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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps

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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps
FoamingCapacityOfSoaps
LourdesCentralSchool,
Bejai,Mangalore
InvestigatoryProject
On
FoamingCapacity
OfSoaps
KennethLobo
ClassXII
Contents
Acknowledgements3
Preface4
Introduction5
Commercialpreparation6
Introductiontoexperiment9
Objectiveandtheory10
Procedure11
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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps

Observationtable12
Result13
Testforhardness14
Bibliography15
Acknowledgement
Iwilltreasuretheknowledgeimpartedtomeby
Mrs.AnitaThomas,mygratefulthankstoherfortheableteachingandguidance.IthankMr.HarshaKumar,
theLabassistantforhiscooperation.
Ialsothankmyparentsandmyfriendsfortheirconstantsupportandcooperation.
Preface
Soapsanddetergentsremovedirtandgreasefromskinandclothes.Butallsoapsarenotequallyeffectivein
theircleaningaction.SoapsaretheNaandKsaltsofhigherfattyacidssuchasPalmiticacid,Stearicacidand
Oleicacid.
Thecleansingactionofsoapsdependsonthesolubilityofthelongalkylchainingreaseandthatofthe
COONaortheCOOKpartinwater.
Wheneversoapisappliedonadirtywetcloth,thenonpolaralkylgroupdissolvesingreasewhilethepolar
COONapartdissolvesinwater.Inthismanner,anemulsionisformedbetweengreaseandwaterwhichappears
asfoam.
Thewashingabilityofsoapdependsonfoamingcapacity,aswellasthewaterusedincleaning.ThesaltsofCa
andMgdisrupttheformationofmicelleformation.Thepresenceofsuchsaltsmakesthewaterhardandthe
wateriscalledhardwater.Thesesaltsthusmakethesoapinefficientinitscleaningaction.
SodiumCarbonatewhenaddedtohardwaterreactswithCaandMgandprecipitatesthemout.Therefore
sodiumcarbonateisusedinthetreatmentofhardwater.
ThisprojectaimsatfindingthefoamingcapacityofvarioussoapsandtheactionofCaandMgsaltsontheir
foamingcapacity.
Introduction
Soapisananionicsurfactantusedinconjunctionwithwaterforwashingandcleaning,whichhistorically
comeseitherinsolidbarsorintheformofaviscousliquid.Soapconsistsofsodiumorpotassiumsaltsoffatty
acidsandisobtainedbyreactingcommonoilsorfatswithastrongalkalineinaprocessknown
assaponification.Thefatsarehydrolyzedbythebase,yieldingalkalisaltsoffattyacids(crudesoap)
andglycerol.
Thegeneralformulaofsoapis
Fattyendwatersolubleend

CH3(CH2)nCOONa
Soapsareusefulforcleaningbecausesoapmoleculeshavebothahydrophilicend,whichdissolvesinwater,as
wellasahydrophobicend,whichisabletodissolvenonpolargreasemolecules.Appliedtoasoiledsurface,
soapywatereffectivelyholdsparticlesincolloidalsuspensionsoitcanberinsedoffwithcleanwater.The
hydrophobicportion(madeupofalonghydrocarbonchain)dissolvesdirtandoils,whiletheionicend
dissolvesinwater.Theresultantformsaroundstructurecalledmicelle.Therefore,itallowswatertoremove
normallyinsolublematterbyemulsification.
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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps

Commercialproductionofsoap
Themostpopularsoapmakingprocesstodayisthecoldprocessmethod,wherefatssuchasoliveoilreact
withstrongalkalinesolution,whilesomesoapersusethehistoricalhotprocess.
Handmadesoapdiffersfromindustrialsoapinthat,usually,anexcessoffatissometimesusedtoconsumethe
alkali(superfatting),andinthattheglycerinisnotremoved,leavinganaturallymoisturizingsoapandnotpure
detergent.Often,emollientssuchasjojobaoilorSheabutterareaddedattrace(thepointatwhich
thesaponificationprocessissufficientlyadvancedthatthesoaphasbeguntothicken),aftermostoftheoils
havesaponified,sothattheyremainunreactedinthefinishedsoap.

Fatinsoap
Soapisderivedfromeithervegetableoranimalfats.SodiumTallowate,acommoningredientinmuchsoap,is
derivedfromrenderedbeeffat.Soapcanalsobemadeofvegetableoils,suchaspalmoil,andtheproductis
typicallysofter.
Anarrayofsaponifiableoilsandfatsareusedintheprocesssuchasolive,coconut,palm,cocoabutterto
providedifferentqualities.Forexample,oliveoilprovidesmildnessinsoapcoconutoilprovideslotsoflather
whilecoconutandpalmoilsprovidehardness.Sometimescastoroilcanalsobeusedasanebullient.
Smalleramountsofunsaponifableoilsandfatsthatdonotyieldsoaparesometimesaddedforfurtherbenefits.

Preparationofsoap
Incoldprocessandhotprocesssoapmaking,heatmayberequiredforsaponification.
Coldprocesssoapmakingtakesplaceatasufficienttemperaturetoensuretheliquificationofthefatbeing
used.
Unlikecoldprocessedsoap,hotprocessedsoapcanbeusedrightawaybecausethealkaliandfatsaponifymore
quicklyatthehighertemperaturesusedinhotprocesssoapmaking.Hotprocesssoapmakingwasusedwhen
thepurityofalkaliwasunreliable.
Coldprocesssoapmakingrequiresexactmeasurementsofalkaliandfatamountsandcomputingtheirratio,
usingsaponificationchartstoensurethatthefinishedproductismildandskinfriendly.
Hotprocess
Inthehotprocessmethod,alkaliandfatareboiledtogetherat80100Cuntilsaponificationoccurs,whichthe
soapmakercandeterminebytasteorbyeye.
Aftersaponificationhasoccurred,thesoapissometimesprecipitatedfromthesolutionbyaddingsalt,andthe
excessliquiddrainedoff.Thehot,softsoapisthenspoonedintoamold.
Coldprocess
Acoldprocesssoapmakerfirstlooksupthesaponificationvalueofthefatsbeingusedonasaponification
chart,whichisthenusedtocalculatetheappropriateamountofalkali.Excessunreactedalkaliinthesoapwill
resultinaveryhighpHandcanburnorirritateskin.Notenoughalkaliandthesoaparegreasy.
Thealkaliisdissolvedinwater.Thenoilsareheated,ormeltediftheyaresolidatroomtemperature.Onceboth
substanceshavecooledtoapproximately100110F(3743C),andarenomorethan10F(~5.5C)apart,they
maybecombined.Thisalkalifatmixtureisstirreduntiltrace.Therearevaryinglevelsoftrace.Aftermuch
stirring,themixtureturnstotheconsistencyofathinpudding.Tracecorrespondsroughlytoviscosity.
Essentialandfragranceoilsareaddedatlighttrace.
Introductiontotheexperiment
Soapsamplesofvariousbrandsaretakenandtheirfoamingcapacityisnoticed.
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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps

Varioussoapsamplesaretakenseparatelyandtheirfoamingcapacityisobserved.Thesoapwiththemaximum
foamingcapacityisthus,saidtobehavingthebestcleaningcapacity.
Thetestrequirestobedonewithdistilledwateraswellaswithtapwater.Thetestofsoapondistilledwater
givestheactualstrengthofthesoapscleaningcapacity.ThesecondtestwithtapwaterteststheeffectofCa2+
andMg2+ saltsontheirfoamingcapacities.
Objective:Tocomparethefoamingcapacityofvarioussoaps.
Theory:Thefoamingcapacityofsoapdependsuponthenatureofthesoapanditsconcentration.Thismaybe
comparedbyshakingequalvolumesofsolutionsofdifferentsampleshavingthesameconcentrationwithsame
forceforthesameamountoftime.Thesolutionsarethenallowedtostandwhenthefoamproducedduring
shakingdisappearsgradually.Thetimetakenforthefoamtodisappearineachsampleisdetermined.The
longerthetimetakenforthedisappearanceofthefoamforthegivensampleofsoap,greaterisitsfoaming
capacityorcleansingaction.
Requirements:Five100mlconicalflasks,fivetesttubes,100mlmeasuringcylinder,testtubestand,weighing
machine,stopwatch.
ChemicalRequirements:Fivedifferentsoapsamples,distilledwater,tapwater.
Procedure:
1.Takefive100mlconicalflasksandnumberthem1,2,3,4,5.Put16mlofwaterineachflaskandadd8
Gmsofsoap.
2.Warmthecontentstogetasolution.
3.Takefivetesttubesadd1mlofsoapsolutionto3mlofwater.
Repeattheprocessforeachsoapsolutionindifferenttesttubes.
4.Closethemouthofthetesttubeandshakevigorouslyforaminute.Dothesameforalltesttubesandwith
equalforce.
5.Startthetimerimmediatelyandnoticetherateofdisappearanceof2mmoffroth.
Observations:Thefollowingoutcomeswerenoticedattheendoftheexperiment
TestTubeno
1.Dove
2.Lux
3.Tetmosol
4.Santoor
5.Cinthol

Vol.ofsoapsolution Vol.ofwateradded Timetakenfordisappearance


of2mm
8ml
16ml
1142
8ml
16ml
328
8ml
16ml
510
8ml
16ml
1532
8ml
16ml
940

Result
Thecleansingcapacityofthesoapstakenisintheorder:
Santoor>Dove>Cinthol>Tetmosol>Lux
Fromthisexperiment,wecaninferthatSantoorhasthehighestfoamingcapacity,inotherwords,highest
cleaningcapacity.
Lux,ontheotherhandisfoundtohavetakentheleastamountoftimeforthedisappearanceoffoamproduced
andthusissaidtobehavingtheleastfoamingcapacityandcleansingcapacity.
Testforhardnessinwater
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ChemistryProjectonFoamingCapacityofSoaps

TestforCa2+ andMg2+ saltsinthewatersupplied


TestforCa2+ inwater
H2O+NH4Cl+NH4OH+(NH4)2CO3
Noprecipitate
TestforMg2+ inwater
H2O+NH4Cl+NH4OH+(NH4)3PO4
Noprecipitate
Thetestsshownegativeresultsforthepresenceofthesaltscausinghardnessinwater.Thewateruseddoesnot
containsaltsofCa2+ andMg2+ .Thetapwaterprovidedissoftandthus,theexperimentalresultsandvalues
holdgoodfordistilledwaterandtapwater.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Partsofthisprojecthavebeenreferredfromforeignsourcesandhavebeenincludedinthisinvestigatoryproject
afterediting.
Thereferencesofthesourcesareasfollows:
Books:
TogetherWithLabManualChemistryXII
ComprehensiveChemistry12
Internetsources:
www.wikipedia.org
www.google.com
www.yahoo.com
Structureofsoapmoleculeandmicelleformation

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