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Tsunami

Tsunami
For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation).
A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from
Japanese: , lit. "harbour wave"; English
pronunciation:
/sunmi/
soo-NAH-mee
or
[1]
/tsunmi/ tsoo-NAH-mee ) is a series of water
waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of
a body of water, generally an ocean or a large lake.
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater
explosions (including detonations of underwater
nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite
impacts and other disturbances above or below water
all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
2011 Thoku earthquake and tsunami, An aerial view of damage in
the Sendai region with black smoke coming from the Nippon Oil
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves,
Sendai oil refinery
because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than
appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead
initially resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal waves. Tsunamis
generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave
train". Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited
to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian
Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with at least 290,000 people killed or
missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

The Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late 5th century BC, History of the Peloponnesian War, that
tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the
20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why some
large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; trying to accurately forecast the passage of
tsunamis across the oceans; and also to forecast how tsunami waves would interact with specific shorelines.

Taken at Ao Nang, Krabi Province, Thailand, during the 2004 Indian


Ocean earthquake and tsunami in Thailand

Tsunami

Etymology
The term tsunami comes from the Japanese , composed of the
two kanji (tsu) meaning "harbour" and (nami), meaning
"wave". (For the plural, one can either follow ordinary English practice
and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese.[2])
Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves, which are unusually
high sea waves that are triggered especially by earthquakes.[3] In recent
years, this term has fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific
community, because tsunami actually have nothing to do with tides.
The once-popular term derives from their most common appearance,
Tsunami warning bilingual sign in Ulee Lheue,
which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunami and tides
Banda Aceh in Acehnese and Indonesian
both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of
tsunami the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving the impression of an
incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of "tidal" include "resembling"[4] or "having the form or character of"[5]
the tides, and the term tsunami is no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal
wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.
There are only a few other languages that have an equivalent native word. In Acehnese language, the words are i
beuna[6] or aln buluk[7] (depending on the dialect). In Tamil language, it is aazhi peralai. On Simeulue island, off
the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, in Devayan language the word is smong, while in Sigulai language it is
emong.[8] In Singkil (in Aceh province) and surrounding, the people name tsunami with word gloro.[9]

History
See also: List of historic tsunamis
As early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides inquired in his
book History of the Peloponnesian War about the causes of tsunami,
and was the first to argue that ocean earthquakes must be the cause.[]

Lisbon earthquake and tsunami in 1755

"The cause, in my opinion, of this phenomenon must be


sought in the earthquake. At the point where its shock has
been the most violent the sea is driven back, and suddenly
recoiling with redoubled force, causes the inundation.
Without an earthquake I do not see how such an accident
could happen."[10]
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26.10.15-19)
described the typical sequence of a tsunami, including an incipient
earthquake, the sudden retreat of the sea and a following gigantic
wave, after the 365 AD tsunami devastated Alexandria.[11]

The Russians of Pavel Lebedev-Lastochkin in


Japan, with their ships tossed inland by a tsunami,
meeting some Japanese in 1779

While Japan may have the longest recorded history of tsunamis, the
sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and
tsunami event mark it as the most devastating of its kind in modern
times, killing around 230,000 people. The Sumatran region is not
unused to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes
regularly occurring off the coast of the island.[12]

Tsunami

Generation mechanisms
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or
perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic
eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear tests. The waves formed in this way are then
sustained by gravity. Tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis.

Seismicity
Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic
earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earth's crustal deformation; when these
earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position.
More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive plate
boundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component of movement involved.
Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed, but the size of the largest of such events is
normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami.

Drawing of tectonic plate


boundary before earthquake

Overriding plate bulges under


strain, causing tectonic uplift.

Plate slips, causing


subsidence and releasing
energy into water.

The energy released


produces tsunami waves.

Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres
long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 metres),[13] which is why they generally pass
unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimetres (12in) above the normal sea surface.
They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a wave shoaling process described below. A tsunami can
occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas.
On April 1, 1946, a magnitude-7.8 (Richter Scale) earthquake occurred near the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. It
generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of Hawai'i with a 14-metre high (46ft) surge. The area
where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacific Ocean floor is subducting (or being pushed downwards) under
Alaska.
Examples of tsunami originating at locations away from convergent boundaries include Storegga about 8,000 years
ago, Grand Banks 1929, Papua New Guinea 1998 (Tappin, 2001). The Grand Banks and Papua New Guinea
tsunamis came from earthquakes which destabilised sediments, causing them to flow into the ocean and generate a
tsunami. They dissipated before traveling transoceanic distances.
The cause of the Storegga sediment failure is unknown. Possibilities include an overloading of the sediments, an
earthquake or a release of gas hydrates (methane etc.).
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (Mw 9.5) (19:11 hrs UTC), 1964 Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake (Mw 9.2) (00:58:53 UTC) and 2011 Thoku earthquake (Mw9.0) are recent examples of powerful
megathrust earthquakes that generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can cross entire oceans. Smaller (Mw
4.2) earthquakes in Japan can trigger tsunamis (called local and regional tsunamis) that can only devastate nearby
coasts, but can do so in only a few minutes.

Tsunami

Landslides
In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had previously been believed possible could be caused by
giant submarine landslides. These rapidly displace large water volumes, as energy transfers to the water at a rate
faster than the water can absorb. Their existence was confirmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in Lituya Bay,
Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had a height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet). The wave didn't
travel far, as it struck land almost immediately. Two people fishing in the bay were killed, but another boat
amazingly managed to ride the wave.
Another landslide-tsunami event occurred in 1963 when a massive landslide from Monte Toc went into the Vajont
Dam in Italy. The resulting wave overtopped the 262m (860ft) high dam by 250 metres (820ft) and destroyed
several towns. Around 2,000 people died. Scientists named these waves megatsunami.
Scientists discovered that extremely large landslides from volcanic
island collapses can generate megatsunamis that can cross oceans.

Meteotsunamis
Some meteorological conditions, especially deep depressions such as
tropical cyclones, can generate a type of storm surge called a
meteotsunami which raises water heights above normal levels, often
suddenly at the shoreline.

Devastation wrought by Hurricane Ike's

meteotsunamic storm surge over the Bolivar


In the case of deep tropical cyclones, this is due to very low
Peninsula in 2008.
atmospheric pressure and inward swirling winds causing an uplifted
dome of water to form under and travel in tandem with the storm.
When these water domes reach shore, they rear up in shallows and surge laterally like earthquake-generated
tsunamis, typically arriving shortly after landfall of the storm's eye.[14]

Characteristics
Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a
wall of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a
large volume of water draining off the land and carrying a large
amount of debris with it, even with waves that do not appear to be
large.
While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of
about 100 metres (330ft) and a height of roughly 2 metres (6.6ft), a
tsunami in the deep ocean has a much larger wavelength of up to 200
kilometres (120mi). Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometres
per hour (500mph), but owing to the enormous wavelength the wave
oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a
cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 metre (3.3ft).[15] This
makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water, where ships are
unable to feel their passage.
The reason for the Japanese name "harbour wave" is that sometimes a
village's fishermen would sail out, and encounter no unusual waves
while out at sea fishing, and come back to land to find their village
devastated by a huge wave.

When the wave enters shallow water, it slows


down and its amplitude (height) increases.

The wave further slows and amplifies as it hits


land. Only the largest waves crest.

Tsunami

As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, wave shoaling compresses the wave and its
speed decreases below 80 kilometres per hour (50mph). Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12mi)
and its amplitude grows enormously. Since the wave still has the same very long period, the tsunami may take
minutes to reach full height. Except for the very largest tsunamis, the approaching wave does not break, but rather
appears like a fast-moving tidal bore. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami
further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front.
When the tsunami's wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run up is
measured in metres above a reference sea level. A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period
of hours, with significant time between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest
run up.
About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but they are possible wherever there are large bodies of water,
including lakes. They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions, glacier calvings, and bolides.

Drawback
All waves have a positive and negative
peak, i.e. a ridge and a trough. In the
case of a propagating wave like a
tsunami, either may be the first to
An illustration of the rhythmic "drawback" of surface water associated with a wave. It
arrive. If the first part to arrive at shore
follows that a very large drawback may herald the arrival of a very large wave.
is the ridge, a massive breaking wave
or sudden flooding will be the first effect noticed on land. However if the first part to arrive is a trough, a drawback
will occur as the shoreline recedes dramatically, exposing normally submerged areas. Drawback can exceed
hundreds of metres, and people unaware of the danger sometimes remain near the shore to satisfy their curiosity or to
collect fish from the exposed seabed.
A typical wave period for a damaging tsunami is about 12 minutes. This means that if the drawback phase is the first
part of the wave to arrive, the sea will recede, with areas well below sea level exposed after 3 minutes. During the
next 6 minutes the tsunami wave trough builds into a ridge, and during this time the sea is filled in and destruction
occurs on land. During the next 6 minutes, the tsunami wave changes from a ridge to a trough, causing flood waters
to drain and drawback to occur again. This may sweep victims and debris some distance from land. The process
repeats as the next wave arrives.

Scales of intensity and magnitude


As with earthquakes, several attempts have been made to set up scales of tsunami intensity or magnitude to allow
comparison between different events.

Intensity scales
The first scales used routinely to measure the intensity of tsunami were the Sieberg-Ambraseys scale, used in the
Mediterranean Sea and the Imamura-Iida intensity scale, used in the Pacific Ocean. The latter scale was modified by
Soloviev, who calculated the Tsunami intensity I according to the formula

where

is the average wave height along the nearest coast. This scale, known as the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami

intensity scale, is used in the global tsunami catalogues compiled by the NGDC/NOAA[16] and the Novosibirsk
Tsunami Laboratory as the main parameter for the size of the tsunami.

Tsunami

Magnitude scales
The first scale that genuinely calculated a magnitude for a tsunami, rather than an intensity at a particular location
was the ML scale proposed by Murty & Loomis based on the potential energy. Difficulties in calculating the
potential energy of the tsunami mean that this scale is rarely used. Abe introduced the tsunami magnitude scale
,
calculated from,
where h is the maximum tsunami-wave amplitude (in m) measured by a tide gauge at a distance R from the
epicentre, a, b and D are constants used to make the Mt scale match as closely as possible with the moment
magnitude scale.

Warnings and predictions


See also: Tsunami warning system
Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback
(many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), can survive
only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors
of nearby buildings. In 2004, ten-year old Tilly Smith of Surrey,
England, was on Maikhao beach in Phuket, Thailand with her parents
and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told
her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned
others minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She
credited her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.
In the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami drawback was not reported on the
Tsunami warning sign
African coast or any other east-facing coasts that it reached. This was
because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault
line and upwards on the western side. The western pulse hit coastal Africa and other western areas.
A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and location of an earthquake is known. Geologists,
oceanographers, and seismologists analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or may not issue a
tsunami warning. However, there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can
provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most successful systems uses
bottom pressure sensors, attached to buoys, which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column.
Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems to warn the population before the wave
reaches land. On the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning signs indicate
evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along the Japanese
shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural hazards together with a network of warning sirens,
typically at the top of the cliff of surroundings hills.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning System is based in Honolulu, Hawaii. It monitors Pacific Ocean seismic activity. A
sufficiently large earthquake magnitude and other information triggers a tsunami warning. While the subduction
zones around the Pacific are seismically active, not all earthquakes generate tsunami. Computers assist in analysing
the tsunami risk of every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and the adjoining land masses.

Tsunami

Tsunami hazard sign at Bamfield,


British Columbia

A tsunami warning sign on a


seawall in Kamakura, Japan,
2004

A Tsunami hazard sign


(Spanish - English) in
Iquique, Chile.

Tsunami Evacuation Route


signage along U.S. Route 101, in
Washington

The monument to the victims of


tsunami at Laupahoehoe, Hawaii

Tsunami memorial
in Kanyakumari
beach

As a direct result of the Indian Ocean tsunami, a re-appraisal of the tsunami threat for all coastal areas is being
undertaken by national governments and the United Nations Disaster Mitigation Committee. A tsunami warning
system is being installed in the Indian Ocean.
Computer models can predict tsunami arrival, usually within minutes of the
arrival time. Bottom pressure sensors relay information in real time. Based on
these pressure readings and other seismic information and the seafloor's shape
(bathymetry) and coastal topography, the models estimate the amplitude and
surge height of the approaching tsunami. All Pacific Rim countries collaborate in
the Tsunami Warning System and most regularly practice evacuation and other
procedures. In Japan, such preparation is mandatory for government, local
authorities, emergency services and the population.
Some zoologists hypothesise that some animal species have an ability to sense
subsonic Rayleigh waves from an earthquake or a tsunami. If correct, monitoring
their behavior could provide advance warning of earthquakes, tsunami etc.
One of the deep water buoys used in
the DART tsunami warning system
However, the evidence is controversial and is not widely accepted. There are
unsubstantiated claims about the Lisbon quake that some animals escaped to
higher ground, while many other animals in the same areas drowned. The phenomenon was also noted by media
sources in Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. It is possible that certain animals (e.g., elephants) may
have heard the sounds of the tsunami as it approached the coast. The elephants' reaction was to move away from the
approaching noise. By contrast, some humans went to the shore to investigate and many drowned as a result.
Along the United States west coast, in addition to sirens, warnings are sent on television and radio via the National
Weather Service, using the Emergency Alert System.

Tsunami

Forecast of tsunami attack probability


Kunihiko Shimazaki (University of Tokyo), a member of Earthquake Research committee of The Headquarters for
Earthquake Research Promotion of Japanese government, mentioned the plan to public announcement of tsunami
attack probability forecast at Japan National Press Club on 12 May 2011. The forecast includes tsunami height,
attack area and occurrence probability within 100 years ahead. The forecast would integrate the scientific knowledge
of recent interdisciplinarity and aftermath of the 2011 Thoku earthquake and tsunami. As the plan, announcement
will be available from 2014.[17][18]

Mitigation
See also: Tsunami barrier
In some tsunami-prone countries earthquake engineering measures have been
taken to reduce the damage caused onshore.
Japan, where tsunami science and response measures first began following a
disaster in 1896, has produced ever-more elaborate countermeasures and
response plans. That country has built many tsunami walls of up to 12 metres
(39ft) high to protect populated coastal areas. Other localities have built
floodgates of up to 15.5 metres (51ft) high and channels to redirect the water
from incoming tsunami.
However, their effectiveness has been questioned, as tsunami often overtop the
barriers. The 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster was directly triggered by a
tsunami that exceeded the height of the plant's sea wall.[19] The Okushiri,
A seawall at Tsu, Japan
Hokkaid tsunami which struck Okushiri Island of Hokkaid within two to five
minutes of the earthquake on July 12, 1993 created waves as much as 30 metres
(100ft) tallas high as a 10-story building. The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by a tsunami wall,
but the waves washed right over the wall and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area. The wall may
have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami, but it did not prevent major destruction
and loss of life. Iwate Prefecture, which is an area at high risk from tsunami, had tsunami barriers walls totalling 25
kilometres (16mi) long at coastal towns. The 2011 tsunami toppled more than 50% of the walls and caused many
damages.[20]

As a weapon
There have been studies and at least one attempt to create tsunami waves as a weapon. In World War II, the New
Zealand Military Forces initiated Project Seal, which attempted to create small tsunamis with explosives in the area
of today's Shakespear Regional Park; the attempt failed.

Footnotes
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

Entry: "tsunami"
[a. Jap. tsunami, tunami, f. tsu harbour + nami waves.Oxford English Dictionary]
http:/ / www. merriam-webster. com/ dictionary/ tidal%20wave
"Tidal", The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Company. 11 November 2008. Dictionary.reference.com
(http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/ browse/ tidal)
[5] -al. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved November 11, 2008, Dictionary.reference.com (http:/ / dictionary. reference. com/
browse/ -al)
[6] Proposing The Community-Based Tsunami Warning System (http:/ / www. seis. nagoya-u. ac. jp/ kimata/ ref/ ICTW08_paper_CPM12JP.
pdf)

Tsunami
[7] Novel Alon Buluek (http:/ / books. google. co. id/ books?id=efBrY41Hm5QC& pg=PP7& lpg=PP7& dq=alon+ buluek+ ie+ beuna+
tsunami& source=bl& ots=1Hj_pswzTy& sig=V7PmAnPptfO7BNMWBAC5aWMGKGI& hl=id& sa=X&
ei=etrET-DgDMbPrQeRxcm6CQ& ved=0CCsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=alon buluek ie beuna tsunami& f=false)
[8] Tsunami 1907: Early Interpretation and its Development (http:/ / www. jtic. org/ phocadownload/ archived_old_files/ pdf/ SMGChapter3.
pdf)
[9] 13 Pulau di Aceh Singkil Hilang (http:/ / m. tribunnews. com/ 2010/ 04/ 19/ 13-pulau-di-aceh-singkil-hilang)
[10] Thucydides: A History of the Peloponnesian War, 3.89.5 (http:/ / www. perseus. tufts. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Thuc. + 3. 89. 1)
[11] Stanley, Jean-Daniel & Jorstad, Thomas F. (2005), " The 365 A.D. Tsunami Destruction of Alexandria, Egypt: Erosion, Deformation of
Strata and Introduction of Allochthonous Material (http:/ / gsa. confex. com/ gsa/ 2005AM/ finalprogram/ abstract_96386. htm)"
[12] The 10 most destructive tsunamis in history (http:/ / www. australiangeographic. com. au/ journal/ the-10-biggest-tsunamis-in-history. htm/
), Australian Geographic, March 16, 2011.
[13] Facts and figures: how tsunamis form (http:/ / www. australiangeographic. com. au/ journal/ facts-and-figures-how-tsunamis-form. htm/ ),
Australian Geographic, March 18, 2011.
[14] Eyewitness video (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=rS0gv4Xbw7w) of Supertyphoon Haiyan's meteotsunamic storm surge on
November 6, 2013
[15] Earthsci.org (http:/ / earthsci. org/ education/ teacher/ basicgeol/ tsumami/ tsunami. html), Tsunamis
[16] National Geophysical Data Center / (NGDC/WDS) Global Historical Tsunami Database (http:/ / ngdc. noaa. gov/ hazard/ tsu_db. shtml)
[17] Forecast of earthquake probability is within 30 years ahead, however Tsunami attack probability is much lower than earthquake so that the
plan is set to be within 100 years ahead. Yomiuri Shimbun 2011-05-13 ver.13S page 2,
[18] IndiaTimes (http:/ / www. scientificamerican. com/ article. cfm?id=tsunami-wave-of-change) Kunihiko Shimazaki speaks during a press
conference in Tokyo Thursday, May 12, 2011
[19] Phillip Lipscy, Kenji Kushida, and Trevor Incerti. 2013. " The Fukushima Disaster and Japans Nuclear Plant Vulnerability in Comparative
Perspective (http:/ / www. stanford. edu/ ~plipscy/ LipscyKushidaIncertiEST2013. pdf)." Environmental Science and Technology 47 (May),
6082-6088.
[20] Kyodo Press "Tsunami toppled more than 50% of sea wall in Iwate prefecture" (JA) (http:/ / www. 47news. jp/ CN/ 201104/
CN2011041201000147. html)

References
IOC Tsunami Glossary (http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1328&
Itemid=1142&lang=en) by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) at the International
Tsunami Information Centre (http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php) (ITIC) of UNESCO
Tsunami Terminology (http://nthmp-history.pmel.noaa.gov/terms.html) at NOAA
In June 2011, the VOA Special English service of the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on
tsunamis as part of its weekly Science in the News series. The program included an interview with a NOAA
official who oversees the agency's tsunami warning system. A transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for
English learners, can be found at The Ever-Present Threat of Tsunamis. (http://www.voanews.com/
learningenglish/home/science-technology/
Large-Tsunamis-Do-Not-Happen-Often-But-the-Threat-is-Always-Present-123226568.html)
abelard.org. (http://www.abelard.org/briefings/tsunami.php) tsunamis: tsunamis travel fast but not at infinite
speed. retrieved March 29, 2005.
Dudley, Walter C. & Lee, Min (1988: 1st edition) Tsunami! ISBN 0-8248-1125-9 website (http://tsunami.org/
references.html)
Iwan, W.D., editor, 2006, Summary report of the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean tsunamis of
December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, EERI Publication #2006-06,
11 chapters, 100 page summary, plus CD-ROM with complete text and supplementary photographs, EERI Report
2006-06. ISBN 1-932884-19-X website (http://www.eeri.org/)
Kenneally, Christine (December 30, 2004). "Surviving the Tsunami." Slate. website (http://www.slate.com/id/
2111608/)
Lambourne, Helen (March 27, 2005). "Tsunami: Anatomy of a disaster." BBC News. website (http://news.bbc.
co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4381395.stm)
Macey, Richard (January 1, 2005). "The Big Bang that Triggered A Tragedy," The Sydney Morning Herald, p
11quoting Dr Mark Leonard, seismologist at Geoscience Australia.

Tsunami
Interactive Map of Historical Tsunamis (http://maps.ngdc.noaa.gov/viewers/hazards/) from NOAA's
National Geophysical Data Center
Tappin, D; 2001. Local tsunamis. Geoscientist. 118, 47.
Girl, 10, used geography lesson to save lives (http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1480192/
Girl-10-used-geography-lesson-to-save-lives.html), Telegraph.co.uk
Philippines warned to prepare for Japan's tsunami (http://www.noypi.ph/index.php/nation/
3283-key-locations-in-philippines-warned-to-prepare-for-tsunami.html), Noypi.ph

External links
Animation of DART tsunami detection system (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/Mov/DART_04.swf)
Can HF Radar detect Tsunamis? (http://ifmaxp1.ifm.uni-hamburg.de/tsunami.shtml) University of
Hamburg HF-Radar.
Community Exposure to Tsunami Hazards in California (http://purl.fdlp.gov/GPO/gpo36685) United States
Geological Survey
Envirtech Tsunami Warning System (http://www.envirtech.org/envirtech_tsunameter.htm) Based on seabed
seismics and sea level gauges.
Geology.com (http://geology.com/records/biggest-tsunami.shtml) The highest tsunami was caused by rockfall
IOC Tsunami Glossary (http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1328&
Itemid=1142&lang=en) by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) at the International
Tsunami Information Centre (http://itic.ioc-unesco.org/index.php) (ITIC) of UNESCO
How to survive a tsunami (http://www.edu4hazards.org/tsunami.html) Guide for children and youth
International Centre for Geohazards (ICG) (http://www.geohazards.no/)
ITSU (http://ioc.unesco.org/itsu/) Coordination Group for the Pacific Tsunami Warning System.
Jakarta Tsunami Information Centre (http://www.jtic.org/)
National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) Tsunami Data (http://ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/tsu.shtml)
National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (http://nthmp.tsunami.gov/) Coordinated U.S. Federal/State
effort
NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (NCTR) (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/)
NOAA Tsunami (http://www.tsunami.noaa.gov/) General description of tsunamis and the United States
agency NOAA's role
NOVA: Wave That Shook The World (http://www.pbs.org/nova/tsunami/) Site and special report shot
within days of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
Pacific Tsunami Museum (http://www.tsunami.org/)
Science of Tsunami Hazards journal (http://www.sthjournal.org/)
Tsunami scientific publications list (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/pubs.html)
Scientific American Magazine (January 2006 Issue) Tsunami: Wave of Change (http://www.scientificamerican.
com/article.cfm?id=tsunami-wave-of-change) What we can learn from the Indian Ocean tsunami of December
2004.
Social & Economic Costs of Tsunamis in the United States (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/esb/
?goal=weather&file=events/tsunami/) from "NOAA Socioeconomics" website initiative
Tsunami Centers (http://tsunami.gov/) United States National Weather Service.
Tsunami database with detailed statistics (http://tsunami.name/)
Interactive map of recent and historical tsunami events (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/database_devel.html) with
links to graphics, animations and data
Tsunami Warning (http://tsunami-warning.org/) Tsunami warnings via mobile phone.
Tsunamis and Earthquakes (http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/)
USGS: Surviving a tsunami (http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/c1187/) (United States)

10

Tsunami
Impact of Tsunami on groundwater resources (http://www.igrac.net/publications/134) IGRAC International
Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre
Tsunami Surges on Dry Coastal Plains: Application of Dam Break Wave Equations (http://espace.library.uq.
edu.au/view.php?pid=UQ:7781), Coastal Engineering Journal, 48 4: 355-370
What happened on July 21, 365 A.D.? (http://www.q-mag.org/theeventofjuly21/index.html) An ancient
Mediterranean tsunami event

Images, video, and animations


Tsunami videos on YouTube (http://www.youtube.com/noaapmel#p/c/3BDBAAAA7D4EB2DA/8/
4rWDrZIucAQ) from the NOAA Center for Tsunami Research (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/)
Amateur Camcorder Video Streams of the December 26, 2004 tsunami that hit Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia
(search on tsunamis) (http://www.archive.org/details/opensource_movies)
Animation of 1960 tsunami originating outside coast of Chile (http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/
general/physics/characteristics.html)
Animations of actual and simulated tsunami events (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/animate.html) from the NOAA
Center for Tsunami Research
CBC Digital Archives Canada's Earthquakes and Tsunamis (http://archives.cbc.ca/IDD-1-75-1561/
science_technology/earthquakes_and_tsunamis/)
Computer-generated animation of a tsunami (http://www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/physics/
runup.html)
Natural Hazards Image Database (tsunami, volcano and earthquake damage) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
hazardimages/) from NOAA National Geophysical Data Center
Origin of a Tsunami animation showing how the shifting of continental plates in the Indian Ocean created the
catastrophe of December 26, 2004. (http://www.forskning.no/Artikler/2006/juni/1149444923.73)
Photos (http://www.mindef.gov.sg/tsunami/photos1.asp) and Videos (http://www.mindef.gov.sg/tsunami/
videos.asp) of Humanitarian Assistance to Tsunami-hit areas by the Singapore Armed Forces
Tsunami Aftermath in Penang (http://thanks4supporting.us/tsunami-aftermath-penang-island-malaysia.html)
and Kuala Muda, Kedah (http://thanks4supporting.us/visit-to-kota-kuala-muda.html).
Satellite Images of Tsunami Affected Areas (http://www.crisp.nus.edu.sg/tsunami/tsunami.html) High
resolution satellite images showing the effects of the 2004 tsunami on the affected areas in Indonesia, Thailand
and Nicobar island of India.
The Survivors A moving travelogue full of stunning images along the tsunami ravaged South-Western Coast of
India (http://www.riveroflife.be/tsunami/index.html) (Unavailable)
Animations of tsunami propagation model results (http://nctr.pmel.noaa.gov/animate.html) for actual tsunami
events
2004 Boxing Day Tsunami (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RDOuwMj7Xzo&feature=PlayList&
p=F78585C6FE0C11CA&playnext=1&playnext_from=PL&index=81) at YouTube
Raw Video: Tsunami Slams Northeast Japan (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k4w27IczOTk), a video of
the 2011 Thoku (Japan) earthquake tsunami by Associated Press at YouTube, showing the wave from a tsunami
engulfing a town and farmlands.
A simulation of tsunami run-up of the tsunami of March 11, 2011 at Koborinai, Miyako, Japan, where the tsunami
reached a height of 37.9 m (124 ft) (http://www.flow3d.com/pdfs/p/maritime/
three-dimensional-tsunami-runup-simulation-for-the-port-of-koborinai-16-13.pdf)
What Causes A Tsunami: Animation (NOAA) (http://www.tmba.tv/broadcastanimation/weathergraphics/
what-casues-a-tsunami/)

11

Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors


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4r1st0tl3, 4twenty42o, 5 albert square, 63.192.137.xxx, 8ty3hree, A Softer Answer, A. di M., A3r0, ACSE, Aaron11193, Aaronbrick, Abstract Idiot, Academic Challenger, Acalamari, Adam
Carr, Adam McMaster, Adam1213, AdamJacobMuller, Adambro, Adamsrock, Adashiel, Adhi Nugroho, Aecis, Aeusoes1, Aewadi, Agateller, Ahoerstemeier, Aicchalmers, Ajraddatz, Akamad,
Akronym, Alan Pascoe, Alanbly, Alastair Haines, AlbertBickford, Albrozdude, Aldis90, Ale jrb, Alecl1996, Alessandro57, Alex12345678910, AlexNg, Alexd, AlexiusHoratius, Alexlemon,
Alhutch, Ali'i, Alias Flood, Aliekens, Alistair1978, Aliter, Allison Stillwell, Almafeta, Amalthea, Amanbis, Ambeddo10, Amcfreely, Amideg, AnAj, Anakixbutt23, Anas Salloum, Anders
Torlind, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andrewpmack, Andrewrost3241981, Andthu, Andy, Andy M. Wang, Andy Smith, AndyBQ, Andyd1, Andyjsmith, Anetode, Angry bee, Animum, Ann Stouter,
Anna Frodesiak, AnnaFrance, AnonGuy, Anonymous Dissident, Anonymous editor, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, Antonrojo, Anyeverybody, Aowpr, Arcata1, Arch dude, Archfalhwyl,
Arjun01, Arnfinn Christensen, Arthur Smart, Article7, Arunsingh16, Arwel Parry, Asabbagh, Ashmoo, Asprakash, Astronautics, Atlant, Attarparn, Aude, Autodidactyl, Autoerrant, Avb, Avia,
AvicAWB, Avicennasis, Avraham, Awien, Axl, Az1568, AzaToth, Azalea pomp, BARLOWG, BME, BNSF1995, Badgernet, Bakanov, Bal00, Balweyn1977, Banes, BanyanTree, Barbara Shack,
Barbi6, Barneca, Bart133, BaseballDetective, Bd64kcmo, Bdegfcunbbfv, Bear475, Bearcat, Bedel23, Beland, Belligero, Belovedfreak, Ben Ben, Ben Webber, Bender235, Bendono, Benlembo7,
Beno1000, Berek, BerserkerBen, BesigedB, Bevo74, Bhadani, Bhadaur, Bhawani Gautam, Big Bird, Biglovinb, Bigmuggle, Binris, Black Kite, BlackDragon235, Blainster, Blightsoot,
Blouseman, BlueAg09, BlueMoonlet, Bluesquareapple, Bluethedog01, Bluetooth954, Boa22, Bobblewik, Bobo192, Bonadea, Bongwarrior, Boothy443, Bootluy, Boris Allen, Boris Crpeau,
Born2x, Bovineone, Bradleyb2007, Brat32, Brclark12, Brekky, BrianGV, Bridgecross, Broccoli, Bruce1ee, Brucedog3, Brusegadi, BryanG, Bsadowski1, Bubba hotep, Bubblybabs, Bucketsofg,
Bunny-chan, Butros, Buuuu, Bydand, Bka, C'est moi, C4100, CAPS LOCK, CJCurrie, CNRNair, CQJ, Cadwaladr, Calabraxthis, Calmfeet, Caltas, Calton, CambridgeBayWeather, Camelhumps,
Cameron Nedland, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, CanOfWorms, Canderson7, CanisRufus, Canterbury Tail, Carcharoth, Casper2k3, Cause of death, Cbustapeck, Ccmonty, Cdc, Cedders,
CeilingCrash, Celestianpower, Celestra, Centauri, Centrx, Cerfa, Cessator, Chameleon, Champlax, Chansonh, Charan094, CharlotteWebb, Chaser, ChongDae, Chovain, Chowbok, Chris 73,
Chris857, ChrisGualtieri, ChrisO, ChrisRuvolo, Chrishmt0423, Chrislk02, ChristopherCruise, CiTrusD, Cimon Avaro, Circulationsys, Cobaltbluetony, CodeWeasel, Collabi, Colonel Warden,
Comehomeusa, Cometstyles, Commander Keane, Computerjoe, Computerman45, Confession0791, Conversion script, Cool Blue, Cool Nerd, Coolcaesar, Coredesat, Cosmic Latte,
CountdownCrispy, CowboySpartan, Cowman109, Cp111, Craig Pemberton, CrankyScorpion, Cremepuff222, Crowsnest, CryptoDerk, CryptoStorm, Crystallina, Cthompson, Cuchullain, Curps,
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DropDeadGorgias, Drpickem, Drunkenmonkey, Dsmdgold, Dudecon, Durin, Dwheeler, Dyingdreams, Dysepsion, E Wing, EJF, ESkog, Eatsaq, Eazye24, Eclypse, Ed Poor, Ed8r, Edwy, Egg
Centric, Egil, Ejrs, El C, Elcocinero, EldKatt, Elen of the Roads, Elfino, Eliz81, Elizabeyth, Emijrp, Emmaskis, Emperorbma, Endofskull, Envirodan, Epicstonemason, Epipelagic, Erebus555,
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Funnybunny, FutureNJGov, Fuzheado, Fvw, Fys, GHe, GJeffery, GRAHAMUK, Gadfium, Gaff, Gaius Cornelius, Galoubet, Garyms1963, GavinTing, Gdr, Ged UK, Geek84, Gene Nygaard,
Geni, GeoGreg, George07, GeorgeOrr, Ghodgen, Giftlite, Gilgamesh, Gilliam, Gimboid13, Ginger74, Ginsengbomb, Giraffedata, Glass Sword, Glen, Glenn, Glenn L, Glrx, Gogo Dodo, Golbez,
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Minimac, Minor Contributer, Miraceti, Mistachicken, Mlewan, Mnemeson, MoRsE, Mockiewicz, Modernist, Moeron, Mojo Hand, Monedula, Monkeybooty, Moondyne, Moonriddengirl,
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Nkf31, Nns, Noahisnice, Noctibus, Nofeeling, Nohat, Noisy, Nopetro, NormalGoddess, Northumbrian, Notary137, Nposs, Nricardo, Nscheffey, NuclearWarfare, Nv8200p, Nyttend, O1ive,
Oarih, Ocatecir, Oda Mari, Off!, Ohms law, Ohnoitsjamie, Omicronpersei8, Ondewelle, Onsly, Opelio, Opusaug, Orangbukit, Orangutan, Orcaborealis, Ouishoebean, Oxymoron83, PRiis, Pabix,
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12

Article Sources and Contributors


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Xevious, Xiahou, Xiaoyu of Yuxi, Xipirho, Xrharris, Xymmax, Yamamoto Ichiro, Ybbor, Yearofthedragon, YellowMonkey, Yelyos, Yomamaonfire, Yonghokim, Youdabom, Youssefsan,
Ypacara, Yuckfoo, Yummifruitbat, Zaian, Zantastik, Zap Rowsdower, Zaphod Beeblebrox, Zemlor, Zen-master, Zero0000, ZimZalaBim, Zisky, Zntrip, Zone46, Zootsuits, Zosodada, Zro, Zsinj,
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Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors


File:SH-60B helicopter flies over Sendai.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SH-60B_helicopter_flies_over_Sendai.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S.
Navy photo
File:2004-tsunami.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:2004-tsunami.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Rydevik (email: david.rydevik@gmail.com),
Stockholm, Sweden.
File:Ie Beuna Narit Aceh.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ie_Beuna_Narit_Aceh.JPG License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: User:Si Gam
File:1755 Lisbon earthquake.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:1755_Lisbon_earthquake.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Awadewit, Before My Ken,
BlackIceNRW, Chris 73, Dereckson, EuTuga, Interpretix, Jaranda, Kingruedi, Lusitana, Y98, 1 anonymous edits
File:Russians meeting Japanese in Akkeshi 1779.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Russians_meeting_Japanese_in_Akkeshi_1779.jpg License: Public Domain
Contributors: Russian, anonymous
File:Eq-gen1.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eq-gen1.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V., Joanne Bourgeois, Walter C.
Dudley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H.Stauffer
File:Eq-gen2.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eq-gen2.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V., Joanne Bourgeois, Walter C.
Dudley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H.Stauffer
File:Eq-gen3.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eq-gen3.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V., Joanne Bourgeois, Walter C.
Dudley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H.Stauffer
File:Eq-gen4.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Eq-gen4.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Brian F. Atwater, Marco Cisternas V., Joanne Bourgeois, Walter C.
Dudley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H.Stauffer
File:Hurricane Ike Gilchrist damage.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hurricane_Ike_Gilchrist_damage.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Jocelyn
Augusitno/FEMA
File:Propagation du tsunami en profondeur variable.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Propagation_du_tsunami_en_profondeur_variable.gif License: GNU Free
Documentation License Contributors: Original uploader was Lachaume at fr.wikipedia
File:Tsunami2.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tsunami2.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: -IlhadorImage:Shallow water wave.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Shallow_water_wave.gif License: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike Contributors: Kraaiennest
File:TsunamiHazardSign.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:TsunamiHazardSign.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Kasparvp
File:Bamfield Tsunami Hazard Zone sign.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bamfield_Tsunami_Hazard_Zone_sign.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0
Contributors: Jusses2
Image:Kamakura tsunami.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Kamakura_tsunami.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 1.0 Generic Contributors:
Original uploader was Pixel23 at en.wikipedia
Image:The monument to the victims of tsunami.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_monument_to_the_victims_of_tsunami.jpg License: Creative Commons
Attribution-Sharealike 3.0,2.5,2.0,1.0 Contributors: Brocken Inaglory
File:Tsunami Memorial Kanyakumari.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tsunami_Memorial_Kanyakumari.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
BishkekRocks, Jusses2, Roland zh, Skeezix1000
File:Zona de Inundabilidad.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Zona_de_Inundabilidad.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Contributors:
User:Evansbadboy
Image:Tsunami Evacuation Route signage south of Aberdeen Washington.jpg Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tsunami_Evacuation_Route_signage_south_of_Aberdeen_Washington.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Contributors: Patriarca12
File:Dart tsunamicover.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Dart_tsunamicover.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Chad.hutchins, Hohum
Image:Tsunami wall.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Tsunami_wall.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Contributors: Rudolf Ammann

License
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