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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

EFFECT OF HUDHUD CYCLONE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF VISAKHAPATNAM AS


SMART AND GREEN CITY- A CASE STUDY
VR Sankar Cheela1, Ramesh raju B2, Gopala Raju SSSV3, KVGD Balaji4
1
2

Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering, Vizianagaram


Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering, Vizianagaram
3
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, MVGR College of Engineering, Vizianagaram,
E-Mail: sssvgopalaraju@gmail.com, Ph No: 9492229222
4
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam

Abstract
The present study discusses on preliminary survey on the awareness levels of different classes of people on disaster alarming and
management system. This provided fundamental initiative for developing a plan for green and smart city. 57% of the survey
included the participants from age group 15- 35 age and 43% from age group above 35 years age. 49% are from educational
sector, 21% are from government and private sector, 30% from others. 31% are part of cyclones, 9% are part of floods, 59% are
part of landslides. The survey revealed that 70% increase in the awareness levels on disaster alarming system. 50% people are
aware of disaster management system before tsunami while it increased by 44% after tsunami. The technological development has
catered a better scope in facing the disasters of this sort. The public private participatory approach would bring better results in
developing a better disaster alarming, management and green city.

Key words: Disaster alarming system, Disaster management system, smart city
.................................................................................................***.......................................................................................
1. INTRODUCTION
Hudhud was one of the two strongest tropical cyclones of
2014 within the Bay of Bengal. On October 6th, 2014 near
Andaman Sea under the influence of the upper air cyclonic
circulation the storm originated as a low pressure system.
Open water shaped a constructive atmosphere for formation
of depression. Tropical cyclone formation alert (TCFA) [1]
was issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC).
At long island, Andaman depression made its first landfall.
The intensity of the storm increased at a rapid rate after
entering the Bay of Bengal. On October 10th, 2014 with
moderate wind shear the tropical cyclone formed a
microwave eye feature escalating its impact [2,3,4]. With a
minimum central pressure of 950 mbar (28.05 inHg) and
three-minute average wind speeds of 185 km/h (115 mph)
the cyclone underwent rapid intensification and developed
an eye at its center on October 11th, 2014. Hudhud
underwent landfall near Visakhapatnam on October 12th,
2014 near 17.7N 83.3E.[5,6,7,8] Peak strength of 3 minute
wind speeds of 175km/h and minimum central pressure of
960mbar were reached. It drifted northwards causing
profound rainfall in the areas of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar
Pradesh and Nepal. Prevalent snow fall in Uttar Pradesh and
Nepal occurred in later stages. It has been classified as
category 4 under saffir- simpson scale. The government
alerted nine out of thirteen districts of Andhra Pradesh. It
declared and alert sounding nine. Half a million people were
evacuated and were put in the relief camps. National
Disaster Response Force (NDRF) mobilized 35 teams in
Andhra Pradesh and Odisa. 38 trains were cancelled on
October 12th, 2014. Fishermen were warned and were
evacuated. The National Highway, one of the major roads

traversing was shut down after trees were uprooted due to


storm force. Within hours of hitting the coast, the cyclone
severed and damaged Naval Dockyard, Vizag steel plant,
Hindustan Petroleum Limited and other major industries in
the city. Visakhapatnam Airport was flooded, roof of the
terminal was torn, and radar and navigational aids were
destroyed. Strong winds and heavy rainfall uprooted trees,
damaged power supply and communication systems, leading
to disruption in power supply and connectivity [9,10]. With
the extensive damage the residents of coastal districts were
without power supply and communication for an average
period of ten days. The government has undertaken
initiatives in restoring the basic needs [11,12].

2. STUDY AREA
Visakhapatnam is also known as City of Destiny, is one of
the swiftly emergent metropolitan cities in south India.
Topographically, Visakhapatnam is located north east corner
of Andhra Pradesh between 173142 - 175529
Northern Latitude to 8325 - 832517 Eastern latitude at
an average elevation of 3 meters above sea level surrounded
by Kailasa Hills on North, Yarada hills on South, Narva
hills on west and Bay of Bengal on East. The city gets
moderate rainfall of 1202 mm largely between June to
October. On account of its elevation, Visakhapatnam has hot
and humid climate comparable to those of other temperature
regions. The city covers the local planning area of 544 sq.
kms. The Greater Visakhapatnam Municipal Corporation
(GVMC) consists of Municipal Corporation of
Visakhapatnam, 32 merged villages and Gajuwaka
municipality. The population of Visakhapatnam as per 2001
census is 9.69 lakhs while that in 2011 is 17.06 lakhs

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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 16 | ICPECDM-2014 | Dec-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

indicating the growth of population as 79% during 2001 to


2011. Merging of the surrounding villages and
municipalities is a significant contributing factor for the
rapid increase in percentage of population. GVMC has been
divided into six zones consisting of 72 wards. The GVMC is
concerned with the prime areas of public health, solid waste
management including health care waste, sanitation and
education. Participatory approach is adopted to develop
Visakhapatnam into smart city.

2.1 Screening Methodology


Development projects require mitigation, evaluation and
assessment of various factors which play a vital role in
decision making. Among various alternatives available for
nurturing city of destiny into smart city it is necessary to
undertake a preliminary assessment in reaching to a better
solution. In the process of impact assessment the
preliminary process embark on with screening process in
which various surveys are to be conducted. As part of this
process an initial study was performed with a set of
questions for deciding various options for developing a
better city and disaster management system. The following
is set of first round questions:
1. Share your experiences about previous disasters
occurred in Visakhapatnam.
2. Rate and share your views on disaster alarming system.
3. Rate and share your views on disaster management
system.
4. Share your views in developing Green & Smart
Visakhapatnam.

Figure 1: Gender Vs. Age Group

3.2 Classes of participants based on profession


The criteria two for dividing the class of participants was
divided based on the profession. It is classified into
Students, government sector, private sector, academics and
others. Figure 2 represents the profession wise percentage of
people participated. 41% male and 38% female are students,
13% male and 3% female are working in government sector,
15% male and 7% female are working in private sector, 10%
male and 7% female are working as academicians, 21%
male and 45% female are classified as others which included
self financed, non-working people. Overall 49% are from
educational sector, 21% are from government and private
sector, 30% from others.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


3.1 Classes Of Participants Based On Age Group
Preliminary surveys were conducted in the study area for a
period of five days for collecting the views from different
classes of people. The criteria one for dividing the class of
participants was divided based on the age group. 15 -25
years, 25-35 years, 35-50 years, 50-60 years, greater than 60
years were considered. Figure 1 represents the gender wise
percentage of people participated. 36% male and 24%
female from 15-25 age group, 26% male and 28% female
from 25-35 age group,18% male and 28% female from 3550 age group, 13% male and 14% female from 50-60 age
group, 8% male and 7% female from greater than 60 age
group participated in the survey. Overall 57% of the survey
included the participants from age group 15- 35 age and
43% from age group above 35 years age.

Figure 2: Gender vs. Profession

3.3 Disasters occurred in Visakhapatnam


After the state division, Visakhapatnam has been recognized
as one of the central zones for developing the industrial
corridor. The government has been planning to nurture this
city as a smart city. During this process period the place has
been affected by one of very severe cyclone named Hudhud.
The government has decided to start from scratch and take
initiatives in shaping into green and smart city from the day
after this cyclone. As the location of the city lies near to sea
it is necessary to understand about the various disasters
occurred previously. Figure 3 represents the percentage of
people who are part of disasters occurred in Visakhapatnam.

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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 16 | ICPECDM-2014 | Dec-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

eISSN: 2319-1163 | pISSN: 2321-7308

As part of this the participants shared their experiences


about the past disasters. 31% are part of cyclones, 9% are
part of floods, 59% are part of landslides occurred and no
hurricanes and typhoons occurred. They shared their
experiences about the severe cyclone in the year 1977,
Tsunami in year 2004 which are considered to be most
disastrous disasters occurred before. Odisa cyclone in year
1999, Cyclone Phailin, Cyclone Nilofar and many more
included the list of tropical cyclones affected
Visakhapatnam. As the city is covered by the hills in the
three directions, during rainy season landslides occurred.
Figure 4: Percentage of awareness among people about
disaster alarming system

3.5 Restoration and rehabilitation activities


Restoring of transportation, communication and power
supply in a very short span of time was achieved due to the
awareness created by the disaster management system
initiatives.

Figure 3: Type of disaters occurred in Visakhapatnam

3.4 Disaster alarming system for Hudhud


Disaster alarming system plays a major role in creating
awareness to the residents of the affected area during the
disaster period. A survey was made to understand about the
awareness system among various categories of people.
Figure 4 represents the percentage of awareness among
people about disaster alarming system. During tsunami
period 14% of people are aware of disaster alarming system,
44% people are having an idea about alarming system while
42% people are not aware of these systems. During Hudhud
cyclone 85% of people are aware of disaster alarming
system, 3% people are have a idea about alarming system
while 12% people are not aware of these systems. The
participants expressed that it is after tsunami many efforts
were made to make people aware of the alarming systems
and high initiatives were taken by the Indian Metrological
Department (IMD) in estimating and forecast the disasters
prior hand. The dynamics of the Hudhud cyclone were
foretold by IMD before 5 days. The participants expressed
that the alarming system was excellent and the cyclone
reached the landfall as predicted which played a major role
in reduction of death toll to a great extent.

A survey was made to understand about the awareness


system among various categories of people. Figure 4
represents the percentage of awareness among people about
disaster management system. During cyclones of this sort
previously 38% of people are aware of disaster management
system, 9% people are have an idea about this system while
53% people are not aware of these systems. During tsunami
period 50% of people are aware of disaster management
system, 15% people are have a idea about this system while
35% people are not aware of these systems. During Hudhud
cyclone 94% of people are aware of disaster management
system, 3% people have an idea about alarming system, 3%
people are not aware of these systems. The survey provided
that the government has taken better initiatives after tsunami
effect in making people to have an awareness to sustain the
life after disaster. The initiatives and technological
advancements during this span have provided a better
platform for speedy recovery of the city from the disaster.
Public-Private participation created hand-in-hand for the
government to commence enhanced rehabilitation activities.

Figure 5: Percentage of awareness among people about


disaster management system

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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 16 | ICPECDM-2014 | Dec-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

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IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology

3.6 Developing Green and Smart Visakhapatnam.


Eight key aspects of the smart city include governance,
energy, building, mobility, infrastructure, technology,
healthcare and citizen. The smart city utilizes information
and communication technologies for the development of
physical infrastructure engaging the residents of the city to
participate in innovative designing and development of
strong economic, social and cultural developments [13,14,15].
The development shall include low cost, affordable housing,
transit oriented development, e-solutions for various
activities and inclusive of social and commercial
architecture. The smart city plan shall include electrification
of all households with power availability for at least 8 hours
per day, intelligent transport systems, safe waste disposal
units, effective disaster management systems and risk
reduction technologies, Electric vehicle charging stations in
all urban areas and along all state and national highways,
utilization of renewable sources of energy[16,17].

CONCLUSIONS
1.

2.

3.

4.

The surveys reveled that that 31% are part of cyclones,


9% are part of floods, 59% are part of landslides
occurred and no hurricanes and typhoons occurred in
previous years.
Awareness on disaster alarming and risk reduction
technologies are to be encouraged and initiatives are to
be taken through public private participation
The disaster management system should be well
connected to the people through information and
communication methodologies.
The plan of shaping the city into smart and green city
shall include the governance, energy, building,
mobility, infrastructure, technology, healthcare aspects
into consideration.

9.

10.
11.
12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

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Volume: 03 Special Issue: 16 | ICPECDM-2014 | Dec-2014, Available @ http://www.ijret.org

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