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The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

page 1

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2) Suppose that f is continuous on [a; b] and F 0 = f on [a; b]. Then
Zb

f (x) dx = F (b)

F (a)

The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1) Suppose that f is continuous on [a; b]. Then the function dened
Zx
as A (x) = f (t) dt is continuous on [a; b], dierentiable on (a; b), and its derviative is f (x):
a

d
dx

Zx

f (t) dt = f (x)

Sample Problems
1. Applications of Part 2: Compute each of the following denite integrals.
a)

Z3

x3 dx

b)

2. Applications of Part 1: Compute

a) y =

b) y =

Z5

Zx

0
Z5

t2 dt

1
(x

2 dx

c)

3)

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

1
3)2

(x

dx

dy
if
dx
c) y =

Zx3

d) y =

Zx

0x
13
Z
e) y = @ cos tdtA

t sin (2t) dt

cos m2 dm

Z1

tdt

Zx

tdt

Last revised: January 21, 2013

The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

page 2

Practice Problems
1. Compute each of the following denite integrals.

a)

b)

Z=4

0
Z5

c)

sin (2 ) d

d)

(2x + 1) dx

2. Compute the derivative

b) y =

Z5

Z3

Z=3

1
dx
1 + x2

e)

Zx

0
Z5

cos

2x

1dx

g)

1
dx
x2

f)

sec tan d

dy
if y is a function given as
dx

1 xdx

1+

d) y =

cos
Zx

1 + t2 dt

f) y =

c) y =

e) y =

1 + t2 dt

tan d

3t2

t2 dt
Zx

Zx

0x
Z
g) y = @
6t2

Zx2

tan2 ydy

Z=4

a) y =

Z1

Zx

tan d

4t + 1 dt
12

1 dtA

=4

Answers to Sample Problems


1. a) 20
2. a) x2

b) unde ned
b)

c)

cos x2

1
6

c) 3x5 sin 2x3

d) 0

e) 3 sin2 x cos x

Answers to Practice Problems


2
26
e)
f) 1
g) 1
3
3
p
p
dy
dy
dy
1 + x2
c)
= 2x 1 + x4
2. a)
= cos 1 x
b)
=
dx
dx
dx
p
dy
dy
dy
1
g)
= 2x 2x2
e)
=0
f)
= p (3x 4 x + 1)
dx
dx
dx
2 x

1. a)

1
2

b) 30

c)

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

d)

4
d)
1

dy
=
dx
6x2

p
sin x 1 + cos2 x

Last revised: January 21, 2013

The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

page 3

Solutions of Sample Problems


1. a)

Z3

x3 dx

In this case, f (x) = x3 .

Clearly, f (x) = x3 is continuous on [1; 3] and so the fundamental


x4
. The (signed) area under the graph of f is
theorem can be applied. An antiderivative of f is F (x) =
4
the dierence in the antiderivative F .
Solution:

Z3

x3 dx =

x4
4

=
1

b)

Z5
0

1
(x

3)2

34
4

14
81
=
4
4

1
80
=
= 20
4
4

dx

. Clearly, f is not continuous on [0; 5] because it has a discontinuity


(x 3)2
at x = 3. Consequently, the conditions of the fundamental theorem do not hold and so it can NOT be
applied. For now, the correct solution of this integral is that it is undened. We will later see methods
developed addressing such an integral.
Z1
1
dx
c)
(x 3)2

Solution: In this case, f (x) =

Solution:

In this case, f (x) =

1
(x

3)2

Clearly, f (x) is continuous on [0; 1] and so the fundamental

theorem can be applied. An antiderivative of f is F (x) =


f is the dierence in the antiderivative F .
Z1
0

2. a) y =

Zx

1
(x

dx =
3)2

1
x

=
0

1
x

1
1

. The (signed) area under the graph of

1
3

1
2

1
1
=
3
6

t2 dt

Solution: We apply the fundamental theorem of calculus.


d
dy
=
dx
dx

Zx

t2 dt = x2

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

Last revised: January 21, 2013

The Fundamental Theorem

Math 208

b) y =

Z5

page 4

cos m2 dm

Solution:
dy
d
=
dx
dx

Z5

cos m2

c) y =

Zx3

Zx

d @
dm =
dx

cos m2 dmA =

d
dx

Zx

cos m2 dm =

cos x2

t sin (2t) dt

Solution: The upper limit of integration is not x but x3 . This makes y a composite of two functions,
y=

Zu

t sin (2t) dt

and u = x3

To dierentiate composed functions, we apply the chain rule:


0u
1
Z
dy
dy du
d @
d
=
=
t sin (2t) dtA
x3 = u sin (2u) 3x2 = x3 sin 2x3
dx
du dx
du
dx

3x2 = 3x5 sin 2x3

d) y =

Zx

tdt

Zx

tdt

Solution:

0x
Z
d @ p
tdt
dx
1

Zx p
4

0x
1
Z p
d
@
tdtA =
tdtA
dx
1

0x
1
Z
d @ p A p
tdt = x
dx

x= 0

This result is not all that surprising. If we apply properties of the denite integral, we see that y is constant
and the derivative of a constant function is zero.
y (x) =

Zx p

tdt

Zx p

tdt =

Z4 p

2
tdt = t3=2
3

2 3=2
4
3

and

Zx

13=2 =

2
14
d
7=
and
3
3
dx

14
3

= 0

0x
13
Z
e) y = @ cos tdtA
0

Solution: This is a composed function, with


y = u3

u=

cos tdt

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

Last revised: January 21, 2013

Math 208

The Fundamental Theorem

page 5

and so we will use the chain rule to dierentiate it.


0x
1
0x
12
Z
Z
dy
dy du
d @
=
= 3u2
cos tdtA = 3 @ cos tdtA cos x
dx
du dx
dx
0

We will compute the denite integral:


Zx
0

cos tdt = sin t

= sin x

sin 0 = sin x

and so the answer is


0x
12
Z
dy
= 3 @ cos tdtA cos x = 3 (sin x)2 cos x = 3 sin2 x cos x
dx
0

c copyright Hidegkuti, Powell, 2013

Last revised: January 21, 2013