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The Islamic University

of Gaza
Chemistry Department

Student Name:
Instrumental Analysis
Final Exam
May 2012

Student Number:

Answer The Following Questions: (Constrain your answer to the space allowed only)

1. A monochromator slit width is an important factor that affects both qualitative and
quantitative analysis. Explain.

2. Describe the basis of detection in a photodiode array and mention its advantages?

3. What is the difference between a photometer and a spectrophotometer? Which one do you
prefer? Why?

4. Using a high temperature atomizer is very important in atomic spectroscopy, although this
may result in some drawbacks. Explain

5. Write on the characteristics of graphite furnace atomizers, including advantages and

disadvantages as compared to flame atomizers.

6. A hollow cathode lamp rather than a continuous source lamp is used in atomic absorption
spectroscopy. Why?

7. Describe the continuous source background correction method in atomic absorption

spectroscopy, and comment on its performance characteristics.

8. Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the inductively coupled plasma torch as
an atomizer in atomic emission spectroscopy.

9. Addition of an ionization suppressor can be very important in atomic spectroscopy.


10. Draw a schematic of a sequential slew scan ICP instrument, define all components, and
state its advantages over a sequential linear scan design.

11. Beer's law suggests a linear relationship between absorbance and concentration when the
light is monochromatic. Explain briefly (derive an equation).

12. The sample cell is usually positioned after the monochromator in UV-Vis spectroscopy,
except when a multichannel detector is used. Why.

13. Draw a schematic of a double beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and define all
components on the graph.

14. What are the structural and electronic properties of molecules that effectively absorb in
UV-Vis. Explain your answer.

15. Measurement at max is very important in UV-Vis spectroscopy. Why.

16. What are your choices if you are to analyze a mixture of two analytes using UV-Vis

17. What are the factors that affect the fluorescence signal? Mention the effect of each factor.

18. Show how molecular oxygen affects the phosphorescence signal.

19. A Xenon arc lamp is usually the source of choice in spectrofluorometers but are not used
in UV-Vis instruments although its output covers both UV and Vis regions. Why?

20. How can resolution be optimized in chromatography? Explain your answer.

21. The trend nowadays is to use a packing material with very small particle size. Mention
why and write on the limits for decreasing the particle size.

22. Stationary phases in gas chromatography are either bonded or crosslinked. Explain.

23. Describe the thermal conductivity detector, and comment on its advantages and

24. What are the major classes of stationary phases used in gas chromatography. Write the
general structures.

25. HPLC instrumentation were not possible until late sixties, although liquid
chromatography was introduced in 1903. Explain.

26. A solute was found to have a retention factor of 37, using a mobile phase consisting of
40% acetonitrile (P' = 5.8) and 60% water (P' = 10.2). Calculate the mobile phase composition
that will bring the K' value to 8.

27. The following chromatogram was obtained using 50% methanol:50% water on a C18
column. How can you optimize the chromatogram.

28. Describe how can large molecular weight compounds and polymers be separated by size
exclusion chromatography. How would you be able to determine the molecular weight of
each component.

29. An internal standard is usually used in both chromatography and atomic absorption,
although for different reasons. Explain.