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Anatomy and Physiology, 6/e

Rod Seeley, Idaho State University
Trent Stephens, Idaho State University
Philip Tate, Phoenix College
Respiratory System

Chapter Quiz
1 Which of these structures is a part of the upper respiratory tract?
A) bronchi
B) larynx
C) lungs
D) pharynx
E) trachea
2 Which of these is NOT a paranasal sinus?
A) ethmoidal sinus
B) frontal sinus
C) mastoid sinus
D) maxillary sinus
E) sphenoidal sinus
3 Which of these passageways opens directly into the nasopharynx?
A) auditory tubes
B) external nares
C) nasolacrimal ducts
D) paranasal sinuses
E) all of these
4 The structure that separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx is the
A) hard palate.
B) larynx.
C) fauces.
D) uvula.
E) vestibule.
5 The largest cartilage in the larynx is the
A) arytenoid cartilage.
B) cricoid cartilage.
C) corniculate cartilage.
D) cuneiform cartilage.

E) thyroid cartilage.
6 The true vocal cords and the opening between them are called the
A) cricoid cartilage.
B) fauces.
C) glottis.
D) thyroid cartilage.
E) vestibular folds.
7 Which of these structures prevents the movement of swallowed materials into
the larynx?
A) middle nasal conchae
B) epiglottis
C) vestibular folds
D) uvula
E) both b and c
8 Which of these structures has no cartilage around it?
A) primary bronchus
B) secondary bronchus
C) terminal bronchiole
D) larynx
E) trachea
9 Arrange the following structures in the correct order as air passes through them
traveling from the bronchi:
1. alveolar duct
2. alveolus
3. respiratory bronchiole
4. terminal bronchiole
A) 1,2,3,4
B) 2,3,4,1
C) 3,4,1,2
D) 3,1,2,4
E) 4,3,1,2
10 For inspiration during labored breathing, which of these muscles is NOT
A) diaphragm
B) external intercostal muscles
C) internal intercostal muscles
D) pectoralis minor muscles
E) sternocleidomastoid muscles
11 Visceral pleura is found
A) inside the terminal bronchioles.
B) on the surface of the lung.
C) on the walls of the thorax, diaphragm, and mediastinum.
D) in the trachea and bronchi.
12 Besides lubricating the visceral and parietal pleura, pleural fluid also
A) holds the visceral and parietal pleural membranes together.


prevents the lungs from overinflating.

helps fill the pleural cavity.
increases diffusion rates in the lungs.
prevents the lungs from leaking.

13 If alveolar volume increases, alveolar pressure

A) decreases.
B) increases.
C) is unchanged.
14 For inspiration to occur, barometric pressure must be __________ alveolar
A) greater than
B) less than
C) equal to
15 During expiration, the volume of the thorax __________ as the diaphragm
__________ .
A) decreases, contracts
B) decreases, relaxes
C) increases, contracts
D) increases, relaxes
16 Lung recoil occurs because of elastic fibers in the alveolar walls and
A) barometric pressure.
B) pleural pressure.
C) surface tension of the fluid that lines the alveoli.
D) surfactant secretion in the alveoli.
E) the pneumothorax principle.
17 Surfactant

reduces surface tension of the fluid lining the alveoli.

increases pleural pressure.
decreases alveolar pressure.
makes inspiration more difficult.
can cause a pneumothorax.

18 If a pneumothorax occurs, pleural pressure and alveolar pressure become

__________ barometric pressure.
A) equal to
B) greater than
C) less than
19 At the end of normal inspiration, which of these pressures is the most negative?
A) alveolar
B) barometric
C) partial
D) pleural
E) tracheal
20 Arrange the following events in the correct order as they occur during
1. air flows into the lungs

2. alveolar volume increases

3. thoracic volume increases
4. pleural pressure decreases
5. alveolar pressure decreases
A) 1,2,3,4,5
B) 2,5,1,3,4
C) 3,4,2,5,1
D) 4,5,2,1,3
E) 5,1,3,4,2
21 If compliance increases, lung expansion is
A) easier.
B) more difficult.
C) unaffected.
22 Which of these conditions produces increased compliance of the lungs?
A) airway obstruction
B) emphysema
C) fibrosis of lungs
D) pulmonary edema
E) all of these
23 Which of these lung volumes/capacities is the largest?
A) expiratory reserve volume
B) inspiratory reserve volume
C) residual volume
D) tidal volume
E) vital capacity
24 If a person's vital capacity is 4000mL, her expiratory reserve volume is
1000mL, and her inspiratory reserve volume is 2500mL, and her tidal volume
A) 3500mL.
B) 3000mL.
C) 1500mL.
D) 1000mL.
E) 500mL.
25 The volume of air that is available for gas exchange each minute is the
A) minute ventilation.
B) anatomical dead air space.
C) physiological dead air space.
D) alveolar ventilation.
E) total lung capacity.
26 Given this information:
1. tidal volume = 500 mL
2. residual volume = 1000 mL
3. inspiratory reserve volume = 2500 mL
4. expiratory reserve volume = 1000 mL
5. dead air space = 100 mL

6. respiratory rate = 20 times/minute

The minute ventilation for this individual is
A) 20.0 L/minute
B) 10.0 L/minute
C) 7.0 L/minute
D) 4.0 L/minute
E) 2.0 L/minute
27 Given this information:
1. tidal volume = 500 mL
2. residual volume = 1000 mL
3. inspiratory reserve volume = 2500 mL
4. expiratory reserve volume = 1000 mL
5. dead air space = 100 mL
6. respiratory rate = 20 times/minute
The alveolar ventilation (VA) for this individual is
A) 10.0 L/minute
B) 8.0 L/minute
C) 6.0 L/minute
D) 2.5 L/minute
E) 1.0 L/minute
28 If the total pressure of a gas is 700 mm Hg and its composition is 20% oxygen,
0.03% carbon dioxide, 75% nitrogen, and 5% water vapor, the partial pressure
of oxygen (PO2) is
A) 15 mm Hg.
B) 20 mm Hg.
C) 105 mm Hg.
D) 140 mm Hg.
E) 1600 mm Hg.
29 In which of these areas is the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) normally the
A) inspired air
B) alveolar air
C) expired air
D) pulmonary capillaries
E) tissue capillaries
30 The partial pressure of oxygen in the air is __________ than the partial
pressure of carbon dioxide; the solubility of oxygen in water is __________
than the solubility of carbon dioxide in water.
A) lower, lower
B) lower, higher
C) greater, lower
D) greater, higher
31 Which of these conditions causes a decreased rate of diffusion through the
respiratory membrane?
A) increased fluid in the lungs
B) decreased diffusion coefficient
C) decreased respiratory surface area

D) decreased partial pressure gradient

E) all of these
32 If pH decreases, PCO2 increases, or temperature increases, the amount of
oxygen bound to hemoglobin
A) increases.
B) decreases.
C) remains unchanged.
33 Oxygen and carbon dioxide move through the respiratory membrane and into
and out of cells by the process of
A) active transport.
B) cotransport.
C) diffusion.
D) exocytosis.
E) facilitated diffusion.
34 Most carbon dioxide is transported as __________ in the blood.
A) bicarbonate ions
B) carbamino compounds (including carbaminohemoglobin)
C) dissolved in plasma
D) carbon monoxide
E) carbonic acid
35 Which of these factors increases respiratory rate?
A) increased blood PCO2
B) increased blood pH
C) increased blood PO2
D) increased pH of cerebrospinal fluid
E) all of these
36 In the chloride shift, chloride ions exchange places with
A) bicarbonate ions.
B) sodium ions.
C) potassium ions.
D) hydrogen ions.
E) hemoglobin.
37 Hyperventilation produces which of these effects?
A) decreased blood PCO2
B) vasodilation of peripheral blood vessels
C) decreased blood pressure
D) increase in pH
E) all of these
38 The most important factor for regulating respiratory rate is
A) bicarbonate level in the blood.
B) oxygen level in the blood.
C) CO2 level in the blood.
D) urea concentration in the blood.
39 The Hering-Breuer reflex


inhibits inspiration.
stimulates inspiration.
occurs in response to changes in carbon dioxide in the blood.
both b and c

40 Which of these statements concerning respiration is NOT true?

A) Higher brain centers can modify the activity of the respiratory
B) A decrease in pH of the blood increases respiration rate.
C) The Bohr effect allows carbon dioxide to bind more easily to
hemoglobin that has released its oxygen.
D) An increase in carbon dioxide in the blood causes pH to decrease.
E) Low oxygen levels in the blood increase respiration rate.
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