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Anti-Friction Coating

14 April 2011
Dr V S Iyer

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What is AF Coating?
Anti-Friction Coating
Solvent
(Evaporates after applied)

Solid Lubricant
(Low friction, anti-wear)

Substrate

Binder
(Keep lubricants on the surface)
Additive
(wetting, dispersing,anti settle,etc.)

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Responsibilities of Ingredients
Binder:
Pigments:
Additives:
Solvents:

adhesion, corrosion protection


lubrication, (corrosion protection)
surface tension, wetting, disperging, antisettle
medium to apply coating

Desire
and problem:

Maximum lubricity
Maximum corrosion protection

High amount of binder = good corrosion protection, poor lubricity


High amount of pigment = good lubricity, poor corrosion protection

Mostly a Compromise

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Use of Anti-Friction Coatings (1)


advantages:

dry lubrication (not affected by dust) with defined film


thickness
service life lubrication in many cases (sliding
applications/mixed friction)
no aging, evaporation, oxidation
can often replace surface treatments (ex. galvanizing), offerin
lubrication + corrosion protection
fully effective even after prolonged shut down
vacuum & radation resistance
Keeps factory, plant clean without any leakage of oil.
Useful for optical instrument

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Use of Anti-Friction Coatings (2)


limitations:
not recommended for high speed & rolling applications

under hydrodynamic conditions used only with


greases/oils (offer running-in and emergency
lubrication)
application process (cost, curing)
Difficulties in application procedure (coating
facility/coating skill)
Difficult to remove(after curing), relubricate
Flammable and/or toxic solvent

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Difference between AFC and


Ind.Coating
dry film
dry film
Substrate
Industrial Paint
much binder - less pigment

Substrate
AF-Coating
much pigment - less binder
solvent

wet film = 30 microns

curing
substrate

dry film = 15 microns

substrate

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Curing of AF-Coatings
Room Temperature

Humidity Oxygen

D 321R

M-8800

Physical

D 96

Heat Curing

120C - 250C

3400A, 106, 7409, D 10,


D 88, D 708,

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Heat Curing / Air Curing


Advantages

Disadvantages

Heat curing

Corrosion protection
Chemical resistance

Equipment (ove
Energy costs
Handling

Air curing

Process
Spray cans

Storage stabilit
Curing time

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Lubricant Features
Property

MoS2

Graphite

PTFE

Colour

Black

Greyish black

Transulcent

Load Carrying capacity


Almen Weiland M/C
N/mm2

> 3000

300

20

Thermal stability

-180/450C

+600

+250

Coeff of friction (100%


RH)
0% RH
In vacuum

0.2
.04
0.03

0.12
1.0
2.0

0.12
.04
.03

Adhesion on metals

best

Poor

Poorest

Electrical conductivity

low

high

Low

Coeff of friction

Lowest on high loads

medium

Lowest on low loads

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Running-in effect (1)


Anti-Friction Coating
after application

Anti-Friction Coating
after running-in

appr. 10 m.

appr. 2 m.

section of an
AF-C:
after
application
and
after loading

Metal surface Rt = 5/10


Phosphating layer appr. 3 m.

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Friction values LFW1 test osc. ASTM


D2714
Typical friction values of Anti-Friction Coatings

coeff. of friction

0.12
0.1
MoS2 - 1000
N/mm2
MoS2 - 500
N/mm2
PTFE - 250
N/mm2

0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
service life

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AF-Coating 6

Evaporation
ranking

Remarks

Skin irritant
Hygroscopic

23.5

Harmful
Smell

>21

---

23

Smell

26

Smell

Flash
point()

NMP
Xylene
White
spirit
Butyl
acetate
Buthanol

63

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Chapter 2 : How to use AF coating


Mixing

Degreasing
Sand blast
Chemical treatment

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Mixing
Density
Solvent

<1.0

Binder

<2.0

Solid lubricants
MoS2
Graphite

4.8
2.3

Solubility to Solvent
Soluble
Insoluble
Insoluble

AF-Coating must be mixed well before use. Density of solid


Lubricants are higher than the one of solvent.
Ratio of Solid lubricants to binder is extremely important for
the performance of AF Coating.

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Mixing
Avoid Contamination

AF-Coating
Solvent
(Evaporates after applied)

Surface

Solid Lubricant
(Low friction, anti-wear)
Binder
(Keep lubricant on the surface)
Dust : Enhance abrasive wear

Contamination of dust enhances abrasive wear.


Contamination of oil decreases adhesion and cohesion.
Solvent evaporation while the can is open increases
viscosity of AF-Coating. Hard to apply.

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Degreasing
with solvent
Any dust, oil, and grease must be removed. Ultrasonic is very
useful on this process.
After Degreasing process, you mustnt touch with your hands.

Usually three or more degreasing batches are used. Purity of


solvent on the last batch must be controlled.

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Alkaline degreasing
(Mainly for aluminum)
Follow instruction.
Control temperature and time.
Control purity of the detergent batch.
Wash with water to remove alkaline detergent from the surface.
Dry surface before application
Never touch the surface with your hands.
See SOP FC-315

Neutral detergent degreasing


Environmentally friendly, but Efficiency of degreasing is not
so high.
No recommendable neutral detergent, depend on application and
requirement.

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Sand blasting
Wet type and Dry type.

Sand blat is done to obtain rough surface, so that adhesion


of AF-coating increases.
Sand blat is effective to remove dust and corrosion.
. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .

. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .
. .. . .. . . . ..
Anchor effect

Treat carefully when wet type is used because of corrosion


problem.
Must remove sand by air blow or other methods.

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Chapter 3 : Coating method


Chemical treatment

Coating method
Curing

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Chemical treatment
(Phosphating)
Follow instruction.
Control temperature and time.
Control purity and PH of the bath.
Wash with water to remove excess phosphate from the surface.
Dry surface before application
Never touch the surface with your hands.
For reference
Zn3(PO4)2 recommendable thickness 2-6m
Mn3(PO4)2 recommendable thickness 3-5m
See SOP PALFOS M5

Lubrication performance
Improvement 1
sandblasted and
phosphated

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MoS2 based
coatings:
p = 1000 N/mm2
= 0.03

p = 500 N/mm2
= 0.07/0.08

sandblasted
blank

PTFE based
coatings:
p = 250 N/mm2

Geometrical mean roughness

= 0.07/0.10

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Coating method
Spray
parameters:
speed
quantity of material
distance
air pressure
viscosity of coating
1. spray pattern regulation
2. material quantity
regulation
3. air pressure micrometer
4. coating material inlet

adv.:
good appearance
even film thickness
disadv.:
not so economic (investment)
overspray

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Coating method

Dip-spinning (centrifuging)
parameters:
form/quantity of parts
rotational speed
viscosity of the coating
adv.:
for bulk goods
economical
disadv.:
two layers min.
bath control
film thickness tolerance

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Coating method
Screen printing

parameters:
mesh size/film thickness
high viscosity coating
low evaporation solvents

adv.:
exact pattern/defined area
economical

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Curing
circulation oven (hot air stream)
recommended for bulk-goods
object temperature

infrared rays
absorption of the rays in the coating
reduction of the curing & cooling down time
plane surfaces

induction system
the workpiece is heated in a very short period

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Selecting an AFC
Please refer to the Antifriction coating selection guidein addn u

should Know
Equipment / MachinePart to be coated ( like
Gear/Pins/Gasket/Screw/Others)
Material of the Part ( SS/MS/Plastic/Aluminium)
Treatment on Part( sandblasting/Phosphating Mn or Zinc etc)
Surface finish (machined/smooth/very smooth)
Dimension of Part ( Dia/length/Width/Height)

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Selection of AFC

Movement of part ( to and Fro/ Oscillating/Other)


Speed ( Very slow/slow/Medium/Fast)
Pl mention RPM
Contact with
(steam/dust/water/oil/fuels/referigerant/other)
Operating Temperature :
AFC Recommended :Similar application in global
Business potential

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Typical Molykote AFC


Solid lub.

binder

P/B

Cure
system

D 321R

MoS2 +
Graphite

Inorganic
binder

Very high

Room
temp. cure

106

MoS2 +
Graphite

Epoxy resin

high

Heat cure

7409

MoS2 +
Graphite

Polyamideimide resin

average

Heat cure

D 10

Graphite

Polyamideimide resin

average

Heat cure

D-708

PTFE

Phenolic
resin

low

Heat cure

D 96

PTFE

Water base
resin

low

Room
temp. cure

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Molykote D 321 R AFC

Advantage

Temperature resistance
Low coefficient of friction
Easy to apply (aerosol can)
No heat curing is required
Running-in
malleability

Disadvantage
Corrosion resistance
Chalking

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Application examples
Molykote D 321R AFC

Running-in of gear wheel


Metal (cold) forging
Hydro-forming (stainless steel)
Mechanical element in air plane (maintenance)
Die slider at tire manufacturer

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Application examples
Molykote D 321R AFC

Hydro-forming

Metal (cold) forging

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Application examples
Molykote D 321R AFC

Tire vulcanizing machine

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Molykote 106 AFC


Advantage

High load carrying capacity


Long term lubrication
Good adhesion
Easy to apply (compare with 7409 AFC)

Disadvantage
Corrosion resistance

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Application examples
Molykote 106 AFC

Grommet of cylinder head gasket


Compressor shaft of refrigerator
Sliding parts in circuit breaker
Solenoid plunger

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Application examples
Molykote 106 AFC

Grommet

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Application Example: Exhaust Manifold


Gaskets

Coated gaskets are


used to eliminate
the ping in most
all Ford exhaust
systems.

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Application examples
Molykote 106 AFC

Compressor of
refrigerator

Circuit breaker

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Application examples
Molykote 106 AFC

Solenoid plunger

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Molykote 7409 AFC

Advantage

High load carrying capacity


Long term lubrication
Good adhesion
Resistance to lubricating oil
High temp resistance
Corrosion resistance

Disadvantage
Curing temperature (220)
Drying condition (Forced dry)
Preheating

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Application examples
Molykote 7409 AFC

Engine piston skirt


Piston ring
Screw compressor
Gas valve

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Piston
Requirement

Low friction
Anti scuffing
Reducing noise
Productivity ( Screen print )

Product
D 10
PA-744

Key customer
Mahle
Federal Mogul
Aisin

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Piston Rings
Requirement
Reduce wear
Reduce adhesive

Product
D-321R
7409

Key customers
Riken
Dana
Federal Mogul

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Engine Metal
Requirement
Anti wear
Low friction
Heavy metal free (Lead)

Product
7409

Key customer

Daido Metal
Dana
Kolbenschmidt
Federal Mogul

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Application examples
Molykote 7409 AFC
female rotor

Male rotor

Screw compressor

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Application Example: Camshaft and Tappets

Coatings provide
increased performance
and reduced wear
during engine run-in
and cold starts.

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Seat belts
Requirement
No stack
No influence with
temperature
Long life

Product
3484
7409

Key customer

Autoliv
TRW
Tokai Rika
Takata

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Molykote D 10 AFC
Advantage

High viscosity (screen printing applicable)


Good adhesion
Resistance to lubricating oil
High temp resistance

Disadvantage
Humidity sensitive (<40%RH, 25 required)
Drying condition (Forced dry)

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Application Example: Piston and Piston


Rings
Coatings minimize
noise, provide
scuffing resistance
and improve gas
mileage. Also help
to minimize
emissions.

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Molykote D-708 AFC


Advantage

Very good appearance


Low coefficient of friction
No chalking
Corrosion resistance

Disadvantage
Load carrying capacity

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Application examples
Molykote D-708 AFC

Sliding parts in seat belt buckle


Bonnet lock parts
Bolt / fastener

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Application examples
Molykote D-708 AFC

Bonnet lock

Seat belt

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Application examples
Molykote D-708 AFC

Bolt / fastener

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Application Example: Wiper Blade Coating

Special coating
formulated to be
used with water
repellent glass,
both abrasionresistant and
judder free. D708

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Window Regulator
Requirement
Wide temperature service
Low noise even in Dust

Product
SK-623
AI-6159
AF coating

Key customer

Aisin
Shiroki
ArvinMeritor
Brose

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Molykote D 96 AFC
Advantage

Water base
Good adhesion plastic
Transparent
Elimination of stick-slip
Air-curing

Disadvantage
Load carrying capacity

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Application Example: Anti-Squeak Coating


on Door Panels

Invisible to the eye:

The innovative
coating eliminates
the squeak caused
by friction between
the car door and its
interior trim panel.

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Application Example: Anti-Squeak Coating


on Door Panels (2)
Extreme precision:
Molykote D-96 AntiFriction Coating must
be sprayed precisely
onto those sections of
the door panel which
rub against door metal.

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Throttle Valve
Requirement
Sealing
Lubricity
Fuel resistance

Product
6050
7400

Key customer

Bosch
Denso
Valeo
Hitachi

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Applications of MOLYKOTE AF Coatings on Engines


Camshafts/bearings
Cup tappets

Cylinder-head studs
Carburetor

Cylinder-head gasket
Piston rings
Piston skirt
Starter
solenoid
Starter
motor shaft

Crankshaft/bearings
Studs of main
bearing cap
Flywheel
mounting hub

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General Test method of AFC

For the paint (as supplied)

Appearance
Viscosity
Non-volatile content
Density

For the film (when cured)

Appearance
Film thickness
Adhesion
Hardness
Surface roughness
Cured level

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Viscosity

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Density

Weight (gram)
Volume (cm3)

Specific gravity cup

= density (g/cm3)

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Non-Volatile Content

AFC

heat
Weight loss %

100 (%) weight loss (%) = Non-volatile content (%)

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Film thickness

coil

coil

film

Eddy current
steel

Electro-magnetic type

Non-ferrous metal

Eddy current type

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Adhesion1

Peeling direction
Adhesive tape

substrate

film

cut

Cross cut test

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Adhesion2

Mandrel test (bending test)

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Hardness

pencil

substrate

film

Pencil hardness test

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Surface Roughness

Surface roughness meter

Roughness chart

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Cured level

Wipe with solvent cloth

Observe the surface (solved or not)

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Performance test of AFC


LFW-1 test
FALEX test
Light load oscillation test

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LFW-1

(ASTM D-2714)

What is LFW-1 test?


LFW-1 test measures the coefficient of friction as well as wear ratio
(life time) by rotating or oscillating movements.
The coefficient of friction is tested by the contact of ring on block.

Why the test for?


LFW-1 evaluates the lubricity of lubricants by the coefficient of friction
and wear ratio under different loads and speeds conditions.

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Structure of test machine

Specimen ----Contact
----Measurement --Lubricant -----

Ring and block


Line
Coefficient of friction,wear,life
Grease,Paste,oil,AF coating

Speed
Load

------- 600-1000rpm,60-100cpm
------- 30-630lbs.

Temperature ----- Room temp.

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Falex

(ASTM D-2670)

What is Falex test?


Falex test measures the coefficient of friction, load carrying capacity
and wear life of lubricants.
The structure of the system is composed of 2-V-shaped blocks and steel
shaft.

Why the test for?


Falex test evaluates lubricating characteristic of lubricants showed in
a coefficient of friction, O.K. load and wear life.

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Structure of test machine

Specimen ----Contact
----Measurement --Lubricant -----

Pin and V-block


Speed
------290rpm.
Line
Load
------500-4500lbs.
Coefficient of friction,Load carrying capacity,wear life
Paste,Powder,AF coating,oil
Temperature ----Room temp.

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Low Load Oscillating Tester


What is Low load oscillating test?
Low load oscillating test determines the coefficient of friction under
relatively low load condition.

Why the test?


Low load oscillating test can evaluate lubricity between different materials.
This test is especially useful for the evaluation of plastic lubrication.

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Structure of test machine

coating

Specimen

-----

Contact
----Measurement --Lubricant -----

Steel-Steel,Steel-plastics,plastic-plastic
Point,Line
Coefficient of friction
Grease,Paste,AF coating,oil

Speed
------Load
------Temperature -----

0-215cm/sec
0-3Kg
Room temp.