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SDH & PDH Fundamental

BY

Chief Engineer NEAMA AWAD JASIM


Head of North West Communication Dept.
Ministry of Electricity / Iraq

SDH & PDH Fundamental


by
Chief Engineer neamah awad jasim
Head of communication dept. in north west region
the general doctorate of control & operation
Ministry of Electricity IRAQ
neama70@gmail.com

please see my whole profile at the URL :


https://www.linkedin.com/pub/neamah-awad-jasim/50/a56/830
Or my page at the facebook:
https://www.facebook.com/neamah.jasim

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Preface
Hi guys, this slide show is basically depend on 2-week training course which i
have been done for teenager engineers & technicians in my dept. in
mosul/iraq. In deed i`m not so much satisfied about some articles in this
show that I left most of my draft paper notes works in my office after i`ve
leaved my city Mosul after the disaster of 10/6/2014 , so I ask my
readers the forgiveness for the lack in this work. But by other hand I hope
that this work will gave a basic background knowledge about this
revolutionary technology in the world of communication. Also I think that
some explanations should be added to some items , but I hope in future
to cover this issues in the next works . Most of graphs in this show have
been made personally depending on the available resources in the web as
mention in the next page .
For more information or any remarks about this work kindly you may mailing
me via neama70@gmail.com

The references :
1-ALSTOM GRID e-DXC SDH MANUALS
2- The Fundamentals of SDH by Telecommunications Techniques Corporation
(www.ttc.com)
3- The Fundamentals of SDH-slide show by ( ERICSSON CO.)
4- PDH & SDH Integration FOX 515-slide show by ABB CO.
5- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy slide show BY (ABB CO.)
6- SDH Telecommunications Standard Primer by (Tektronix Co.)
7- Course 13 SDH/SONET multiplexing strategy
8- SDH Next Generation by Jos M. Caballero
9- Optical Fiber introduction by Patrick LANNUZEL (ALSTOM GRID CO.)
10- SDH Training document BY SEIMENS CO.
11- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Graphical Overview BY CISCO SYSTEMS
12- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy BY 2013 JDS Uniphase Corporation
13- WandelGoltermann_sdh1 REFERENCE BOOK
14- ( ) BY the author at URL:
http://www.kutub.info/library/book/8107

15- What is SDH ? By RAD data communication systems


16- Wikipedia .com

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PDH Tributaries

(Low rate input/ output data)

-HSPDA: High Speed Packet Downlink Access


-ATM : Asynchronous Transfer Mode used for broad
band ISDN B-ISDN.
-E1 :The European Hierarchy Standard based on
32(64kb/s) channel frame with total rate
(2.o48Mb/s) .
-T1 : The American Hierarchy Standard based on
24(64kb/s) channel frame with total rate (1.5Mb/s)

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MULTIPLEXING
Whenever the bandwidth of a medium linking two
devices is greater than the bandwidth needs of the
devices, the link can be shared. Multiplexing is the set
of techniques that allows the (simultaneous)
transmission of multiple signals across a single data
link. As data and telecommunications use increases, so
does traffic.
TYPES OF MULTIPLEXING
Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)
Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)
6.7

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1-Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM)

Looking to the past :The Analog Hierarchy


It was Using the FDM Transmission technology at old
fashion Telephony systems

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2-Wave length Division Multiplexing (WDM)


this method used the same channel or media but with many
different wavelength optic signals , it is used mainly with
fiber optics communication at very high rate levels.

OPGW stand for FIBER OPTIC OVERHEAD


GROUND WIRE

the usable band of light that used in fiber optic


communication

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High Density WDM (DWDM)

The Digital Transmission of Information

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THE PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM) PRINCEBLE


Each sample of analog signal represent by a digital code
i.e.;PAM.PPM.PDM..ETC.

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Each sample represent by


8-bit then 2 EXP 2 = 128
level & as the Sound is
alternative signal so it
should be 128
Quantization Levels in each
direction

(Nyguist law)
According to the Law FS 2W
Where FS is Sampling frequency & W is the common bandwidth of Human
Sound (4KHz) Thin
FS= 2*4= 8 KHZ
8000 sample / sec.

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3-Time Division Multiplexing (TDM)


TDM is a digital multiplexing technique for combining
several low-rate digital channels into one high-rate one.

Time Division Multiplexing Bit


This method of
Interleaving
Multiplexing
This method of Multiplexing mainly used
with PDH mainly used
Hierarchies T1& E1

with PDH
Hierarchies T1& E1

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Plesiosynchronous Multiplexer use bit interleaved


Mechanism due that the incoming signal bits came in different
width or periods so the MUX.add some justification bits (Mapping
method) to get the synchronization of different rate tributaries of
the incoming steams.

Interleaving
The process of taking a group of bits from each input line for
multiplexing is called interleaving. We interleave bits (1 - n)
from each input onto one output.

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Time Division Multiplexing Byte


This method
used
This method
used
Interleaving
in SDH
& S0NET
in SDH
& S0NET

Byte interleaving takes advantage of technology


developed for computers and preserves byte timing

Synchronization

SS

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Synchronization Pattern or
Framing bits
( This Technique used in American PDH
Hierarchy standard T1 While in European
standard there are a channel for this purposes)

The Communication Era before SDH


The development of digital transmission systems started In the early
70s , and was based on the Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) method.
In the early 80's digital systems became more and more complex , yet
there was huge demand for some features that were not supported
by the existing systems. The demand was mainly to high order
multiplexing through a hierarchy of increasing bit rates up to 140
Mbps or 565 Mbps in Europe. The problem was the high cost of
bandwidth and digital devices. The solution that was
created then , was a multiplexing technique , allowed for the
combining of slightly non synchronous rates, referred to as
plesiochronous*, which lead to the term plesiochronous digital
hierarchy (PDH).
*plesiochronous - "almost synchronous , because bits are stuffed into
the frames as padding and the calls location varies slightly - jitters from frame to frame".

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The Most Common PDH Hierarchies


1-The American standard of digital transmission ( T1)

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T-1 line for multiplexing telephone lines


This standard used Mainly
in north America & in
Japan with some
modifications

T-1 frame structure

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Digital hierarchy

The Most Common PDH Hierarchies


2-The European Standard (E1)
This standard used in Europe & other world Countries

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This Happen when


we used the
channels for data
only not for speech

//

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European PDH Hierarchy (ITU-T G.702)

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The PDH Standards in the World

PDH Add(Insert)/Drop Function


by

Stepper MULTIPLEXING/DEMULTIPLEXING

LTE :LINE TERMINAL


EQUIBMENT

WEST

EAST

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TheAdd/ Drop Scheme regard as the main disadvantage scheme of


PDH compare with SDH that there is ability to add(insert)/ drop
different rates of Tributaries along the a path while in PDH it
should be multiplex/demultiplex till to reach the appropriate lower
rate carrier

SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)


IS AN ITU-T STANDARD FOR A HIGH CAPACITY TELECOM NETWORK.
SDH IS A SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL TRANSPORT
SYSTEM, AIM TO PROVIDE A SIMPLE, ECONOMICAL
AND FLEXIBLE TELECOM INFRASTRUCTURE .ATTEMPTS TO FORMULATE
STANDARDS FOR TRANSMISSION OF SYNCHRONOUS SIGNALS
BEGAN IN U.S. AT THE BEGINNING OF 1984, BY ANSI ACCREDITED
T1X1 COMMITTEE.IN 1985 SONET STANDARD WAS BORN.IN 1986
CCITT BECAME INTERESTED IN SONET STANDARD.CCITT PROPOSED
CHANGES TO T1X1COMMITTEE TO ACCOMMODATE BOTH
AMERICAN AND EUROPEAN HIERARCHIES. FINAL AGREEMENT WAS
REACHED IN 1988 AND CCITT WORKING GROUP-XVIII CAME OUT
WITH RECOMMENDATIONS ON SDH

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SDH (Synchronous Digital


Hierarchy)
so SDH is an international standard for high speed
telecommunication over optical/electical networks
which can transport digital signals
in variable capacities. It is a synchronous system
which intend to provide a more flexible , yet simple
network infrastructure.
SDH (and its American variant- SONET) emerged from
standard bodies somewhere around 1990.
these two standards create a revolution in the

in communication networks based on optical


fibers their cost and performance.

why using SDH ?


Although PDH was A breakthrough in the digital transmission
systems , it has a lot of
weaknesses :
- No world standard on digital format (three incompatible
regional standards - European, North American and
Japanese).
- No world standard for optical interfaces. Networking is
impossible at the optical level.
- Rigid asynchronous multiplexing structure.
- Limited management capability.
- Because of PDH disadvantages, It was obvious That a new
multiplexing method is needed.
The new method was called SDH.

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SDH has a lot of advantages


First world standard in digital format.
First optical Interfaces.
Transversal compatibility reduces networking cost.
Multivendor environment drives price down
Flexible synchronous multiplexing structure .
Easy and cost-efficient traffic add-and-drop and cross connect
capability.
Reduced number of back-to-back interfaces improve network
reliability and serviceability.
Powerful management capability.
New network architecture. Highly flexible and survivable self
healing rings available.
Backward and forward compatibility: Backward compatibility
to existing PDH
Forward compatibility to future B-ISDN, etc.

Standards of SDH
SDH has been standardized by ITU-T in 1988.
In November 1988 the first SDH standards were approved.
In 1989 , the CCITT (International Consultative Committee on Telephony & Telegraphy)
had published in its "Blue book" recommendations G.707 , G.708 & G.709 covering
the SDH standards.
G.702 - Digital Hierarchy Bit Rates
G.703 - Physical/Electrical Characteristics of Hierarchical Digital
Interfaces
G.707 - SDH Bit Rates
G.708 - Network Node Interface for the SDH
G.709 - Synchronous Multiplexing Structure
G.773 - Protocol Suites for Q Interfaces for Management of
Transmission Systems
G.781 - (Formerly G.smux-1) Structure of Recommendations on
Multiplexing Equipment for the SDH
G.782 - (Formerly G.smux-2) Types and General Characteristics
of SDH Multiplexing Equipment
G.783 - (Formerly G.smux-3) Characteristics of SDH Multiplexing
Equipment Functional Blocks
G.784 - (Formerly Gsmux-4) SDH Management

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Compare between SDH & SONET speed


rates

SONET &SDH are almost the same, but the SONET for American standard ,Japan and SDH for
Europe & rest of the world

SDH Hierarchy compare with SONET

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2.175mb/s

The SDH have some version according to the needs of


customers

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Elements of SDH Multiplexing

1- The Containers C

The Container (C)


Basic packaging unit for tributary signals (PDH)
Synchronous to the STM-1
Bitrate adaptation is done via a positive stuffing
procedure
Adaptation of synchronous tributaries by fixed
stuffing bits
Bit by bit stuffing
OR Container-n( n=1-4 ): is the information structure
which forms the network synchronous information
payload for a virtual container

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2-Virtual Containers VC

The Virtual Container (VC)


Formation of the Container by adding of a POH
(Path Overhead)
Transport as a unit through the network (SDH)
A VC containing several VCs has also a pointer area
Virtual Container-n(VC-n):It is the information
structure used to support path layer connections in
the SDH. There are Two types of VCs: Lower order
VC-n(n=1,2) & Higher order Vc-n(n=3,4)

//

Virtual Containers(VC)

The Virtual Container is obtained after adding POH to The


Containers

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3-Administrative Units (AU)

It is an information structure which provides adaptation


between two
layers: -Between lower and higher order path layers for TU
-Between higher order path layer and section layer for AU

4-Tributary Unit (TU)

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The Tributary Unit (TU)


Is formed via adding a pointer to the VC
The Tributary Unit Group (TUG)
Combines several TUs for a new VC
The Administrative Unit (AU)
Is shaped if a pointer is allocated to the VC formed at
last
The Synchronous Transport Module Level 1 (STM- 1)
Formed by adding a Section Overhead (SOH) to AUs
Clock justification through positive-zero-negative
stuffing
in the AU pointer area
byte by byte stuffing

Structure of the administrative units and of the


tributary units used in the SDH system

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5-Tributary Unit Group (TUG)

6-Adminstrative Unit Group (AUG)

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7-Path Over Head (POH)

1-High Order Path Over Head(HO-POH)


Used with VC-3/VC-4

2-Low Order Path Over Head (LO-POH)


Used with VC-11/VC-12

High Order(H0) &Low Order(LO)


POH & Related Containers

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LO-POH have two forms

The Mapping process in SDH system

(HO-POH) have also two forms

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HO-POH

it is the 10 columns of the STM-1 Structure ,

consist of 9 bytes determine the boundaries of VC-4

Details of J1 & B3 of Higher Order POH


J1 - Higher-Order VC-N path trace byte
This user-programmable byte repetitively transmits a 15-byte string
plus 1-byte CRC-7. A 64-byte free-format string is also permitted for
this Access Point Identifier. This allows the receiving terminal in a
path to verify its continued connection to the intended transmitting
terminal.
B3 - Path Bit Interleaved Parity code (Path BIP-8) byte
This is an even-parity code, used to determine if a transmission
error has occurred over a path. Its value is calculated over all the
bits of the previous virtual container before scrambling and placed in
the B3 byte of the current frame. (BIP-8 is calculated on the 8 bit
blocks of the nth frame and placed on the (n+1) the frame of VC3/
VC4.)
C2 - Path signal label byte This byte specifies whether the virtual
container is equipped or not and the mapping type in the
respective virtual container.

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What is BIP?
Bit Interleaved Parity
Error monitoring in SDH uses a CRC with a
polynomial, xn+x0, called Bit Interleaved Parity (BIPn).
The signal to be monitored is divided in to small
blocks with n-bit size. The even parity check is
applied to each bit of all the blocks in the signal, fro
m 1st to nth bit independently.

//

//

Used with C-4 /C-3

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Comparison of POH in Higher and Lower


Orders

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8-Pointers is an indicator whose value defines the


frame offset of a VC with respect to the frame reference of
the transport entity on which it is supported .
The Role of AU-Pointers in SDH system, is performing AU
units in Process called Adaption OR Aligning

the rest of AU-MATRIX is commonly filled with stuffing or


justification bits .Also AU- pointer determine the starting of
pay load or VC within the STM structure .

The pointer consist of three bytes (H1,H2,H3) as


follows :

//

Application of Pointer
A Pointer is used to address a particular location
within an AU or a TU structure. There are mainly 2
types of pointers
1. AU Pointers: used to point at Higher Order VCs (VC-4,3) in
an STM frame
2. TU Pointers: used to point at Lower Order VCs (VC-12) in
higher order VC
Each of these pointers carry the offset number (address) at
which the 1st byte of the payload is located, within the frame.
The offset numbering of AU4, TU3, TU12, frames are shown
in slide # 66, 68, 71. The offset numbering of TUs/AUs will be
according to the CCITT Rec. G.707.

Functions of a Pointer
1. Minimization of multiplexing Delay
This is the main advantage of pointers. Normally signals from different originating

phases, because of different transmission length and points differ in their


different clock generation. In the usual multiplexing process, to align them, each
signal has to be written into memories and read out using a
new phase of the frame to be multiplexed. Thus, it is inevitable to cause additional
frame time in average and one frame time at maximum. Also, delay of half of the
it requires large capacity memories.
To avoid above inconveniences, this pointer method was introduced into the
multiplexing of SDH signal. A pointer is assigned to each VC to be multiplexed and
it indicates relative phase shift between the VC and the new frame by using the
address number in the new frame. As a matter of course, every VC
has different pointer value. The pointer is renewed at every multiplexing process, so
it is not necessary to introduce undesirable additional delays.
arrival speed

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What is Justification
Imagine 2 compartments of a train. It is connected with
a pair of buffers and flexible chain.
If the first moving compartment going faster the next.
The chain will pull the next compartment. This is
equivalent to Positive Justification.
If the first compartment is moving slower than the next
the buffers will collide and slow down the next one. This
is equivalent to Negative Justification.
In this example, the first moving compartment is
analogous to higher order tributary and the next is
equivalent to primary tributary.

Effects of Justification
Assume secondary tributary speed fs
Assume primary tributary speed fp
If fs > fp, Positive Justification, the effect will be to read one
information bit of primary as two information bits of secondary.
Hence, in secondary one bit has to be inhibited.
If fs < fp, Negative Justification, the effect will be to lose one
information bit of primary in the secondary. Hence, in secondary
one bit has to be introduced.
If fs = fp, Zero Justification, the ideal situation but difficult to
realize in practice.
In SDH, all the above 3 justifications will be achieved by
introduction of a pointer in addition to the information and
path overhead bits

//

2. Frequency Justification
Generally this function is not required in an SDH network since all network
elements are synchronized to a single clock. But if the VCs are transported over
different networks, and if a network element is in an abnormal condition,
justification is necessary to absorb any frequency differences between payload
and the frames.

There are 2 types of justification in SDH:


a. Positive Justification: If the frame speed of the STM is higher than the payload
arrival speed.
b. Negative justification: If the frame speed of the STM is lower than the payload

Positive justification

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Positive justification

Negative justification

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Multiplexing steps of 2Mb/s(E1) into


STM-1 Signal
Due that there are multi rate tributaries like (ATM,GFP(2.114Mb/s)or the rate of E1
signal (2.048Mb/s) is not always in regular speed so the concept of multi-frame is
introduced for the convenience of rate adaptation used in multiplexing 2Mb/s
into STM-1signal , i.e. four C-12 basic frames form a multi-frame , each basic C-12
frame represent by 94-2 matrix (notched matrix )
Since the frame frequency of the C-12 basic frame is 8000-frame per second, the
frame frequency of the C-12 multi-frame will be 2000-frame per second.
if E1 signals have a standard rate of 2.048Mb/s, each basic frame will accommodate 32-byte (256-bit) which a integer value.
-- While when E1 signals rate of 2.046Mb/s are accommodated into a C-12 basic frame, the average number of bits loaded in each frame is: (2.046 x
106b/second)/(8000-frame/second)=255.75 bits. Because this number is not an
integer so if a multi-frame of four basic frames is used, the number of bits can be
loaded in the multi-frame is: (2.046 x 106b/second)/(2000-frame/second)=1023
bits. Each of the first three basic frames accommodates 256-bit (32-byte) payload
and the fourth accommodates 255-bit payload.
--A multi-frame can accommodate payloads at the rate ranging from C-12 Multi
frame max to C-12 Multi-frame min, as follows:
C-12 Multi-frame max=(1023+1+1)x 2000=2.050Mb/s
C-12 Multi-frame min=(1023+0+0)x 2000=2.046Mb/s while

Mapping 2M to THE SDH stream


First step is mapping E1 signal into SDH Container (creating
containers) ,

//

C-12 Containers as in each of tow


mapping methods

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Multiplexing steps (E1 to STM-1)


First step is mapping E1 signal into SDH Container (creating Containers)

E1 PDH stream is interleaved into multi frame stream

1-Creating C-12 multi frame


the regular rate of E1 signal is 2.o48Mb/s & the Max`m rate of C-12 is (2.176Mb/s)
So that each basic C-12 can handle the maximum rate of E1

//

The rest of C-12 Used AS Overhead for E1 AS follows

2-Creation of VC-12 Multi frame


To monitor on a real-time basis the performance of each 2Mb/s
path signal during transmission on SDH network, C-12 must
be further packed ---- adding corresponding path overhead
(lower order overhead)---- to form a VC-12 information
structure. the LP-POH (lower order path overhead) is added
to the notch in the top left corner of each basic frame. Each
multi-frame has a set of lower order path overhead
composed of total 4 bytes: V5, J2, N2 and K4. Since the VC
can be regarded as an independent entity, dispatching of
2Mb/s services later is conducted in unit of VC-12.
A set of path overhead monitors the transmission status of the
whole multi-frame on a network. How many frames of 2Mb/s
signals does a C-12 multi-frame accommodate? One C-12
multi-frame accommodates 4 frames of PCM30/32 signals.
Therefore a set of LP-POH monitors the transmission status of
4 frames of PCM30/32 signals.

//

2-Creation of VC-12 Multi frame

2-Creation of VC-12 Multi frame

E1

500 second

//

3-Creation of TU-12 Multi frame


For correct aligning of VC-12 frames in the receiving end, a four-byte
TU-PTR (Pointer)is added to the four notches of the VC-12 multiframe. Then the information structure of the signal changes into TU12 with 9 rows x 4 columns. The TU-PTR indicates the specific
location of the start point of the first VC-12 within the multiframe.The First two pointers used for these purposes.

The Structure of VC-12 POH

//

3-Creation of TU-12 Multi frame

3-Creation of TU-12 Multi frame

//

//

The construction of TU-12 multi frame

//

4-Creation of tributary Unit group-2


Three TU-12 forms a TUG-2 via byte interleaved multiplexing. The
TUG-2 has the frame structure of 9 rows by 12 columns .

So ,According to (Rec. G.709)TUG-2 Unification low


rate tributaries belong to US,CEPT Standards Like
E1(C-12),T1(C11), T2..etc.

//

5-Creation of Tributary Unit Group -3


(TUG-3)
Seven TUG-2 can be multiplexed into a TUG-3 information
structure via byte interleaved multiplexing. Note that this
information structure formed by the 7 x TUG-2 is 9-row by
84-column. Two rows of fixed stuff bits shall be added in
front of the structure, as illustrated in slide -------. The
multiplexing structure for the TUG-2 via the TUG-3 is
depicted in slides ------ . The TUG-3 is a 9-row by 86column structure with the first two columns of fixed stuff.

5-Creation of TUG-3

//

In the first column of the TUG3 unit there are reserved positions for the
VC3 pointer due to the fact that it is a fixed phase relation between
the TUG2 and the TUG3 unit it is not necessary a pointer; the
positions for the pointer are occupied by a null pointer indicator (NPI
Null Pointer Indicator).

5-Creation of TUG-3

//

5-Creation of TUG-3

Highest multiplexing point has been introduced by SDH to


accommodate high rate European 140 Mbps and to
accommodate lower bit speed tributaries, So,TUG-3 role is
like TUG-2, Unification of High Tributaries of US & CEPT
standards Hierarchies

//

Creation of TUG-3

Fixed
Stuffs

The Anatomy of TUG-3 is depend on the rate of tributary So,When we


start with 2Mb/s input then TUG3 became as shown below but if we
start multiplexing with higher rate tributary then this is another story .

//

While here

//

6- Creation of Container -4 (C-4)

Three TUG-3 can be multiplexed into the C-4 signal structure via
byte interleaved multiplexing method. The arrangement of
three TUG-3s multiplexed in the VC-4. The TUG-3 is a 9-row
by 86-column structure. The VC-4 consists of one column of
VC-4 POH, two columns of fixed stuff and a 258-column
payload structure. The three TUG-3s are byte interleaved into
the 9-row by 258-column VC-4 payload structure and have a
fixed phase with respect to the VC-4. The phase of the VC-4
with respect to the AU-4 is given by the AU-4 pointer.
Since the TUG-3 is an information structure of 9 rows x 86
columns, the information structure composed of three TUG-3
via byte interleaved multiplexing is a block frame structure of
9 rows x 258 columns. While C-4 is a block frame structure of
9 rows x 260 columns. Two columns of stuffed bits are added
to the front of the composite structure of 3 x TUG-3 to form a
C-4 information structure. shows the frame structure of one
C-4.

//

6- Multiplexing of Container -4 (C-4)

7-Creation of Virtual Container -4 by


mapping or adding (HO-POH)

//

SDH Section Over Head (SOH) & SSM


These bytes(91 bytes) lies between columns (1 to 9) in the STM-1
structure, each byte of them has particular role like signaling, control
,alarms ,multiplexing demultiplexingetc. , some bytes of them are
media dependent bytes, while others spare for future applications.
They are divided into three parts as follows:

1-Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH)


2-AU-Pointer
3- Multiplex Section Over Head (MSOH)

//

AU Pointer

//

AU-4 Pointer

AU-4 Pointer offset numbering

//

RSOH &MSOH

//

RSOH

RSOH

//

MSOH

8-Multiplexing Administrative Unit-4 (AU-4) with


Regenerator Section Over Head (RSOH)

//

9-Multiplexing AUG-1 with Multiplexing


Section Over Head(MSOH)

TU3 Pointer

//

10-the last step getting Synchronous Transmission


Module1 (STM-1) by multiplexing MSOH

SDH Signal STM-N (Synchronous Transport


Module)frame structure

//

//

So the structure of STM-1 is look like this blocks

when it multiplexed from C-12 tributary

Thus each STM-1 Contains


about 2M373=632M b/s data

//

While The payload of STM-1 with C-4 tributary will be one


single block of data (about 150 Mb/s) , this happen in cases
look like HD video broadcasting etc.

While we have Here the payload of STM-1


With 3 VC-3

//

The addressing of VC`s at STM-1 Block (KLM addressing )

Here are the


Addressing of
American
tributary T1 With
KLM addressing
( C-11 tributary)

The KLM addressing concept with


C-12 tributaries

//

High order of SDH

STM-4

//

STM-16

//

The Broadband Communication


Architecture

The OSI(Open Source Internetworking) Model

//

SDH Layers according to the OSI


model

Logical &Physical network Paths or Layers


in SDH

//

Logical &Physical network segments

The Various transport segments in SDH

//

Another example of Layers networks in


SDH with different Elements

//

SDH Equipments

The terminal multiplexer(TM)


is used to multiplex local tributaries LOW RATE (STM-M ) to HIGH
ORDER (STM-N) aggregate where(M less than N) OR/AND Mapping
low rate (PDH tributaries into HIGH RATE STM-N aggregate . The
(TM) is used in the chain topology as an end element. TM IS TYPE OF
MULTILEVEL MUX./DEMUX.
TM should handle RSOH in
STM-N frames &MSOH for
ADD/DROP PDH tributaries
to STM-N purposes

//

The Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM)


The function of (ADM) is to cross multiplex/de-multiplex the low rate tributary signal
(PDH,STM-M) to the High rate STM-N signal in east or west lines & STM-N signal
cross connect west or east line port ( M less than N) . Also it include the cross
connect of the STM-N SIGNAL between the sides of the W/E line. ADM is equivalent
to two TMs, ADM is used in transfer stations of SDH network.

The REGENATOR (REG)


is used to regenerate the (high rate) STM-N in case that the
distance between two sites is longer than the transmitter can carry.
REG needs only to handle RSOH in the STM-N frame to reproduce the
The STM-N frames.

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Digital Cross- Connect (DXC)

SDH Topologies
1-the chain topology

The linear bus (chain) topology used when there is no need


for protection and the demography of the sites is linear.

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2-Point to Point Topology

3-Point to Multipoint Topology

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4-Hub Topology

5-Ring Topology

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6-The mesh topology


allows even the most paranoid network manager to sleep
well at nights because of the flexibility and redundancy
that it gives.

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7-The Star topology


is used for connecting far and less important sites
to the network.

Usage of SDH elements in SDH Topologies

The Terminal multiplexer can be used to connect two sites in a high rate connection .
The Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM) is used to build the chain topologies in the
above picture. At the ends of the chain usually a Terminal Multiplexer is connected.
The Add And Drop Multiplexer (ADM) is used to build the ring topology .AT each site
we have the ability to add & drop certain tributaries.

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SDH Protection
The SDH gives the ability to create topologies with protection for the data
transferred. Following are some examples for protected ring topologies.

At this picture we can see Dual


Unidirectional Ring . The normal
data flow is according to ring A
(red). Ring B (blue) carries
unprotected data which is lost
in case of breakdown or it
carries no data at all.

In case of breakdown rings A & B become one ring without


the broken segment.

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The Bi-directional Ring allows data flow in both directions. For


example if data from one of the sites has to reach a site which is next
flow to the left instead of doing a to the left of the origin site it will
whole cycle to the right.

In case of breakdown some of the data is lost and the important data
is switched. For example if data from a site should flow to its
destination through the broken segment, it will be switched to the
other side instead.

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Protection Methods

Protection Methods

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Automatic Protection Switching (APS)


Automatic Protection Switching (APS) is the
capability of a transmission system to detect a
failure on a working facility and to switch to a
standby facility to recover the traffic.
This capability has a positive effect on the
overall system availability.
Two modes of APS are provided:
1+1 protection switching
1:N protection switching.

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Another samples of protection switching

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What is in the future