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A Seminar Report

SUPPLY (UPS): A Comprehensive

National Institute of Technology


Under Supervision of:

Submitted By:
Prof. Yash Pal
Haimanti Bhattacherjee
UPS: A Comprehensive Overview:
Abstract: A brief overview of the uninterruptable power
supply is proposed here. Uninterruptible Power Supplies
(UPS) are used to ensure a continuous and reliable supply
to critical loads. Different UPS technologies are available,
offering different levels of load protection and power
conditioning. Public utility grids have many types of power
line problems that encompass a wide range of different
phenomena. The typical power quality problems that
UPS systems correct can be seen in these report and the
way they are corrected.
With the advancement and development of power
electronic components, especially the IGBT (Insulated
Gate Bipolar Transistor), transformer-less UPS systems are
starting to be widely used for UPS size 300 KVA. Selecting
a transformer-based or transformer-less UPS might not be
simple choice at it seems. Many factors must be taken into
consideration, where size, efficiency and reliability are the
first to think about, there are far more factors to consider
before making a decision.
The use of distributed uninterruptible power supply (UPS)
systems has been growing into the market, becoming an
alternative to large conventional UPS systems. In addition,
with the increasing interest in renewable energy
integration and distributed generation, distributed UPS
systems can be a suitable solution for storage energy in
microgrids. The recent improvements are presented.

The architecture of the UPS based on PEM Fuel Cell

(PEMFC) is investigated. The output characteristics of
PEMFC are studied.
Index Terms Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS),
voltage sag and swell, monitor and control, fuel cells UPS,
microgrids, distributed generation.


Why use UPS?
Key components
Categorization of UPS and working principle
Applications of UPS
Comparison between transformer-based and
transformer-less UPS System
Control Techniques
Control of Distributed UPS System
Future Trends
Fuel Cell UPS

An equipment that has been highlighting in the power electronics
on its ability to supply clean and reliable power to critical loads
telecommunications systems, medical systems, even in situations
of power outages or anomalies of the mains is the
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) System.
In order to supply continuous power to the load in the absence of
utility power, energy storage systems such as batteries or
flywheels are incorporated in such UPS systems. Typically, power
conversion is accomplished using static power electronic devices
such as fast-switching high-current insulated gate bipolar
transistors (IGBTs). The UPS is normally inserted between the
commercial utility mains and the critical loads. When a power
failure or abnormality occurs, the UPS will effectively switch from
utility power to its own power source almost instantaneously.
There is a large variety of power-rated UPS units: from units that
will backup a single computer without a monitor of around 300
VA, to units that will power entire data centers or buildings of
several megawatts, which typically work together with

UPS systems are generally classified as static, which use power

electronic converters with semiconductor devices, and rotary (or
dynamic), which use electromechanical engines such as motors
and generators. The combination of both static and rotary UPS
systems is often called a hybrid UPS system. Static UPS systems
are based on power electronic devices. The continuous
development of devices such as insulated gate bipolar transistors
allows high frequency operation, which results in a fast transient
response and low total harmonic distortion (THD) in the output


Firstly, digital equipments (computers, telecom systems,
instruments, etc.) use microprocessors that operate at
frequencies of several mega or use microprocessors that operate
at frequencies of several mega Hertz, i.e. they carry out millions
or even billions of operations per second. A disturbance in the
electrical supply lasting just a few milliseconds can affect
thousands or millions of basic operations. The result may be
malfunctions and loss of data with dangerous or costly
consequences (e.g. loss of production).That is why many loads,
called sensitive or critical loads, require a supply that is protected
against distribution system disturbances.
Secondly, starting of generators takes a few minutes. The UPS can
be used as a back-up power source in these few minutes.
Thirdly, UPS is used for solving many power line problems, like
voltage sag (under voltage) or voltage swell (overvoltage)

problems, frequency distortions, noise, burnouts, etc. It can be

used to condition the power by reducing voltage spikes and


Rectifier: Converts the AC input voltage to DC voltage for the
battery charging voltage, and supply to the inverter.
Battery: UPS battery is an energy storage device, with several
cells in series. Its main function is to convert the electrical input
energy to chemical energy, store it, and then convert the stored
chemical energy into electrical energy during power failure.
Inverter: Converts the DC battery voltage to AC for the critical
load, and it has an inverter bridge control logic and filter circuit.
Static switch: Also known as non-contact switch, this
disconnects the load from the mains during the event of power





Conventional UPS topologies can mainly be categorized into three

different types: 1) off-line; 2) line-interactive; and 3) on-line UPS.


Off-line UPS, which is also sometimes referred to as line-preferred
or passive-standby UPS, is usually used
in low power
applications with power ratings less than 2 kVA. A typical off-line
UPS, as depicted in Fig. 1, consists of a static bypass switch that
connects the critical load directly to the unconditioned utility
mains under normal condition while the battery is charged
through the rectifier/charger. In the event of power failures, the
static switch disconnects the mains, and the critical load gets fed

from the backup battery through the inverter. The transfer

switching time is specified within a quarter of line cycle and hence
an interruption such as a voltage sag or voltage loss might occur
at the load side before the backup power is delivered to the
critical load. While the off-line UPS offers the advantages of
simple design, low cost, small size, and high efficiency, the power
supplied to the critical load is neither regulated nor conditioned.
Therefore, the critical load is not protected from any voltage or
frequency fluctuations along the utility power line. Accordingly,
some power line filtering can be employed to remove large
surges, spikes, sags, and other irregularities that are inherent in
the utility power. However no output voltage regulation and active
power line conditioning, in terms of voltage correction,
disturbance rejection, and reactive and harmonic compensations,
is available at the utility side. In addition, other factors include
performance issues with nonlinear loads and lack of isolation of
the load from the utility mains.

Fig-1 offline UPS topology

A line-interactive UPS offers an improved performance as
compared to the off-line UPS and it is normally used in low to
medium power applications. There are two types of topologies
offered for line-interactive UPS. The first and early topology, as
shown in Fig. 2, consists of a series inductor between the utility
mains and the critical load, and a bilateral converter in parallel
with the critical load, acting as a battery charger under normal
condition and an inverter supply backup power from the battery

to the load in the event of power outage. This type of UPS is also
sometimes referred to as parallel- processing UPS which involves
only one power stage. The early development of the lineinteractive UPS given in and offers the capability of input current
compensation. Furthermore, the topology does not provide
voltage sag compensation (output voltage regulation) capability
and a tri-port high leakage inductance transformer is incorporated
between the mains and the load for isolation purpose. However,
the performance attributes in terms of input power factor
correction and output voltage regulation in these schemes
reported in appear to be limited. An alternative type of lineinteractive UPS, which has received considerable attention in
recent years, is known as the series-parallel compensated lineinteractive UPS or the so-called delta-conversion UPS. As
illustrated in Fig. 3, this type of UPS consists of two power
conversion stages, one converter in series with the utility mains
through a series transformer and the other in parallel with the
During the normal operation, the utility mains supplies power
directly to the load while the battery is charged through the
parallel converter. When the mains fail, the static switch opens to
disconnect the load from the mains, and the battery maintains
the continuity of power to the load through the parallel converter.
Besides functioning as a battery charger, the parallel power
converter also facilitates the input current harmonic suppression
and power factor correction. The complimentary series power
converter acts as a voltage regulator to regulate
The output voltage in the event of utility voltage sags or swells.
This UPS configuration allows an independent control of the
output voltage, input power factor correction, and input harmonic
power compensation, thus providing series-parallel active power
line conditioning capabilities. Even though this line-interactive
UPS scheme consists of two power conversion stages, its
efficiency is relatively high due to the fact that the rating of the
series power converter is typically 10%20% of the overall UPS
rating, since its purpose is to compensate for the voltage
difference between the mains and the load. Some of the
drawbacks associated with such UPS are lack of effective isolation

between the load and the utility mains, complex control

algorithm, as well as the need for the series transformer which
could be bulky, heavy, and expensive.

Fig-2: line interactive topology with single converter

fig-3: line interactive topology with double
converter structure

The on-line UPS, which is also sometimes referred to as inverterpreferred or double-conversion UPS, has evolved into a dominant
candidate for high power and high voltage applications in
industrial and manufacturing plants. This is due to its ability to
supply conditioned and regulated power to the critical load, as
well as its seamless transition from normal to backup mode and
vice versa, and its decoupling capability of the utility and the load
under power outage. A typical on-line UPS functional block
topology is shown in Fig. 4. It mainly consists of a rectifier/charger
that converts the ac input supply voltage into unregulated dc
voltage for the inverter and the battery charging, a battery that
supplies backup energy in the event of an utility power outage, an
inverter that converts the unregulated dc voltage from the
rectifier (or the battery) into regulated and filtered ac voltage for
the load, and a static bypass switch that transfers the load to the
ac input supply without any interruption in the supply of power in
the event of power conditioner failure. On-line UPS provide active
power line conditioning capability in order to suppress input

current harmonics and to realize close to unity input power factor.

However, when the utility is not functioning in its full operating
condition or if there is utility voltage sag, the UPS is unable to
supply full power to the load. Hence, a dc-dc boost converter in
series with the inverter is required to stabilize the output voltage.
Accordingly, the addition of dc-dc boost converter to the UPS
results in increased cost and footprint of the overall system.
Furthermore, a typical on-line UPS requires two power conversion
stages as depicted in Fig. 4. Both power converters are required
to operate at full power rating of the UPS. This also results in
lower operation efficiency and higher system cost as compared to
the line-interactive UPS.

Fig 4: Online UPS topology

There are a variety of end-user UPS applications, each with a
specific price/performance demand. Some of these needs may be
served best by an off-line UPS or an on-line UPS. Most UPS have
intelligent features such as automatic battery check, automatic
inverter check, AC volts in and out, battery alarm, internal

temperature, alarm conditions of internal failures, and the number

of power outages. The costs of implementing a UPS safety net can
be minimized by choosing the right UPS topology and features for
each application







To provide a break-free supply of electrical energy to
protected loads in the event of a mains power failure, and in
between mains failure and during the period of generator start up
2) To monitor and maintain voltage values to within prescribed
parameters, condition mains power to negate the power snags
associated with raw mains energy (such as sags and surges), and
filter out unwanted problems (such as harmonics and electronic
interference). It is important to ensure a stable supply - electrical
equipment in use today can be sensitive to fluctuations in
electrical energy. Such sensitivities can damage or break
equipment leading to costly replacement or repair and disruptive
3) In IT applications, mains failure can lead to data loss and
corruption, which could also be damaging to an organizations
reputation and ultimately the bottom line. In the networking
environment, on-line UPSs are being assigned to critical
processing and data traffic nodes, file servers, routers, etc.
4) The offline UPS usually solves simple power problems, e.g.,
line failures (outage problems), sags, dips and surges. The line
interactive would also solve additional power problems such as
under voltages and over voltages for extended period of time. The
online UPS solves all types of power problems including
transients, impulses, spikes, frequency variations, noise and
harmonic distortion.

Power line problems

Type of UPS




The IGBT or Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor is the key driver for
developing the transformer-less UPS. The IGBT is developed from
the MOSFET and the bipolar transistor by combining their
characteristics. The IGBT has the output switching and conduction

characteristics of a bipolar transistor but is voltage-controlled like

a MOSFET. This means it has the advantage of high current
handling capability of a bipolar transistor and easy to control as a
UPS rectifier section:
Traditional transformer-based SCR rectifiers generate high level
harmonics current and draw reactive current by operating at a
lower than unity input power factor. The 6 pulse rectifier uses
traditional electrical engineering principles through controlling the
firing angles of the 6 SCRs. It will generate more than 30% Total
Harmonic Distortion (THD) (5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, etc.) and would
require a huge input side passive filter to bring the THD to about
10%. THD is expressed as the ratio between the RMS value of all
harmonics (n2) and that of the fundamental. For a voltage
waveform, it can be calculated with the following equation:

The THD is still significant and has to be considered in backup

generator sizing. These components (transformer and filter) add
up to the cost, size and weight of the UPS. This type of rectifier
holds the input power factor almost at unity with a very low THD
over a wide range of load from 10 to 100 percent. The rectifier is
also highly compatible with the backup generator and does not
require any generator over sizing, since there is no leading power
factor issue and the THD is significantly low. This rectifier type has
line inductors, which are much smaller and has less weight and
cost than isolation transformers. They also do not need any input
side filters. This feature will contribute significantly in reducing
the cost, size and weight of the rectifier section of the UPS and
will enhance the overall system efficiency.

Fig 5: 6-pulse rectifier using input isolation transformer

fig 6: IGBT switch base transformer less rectifier

Ups Inverter section:

The inverter section in the online transformer-less UPS have
somewhat different operations from the transformer-based ones.
The output transformer in the traditional transformer-based
inverter plays more than one role. First, it operates as a
summation transformer with open delta primary windings.
Second, it will allow transforming the output voltage to the
desired value. This will mean that the DC bus basically can have
any voltage and the output transformer will take care of
transforming the output to the required voltage. The output
transformer will add to the cost, size and weight of the output
inverter section and will reduce system efficiency too. It will also
provide premium system isolation, where any DC fault cannot
propagate to the output section. Another advantage is having an
output neutral from the transformers secondary Y windings.
The transformer-less UPS employs a different philosophy. The
output transformer is replaced with line inductors as shown in
figure 8, which will help in smoothing the output waveform from
the IGBTs but will not provide any voltage transformation.

Fig 7: typical inverter with output transformer

Fig 8: transformer less inverter section

After looking into many theoretical backgrounds of the
performance needs to be compared in many aspects.
A. Cost:
The initial cost of the transformer-less UPS is much less than the
transformer-based one. The absence of the input and output
transformer contributes very much to the cost reduction, which
could reach up to 30% in some cases and could be more,
depending on copper market price, which is sometimes costly. If
external isolation transformers are added to the transformer-less
UPS as desired by some customers, then the overall system cost
will exceed the transformer based one.
B. Reliability:
It is always perceived that a transformer-based UPS is more
reliable than a transformer-less UPS, and has higher MTBF, due to
the basic electrical engineering principles applied in the SCR
operations, rather than the sophisticated control of IGBT with high
frequency switching.
C. Size and weight:
The size is probably one of the most important factors for
choosing the transformer-less UPS. Removing the transformer
from a UPS can result in a size saving of about 50~60% in some
D. Fault isolation:

On this point the transformer-based UPS clearly has an advantage

over the transformer-less UPS. The isolation transformer is a
physical barrier that will prevent any fault from propagating to the
DC bus from the input section, or to the output section from the
DC bus.
E. Power factor and harmonics:
One of the major advantages of a transformer-less UPS is its
ability to maintain a unity power factor over a large range of load
with a THD of less than 3%. This fact makes it a very utility
friendly UPS and does not require large size input passive filters.
F. Noise:
The transformer in the transformer-based UPS produces a loud
and intensive hum, which is always compounded by its cooling
fan noise. This noise issue makes this UPS unsuitable for an office
or telecom rooms.


High performance UPS inverters have stringent steady-state
voltage control requirements both under steady-state and under
transient conditions. Many different control techniques have been
applied to UPS inverters.
These control systems are classified into 3 groups:
1. Model based instantaneous feedback controller: Examples of
such controllers are multi-loop controllers and dead beat
2. Feed forward learning controllers: examples of such
controllers are repetitive controllers and iterative learning
3. Non linear controllers: examples of such controllers are
sliding mode controllers and neural network (NN) based
The instantaneous feedback control schemes for UPS inverters are
all different types of linear controllers. In these controllers system
variables such as output voltage, load current, and/or
inductor/capacitor current are fed back to achieve very good

steady state and transient performance. The challenges here are

to make the closed loop operation robust to the system
parameter variation and also to eliminate the need for sensing
the inductor/capacitor current for reduced cost.
general the load current of a UPS inverter is periodic, and
fluctuates cylindrically at the fundamental frequency of inverter
output. Due to this, the FLC schemes are found to be attractive
for the UPS inverter. FLC schemes have the ability to achieve
excellent steady state performance by sensing only the output
voltage. However the transient performance is poor when only
FLC schemes are applied to the inverter. FLC schemes may not be
suitable for analog implementation.
mode controller, Adaptive controller and Neural Network based
controller. Advantages include high robustness and very good
performance. These non linear controllers are investigated for this
application because of their inherent robustness to parameter
variation and disturbances. These have the advantages such as
high robustness and very good performance, but they are
generally more complex.


DISTRIBUTED generation (DG) is an emerging concept to
decentralize the management of electricity production. However,
DG makes no sense without distributed storage energy systems.
Thus, the parallel operation is a special feature of highperformance uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems. The
parallel connection of UPS inverters is a challenging problem that
is more complex than paralleling dc sources, since every inverter
must properly share the load while staying synchronized.
Distributed UPS systems support UPS units and critical loads
flexibly located in an interconnected electrical power network. In
order to add reliability and expandability to the system,
redundant and parallel UPS systems are usually integrated into

the power system. There are two major types of distributed UPS
systems i.e., online and line-interactive distributed systems.

Fig 9: Distributed UPS system configurations. (a) Online. (b) Line interactive

The distributed UPS systems are highly reliable because of

redundancy. It is an advantage to achieve the N + 1 or N + X
redundancy in these systems, where N UPS units supply the load
and 1 or X additional units stay in reserve. They are also highly
flexible to increase the capacity of the system when more power
is needed, by simply adding more UPS units.

1. Transformer less modern UPS systems have been rapidly
replacing the old technology due to their superior performance
and size attributes, and high efficiency.
2. In the coming years, inverters should be able to operate in
island mode due the high penetration of distributed generation.
Island mode operation means operating in isolation. The
connection in parallel of several UPSs to a common microgrid is
also rising as a new concept in order to supply energy in a
distributed and cooperated form.

3. Green energy saving, modular and intelligent UPS

have become the developing trend. Fuel-Cell UPS (FC-UPS) is
coming into market.


Nowadays, UPS is essential in critical applications such as IT,
communication, banks, and hospitals. Lead-acid or Ni-Cad
batteries are the common energy storage components for
traditional UPS systems. However, the main disadvantages of
these UPS systems lie in high maintenance cost, short backup
time, and environmental unfriendliness. Although the utilization of
diesel generators as storage units can extend the backup time,
the disadvantages such as noise pollution and large volume still
exist. UPS systems based on the Fuel Cell (FC) feature longer
backup time, high efficiency, higher energy and power density,
long expectancy, lower maintenance costs and environmental
friendliness. In order to construct more reliable system,
electrolytic capacitors are eliminated.
The architecture of FC-UPS system is shown. There are three
operating modes, which are bypass mode, inverter operating
mode and F C operating mode. In the FC-UPS, no electrolytic
capacitors are used in the system, which enhances the reliability
of the system. For AC/DC, DC/AC or DC/DC converters in the UPS,
the 3-level topology is used for increasing the conversion
efficiency. In order to match characteristics between FC and the
load, Super Capacitors (SC) are used to support the DC bus and
compensate the output power delay of the FC.

Fig 10: FC-UPS System Topology

1. High efficiency power conversion: The efficiency of the

converters is crucial for the utilization of FC and its system
2. Characteristics match between FC and load: The
dynamics of the FC cannot match the dynamic
characteristics of the load because the quick changing may
endanger the expectancy of the FC. In order to address this
issue, PMU consisting of SC and Bi-DC/DC converter is
integrated to supply the transient power for the abrupt load.
3. Seamless Transfer Control Strategy: In FC-UPS, FC
adopts cold backup mode in normal operation, which can
extend the lifespan of FC. However, the cold start time of FC
is relatively long.
4. Elimination of Electrolytic capacitors: In order to
eliminate the electrolytic capacitors, the PMU acts as an
active filter to absorb the low frequency current ripples.

The purpose of the Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system
thus is to provide a clean, well regulated electric power to the
critical load equipment, when the normal utility supply fails or out
of specification. The propagation of critical loads in information
technology, communication systems, and medical equipment
with the problem associated with utility power quality have urged
the development of the UPS systems. Uninterruptible power
supply (UPS) systems have also been contributed to improve the
PQ in electrical systems. Besides protection against power supply
disturbances and providing clean and uninterruptible power to
critical loads, the UPS systems have also been used for power line
conditioning. On the other words, the UPS system can be
controlled to make sinusoidal both the utility grid currents and the
output voltages. This report describes the most common line
problems and the relationship between these and the different
existing kinds of UPS, showing their operation modes as well as
the existent energy storage systems. The typical power quality
problems that UPS systems correct can be seen in this report. The
line problems considered here are the following: failures, sags,
under-voltages, surges, brownouts, swells, spikes, frequency
variations, noise, and harmonic distortions. It also addresses an
overview of the applications of UPS, the control schemes applied
to different UPS configurations. Finally, it points out the
applicability of such systems in distributed generation, microgrids,
and renewable energy systems, and the future trends of UPS.

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