Incoming Correspondence Log

4.2 Outgoing Correspondence Log

4.3 Submissions Control Log

4.4 Request For Information Log

4.5 Critical Action / Approval Log

4.6 Quality Assurance Documentation Log

4.7 Quality Assurance Surveillance Report Log

4.8 Accident Statistics

Programme Control Reports

4.9 Activities Completed This Period (w/finish variance)

4.10 Activities started This Period (w/start variance)

4.11 Planned Start Slippage Report

4.12 Planned Finish Slippage Report

4.13 Activities in Progress & 3 Month Programme

4.14 Site Activities Not Completed -Past Due

4.15 Physical Progress reports by Cost Centre

Cost Control Reports

4.16 Cost summary report by Cost Centre

4.17 Payment Obligations Forecast Report

4.18 Claims Control Log

4.19 Variation Order Log

4.20 Interim Payment Schedule Milestone Report

Short Listing Of Tenderers

CONFIDENTIAL

PROCUREMNT MEETING DATE OF MEETING :

16 APRIL 1998

Item No

SUBJECT

:

CONTRACT xxxx TITLE

SUBMITTED FOR

:

INFORMATION

PREPARED BY

:

MALCOLM PEART TENDER CO-ORDINATOR (contact)

VETTED BY

:

NAME

 

APPOINTMENT TITLE & CONTACT

ENDORSED BY

:

NAME APPOINTMENT TITLE & CONTACT

DATE OF SUBMISSION

:

DD MONTH YYYY

SHORTLISTING OF TENDERERS

AIM

1.

The aim of this paper is to inform xx that aaa of the bbb prequalified tenderers for Contract xyz have been shortlisted for detailed evaluation.

SCOPE OF CONTRACT

2

Contract xyz is for the construction of 3.5km of twin bored tunnels together with associated transition structures and cut and cover tunnels, an on-line substation and two ventilation/escape shafts together with utility diversions and canal diversion works. The contract also includes for the co-ordination of and attendance on the System Wide Contractors including construction and maintenance of the Staging Area.

TENDERS RECEIVED

3

Tenders were called on dd Month yyyy. At the tender closing date of dd month yyyy 1998 xx of the yyy prequalified contractors submitted their bids as follows:-

A

$zzzzzzzzzzz

B

$ddddddddddd

A copy of the Schedule of tenders received is included in Appendix 1.

4 A of the contractors did not submit tenderers. B withdrew during the tendering period and C withdrew prior to tenders being let. The A companies in question were:

aaaaa

bbbbb

withdrew prior to tender withdrew during tender

withdrew prior to tender withdrew during tender

ESTIMATED COST

5 The estimated cost of the contract based on the Client’s evaluation is $.

EVALUATION

6 The Tender Committee comprising ABCD and the Tender Evaluation Team met on dd Month yyyy to review the xx tenders and received the report of the Tender Evaluation Team.

7 A brief summary of the tenders received is given below and a summary is included in Appendix

II.

XXXXX

8 The tender sum for XXX is $ with a NPV of $. A number of alternatives have been proposed by the tenderer which would result in a tender price of $ (NPV of $) if all were accepted.

9 The tenderers’ alternative offer comprises the following:

a)

b)

c)

The only alternative considered viable at this time is the ------- which results in a saving of $.

10 No conditions were imposed by this tenderer. The tenderer is in agreement with the Authority’s interpretation of the ground conditions.

11 The tender submission is generally compliant with the client’s requirements and provides all of the items required by the Instructions to Tenderers with the exception of zzzzz. The submission lacks detail in respect of some major technical items and details of middle management on site and technical operatives.

12 The proposed Staging Area arrangement in respect of ground levels is unacceptable as it does not comply with the requirements of the Contract. In terms of programme the submission is generally compliant with the exception that some activities extend beyond Basic Structure Completion and the commencement of tunnelling is later than anticipated by the Authority.

YYYYY

14

No conditions.

15

The tender submission does not fully comply with the Instructions to Tenderers. The submission lacks information on and to a great extent does not comply with the requirements of the Tender. This will have to be corrected during detailed evaluation.

16

The tenderer’s programme is brief and is

CONCLUSION

42

Based upon the above analysis the following two lowest tenderers have been shortlisted for further evaluation:

a) AAA

b) BBB

Accident Investigation Aide Memoire (What, Why, When, How Where, Who)

Incident – “undesired event that could have resulted in personal harm, property damage or loss (near miss)”. Accident – “undesired event that results in physical harm to a person or damage to property”.

Facts

Interpretation

Recommendations

What happened (who was affected)

Why did it happen

How will it be rectified & How will it be prevented

Where did it happen

 

Who will implement changes/improvements

When did it happen

   

Factual Report

‘Immediate’ to 24 hours.

Location, date & time

 

Names of all parties involved.

 

Names of victims & how affected.

 

Description of damage

 

Description of incident/accident + sketches/images.

 

Description of events immediately prior to incident/accident.

 

Findings Report

Following Investigation

Determine contributory factors & root causes of incident/accident.

   

Develop recommendations to prevent recurrence and list actions required with identified parties & target dates

 

Discuss findings with personnel involved in incident/accident and those on the site at the time.

 

Follow Up & Close Out

 

Ascertain if actions have been taken and further recommendations as required.

 

Possible Issues to be addressed.

   

Braking performance

Supervision (experience)

Workers (drugs, alcohol)

Loads

Safety equipment fitted

Negligence/Attitude of workers

Train configuration & planned configuration.

Adequacy of alarms/warnings

Housekeeping

State of track

Signaling procedure.

Escape routes / hop ups.

Speed

Diary of events

Training records

Location of personnel

Tool box talks

Driver/operator certification.

Training/experience of personnel

Environment (ventilation, noise, temperature, gas)

Weather

Maintenance records & daily checks.

Safety precautions (chains, chocks, clips, buffers, gates, auto stop).

Procedures, Knowledge of procedures, relevant risk assessments.

Calculations for equipment including load, braking, stopping distances.

Speedometer on truck/loco.

Equipment breakdowns, availability, malfunctions.

Visibility

Risk assessments for runaway (loco ops), segment handling.

 

Incident Investigation Aide Memoire – Ground Loss, Settlement, Movement (What, Why, When, How Where, Who)

Incident – “undesired event that could have resulted in personal harm, property damage or loss (near miss)”. Accident – “undesired event that results in physical harm to a person or damage to property”.

Facts

Interpretation

Recommendations

What happened (and any effects)

Why did it happen

How will it be rectified & How will it be prevented

When did it happen

How did it happen

Who will implement changes/improvements/repairs.

Where did it happen

   

Factual data.

 

Location, date & time

Chainage, Road, Building

Description of damage

Extent & magnitude. Photograph,

Depth of tunnel/excavation

Depth to crown of tunnel, relative locations. Geology

Extent of settlement/damage

Time/distance plot of settlement/TBM location. Contours. Volume loss & K factor.

Excavation history

D-wall panels, strutting loads/sequence

TBM history

Face pressures, grout volume, muck volume, stoppages, thrust, torque, screw speed, additives in graphical format.

Findings / Conclusions

 

Determine reasons for settlement

Over-excavation, face pressure loss, lack of grouting. Loss of trench stability, late strut installation, overload of strut. Incorrect excavation sequencing.

Develop recommendations to prevent recurrence and list actions required with identified parties & target dates

Changes to method, sequencing, design.

Discuss findings with personnel involved in incident/accident and those on the site at the time.

Check accuracy of daily/construction records.

Follow Up & Close Out

Audit, Management Review.

Ascertain if actions have been taken and further recommendations as required.

 

Possible Issues to be addressed.

   

Training/experience of personnel

Diary of events

Supervision (experience)

Maintenance records & daily checks.

Negligence/Attitude of workers Equipment breakdowns, availability, malfunctions.

Procedures, Knowledge of procedures, relevant risk assessments.

Management briefing in ‘difficult areas

Reviews of data (face pressure & actual settlement)

Risk assessments for TBM driving and damage.

Pre-existing Damage

Other activity in area

Adequacy of ground treatment/design.

Appendix B - Check List for Authors

The following checks should be made during the report writing process and must be carried out prior to submitting the report for review, compilation or checking. The list is comprehensive but not exhaustive.

Does the Title Page indicate the

title of the paper and any authors (if allowed/required)?

Does the Table of Contents contain

correct headings of each section or chapter

list of tables with correct reference/title

list of figures with correct reference/title

list of appendices

Does the Abstract/Summary

contain information that is not covered in the text (it should not)

cover the subject adequately

Does the Main Text

have a carefully designed structure

have all pages numbered

have all sections titled and numbered

have consistent headings and subheadings indicated

have headings and subheadings matching the table of contents

contain all due acknowledgements

Are all Tables

necessary

numbered consecutively

captioned in sufficient detail

consistent in presentation

correctly referred to in the text

checked for accuracy

labelled with units of measurement

designed to fit the text format (or included at the end)

correctly listed in the table of contents

Are all Figures

necessary

checked for spelling

checked for legends and correct use of symbols

numbered consecutively

captioned in sufficient detail

consistent in presentation with scale and axes as required

correctly referred to in the text

checked for accuracy

designed to fit the text format (or included at the end)

correctly listed in the table of contents

Are all Appendices

necessary

correctly titled

consecutively numbered/lettered

paginated

correctly referred to in the text

correctly listed in the table of contents

Does the List of References

contain all references cited in the text

have each reference correctly specified

have all references been seen (they should be avaialble)

Is the report produced to the required format with respect to format, font, spacing, numbering, word processor requirements etc.

Appendix C - Checklist for Referees

When reviewing or refereeing a report the anagram CRAP should be kept in mind. A good report should comply with CRAP but its content should be far from it. CRAP stands for:

Content, Relevance, Analyses and Presentation

Overview

1.

Is the subject presented logically?

2.

Have any pertinent points been missed?

3.

Does each sentence say what it means to say?

4.

Can anything be omitted without losing effect or coherence?

5.

Should anything be added to ensure coherence?

6.

Can the work be shortened? If so, how?

7.

Is the title suitable? Can it be improved?

8.

Are the tables and figures clear and unambiguous? Are they all necessary? Do they contribute to the text?

9.

Do the abstract, summary and conclusions express the content suitably?

10.

Is the work appropriate to the intended readership?

11.

Is the scope of the work met/

12.

Are all references that are quoted included in the section on references?

Organisation

Is it well organized

Are terms of reference/scope clearly stated

Is it logically developed

Are the conclusions sound

Are the recommendations convincing

Content

 

Is the content of the report adequate

Is it complete, correct and clear

Is the emphasis placed at appropriate points

Form

 

Is it well laid out

Are the visual aids adequate

Does the general layout assist the reader in following the argument

Style

Is the style of the required standard

Is the meaning precise

Are the sentences well constructed

Are the grammar and syntax correct

Details of presentation

Does the contents page show:

Correct headings and captions

A list of appendices

A list of tables, figures, drawings and illustrations

Does the main text:

Have the status of each heading matching that shown on the contents page

Acknowledge information taken from elsewhere

Contain material that would be better placed in an appendix

Does the reference list

Show the references correctly so that each may be found by the reader

Show the date of issue of the publication

Contain all the works cited in the text including those on figures, tables and appendices

Are the figures

Referred to in the text

Acknowledged if some or all of the information is taken from elsewhere

Oriented by a north point or some other means

Located by a town, street, grid liens etc.

Given a scale

Self explanatory

Captioned in sufficient detail

Placed after their mention in the text or included at end of report.

Are the tables

Referred to in the text

Captioned adequately

Placed after their mention in the text or included at end of report.

Do photographs

Have a scale

Have a ‘top’ indicated

Have a caption indicating where it was taken, direction of view, description of principal point of interest.

Are the appendices

Referred to in the text

Captioned adequately

Have all technical terms been adequately defined

Is there a need for a glossary of terms, abbreviations, symbols

Are all cross references accurate and relevant?

Have quotations from other works

Been checked for accuracy in spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and word order

Been correctly acknowledged and page number identified

Are all localities and names spelled correctly in text, figures and tables.

Appendix E - Style and Word Usage

Adverbs

Adverbs of time – ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ and ‘frequently’ relate to time rather than place. ‘There are frequent cracks in the concrete beam’ should use the phrase ‘many cracks’ or ‘cracks at 5cm to 15cm throughout the concrete beam’.

Partly and partially – ‘partially’ may be defined as ‘with fondness’ rather than ‘part of’.

Quite – means ‘wholly’ or ‘completely’ but is often used, incorrectly, to mean ‘very’ or ‘rather’

While – is an adverb of time but is often used as a conjunction instead of ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘though’ and ‘whereas’.

Adjectives

Adjectives are often misused and should not exceed their purpose, e.g. ‘very’, ‘excellent’ and ‘extremely’ are often exceed their purpose. Emotive adjectives should be avoided in technical writing as they can be construed as matters of opinion rather than fact

Alternative – implies a choice but is often misused for ‘other’, ‘new’, ‘fresh’ or ‘revised’ and should not be confused with ‘alternate’, meaning every other.

Approximate(ly) –means ‘very close(ly)’ and should not be used to mean ‘about’ or ‘roughly’.

Further, farther – ‘further’ implies time whereas ‘farther’ implies distance.

Just – is used as a rough indication of distance and efforts to give actual distances should be given.

Due – is an adjective and is commonly misused for the participle ‘owing’ as in ‘due

(owing is correct) to heavy rain the cliff collapsed’. time’.

‘Due’ means ‘due date’ or ‘due

Double negatives - In spoken English double negatives are used but in the written word they should be avoided. Two negatives make a positive and the statement ‘I did not do nothing’ which is intended to mean ‘I did not do anything’ is incorrect. The use of the phrase ‘It is not uncommon’ means ‘It is common’ but implies that it is usual, most of the time or under normal circumstances. Whilst double negatives (when used correctly) are sometimes acceptable in speech or less formal writing they should be avoided in reports. Similarly question asked in a negative sense such as ‘Haven’t you done that?’ (Have you not done that’ can prompt replies of ‘No’ or ‘Yes’. ‘No’ can mean ‘I have done it’ (correct) or, incorrectly ‘No, I have not done it’ while ‘Yes’ can mean ‘Yes. I haven’t

done it’ (correct) ‘Yes, I have done it’. If seems confusing – it is. So the rule is ‘do not use double negatives’.

Everyday – is an adjective describing an activity or event that takes place every day or is routine or normal.

Former and latter – are often used but the reader can be confused. It is better to repeat words, particularly if the reader has to refer back through the text. ‘Former’ and ‘latter’ should not be used if here are more than two nouns to which former and latter can refer.

Important – is generally misused unless it accompanies a term showing why or how the thing is important, e.g. ‘commercially important’. Words such as ‘abundant’ or ‘conspicuous’ or ‘tall’ can replace ‘important’.

Get or got or gotten – have many meanings including obtain, procure, earn, achieve, attain but is often used as a catchall. The English language has many alternative verbs and more precise words than ‘get’.

Limited – should be used in the sense of ‘restricted’ and not as a synonym for ‘small’. Use ‘few’ instead of ‘a limited number of’ and ‘not useful’ instead of ‘of limited use’.

One – is often used unnecessarily in sentences such as ‘the problem is (a) difficult (one)’.

Practical/practicable – ‘practical’ means ‘useful in practice’ whereas ‘practicable means feasible or able to be done’ but both may be appropriate on occasion.

Significant – has a precise meaning of ‘important’ or ‘revealing’ and should not be used as a synonym for ‘considerable’ or ‘large’ when describing numbers or quantities.

Located, Situated and present – are often superfluous as in ‘the site is (located, situated) 2km from the road’ and ‘the people (present) in the office’.

Unique – is sometimes used to mean exceptional. Unique means ‘having no equal and as such a thing cannot be ‘rather unique’.

Various – means ‘different’ or ‘diverse’ but is used to mean ‘many’ or ‘several’.

Conjunctions

Conjunctions join words, clauses or phrases.

‘but’ if it is felt by the author that such conjunctions reinforce what is being said or emphasizes objections.

Sentences may be started with ‘and’ or

Since – should be restricted to its primary meaning of a sequence of time (e.g. since the start of the project) and writers should use ‘because’ or ‘as’ (the other meanings of ‘since’) to prevent momentary ambiguity by the reader.

Nouns

Case or instance – are often superfluous such as ‘in eastwards’.

some cases the roads head

Character, nature, conditions, purposes – are sometimes used where they only contribute to ‘waffle’ such as:

‘ the surface is (of an) uneven (character/nature). With proper drainage (conditions), the land could be used for farming (purposes).

Data – is the plural of datum. It is common to use ‘the data is’ but the correct usage is ‘the data are’.

Effect – is something brought about by a cause, a result. The government's action had no effect on the trade imbalance. Affect is a verb as in Inflation affects the buying power of the dollar.

Horizon -has no thickness but is often used to describe geological units with a thickness such as ‘beds’ or ‘stratum’.

Majority or major – in the context of ‘the majority of’ or ‘the major part of’ should not be used when ‘most’ would meet the need.

Phrases

‘Etc.’ – when used after phrases such as ‘for example’, ‘such as’, ‘including’, and ‘for instance’ ‘etc.’ is superfluous and improper.

Prepositions

Be wary of stringing prepositions together: ‘up to’ is acceptable; ‘of up to’ is not acceptable; and ‘of about up to’ is illiterate.

Many compound prepositions are clichés and should not be used in writing unless there is no simpler preposition available. Examples of compound prepositions are: as regards, as to, in connection with, in regard to, in relation to, in the case of, prior to, relative to, with reference to, with regard to. Many of the latter may be replaced with a single preposition such as ‘in relation to’ may be replaced by ‘for’, ‘over’ or ‘with’.

With – is commonly misused for ‘and’.

Never end a sentence with a preposition such as ‘with’, unless you have not anything else with which to end it. Of course the rule is not written in tablets of stone as was demonstrated by Winston Churchill when he allegedly corrected himself after breaking the rule and said ‘This is the sort of thing-up with which I will not put’ which, although grammatically correct loses meaning.

Pronouns

Pronouns are used to keep sentences brief and avoid repetitions of nouns but care should be taken as they (pronouns) are easy to misuse and misuse of them (pronouns) can lead to

a misunderstanding of a sentence or report.

The first sentence in a discrete section of a report should be complete and not rely on a heading or a previous section. ‘It’ ‘this’ and ‘those’ should not be used alone as it can confuse the reader and requires the reader to interpret the written word. ‘Which’ must also be used carefully.

It – is often used to anticipate the subject and can cause confusion. Avoid commencing a

section or sentence with ‘it’ – be specific.

The use of ‘it’ at the start of a sentence can leave the reader momentarily confused if the noun to which ‘it’ refers is at the end of the sentence. For example ‘it is not practicable, in view of its size, to provide a bibliography’ would be easier to understand if the following were written ‘a bibliography is not practicable as there are too many references’.

That and which. ‘That’ is the defining or restrictive pronoun while ‘which’ is non- defining, non-restrictive or commenting. A defining clause is not placed between commas whereas a non-defining clause is placed between commas. ‘That’ is an awkward word because it is three parts of speech; a conjunction, a relative pronoun and a demonstrative pronoun, as in ‘I think that the drawing that we need is that one’.

Whose -can refer to things as well as persons.

Verbs

There are many problems associated with the use of verbs and some of the commonest problems are listed in this section

To be. The verb ‘to be’ is best used to indicate existence or position. If it is used as a principle verb it can make sentences feeble as in, ‘the strongest winds are (blow) from the north’. The verb ‘to be’ in forms such as ‘is’’ ‘it was’ and ‘there are’ are often used at the start of sentences but such a form can multiply words or place the subject of the sentence in an inferior position.

To occur – means ‘to exist’, ‘to be present’ or ‘to be found’. ‘Occur’ is often used in place of more applicable verbs such as ‘trees occur (grow) in the valley’. Efforts should be made to use the appropriate, definitive verb.

Pomposity. The pompous writer uses ‘expensive’ verbs. He does not go somewhere, he proceeds: he never does anything, he conducts it or carries it out; he never starts something, he commences or initiates it; he never ends something; he terminates it or uses the passive tense and ‘causes nit to be terminated’.

Animate/inanimate. Some writers ascribe human qualities to inanimate things such as ‘the rock mass suffered deformation’ rather than ‘the rock mass was deformed’ or ‘underwent deformation’.

Range, vary – are not synonyms. Range is used to express gradations in space, as in ‘the thickness ranges from 200mm to 500mm’ or, less commonly, time. ‘Vary’ is used to indicate fluctuations in time as in ‘the river flow varies with the seasons’.

Singular and plural verbs. The general rule is that if the subject is treated as a single unit then the singular is used as in, ‘100 cubic metres of concrete was placed’ or ’15 concrete trucks were used’.

Split infinitive – in which ‘to’ is separated from the verb to which it relates by an adverb or other word should be avoided although, in some cases a split infinitive reads better, as in ‘to boldly go’.

Develop – is sometimes used to mean ‘build ’, or ‘mine (gold etc.)’ rather than seeking the apt verb.

Following – is not a preposition but is sometimes used for ‘after’ as in ‘following (after) the rain there region was flooded

Appendix D - Referencing

Newspapers - use the newspaper name with ‘the’ omitted and the date (Times, 24 Feb. 2003). If the author is known then the author-date should be used.

Personal Communication – an entry in the List of References is not required but the reference should be included within the text as in (Strange, A. 1996, pers.comm. 23 March)

Anonymous Works – if the author is not known then the title of the article in italics should be included as in (The Internet as a Reference Source, 1999).

Unavailable Publication Date – if the date is unknown then ‘n.d’ (no date) may be used or ‘c’ (circa) if an approximate date can be ascertained.

Organisations – often there may be no specific author but the sponsoring organisation may be available, this is particularly true of government or governing body publications.

Books – the following general format should be used: <author surname>, <author initials> <year of publication>, <title of publication>, volume number if applicable>, <edition if applicable>, editor, reviser, compiler or translator if other than author>, <publisher>, <place of publication>, <pages if applicable>. For example:

Gilbreath R.D., 1986, Winning at Project Management – What Works, What Fails and Why, Wiley, New York in Cleland D.I., 1999, Project Management – Strategic Design & Implementation, McGraw-Hill, Singapore, pp308 – 313.

Ong A.C.L., Kong S.P., Lim C.K., Tiwari R.S., Kwong A.K.S. & Quah A.T.M., 2000, Your guide to e-commerce Law in Singapore, Drew & Napier, Singapore.

Journals and Proceedings – the same format for ‘book’ references is required except that the title of the article is shown in single quotes as follows:

Larson, E.W. & Gobeli D.H. 1987, ‘Matrix management: Contradictions and insights’, California Management Review, vol XXXIX, no4, Summer, pp 126-

138.

Menon, A.P.G. & Chin K.K, 1998, ‘The Making of Singapore's Electronic Road Pricing System’, Proceedings of the International Conference on Transportation into the Next Millenium, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 9-11 Sept 1998, pp.35-42

Electronic references – in order to reference electronic articles the same format as for books should be used with the following exceptions:

CD-ROM books should include [CD-ROM] after the title of the book together with the accession number of the article.

Internet sites should include [online] after the title and the address of the web site and the date accessed.

An example of a reference to an electronic article is shown below:

Clinton, W.J. & Gore A. 1996, Framework for Global Electronic Commerce,

http://library.findlaw.com/scipts/getfile.pl?file=/federal/ftc/ftc000187.html

[Accessed 23 September 2000]

Personal e-mail messages should be referenced as <Sender> <(sender’s e-mail address)>, <date message was sent>, <Subject of message>,<’e-mail to name of recipient’>,<recipient’s e-mail address>.

Appendix F - Punctuation

Full Stop

The full stop, or period, is required at the end of sentences and constitute an opportunity

to take a full breath after having made a point. Sentences must convey meaning and not

create ambiguity and, to this end should not be too short nor teutonically lengthy. Full stops are also used after abbreviations with the following exceptions:

When the last letter forms part of the abbreviation, Mr, Dr (but Prof.).

After symbols or abbreviations of units of measurement, Fe, Cu, pH, kHz,

m.

After certain countries or states, USA, UAE, UK.

Well-known organisations, UN, IBM, UNESCO.

Full stops are not used after headings, unless they are used in running text, or table

headings, but are used at the end of figure captions.

Colon

A

colon is deemed by some writers to be less than a full stop and more than a semicolon;

in

effect a three-quarter breath. In general the colon is used in the following manner:

Preceding a listing of items

Preceding an explanation or elaboration

In ratios – at a scale of 1:10,000

Semicolon

The semicolon marks a break of intermediate strength between a comma and a full stop;

in effect a half breath. Some specific uses of semicolons are as follows:

to separate clauses or phrases that already include commas.

before the following words: also, moreover, therefore, however, so, so that, consequently, that is, e.g., namely.

in a form of reference within the text.

Comma

Commas are used within sentences to separate phrases and clauses that form the sentence

to provide meaning or for clarity; in effect quarter breaths. The use commas is generally

a matter of common sense but thee are some generally recognised conventions that

should be followed:

a comma is used before the final ‘and’ and ‘or’ in any listing.

example is “the Bishops of Winchester, Salisbury, Bristol and(,) Bath and Wells”

A classic

which implies that, without some clerical insight, that there could be three or five bishops rather than the correct number of four.

a comma is used between adjectives preceding a noun but there is no

comma between the final adjective and its noun. In lengthy descriptions commas

are only necessary between adjectives that relate to the same attribute

commas are used to emphasise an adverb or adverbial phrase, The words

‘therefore, however, perhaps, of course, in this instance such as,’ etc. often have

commas after them when they occur at the beginning of a sentence, or between commas when they occur in mid-sentence.

in

parentheses. (Mr X, the Minister of Information, addressed the audience and…)

pairs

of

commas

are

also

an

alternative

form

for

information

when clauses are descriptive or ‘commenting’ on an observation. (He

visited the site, which was outside of London, He visited the site just outside of

London).

use commas before conjubctions, particularly disruptive conjunctions such

as ‘but’ and ‘yet’ unless a stronger form of punctuation is used (full stop, colon,

semicolon).

as a reference within text, e.g. West, 1997.

commas should not be used with dates, except the day Thursday, 30 June

1997.

Commas may or may not be used within numbers and is dependent on a preferred or prescribed style. (e.g 23,000 or 23 000)

Hyphens

A hyphen is a ‘dash’ but without any space on either side. The use of hyphens is generally inconsistent but it is possible to indicate where they are used and where they are sometimes used.

Hyphens are used for

colour combinations

coining numbers, quantities and fractions

avoiding ambiguity such as ‘little-known locality’, which means a

‘locality that is not known well’ as opposed to a ‘little locality that is known’. Co-

ordinated can mean to assign geographic co-ordinates rather than ‘place in order’ or ‘bring into harmony’, hence no hyphen should be used.

aord divisions at the end of lines in typescript – to be avoided wherever possible

compound adjectives made up of noun, adjective or adverb, and a present

or past participle if they precede the noun they describe such as ‘northeast-

trending road’ rather than ‘a road trending northeastwards’.

compounds with ‘well’ or ‘ill’ when they precede the nouns they qualify such as ‘well-developed’ and ‘ill-defined’.

compounds qualifiers such as ‘high-level meeting’, ‘four-wheel-drive vehicle’, ‘hard-and-fat rule’, and ‘run-of-the-mill value’.

Where possible the hyphen should not be used

Dash

The dash is usually used in pairs for a parenthesis, that is, a grammatically inessential part of a sentence. In such sentences the sense remains intact if the material in parenthesis is removed.

The dash is also used to clarify or explain, usually at the end of a sentence such as ‘ the void ratio of the material is 0.35 – a typical value in such an environment’. The dash is also used to mark abrupt change in a description but where the topic remains related and in pulling together long sentences such as ‘geotechnical, civil, electrical and mechanical engineering and architecture – all are necessary in the design and construction of a railway station.’

Where possible the dash should not be used.

Apostrophe

The apostrophe is used where letters or numerals are missing or to indicate possession if used with nouns, not pronouns. Thus apostrophes may be used as follows:

‘the building’s façade’ or ‘its façade’ means ‘the façade of the buiding’. Note that it’s means ‘it is’ whereas ‘its’ is possession by ‘it’.

‘the world’s largest’ means the largest in the world.

‘The States’ lands’ means the lands belonging to the States, note the

apostrophe after States as ‘States’ is plural - States’s is incorrect.

Apostrophes are used to indicate missing numbers as in, ‘the ’14-’18 war’, or the “’66 world cup”. Missing letters such as ‘can’t’ for ‘cannot’ and “ couldn’t” for “could not”. It is preferred that apostrophes are not used and full descriptions are used.

Solidus

Solidus, or ‘virgule’ or ‘slash’ is used to indicate alternatives such as ’yes/no’, some abbreviations (km/h), and fractions or ratios in mathematical expressions. The solidus can also be used to in place of a hyphen to avoid ambiguity – ‘the Nepal/Punjab area’ ‘– Nepal-Punjab could imply a distinct region (the latter) rather than an adjoining areas (the former).

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks are used to indicate direct quotes from other authors or the spoken word. Such quotes can be paraphrased so that the original meaning is not lost but should still be referenced within the text to avoid plagiarism. Specific quotations should only be used if felt to be absolutely necessary.

Single quotation marks (‘) should be used rather double (“) quotes unless there is a quotation within a quotation. For lengthy quotes the quotation marks should be at the beginning of the quoted passage, the end of the overall quoted passage and at the beginning of each paragraph.

Quotation marks are also used to identify words or clauses used within the text to identify specific word to which the author is referring or emphasise that the word used may be not be used in its strictest sense.

Brackets (or parentheses)

Brackets are used as an aside, as a clarification or explanation. The text in brackets may be omitted form a sentence, or the entire text, without loss of grammatical meaning or sense. Examples of usage are as follows:

explanation - ‘Each pair is called a varve (Swedish, varv, a periodic

repetition) and sediments characterised by this annual banding are said to be

varved’

elaboration – the strength of eth clay is 20 to 30 kPa (very soft)

alternative – (or parentheses)

sub headings – (1), (2), (etc)

referencing other work or sections – (Smith, 1999), (see Figure 3)

geographical co-ordinates

Brackets can occur within brackets as can other punctuation. If a complete sentence is within brackets then the full stop is included within the brackets. If a sentence includes a sentence with brackets at the end of the sentence then a full stop must also be placed at the end of the sentence containing the parentheses.

Dots

Dots are used to represent intentional omissions from quotations. In such instances three dots are adequate and the reduced quotation must remain intelligible and be in context.

Italics

Words are italicized for Latin names, foreign expressions, some references to journals and to emphasise certain words or clauses.

Ellipsis (…) - It is used to show where words have been missed out when writing what a person said. It can also be used to show that there is more to be said but the person stopped at that point.

For example:

one day all Americans will live peacefully throughout the world at peace with all other world inhabitants So much more could be said

they will be

What are the fourteen punctuation marks in English grammar? They are the period, question mark, exclamation point, comma, semicolon, colon, dash, hyphen, parentheses, brackets, braces, apostrophe, quotation marks, and ellipses.

Sentence Endings

Three of the fourteen punctuation marks are appropriate for use as sentence endings. They are the period, question mark, and exclamation point.

The period (.) is, according to yourDictionary.com, “placed at the end of declarative sentences and other statements thought to be complete, and after many abbreviations.” For example:

• As a sentence ender: Jane and Jack went to the market .

• After an abbreviation: Her Mar . birthday came and went.

Use a question mark (?) to indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence. For example: When did Jane leave for the market ?

The exclamation point/mark (!) is used when a person wants to express a sudden outcry or add emphasis.

1. Within dialogue: “Holy cow!” screamed Jane.

2. To emphasize a point: My mother-in-law's rants make me furious !

The Comma, Semicolon and Colon

The comma, semicolon and colon are often misused because they all can indicate a pause in a series.

According to yourDictionary.com, the comma is “a punctuation mark (,) used to indicate a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence.” Additionally, it is used in letter writing after the salutation and closing.

• Separating elements within sentences: Suzi wanted the black , green , and blue shoes.

• Letter Salutations: Dear Uncle John ,

• Separation of two complete sentences: We went to the movies , and we went to the beach.

According to yourDictionary.com, the semicolon (;) is used to “ connect independent clauses and indicating a closer relationship between the clauses than a period does.” For example: John was hurt ; he knew she only said it to upset him.

A colon (:) has two main uses. The first is “ after a word introducing a quotation, an

explanation, an example, or a series and often after the salutation of a business letter,” according to yourDictionary.com. The second is within time expressions. Colons have been used throughout this article to indicate examples. Within time, it is used to separate

out the hour and minute: 12 : 15 p.m.

The Dash and the Hyphen

Two kinds of dashes are used throughout written communications. They are the endash and the emdash. According to yourDictionary.com, an endash is “A symbol (-) used in writing or printing to connect continuing or inclusive numbers or to connect elements of a compound adjective when either of the elements is an open compound, as 1880 - 1945 or Princeton - New York trains.

However, the emdash has more complicated grammatical use. The symbol of is used to indicate “ a break in thought or sentence structure, to introduce a phrase added for emphasis, definition, or explanation, or to separate two clauses,” according to yourDictionary.com. Use it in the following manner: We only wanted to get two birds but the clerk talked us into four pregnant parakeets.

A hyphen (- ) is the same symbol as the endash. However, it has slightly different usage

rules. Use a hyphen “between the parts of a compound word or name or between the syllables of a word, especially when divided at the end of a line of text.” Examples of this

in use include:

• Between a compound name: Mrs. Smith - Reynolds

• Within a compound word: back - to - back

• Between syllables of a word when text is on divided:

The thought -

ful girl brought cookies to her ailing neighbor.

Brackets, Braces, and Parentheses

Brackets, braces, and parentheses are symbols used to contain words that are a further explanation or are considered a group.

Parentheses (()) are curved notations used to contain further thoughts or qualifying remarks, according to yourDictionary. However, parentheses can be replaced by commas without changing the meaning in most cases. For example: John and Jane ( who were actually half brother and sister ) both have red hair.

Brackets are the squared off notations ([]) used for technical explanations. For example, yourDictionary.com uses them when you look up word definitions. At the bottom of each definition page, brackets surround a technical description of where the word originated.

According to yourDictionary.com, braces ({}) are used to contain “two or more lines of text or listed items to show that they are considered as a unit.” They are not commonplace in most writing, but can be seen in computer programming to show what should be contained within the same lines.

Apostrophe, Quotation Marks, and Ellipses

The final three punctuation forms in English grammar are the apostrophe, quotation marks, and ellipses. Unlike previously mentioned grammatical marks, they are not related to one another in any form.

An apostrophe (') is used to “ used to indicate the omission of a letter or letters from a word, the possessive case, or the plurals of numbers, letters, and abbreviations.” Examples of the apostrophe in use include:

• Omission of letters from a word: An issue of nat ' l importance.

• Possesive case: Sara ' s dog bites.

• Plural for numbers: Sixteen people were born on dates with 7 ' s in them.

The yourDictionary website defines quotations marks ( “” ) as “ Either of a pair of punctuation marks used primarily to mark the beginning and end of a passage attributed to another and repeated word for word, but also to indicate meanings or glosses and to indicate the unusual or dubious status of a word.” For example, whenever this article has copied direct definitions from yourDictionary, quotation marks have been placed around the item. Single quotation (‘') are used most frequently for quotes within quotes.

The ellipses is generally represented by three periods

demonstrated with three asterisks (***). The ellipses should be used in “writing or printing to indicate an omission, especially of letters or words.” Ellipses are frequently used within quotations to jump from one phrase to another, omitting unnecessary words that do not interfere with the meaning. Students writing research papers or newspapers quoting parts of speeches will often employ ellipses to avoid copying lengthy text that is

not needed.

) although it is occasionally

Appendix G - Abbreviations

A

 

H

 

alternating current

ac

hectare

ha

ampere

A

hertz

Hz

   

high frequency

HF

B

     

biochemical oxygen

BOD

 

K

 

demand

 
   

kelvin

K

C

 

kilo (prefix)

k

centimetre

cm

kilogram

kg

circuit breaker

CB

kilogram per cubic metre

kg/m 3

cubic centimetre

cm

3

kilogram per second

kg/s

cubic metre per second

m

3 /s

 

kilogram per square metre

kg/m 2

cubic millimetre

mm

3

kilohertz

kHz

   

kilometre

km

D

 

kilometre per hour

km/h

day

D

kilometre per second

km/s

decibel

DB

 

kilonewton

kN

decibel Active

DBA

 

kilovolt

kV

degree Celsius

°C

kilovolt ampere

KV A

degree fahrenheit

°F

kilowatt

KW

degree (plane angle)

°

   

diameter

Dia

 

L

 

direct current

Dc

litre per second

l/s

dissolved oxygen

DO

 

low voltage

LV

double pole

Dp

lumen

Lm

   

lux

Lx

E

     

extra high voltage

EHV

     

extremely high frequency

EHF

     

extremely low frequency

ELF

     

F

     

frequency modulation

FM

     

G

     

gallon

Gal

     

gallons per day

gal/d

     

gallons per hour

gal/h

     

gallons per minute

gal/m

   

gallons per second

gal/s

   

gram

G

   

gram-molecule

Mole

   

M

 

P

 

mega (prefix)

M

polyvinyl chloride

PVC

megabytes

Mb

potential of hydrogen

PH

 

megahertz

MHz

Pulverised fuel ash

PFA

megavolt

MV

   

megavolt ampere

MV A

R

 

megavar

Mvar

Reference

Ref

 

megalitre

Ml

   

megawatt

MW

S

 

metre

M

Square centimetre

cm

2

metre per second

m/s

Square kilometre

km

2

micro (prefix)

Square metre

m

2

microampere

A

Square metre per second

m

2 /s

microsecond

 

Square millimetre

 

2

s

mm

microvolt

V

   

milliampere

MA

T

 

milligram

Mg

Tonnes per day (metric)

t/d

 

millilitre

Ml

   

millimetre

Mm

U

 

million gallons per day

Mgal/d

Ultra high frequency

UHF

millivolt

MV

Unplasticised polyvinyl

PVC-U

chloride

milliwatt

MW

   
   

V

 

N

 

var

var

 

Newton

N

Very high frequency

VHF

not applicable

Na

Very low frequency

VLF

   

Volt

V

   

Voltampere

V A