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# The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

page 1

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2) Suppose that f is continuous on [a; b] and F 0 = f on [a; b]. Then
Zb

f (x) dx = F (b)

F (a)

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1) Suppose that f is continuous on [a; b]. Then the function dened
Zx
as A (x) = f (t) dt is continuous on [a; b], dierentiable on (a; b), and its derviative is f (x):
a

d
dx

Zx

f (t) dt = f (x)

Sample Problems
1. Applications of Part 2: Compute each of the following denite integrals.
a)

Z3

x3 dx

b)

a) y =

b) y =

Z5

Zx

0
Z5

t2 dt

1
(x

2 dx

c)

3)

## c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

1
3)2

(x

dx

dy
if
dx
c) y =

Zx3

d) y =

Zx

0x
13
Z
e) y = @ cos tdtA

t sin (2t) dt

cos m2 dm

Z1

tdt

Zx

tdt

## The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

page 2

Practice Problems
1. Compute each of the following denite integrals.

a)

b)

Z=4

0
Z5

c)

sin (2 ) d

d)

(2x + 1) dx

## 2. Compute the derivative

b) y =

Z5

Z3

Z=3

1
dx
1 + x2

e)

Zx

0
Z5

cos

2x

1dx

g)

1
dx
x2

f)

sec tan d

dy
if y is a function given as
dx

1 xdx

1+

d) y =

cos
Zx

1 + t2 dt

f) y =

c) y =

e) y =

1 + t2 dt

tan d

3t2

t2 dt
Zx

Zx

0x
Z
g) y = @
6t2

Zx2

tan2 ydy

Z=4

a) y =

Z1

Zx

tan d

4t + 1 dt
12

1 dtA

=4

1. a) 20
2. a) x2

b) unde ned
b)

c)

cos x2

1
6

## c) 3x5 sin 2x3

d) 0

e) 3 sin2 x cos x

2
26
e)
f) 1
g) 1
3
3
p
p
dy
dy
dy
1 + x2
c)
= 2x 1 + x4
2. a)
= cos 1 x
b)
=
dx
dx
dx
p
dy
dy
dy
1
g)
= 2x 2x2
e)
=0
f)
= p (3x 4 x + 1)
dx
dx
dx
2 x

1. a)

1
2

b) 30

c)

d)

4
d)
1

dy
=
dx
6x2

p
sin x 1 + cos2 x

Math 208

page 3

1. a)

Z3

x3 dx

## Clearly, f (x) = x3 is continuous on [1; 3] and so the fundamental

x4
. The (signed) area under the graph of f is
theorem can be applied. An antiderivative of f is F (x) =
4
the dierence in the antiderivative F .
Solution:

Z3

x3 dx =

x4
4

=
1

b)

Z5
0

1
(x

3)2

34
4

14
81
=
4
4

1
80
=
= 20
4
4

dx

## . Clearly, f is not continuous on [0; 5] because it has a discontinuity

(x 3)2
at x = 3. Consequently, the conditions of the fundamental theorem do not hold and so it can NOT be
applied. For now, the correct solution of this integral is that it is undened. We will later see methods
Z1
1
dx
c)
(x 3)2

Solution:

1
(x

3)2

## theorem can be applied. An antiderivative of f is F (x) =

f is the dierence in the antiderivative F .
Z1
0

2. a) y =

Zx

1
(x

dx =
3)2

1
x

=
0

1
x

1
1

1
3

1
2

1
1
=
3
6

t2 dt

d
dy
=
dx
dx

Zx

t2 dt = x2

## The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

b) y =

Z5

page 4

cos m2 dm

Solution:
dy
d
=
dx
dx

Z5

cos m2

c) y =

Zx3

Zx

d @
dm =
dx

cos m2 dmA =

d
dx

Zx

cos m2 dm =

cos x2

t sin (2t) dt

Solution: The upper limit of integration is not x but x3 . This makes y a composite of two functions,
y=

Zu

t sin (2t) dt

and u = x3

## To dierentiate composed functions, we apply the chain rule:

0u
1
Z
dy
dy du
d @
d
=
=
t sin (2t) dtA
x3 = u sin (2u) 3x2 = x3 sin 2x3
dx
du dx
du
dx

## 3x2 = 3x5 sin 2x3

d) y =

Zx

tdt

Zx

tdt

Solution:

0x
Z
d @ p
tdt
dx
1

Zx p
4

0x
1
Z p
d
@
tdtA =
tdtA
dx
1

0x
1
Z
d @ p A p
tdt = x
dx

x= 0

This result is not all that surprising. If we apply properties of the denite integral, we see that y is constant
and the derivative of a constant function is zero.
y (x) =

Zx p

tdt

Zx p

tdt =

Z4 p

2
tdt = t3=2
3

2 3=2
4
3

and

Zx

13=2 =

2
14
d
7=
and
3
3
dx

14
3

= 0

0x
13
Z
e) y = @ cos tdtA
0

y = u3

u=

cos tdt

Math 208

page 5

## and so we will use the chain rule to dierentiate it.

0x
1
0x
12
Z
Z
dy
dy du
d @
=
= 3u2
cos tdtA = 3 @ cos tdtA cos x
dx
du dx
dx
0

Zx
0

= sin x

sin 0 = sin x

## and so the answer is

0x
12
Z
dy
= 3 @ cos tdtA cos x = 3 (sin x)2 cos x = 3 sin2 x cos x
dx
0