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Science, Technology and Society

A Project Report
Presented to the Faculty of the
School of Management & Entrepreneurship
AURO University

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Business Administration

Submitted by:
Kishan Sahani

Submitted to:
Dr. Kamlesh Mishra

February 2014

1) Assume a world where genetic engineering is a

commercial reality and it is possible to design people,
prolong life and cure major diseases. What would be the
consequences of living in such a world? How do you
think the world will change and what are the new forms
of discrimination that you are likely to face?

"We're ready to go because we think that the genie's out of her bottle."
- Dr. Panos Zavos

After referring some articles and reading some of the present issues, I can say
that, As we move into a new era fraught with terror and danger, a worldwide
upcoming condition is developing in the middle of rapid evolutionary and social
changes constructed by science, technology, and the restructuring of world.
From the first nuclear bomb to space age missions, from the first vaccine to
the latest technologies in biotech field, We are quickly modifying into a new
biological and social existence that is even more mediated and shaped by
computers, mass media, and biotechnology, all determined by the people of
world and a powerful rising techno science. In this global context, science is no
longer just an description of the natural and social world, instead it has
become a force in changing them and the very nature of life. In an era where
life can be created and redesigned in a petri dish, and genetic codes can be
edited like a digital text, the difference between "natural" and "artificial" has
become greatly complicated. The use of new techniques call into question
existing definitions of life and death, demand a rethinking of fundamental
notions of ethics and moral value, and pose unique challenges for democracy.

Now talking about Genetic Engineering, according to the definition Genetic

engineering, or genetic modification, uses a variety of tools and techniques
from biotechnology and bio-engineering to modify an organisms genetic
In normal words, Basically, During the latter stage stages of the 20th century,
man harnessed the power of the atom, and not long after, soon realised the
power of genes. Genetic engineering is the next step in human evolution. In
the process of genetic engineering, selected genes are removed or genes from
other life forms are inserted into life forms.
What if we could be smarter, stronger, and have a better memory just by taking
a pill? What if we could alter our genes to cure various diseases? What if we
could halt or even reverse the human aging process?
Although these questions sound like the stuff of dreams; today, scientists are
learning to unravel our genetic mysteries and more fully understand how DNA
controls our lives. Doctors will soon be able to replace nearly all of our
deficient genes. For example, if people have a tendency to develop a certain
kind of cancer, then with the help of Genetic Engineering, The doctors or a
specialist will reprogram the bad genes and protect them from that cancer.
Genetic engineering is going to become a very mainstream part of our lives
sooner or later, with genetic engineering, diseases can be cured and human
life in general can be improved.
Genetic engineering may be one of the greatest breakthroughs in recent
history alongside the discovery of the atom and space flight, however, with the
above eventualities and facts above in hand, governments have produced
rules and regulations to control what type of experiments should be done
involving genetic engineering. In many countries like in UK and other
European countries there are strict laws disallowing any experiments involving
the cloning of humans. However, over the years there are some of the

experimental discoveries made possible by genetic engineering.

In Scotland, scientists successfully cloned an exact copy of a sheep,

which was named Dolly. This was the first successful cloning of an
animal, and most probably the first happening of two organisms being
genetically identical. As we had only heard in certain mythologies in

which this type of animal was being called Chimera.

Scientists successfully discovered the genetic sequence of a rat to grow

a human ear on its back.

Most controversially, and maybe due to more liberal laws, an American
scientist is currently conducting tests to clone himself.

This all achievements sounds good to our ears, as we have evolved so much
and marching towards the bright and sustainable future with such
technologies. As we learn more, we can see just how much we can accomplish
with genetic engineering because there are so many advantages and
disadvantages involved in Genetic Engineering.
Here are just some of the advantages:

Genetic engineering deals with enhancing the positive traits in an

individual like increasing longevity or human capacity. So then human
beings will enjoy more years of their life than naturally. Genetic
engineering can be used to obtain a permanent cure for dangerous

Genetic engineering in human beings can be used to change the DNA
of individuals to bring about desirable structural and other changes in
them. For example; like intelligence, change in height, eye color, body
tone, etc.

The environment will improve:

It is possible to improve the environment with genetic manipulation. For

instance by cloning endangered species or by creating organisms that

prevent pollution.
Plastics are bad for the environment; the environment is unable to
destroy them. However, it turns out that certain bacteria can create a
biodegradable plastic. Feeding these bacteria however is very
expensive. It would be possible to implant the gene responsible for the
production of the plastic from the bacteria into a plant, this plant could
become a producer of this plastic. This plastic would then be cheap and

Genetic engineering can also help with many forms of species
management like pest control. Insects that carry disease will also be
targeted through genetic engineering to control their populations.
Diseases like malaria, dengue etc will soon be eliminated this way. With
genetic engineering, microorganisms can be used to produce various
materials, commodity and specialty chemicals, as well as medicines,

vaccines, and drugs.

Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more
carbon dioxide and This would help reduce global warming, and thus
solve one of the biggest problems which we and our earth is facing.

Genetic Engineering will also be good for the economy:

Genetic engineering also has many benefits for society as well. Genetic
engineering is a good economic investment that will bring large profit.

Genetic manipulation will also bring benefits for the economy. If cows
and goat that produce more meat and less fat can be cloned, prices of
meat will fall and the turnover of the farmers would rise. This will be
good for consumers and for the government. This will increase the
demand for jobs; unemployment will decrease. The prices for food will
decrease and people will have more freedom in spending their money.

Of course there are two sides to the coin; here are some possible
eventualities and disadvantages.

Ethical and Legal Issues:

Despite genetic engineerings numerous benefits, some people have

doubts about it. Some believe that genetic engineering will have limited
abilities to help with genetic diseases. Some also believe that genetic
engineering could have an effect on future generations. In addition, it is
believed that genetic engineering will lead to abuse and inequality.
Genetic Operations or therapy will be, for the predictable future, a very

expensive procedure, so only the wealthy will be able to afford it.

Human reproductive cloning is a much disputed ethical issue. It is
almost universally opposed. Because of the high rates of miscreation,
disability and death resulting from animal cloning, people question
whether resulting humans would be healthy and treated like normal
individual. If human cloning could not be prohibited or opposed, it gives
way to various harmful consequences including family disorder, chaos
in the clone's family relationships, physical and mental diseases for
clones and suffering of egg donors and surrogate mothers.
According to one article on human cloning, it stated that On
December 12, 2001 the United Nations General Assembly began
elaborating an international convention against the reproductive cloning
of human beings. To date, human reproductive cloning and inheritable
genetic modification are illegal in nearly 50 countries. Similar legislation
is pending in other nations.

Because of some ethical issues like possibility of designing people, prolonging

ones life, curing major diseases and human cloning with the help of genetic
engineering, it will create a misbalance between mother earth and human
beings as it will create a disturbance in the natures chain which will directly
affect all the living organisms and will also create a big obstacle in the journey
of a bright future and also make circumstances difficult for the future
Personally, I think Genetic Engineering is the next step in the evolution of

humanity and has many benefits. Some of them are for human health and
others for society in general. Since our future as a species depends on it, we
cannot allow beliefs of a few people to limit the progress of our species as a