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# Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

## ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS AND LOGIC DESIGN LABORATORY

[06CSEL - 38 / 06ISEL 38]
? SEMESTER B.E. [CSE / ISE]

## ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY MANUAL

ALONG WITH SIMULATION MODELS

## DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION

JAWAHARLAL NEHRU NATIONAL COLLEGE OF
ENGINEERING
SHIVAMOGGA - 577204

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

Experiment No 1.

## CLIPPING & CLAMPING CIRCUITS

Aim: To design and test the diode clipping (single or double ended) circuit for peak clipping
and peak detection.

Components/Apparatus required:
1) Diodes
- 1N4007
2) Resistor
- l0K O
3) Power supply (0 - 30V)
4) AFO
5) CRO

- 2 Nos.
- 2 Nos.

Theory:
These circuits are used to clip off portions of the voltages above and below certain levels
as per the requirements. So the circuits used to clip off unwanted portions of the waveform
without distorting remaining part of the waveform are called as clipping circuits. These are
classified into (a) Series clippers, in which the diode is connected in series with the load. (b)
Shunt clippers, in which diode is connected parallel to the load.

Design Procedure:
1. Diode shunt clipping above VR or Positive peak clipping :
Let the output voltage be clipped to say + 2V.
Vo (max) = + 2 V.
From circuit diagram of Fig. l(a),
Vo (max)=V? + VR
Where V? = 0.6V for Si diode, is cutin voltage.
VR=Vo (max) V? = 2 - 0.6 =1.4 V
The value of resistor R is chosen to be R=v((RfRr) .
Where Rf = diode forward resistance=10 O and Rr = diode reverse resistance=10 M O
R =v (10 x 10 x 106 ) =10 KO
2. Diode shunt clipping below VR or Negative peak clipping :
Let negative peak voltage to be clipped at say -2V
Vo (min)=-2 V; Vo (min) = -2V =VR V? and R= R=v (RfRr) =10 KO.
VR= -2 + 0.6= -1.4V
3. Diode series clipping above V R or Positive peak clipping.
Let the output voltage be clipped at +2 V.
Vo (max) =VR = 2V and
R=v (RfRr) =10 KO.
4. Diode series clipping below VR or Negative peak clipping :
Let output voltage be clipped at -2V
.
. . Vo (min) = VR = -2 V and R = 10 KO.
5. Clipping at two independent levels or Slicer circuit:
To obtain a slice of input voltage between 2V and 4V levels at its output. Let VR1 >VR2
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

## Vo (max) = 4V = VR1 +V? ; VR1 = 4 - 0.6 = 3.4V

Also Vo (min) = 2 V= VR2 - V?
VR2 = 2 + 0.6 = 2.6 V and R=10 K O.
6. Double ended clipper to generate a symmetrical square wave or squarer:
To generate a symmetrical square wave of VR volts. When Vi = Vm sin ? t
Vo (max) = 2V = VR1 + V?
VR1 = 2 - 0.6 = l.4V and Vo (min) = VR2 - V?
VR2 = Vo (min) + V? = -2 + 0.6 = -1.4V and R=10 KO.
7. Clipping circuit to clip the center portion and transmit the extremities of sinusoidal
signal:
Refer Fig. 7 (a)
To clip a sinusoidal wave between +2 V and -3V level
Vo = VR1 + 0.6V
VR1 = 2 - 0.6 = 1.4V
Similarly Vo = -3V = VR2 - 0.6 V
VR2 = -3 + 0.6 = -2.4V and R = 10 KO

Procedure:
1) The circuits are wired up for all the cases as shown in Fig. l(a), 2(a), 3(a), 4(a), 5(a),
6(a) and 7(a). A sinusoidal signal of 1 KHz and amplitude of 12 Vp-p (peak amplitude
should be greater than clipping level) is applied as input Vi from AFO.
2) Observe output waveform on the CRO and verify it with the given output waveforms.
3) Apply Vi and Vo to the X and Y channels of CRO and observe the transfer
characteristics of the circuit.

Results:
Output waveforms and transfer characteristics are verified.

CLAMPING CIRCUITS
Aim: To design and test the clamping circuits for positive and negative clamping.
Components /Apparatus required:
1) Diode - IN 4007
2) Capacitor - 0.1 F
3) Resistor - 100 KO
4) AFO
5) CRO
6) Power supply (0-30 V)

Theory:
Some times it is necessary to add a DC level to the AC o/p signal. The circuits, which are
used to add a dc level as per the requirement, to the ac o/p signal, are called as clamping circuits.
The capacitor, diode and resistance are the basic elements of a clamping circuit. The two types
are: (a) Positive Voltage Clamping, (b) Negative Voltage Clamping.
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Design Procedure:
1) Positive Voltage clamping:
a) Positive voltage clamping witho ut reference:
Given f = 1 KHz,
.
. . T = 1 ms
Choose RC >> T, Let RC = 10 T = 10 ms
Let R = v Rf Rr = 100KO
RC =10 ms; 100 KO x C =10 ms or C =0.1 F
This is same for all clamping circuits.
Vo =Vi + Vm. When Vi = 0, Vo = Vm Vi=Vm, Vo =2Vm; Vi= -Vm,Vo =0
b) Positive voltage clamping with positive reference:
Let Vo (min) = 2 V
And Vo (min) = VR - V?
.
. . VR = 2V + 0.6 = 2.6V
c) Positive voltage clamping with negative reference:
Vo (min) = 2 V; Vo (min) = VR - V?
.
. . VR = Vo (min) + V?
VR = -2V + 0.6= - l.4V
2) Negative Voltage clamping:
a) Negative voltage clamping without reference:
Vo = Vi - Vm
When Vi = 0, Vo = -Vm
Vi = Vm, Vo = 0
Vi = - Vm, Vo = -2Vm
b) Negative voltage clamping with positive reference:
Vo (max)
= 2V
= VR + V?
.
. . VR = 2V - 0.6 V = 1.4 V
c) Negative voltage clamping with negative reference:
Vo (max) = - 2V
= VR + V?
.
. . VR = - 2V - 0.6 = -2.6 V

Procedure:
1. The circuits are wired up for all the cases as shown in Fig. l(a1), 1 (b1), 1 (c1), 2(a1),
2(b1) and 2(c1). A sinusoidal signal of 1 KHz and amplitude of 10 Vp-p is applied as
input Vi from AFO.
2. Observe the output waveforms on the CRO and verify it with the given waveforms.

Result:
The output waveforms are verified.
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

Clipping - Shunt
XSC1

R1

10kohm

D1
1N4007GP

V2
6V 1kHz 0Deg

Vr
1.46V

## Diode Shunt Clipping above Vr (or)

Positive Peak Clipping

Output:

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Transfer Characteristics

Clipping Series
D1
XSC1

1N4007GP

Vi

R1

6V 1000Hz 0Deg

10kohm

Vr
2V

## Diode Series Clipping above Vr (or)

Positive Peak Clipping

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Output:

Transfer Characteristics

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

XSC1

R1
10kohm
1

G
A

Vi
6V 1000Hz 0Deg

D1

D2

1N4007GP

1N4007GP

4 VR1
1.4V

VR2
1.4V

## Double ended clipper to generate

a symmetrical square wave

Output:

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Transfer Characteristics

XSC1

R1
G

10kohm
A

Vi
6V 1000Hz 0Deg

D1

D2

1N4007GP

1N4007GP

VR1

VR2

3.4V

2.6V

## Clipping at two independent levels (or)

Slicer Circuit

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

Output

## Transfer characte ristics

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

C1
XSC1

100nF

Vi
5V 1000Hz 0Deg

R1

D1

100kohm

1N4007GP

T
A

## Positive Voltage Clamping

without reference

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

10

C1
XSC1

100nF

Vi
5V 1000Hz 0Deg

R1

D1

100kohm

1N4007GP

VR
2.6V

## Positive voltage clamping with

positive reference

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

11

C1

XSC1
G

100nF

Vi
5V 1000Hz 0Deg

R1

D1

100kohm

1N4007GP

VR
1.4V

## Positive voltage clapming with

negative refernece

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

12

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Experiment No. 2

RC COUPLED AMPLIFIER

Aim: To design single stage RC Coupled BJT amplifier and to determine the gain, frequency
response, input-output impedance.

## Components/ Apparatus required:

1) Transistor - BC 107B
2) Resistors
3) Capacitors
4) AFO
5) CRO
6) Power supply

Theory:
An RC coupled amplifier has moderately low input resistance (1 KO to 2 KO) and its
output resistance is moderately large (50 KO). It produces a phase reversal of input signal i.e.,
input and output signals are 1800 out of phase with each other. The circuit diagram in Fig. 1
shows a single stage RC Coupled amplifier using an NPN transistor. Here, base is the driven
element. The input signal is injected to the base-emitter junction and the output signal is taken
across the collector-emitter circuit. VB forward biases the emitter-base junction. VCC reverse
biases the collector-base junction.

Design Procedure:
Select transistor BC107B having the following specifications: IE =IC =2 mA, =215, VCE =5V
Selection of RE:
VCC = 10V;
VE = VCC / 10;
VE = 10/10 = 1.0 V
VE = IERE;
RE = VE/IE;
RE =1.0 / (2 x 10-3 )
RE = 0.500 KO;
Select RE = 500 O
Selection of RC :
VCE = VCC/ 2;
VCE = 10/ 2 = 5V,
loop,
VCC = IC RC + VCE + VE
RC = (VCC VCE VE) / IC
RC = (10 5 1) / (2 x 10-3 )
RC = 2 KO;
Select RC = 2.2 KO

## by apply Kirchoffs Voltage Law to output

Selection of R1 and R2 :
VB = VBE + VE;
VB = 1.7V;
VB = (VCC x R2 ) / (R1 + R2 )
1.7=10 x R2 / (R1 + R2 );
R2 / (R1 +R2 ) = 1.7 / 10;
10R2 = 1.7 R1 + 1.7 R2 ;
R1 = 4.8 x R2 ;
Choose R2 = 4.7 KO;
R1 = 4.8 x 4.7K;
R1 = 22.56 KO;
Choose R1 = 22 KO
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

13

## Selection of bypass capacitor CE:

Let XC E = RE /10;
At f = 100Hz, 1/ (2pfC E) = RE / 10
CE = 59F; choose CE = 50F.
Selection of coupling capacitors:
Select CC1 = CC2 = 0.47F
Procedure to find the Frequency Response:
1) Connections are made as shown in the Fig 1.
2) Find MSHC (Maximum Signal Handling Capacity is the maximum input at which the
output is undistorted) of the circuit.
3) Select the input voltage Vi of AFO such that Vi = MSHC.
4) Select the frequency of AFO around 10 Hz and note down the output voltage Vo .
5) Vary the frequency of AFO in steps till 100 KHz and note down VO in each step. Keep
the input voltage of AFO constant as selected in step 3.
6) Plot the graph of gain in db v/s frequency.
Procedure to measure input impedance Zi :
1) Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 3.
2) Set the potentiometer (10 KO) resistance Ri connected at the input to zero.
3) Select the amplitude of the AFO as in Step 3 of procedure of finding the frequency
response. Set the frequency of AFO at a mid band frequency, say 10 KHz.
4) Measure the output amplitude (say Va).
5) Increase the potentiometer resistance till the output voltage is Va/ 2. Then, the
corresponding resistance value Ri is the input impedance Zi.
Procedure to measure input impedance Zo :
1) Connect the circuit as shown in Fig 4.
2) Set the potentiometer (10 KO) resistance Ro connected at the output to zero.
3) Select the amplitude of the AFO as in Step 3 of procedure of finding the frequency
response. Set the frequency of AFO at a mid band frequency, say 10 KHz.
4) Measure the output amplitude (say Vb).
5) Increase the potentiometer value till the output voltage is Vb/ 2. Then, the
corresponding resistance value R0 is the output impedance Zo .

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

14

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Results:
Band width

: _________ Hz

Input Impedance

: _________ O

Output Impedance

: _________ O

OBSERVATION
Gain in db
3db

Band Width

f1

f2
Figure 2. Frequency response

RC
coupled
amplifier
circuit

Vo (CRO)

RC
coupled
amplifier
circuit

Ro

Vo (CRO)

## Figure 4. Circuit to find output impedance

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

15

Tabular Column
MHRC =
Sl. No.

Vi =

Frequency in Hz

Vo in Volts

Vo / Vi

Gain in db= 20
log (Vo /Vi)

Table 1.
Circuit diagram
e - Emitter
b - Base
c - Collector

c
b
e

notch
BC107

## Common Emitter Amplifier

XBP1
in

V2
10V

out

R1

Rc

22kohm

2.2kohm

C2

0
7

Q1
0.47uF

R3
G

22Mohm

V1
1mV 1000Hz 0Deg

XSC1

0.47uF

2N2222A

C1

R2
4.7kohm

1Re
470ohm

Ce
47uF

CE Amplifier

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

16

Output

## AC Analysis (Output voltage v/s frequency,

frequency)

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

Phase v/s

17

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Frequency response

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

18

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Experiment No 3.
MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS
Aim:

## To determine the drain characteristics & trans-conductance characteristics of an

enhancement mode MOSFET and to implement a CMOS inverter using p-spice.

## Components/ Apparatus Required:

1) MOSFET
2) Power supply (0-30V)
3) CRO

Theory:
1. The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Filed Effect Transistor (MOSFET) are majority
carrier devices.
2. MOSFET has three terminals: Gate (G), Drain (D), Source (S).
3. Voltage is applied between Gate to Source to turn On the MOSFET. When the
MOSFET is turned On, the current flows from Drain to Source.
4. The MOSFET can be turned Off by removing he Gate to Source voltage. Thus Gate
has full control over the conduction of the MOSFET.
5. The turn on & turn off times of MOSFET are very small. Hence they operate at very
high frequencies.
6. MOSFETs are mainly used for low power applications.
7. MOSFETs have very simple drive circuits.
8. MOSFET do not require commutation circuits.

Procedure:
1. Rig up the circuit as shown in Fig. 1.
2. Adjust the value of VGS=0V, and vary VDS and note down the corresponding ID.
Repeat the same for different values of VGS. Plot the graph b/w VDS and ID. This gives
the output characteristics. Refer Fig. 2.
3. Keep VDS=5V. Vary VGS and note down the corresponding ID. Plot the graph of VGS
v/s ID. Repeat the same for different values of VDS. This plot is the input
characteristics of MOSFET. Refer Fig. 3.
4. From the plots find the following parameters.
Drain Resistance r d=? VDS/ ? ID for constant VGS
Mutual conductance gm= ? ID/ ? VGS for constant VDS
Amplification factor ()= gm rd

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

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## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Results:
Static characteristics of MOSFET is obtained.
Amplification factor of MOSFET is calculated

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## VDSS Drain to Source breakdown voltage

Rds(on) On state Resistance
ID Continuous drain Current @ 250 C
ID Continuous drain Current @ 1000 C
Pdmax maximum Power dissipation @ 250 C

:
:
:
:
:

400 Volts
0.55 ohms
10 Amps
6.3 Amps
125 Watts

Circuit Diagram:

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

20

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Tabular Column
Output Characteristics
VGS = 0V
VDS V
ID mA

VGS = 0.5 V
VDS V
ID mA

Input Characteristics
VDS = 0V
VGS V
ID mA

VDS = 10 V
VGS V
ID mA

## To implement a CMOS inverter using a simulation package

& verify its truth table
For n-MOSFET

For p-MOSFET

D
G

D
G

S
nMOSFET: IRF530
Case : To220(F)
Ptot
: 750 watt
VDS : 100V
VDG : 100V
VGS(th) : +4V
IGSS : 500nA
IDSS : 1mA
gfs(ms): 3000
ID(max): 10A

S
pMOSFET: IRF9530
Case: To220(F)
Ptot
: 750 watt
VDS : - 100V
VDG : - 100V
VGS(th) : - 4V
IGSS : - 500nA
IDSS : - 1mA
gfs(ms): 2000
ID(max): -7A

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

21

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

CMOS inverter
VDD

5V

XLA1

M1

MOS_3TDP_VIRTUAL

V1
1000Hz 5V

M2
MOS_3TEN_VIRTUAL
F
C

Q T

CMOS Inverter

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

22

Experiment No 4.
SCHMITT TRIGGER
Aim:

## Components/ Apparatus Required:

1) OP-AMP - A74l
2) Resistors lK O, 12KO or 10 KO
3) Power supply (0 - 30V), ( l2V)
4) AFO
5) CRO

Theory:
There are the circuits which compare the input signal with reference signal, out of two
inputs, one is kept at reference voltage and a linear signal is applied to the other terminal. At
each time the Vi crosses reference voltage, output will change from one level to other level
+Vsat
Vref

Vi

--

A74l

## Vi > Vref, Vo = - Vsat

-Vsat
The input voltage Vi triggers the output Vo , every time it exceeds certain voltage levels
called the Upper threshold voltage (UTP) and Lower threshold voltage (LTP). The threshold
voltages are obtained by using voltage divider R1 - R2 , Where voltage across R2 is fed back to the
(+) input. When Vo = +Vsat , the voltage across R2 is called UTP and When Vo = -Vsat , the voltage
across R2 is LTP.

Design Procedure:
Design a Schmitt Trigger for upper threshold voltage UTP = 3V and lower threshold
voltage LTP = 1V and V sat = 12V
UTP = {R1 / (R1 +R2 )}VR + (R2 / (R1 +R2 )}Vsat

(1)

## And LTP = {R1 / (R1 + R2 )}VR - {R2 / (R1 + R2 )} x Vsat

(2)

.
. . UTP +L TP = 2R1 / (R1 + R2 )VR or 4V = 2R1 /(R1 +R2 )VR (3)

(4)

(5)

OR

R1 +R2 =12R2 OR

R1 =11R2

## Substitute (5) in (3)

.
. . 4V =2VR/(11 R2 +R2 ) x 11R2

Or

## 2 = 11R2 (VR) /12R2

or

VR = 2.18V

.
. . Choose R2 =l KO, R1 =11R2 =11KO, Select 10KO or 12KO
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

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## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Procedure:
1. Connections are made as shown in the Fig 4.
2. Apply sinusoidal signal of 10Vpp at 1KHz as an input from AFO.
3. Observe the output rectangular waveform on the CRO (DC mode) and measure UTP
and LTP and peak values of output.
4. Use X - Y mode to observe the transfer characteristics or hysterisis curve on CRO.
Measure UTP and L TP and compare it with the designed values.
(X - Channel-Vi, Y - Channel- Vo )
Result:
Theoretical UTP

: ______________

Practical UTP

: ______________

Theoretical LTP

: ______________

Practical LTP

: ______________

OBEVATIONS:
NC

NC

1
INV I/P
NON INV I/P
- VS

2
3
4

A
7
4
l

8
+ VS

7
6
5

O/P
Offset null

Vref

Vi

7 +12V
+

A74l

--

4 -12v

Symbol of A741.

## Pin details of A741.

Circuit Diagram

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

24

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Schmitt Trigger
0

V1
12V
XSC1

3
7
1
3

U1

VS+
BAL1
BAL2

5
6

XBP1

7
VS-

R1

741

in

out

11kohm

V2
1V 1000Hz 0Deg

R2

1.0kohm

V3

12V

Schmitt Trigger

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

25

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Transfer characteristics

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

26

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Experiment No 5.
Relaxation Oscillator using Op - Amp
Aim:

## To design and implement a rectangular waveform generator (Op-Amp Relaxation

oscillator) for given frequency.

## Components/ Apparatus Required:

1) Op-Amp A741
2) Resistors R1 =R2 =100KO, R3 =10KO (Variable Pot)
3) Capacitor C= 0.01F
4) Power supply (5V)
3) CRO

Theory:
Below figure shows the Op-Amp relaxation Oscillator. In relaxation oscillator noninverting i/p is biased at voltage (V/2) where V is the output voltage. The inverting i/p, chases
this value from below and when it reaches it, o/p voltage changes from one saturation level to the
opposite one. The o/p is a square wave, with a frequency of 1/ (2R3 C) and duty cycle of 50% if
the saturation levels are symmetrical.

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Circuit connections are made as shown n the figure.

Observe the o/p at pin no. 6 of Op-Amp.
Output waveforms are square waves.
Measure the frequency of the square wave and compare with the designed value.
Change R3 to 2R3 and once again measure the frequency of the output square wave.
Compare the present and past frequencies.

Design Procedure:
1. R1 and R2 can be of any value ranging from 1KO 1 MO and in this design let us
choose R1 =R2 = 100KO.
2. Let us also assume C = 0.01F
3. With reference to above mentioned theory, o/p of the Op-Amp is square wave with
frequency, f = 1/(2R3 C).
4. Now let us assume frequency f = 5 KHz.
Then
R3 = 1/ (2 x f x C)
= 1/ (2 x 5 x 103 x 0.01 x 10-6 )
R3 = 10 KO

Result:
From this experiment we can observe that when the resistor value (R3 ) is doubled,
frequency becomes f /2.

Circuit diagram:
Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

27

C1

R3
10kohm

10nF

V1

XSC1

5V
G
7

R1

100kohm

U1

VS+
BAL1
BAL2

5
6

R2

VS-

100kohm
4

741

V2
5V

## Relaxation Oscillator using Op-Amp

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

28

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Experiment No 6.
ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR USING IC555 TIMER
Aim:

to design and implement an astable multivibrator circuit using 555 timer for given
frequency and duty cycle.

## Components/ Apparatus Required:

1) IC 555
2) Resistors: RA=RB =7.5KO
3) Capacitors C= 0.1F and Bypass Capacitor C=0.01F
4) Power supply (5V)
5) CRO

Theory:
Popular analog-digital integrated circuit is the versatile 555 tier. The IC is made of
combination of linear comparators and digital flip-flops as described (in figure (a)). The entire
circuit is usually housed in an eight pin package as specified in fig. A series connection of thee
resistors sets the reference voltage levels to the two comparators as 2Vcc/3 and Vcc/3, the output
these comparators setting or resetting the flip-flop unit. The output of the flip-flop circuits is then
brought out through an amplifier stage. The flip- flop circuit also operates a transistor inside the
IC, the transistor collector usually begin driven low to discharge a timing capacitor.

Astable Operation:
One popular application of the 555 timer IC is as an Astable Multivibrator or clock unit.
The following analysis of the operation of the 555 as an astable circuit includes details of the
different parts of the unit and how the various inputs and outputs are used. Figure (a) shows an
astable circuit built using an external resistor and capacitor to set the timing interval of the output
signal.
Capacitor C charges toward Vcc through external resistors RA and RB. Referring to figure
(a), we see that the capacitor voltage rises until it goes above 2Vcc/3. This voltage is the threshold
voltage at pin 6, which drives comparator 1 to trigger the flip- flop so that the output at pin 3 goes
low. In addition, the discharge transistor is driven on, causing the output at pin 7 to discharge the
capacitor through resistor RB. The capacitor voltage then decreases until it drops below the
trigge r level (Vcc/3). The flip- flop is triggered so that the output goes back high and the discharge
transistor is turned off, so that the capacitor can again charge through resistors RA and RB toward
Vcc.
Calculation of the time intervals during which the output is high and low can be made using the
relations
Thigh 0.7 (RA+RB ) C

Eq (1)

Tlow 0.7 RB C

Eq (2)

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

29

## The total period is

T= period = Thigh + Tlow

Eq (3)

f= 1
T

## circuit is then calculated using

1.44___
(R A+2RB )C

Duty cycle:
The ratio of High output period to the total time (sum of High time and Low time) is
called as duty cycle.
Duty Cycle = (Thigh / T) x 100

Design Procedure:
We know that capacity voltage raises until [2VCC / 3] and remaining is discharging period
[i.e. [VCC/3]]
Now let us consider
T= 1.575 msec

## Now let us assume that Thigh is = 1.05 msec

Tlow

= T- Thigh
= 1.575 msec 1.05 msec
= 0.525 msec

## And let us also assume C=0.1 F

Then
Tlow = 0.7 RBC
=>
RB
= Tlow / 0.7 C = 7.5KO
Similarly Thigh = (0.7 (RA+RB) C
=>
RA
= (Thigh - 0.7RBC) / 0.7C
= 7.5KO
T= Thigh + Tlow = 1.05 ms + 0.525 ms= 1.575 ms
f= 1
T

1
1.575 x 10-3

~ 635 Hz

Result:
The given waveforms and duty cycles are verified.

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

30

Circuit Diagram:

VCC

5V

R1

XSC1

7.5kohm

U1
A

RST

7.5kohm

R2

VCC

DIS

OUT

THR
TRI

C2

C1
100nF

CON
GND
1

LM555H

10nF

## Astable Multivibrator using 555 timer

Output

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

31

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Experiment No 7.
Voltage Regulator using IC7805
Aim:

## Components/ Apparatus Required:

1) IC7805
1 No.
2) Resistors 10KO - 1 No.
3) Capacitor C1 = 0.01F, C2 = 250F
4) Transformer - Power supply
5) CRO

Theory:
The series 78XXXX regulators provide fixed regulated voltages from 5V to 24V. An
unregulated i/p voltage Vi is filtered by a capacitor C1 and connected to the ICs IN terminal.
The ICs OUT terminal provides a regulated +5V, which is filtered by capacitor C2 (for high
frequency noise) third IC terminal is connected to ground (GND). Whereas the i/p voltage may
vary over some permissible voltage range and o/p load may vary over some acceptable range ,
the o/p voltage remains constant with in voltage specified variation limits.

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

## Circuit connections are made as shown n the figure.

Observe the o/p voltage at pin no. 2(OUTPUT pin) of IC 7805.
Output is a regulated +5V.
Calculate the o/p ripple for different values of load current by varying value of C2 , by
making using the formula
r = (Vr (rms) / Vdc) x 100
5. then once again change the load resistor RL in order to get different load current and
one again calculate the ripple factor by making use of the above formula.

Result:
Output is a regulated +5V.

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

32

## Laboratory Manual Workshop on SPICE and VHDL / Verilog

Circuit diagram:

Pradeep H K, Dept. of ISE, Ajay Betur P, Dept. of ECE, J N N college of Engineering, Shivamogga

33