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AMERICA IN CLOSE UP
by E. Fielder, R. Jansen, M. Norman-Rick
2-

2009
0

AMERICA IN CLOSE UP
by E. Fielder, R. Jansen, M. Norman-Rick
2-

2009
2

Content
:
Unit 1 . .. ,
Unit 2 . .. ,
Unit 6 . .. ,
Unit 9 . .. ,
Unit 11 . .. ,
Unit 15 . ..

Unit 1. The Making of a Nation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.6


Unit 2. American Beliefs and Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.11
Unit 6. Law, Crime, and Justice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p.18
Unit 9. The Political System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p.24
Unit 11. Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p.31
Unit 15. The Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p.36

:
. 1
..
:

..


1.
2 6.11.2008.

, 2009
4


2- .
America In
Close-up, , ,
.
.
.
4
,
.
,
. :
(completion);
(expansion)
, , ,
..;
(gap-filling),

, - ;
(matching);
(rephrasing),
;
- (true-false statements), ;
6

(presentation);
(comprehension questions) .
: Unit 1, Unit 2, Unit 6
; Unit 9, Unit 11, Unit 15 ;
3040 .

America In Close-up.

..

Unit 1
The Making of a Nation
Part A (pp.1317)

Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
(p.16)
(p.16)
(p.16)
(p.16)

() (p.16)
(p.17)
, (p.17)
(p.17)
(p.17)
,
(p.17)

(p.13)
(p.14)
(p.14)
, (p.14)
(p.14)
, (p.15)
(p.15)
(p.15)
(p.15)
( )
(p.15)
(p.15)
(p.16)

stamp out the incentive (p.16)


nativist sentiment (p.16)
melting pot (p.17)
convey (p.17)

Teutonic (p.15)
flood of immigration (p.15)
at an astonishing rate (p.15)
old stock Americans (p.15)
be willing to do sth (p.15)

Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


1) a small town far away from other towns, usually where trading takes place or a military camp that is far away from the army; (p.13)
2) the process of forcing something out of its position or space, the
process of taking the place of someone or something; (p.14)
3) a serious disease affecting plants, something that damages or spoils
something else; (p.14)
4) very noticeable or easy to see, especially because of being unusual
or different; (p.15)
5) a relative of a person who lived in the past; (p.15)
6) the right or ability to go into a place; (p.16)
7) a belief about what something is like; the time when someone creates a new idea or thing; the moment when a woman becomes pregnant after sex; (p.16)

Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word combinations.


Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions
and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
to colonize on a large scale (p.13)
overriding influence (p.13)
treaty (p.14)
trespasser (p.14)
warfare (p.14)
overwhelming majority (p.14)

halt (p.15)
practise ethnic traditions (p.15)
refugee (p.15)
upheaval (p.15)
show a drive to do sth (p.15)
eviction (p.16)
8

1) set up (p.13);
2 )wipe out (p.14);
3) set apart (p.15);
4) quota (p.15);

5) fit in (p.16);
6) point out (p.16);
7) shun (p.16);

Exercise 5. Translate from English into Russian.


1. The British, who were the first to colonize on a large scale, came
for profit and also for religious freedom.
2. They seized Indian lands through war, threats, and treaties, and they
hunted game, cut forests, and built big cities. To the Indians they were
unwanted trespassers.
3. Between 1845 and 1860, a serious blight on the potato crop in Ireland
sent hundreds of thousands of Irish people to the US to escape starvation.
4. The new immigrants were Latin, Slavic, and Jewish peoples from
southern and eastern Europe. Among these new arrivals were Italians,
Hungarians, Poles, Russians, Rumanians, and Greek, all people whose
languages, customs, and appearance set them apart conspicuously from
the earlier immigrants of Celtic or Teutonic origin.
5. Many illegal aliens supply cheap labour as farm workers at harvest
time or work at mental tasks which Americans shun.
6. On the other hand, many Americans optimistically emphasize the
cultural wealth and diversity which immigrants have been bringing to the
nation since its conception.
7. The mass immigration at the turn of the century brought a new heterogeneity to American society which challenged WASPs to acknowledge that
Americans could be Catholic or Jewish, almond-eyed or olive-skinned.
Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the list. Change the form if required.
quota crowd into
curb
assumption
whelming majority
conspicuous

refugee
over-

be willing
wipe out
point out

treaty
starvation
shun

flee
halt

1. We want world hunger by the year 2010.


2. She might have felt less if there had been other women there too.
10

3. The UK fishing fleet is likely to reach its annual after only six
months.
4. They all forms of luxury.
5. Your argument is based on a completely false .
6. Thousands of have entered the camps along the borders in recent
days.
7. Police caught up with one of the gang, but the other three .
8. He the best beaches on the map.
9. Increased interest rates should inflation.
10. I to accept every item on the list.
11. We the kitchen with the others.
12. voted against his proposal.
13. A serious blight on the potato crop sent hundreds of thousands of
Irish people to the US to escape .
14. He had no difficulty in persuading parliament to approve the .
15. The search overnight, then resumed early Thursday morning.
Exercise7. Paraphrase the following sentences.
1. These results will enable us at least to communicate a sense of
progress.
2. Intermarrige between ethnic groups usually worked against any
strong feeling towards reestablishing the ethnic identity.
3. Maya has been going through a period of a sudden and violent emotional change.
4. He didnt belong to her plans, so she left him.
5. It is our duty to end any abuses of political power.
6. They have continued to follow a policy of repression.
7. Stories of the New Worlds gold attracted the first Spanish explorers, who established remote small towns in what is now Florida.
8. During this period the United States received the greatest number of
immigrants ever.
9. Many old stock Americans noticed with alarm that the ethnic composition of the country was changing.
10. Officials have been refused the right to go to the two camps.
11

Unit 2

Exercise 8. Answer the following questions.


1. How do we identify the society of the USA? Why?
2. What attracted the first immigrants? Where were they from?
3. How were those immigrants distributed throughout the country?
4. Who were unwilling immigrants? What was their social position?
5. What culture had the overriding influence? What does WASP mean?
6. What did the immigrants of other nationalities do not to feel separate?
7. What were the consequences for the Native American Indians?
8. What is called the old immigration? Why? Give your reasons.
9. What nationalities comprised the new wave of immigration which
began in the late 1800s?
What set them apart conspicuously from the earlier immigrants?
10. What helped immigrants to preserve their culture?
11. What was the source of conflict between old stock Americans and
the new immigration? Why? What was the governments respond?
12. What were the obstacles to assimilation?
13. Characterize the recent immigration.
14. What policy does the government of the United States pursue concerning refugees?
15. What people are called illegal aliens? What problems do they
face? What opportunities do they have?
16. What are the arguments for restricting immigration? What are the
counter-arguments?
17. Do Americans still consider themselves WASPs? Give your
reasons. How has the ethnic composition changed since 1960s?
18. What are Americans aware of today? What is the picture of the
American society today?

American Beliefs and Values


Part A (pp.2529)

Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.

(p. 25)
-
(p. 25)
(p. 25)
(p. 26)
(p. 26)
(p. 27)
(p. 27)
(p. 27)
(p. 28)
(p. 28)

(p. 29)


(p. 25)

(p. 25)
(p. 26)
(p. 26)

(p. 26)

(p. 27)
(p. 27)
(p. 27)

(p. 28)
(p. 28)
, (p. 29)


(p. 29)

12

13

Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
ideals and values, rooted in the
countrys history (p. 25)
exercise free choice (p. 25)

give substance to the ideal of freedom (p. 25)


enjoy the same rights and opportunities (p. 25)
revolt against routine and habitual
paths of conduct (p. 26)
on the grounds that (p. 26)

argue for more individual selfreliance (p. 26)


confront the hardships on ones
own (p. 26)
what works is what counts (p. 26)
do-it-yourselfers (p. 27)
hold clothing drives (p. 27)
an abundance of resources (p. 27)
be exhausted and abandoned
(p. 27)
suffer from a severe water shortage
(p. 28)
make a fresh start (p. 28)
an arduous journey (p. 28)
the sense of national identity
(p. 28)
elude precise definition (p. 29)
jolt the country (p. 29)

devise workable solutions (p. 27)


highly motivated workers (p. 27)
take for granted (p. 27)
be gradually depleted (p. 27)
the least populated region (p. 28)

4) intuitive recognition; action by which the mind refers its sensations to external object as cause (p. 25);
5) made holy by religious association (p. 26);
6) having rough uneven surface; unsoftened; unpolished; involving
hardship (p. 26);
7) come up out of a liquid; come into view; come out; become known
as result of inquiry or trial (p. 26);
8) gain the mastery, be victorious; be more prominent, predominate
(p. 27);
9) confine, bound, limit (p. 28);
10) keep, follow, adhere to, perform duly; perceive, mark, watch, take notice of, become conscious of; say, esp. by way of comment; make
remark(s) (p. 29);

Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and wordcombinations.

share the assumption (p. 28)


a sign of aimlessness (p. 28)
attachment to place (p. 28)
to this extent (p. 29)
rags-to-riches stories (p. 29)
The 1980s saw a return to
(p. 29)

Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


1) unlikeness; different kind; variety (p. 25);
2) absolute sameness; individuality, personality; condition of being a
specified person (p. 25);
3) harbor, port; (fig) refuge;

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long (v) (p.25)


continuity (n) (p.25)
robust(adj) (p.26)
alluring(adj) (p.27)
ancestor(n) (p.29)

flood (v) (p.25)


discourage (v) (p.26)
fertile(adj) (p.27)
reluctantly(adv) (p.28)
mainstream(adj) (p.29)

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.


1. Having a particular race or creed of lifestyle doesnt identify one
as American.
2. They are proud to point out that even today Americas immigration
offices are flooded with hopeful applicants who expect the chance for a
better life.

15

3. The inconsistency of black slavery in a society supposedly dedicated to freedom and equality plagued the nation from the very beginning
and was not resolved until the Civil War.
4. They encouraged individuals to trust in themselves and their own
consciences and to revolt against routine and habitual paths of conduct.
5. The idealization of the self-reliant individual translated itself in the
industrial age into the celebration of the small businessman who became
a financial success on his own.
6. Right to work laws, which discourage union activity, are defended on the grounds that they protect the independence of the individual
worker.
7. Volunteerism means people helping people through privatelyinitiated, rather than government-sponsored, agencies.
8. When a high school football team requires money for uniforms,
parents and students form an athletic association which organizes car
washes and bake sale to raise money for uniforms.
9. Some tobacco lands began to be exhausted and abandoned before
the end of the eighteenth century, and cotton lands were also abandoned
when their fertility was used up.
10. A further consequence of Americans mobility is that they develop relatively little attachment to place.
11. It teaches Americans to believe that contentment can be reached
through the virtues of thrift, hard work, family loyalty, and faith in the
free enterprise system.

Exercise 6. Answer the following questions using the key words in


brackets.
1. Why does the news of smbs defection to the US arouse a rush of
national pride? (give substance to the ideal of freedom).
2. What is Americans understanding of freedom shaped by? (the
Founding Fathers belief; protect each persons basic inalienable rights).
3. What did the success of American farmers depend on in the early
days? (confront the hardships of land and climate on their own).
16

4. What is the attitude towards individual proprietorship in the American society? (be extolled as the ideal).
5. Can you explain what the can-do spirit means? (do-it-yourselfers, time-saving, how-to books, self-service opportunities).
6. Who are volunteers? (highly motivated workers, solve a problem,
pervasive).
7. Name the functions of volunteer fund-raising groups (help the
needy, hold clothing drives, money-rising dinners).
8. What does volunteerism reflect? (work out practical solutions).
9. What is the result of the psychology of abundance? (take for granted,
alluring, be gradually depleted, be exhausted and abandoned, fertility, be
hunted to near extinction).
10. Why is the problem of Americas Mountain West so urgent? (the
least populated region, be tapped, suffer from a severe water shortage).
11. Explain the meaning of the expression make a fresh start (mobility,
share the assumption, practical solution to a problem, a sign of aimlessness,
make the arduous journey, attachment to place).
12. How do you understand the sense of national identity? (observe,
the prevalence of patriotic symbols, sporting event, to this extent).
13. How is progress personally measured in America? (succeeding generation, ancestors, suffer poverty and alienation, make sacrifices, pass the values to their children).
14. Why does the term American Dream elude precise definition?
(rags-to-riches stories, the virtues of thrift, hard work, family loyalty).
15. Why has there been increasing disparity of opinion about Americans values and national goals? (jolt the country, the mainstream values, hold society together, collapse, see a return to smth, a renewal of
national pride).

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with the words and phrases from the list.
Change the form if required.
correspond to reality
in the spirit of individualism
survival in the wilderness

exercise free choice


devise workable solutions
long (v)
17

sod house construction


in the limitless West
adopt new values
better (v) their lives
bar minorities from equal opportunities

diversity
sacred
rugged
argue for more individual self-reliance

1. Americans like to think of their country as a welcoming haven for


those, for freedom and opportunity.
2. A free individuals identity should be held .
3. In American history the concept of individualism is commonly identified with frontier heroes.
4. What among all of its regional and cultural gives America its
national character?
5. Segregation and discrimination are effective tools which have
minorities from equal opportunities in all spheres.
6. They realize that America must to cope with a shrinking world.
7. America is populated by immigrants, who in coming to the
New World for a better life.
8. Most pioneers who went west had not trained themselves in .
9. Yet this ideal has not always .
10. Government regulation is often resisted .
11. They trusted they would be able to to the daily problems and
dangers they faced.
12. was best achieved by robust individualists.
13. There were still inexhaustible acres .
14. Americans hate to feel that buying a house might immobilize
them forever, thereby inhibiting their chances of .
15. Transcendentalist philosophers .
Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.
1. - , ,

, .
18

2. ,
, , .
3. , ,
.
4. , , ,
.
5. ,
,
.
6. , ,
,
.
7. .
8. , .

Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


1. Speak about freedom and its importance for Americans.
2. What is the main idea of individualism?
3. What does volunteerism mean for the American community?
4. Has the psychology of abundance changed lately? Why?
5. Do you think mobility is an inalienable feature of the American lifestyle? Give your reasons.
6. Why do you think Americans are great patriots?
7. What is the concept of progress, according to Americans views?
8. Can you illustrate the nature of the American Dream?

19

Unit 6

Exercise 3. Give definitions of the following words and word-combinations.

Law, Crime, and Justice


legislative power
executive power
to nullify
bail

Part A (pp.97102)

parole
a constitution
the Supreme Court

Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
Exercise 4. Guess the concept of the following definitions.

(p.97)
(p.101)
(p.101)

(p.102)

(p.102)
(p.102)

(p.97)
(p.97)
(p.97)
(p.99)
(p.99)
-
(p.99)

Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
the right to assemble in public
(p.97)
the purchase of alcohol (p.97)
to handle a case (p.99)
to have no obligations (p.99)
to accommodate the number of
inmates (p.101)

to gain by unlawful search and


seizure (p.100)
to execute by shooting (p.101)
to loosen restrictions on firearms (p.102)
a criminal record; rapid-fire
combat weapon (p.102)

20

to break;
to set up;
to make different;
when all else has failed;
well-known unfavourably;
a part of a city; a slum area occupied by a minority group;
to take a general view;
to understand, to perceive;
to take hold forcibly or suddenly
to advise professionally;
to remove from consideration;
compulsory.

Exercise 5. Translate from English into Russian.


1. The sheer number of Americans employed in the legal profession
is overwhelming.
2. Among the guarantees are freedom of religion, freedom of the
press, and freedom to assemble in public.
3. At the head of the judicial branch is the Supreme Court, the final
interpreter of the Constitution.
4. Auto theft, muggings, robberies, and burglaries occur so frequently
that many people live in constant fear of crime.
21

5. Crime-stopping and crime prevention are formidable tasks for law enforcement officials, since the social problems which aggravate violence
poverty, unemployment, and unstable families are likely to persist.
6. Even sophisticated rapid-fire combat weapons are available.

1. How do Americans treat the law? (to hold attention, to be accustommed to, to treat)
2. What do Americans claims for justice rest on? What are the basic
rights and freedoms of Americans? (provisions, amendments, to assemble
in public, to be judged in, speedy trial)
3. What did the Constitution of 1787 establish? (a separate branch,
final interpreter)
4. What is the final interpreter of the Constitution?
5. What is the Constitution of the USA? t (to frame, put into effect)
6. What is the power of each state? What other courts are there in
each state? Are state laws similar or quite different? to establish, county
courts, minimum age, to vary)

7. What cases do federal courts handle? (to arise under, to hear


disputes)
8. Where is a case which falls within federal jurisdiction heard first?
Then? (an appeal, in the last resort)
9. What is the Supreme Court?
10. What cases does the Supreme Court hear? (to claim, a lower
court ruling, to become legally binding)
11. Does the Supreme Court have the power to make laws? (to examine actions)
12. In what way does the Supreme Court influence the political, economical, and social life of the country?
13. What were the examples of its influence in the past? (to nullify, to
declare smth. unconstitutional)
14. Is the judicial branch independent from other branches of government?
15. Who appoints the nine Supreme Court justices? (to examine, to
determine, to be qualified)
16. What are the obligations of justices? (to uphold the laws)
17. How many new Supreme Court justices can a president expect to
appoint? Why? Give an example. (on average, term of office, to extend
power through, to override precedents to legalize abortion)
18. What is the extent of crime rate in the USA? (notorious, decline,
muggings)
19. What is the task of courts? (to strike a balance, needs of society)
20. What are the guarantees of the Constitution? (equal justice, suspects, seizure, to testify, the right to counsel, excessive bail)
21. What rules has the Supreme Court devised to ensure the protection of some rights? What do these rules derive from? (to ensure the
protection, to be released from charges)
22. How do people feel about protections of the criminal suspects?
(to get tough with criminals)
23. What do supporters of the death penalty claim in favour of the
capital punishment? (a deterrent to murder, to sentence)
24. What are the hopes of opponents? (to declare smth. Unconstitutional, to apply to, to revise, threat of execution)

22

23

Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.


1. Americans are accustomed bringing their claims justice
the courts.
2. Citizens have the right to be judged a speedy and public trial
an impartial jury.
3. The Constitution recognizes that the states have certain rights and
authorities the power the federal government.
4. average, a president can expect to appoint two new Supreme
Court justices one term office.
5. Between 1970 and 1980, three prisoners were executed the
death penalty.

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions using the key words in


brackets.

25. What are formidable tasks for law enforcement officials? Why?
(crime prevention, to aggravate smth., unstable families, accessibility of
handguns, to complicate)
26. What are the ways of relieving overcrowding of prisons? (to accommodate the number of inmates, parole, to expire)
27. What is the result of getting tough with criminals in some states?
(fill up facilities)
28. How do lawmakers feel about gun control? (to curb, rapid-fire
combat weapon,)
29. How do citizens feel about gun control? (to require background
checks on, a criminal record to ban sale, law-abiding citizens)
30. What ways do Americans look for to protect their individual
rights, to protect themselves from attacks and burglaries? Give examples.
(to defend, to be victimized, to be acquitted of minor charge)

10. .
11.
.

Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


1. Analyze the table (page 98). In what way are state laws similar or
quite different?
2. Capital punishment is unethical and should be banned.
3. Gun control laws in America and in Russia. Why is the right for selfdefense a fundamental one in America?

Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.


1. .
2.
.
3. , , .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. , , .
8. , . .
9. , ..
24

25

Unit 9
The Political System
Part A (pp.142151)
Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions
and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
(. 142)

=
(. 143)

(. 143)

, (. 143)

(. 144)

(. 145)

/
(. 145)


(. 145)

(. 146)


(. 149)

( . 149)

(. 152)

(. 152)

(. 153)

( .153)

, ,
(. 153)

,
(.154)

-
(. 155)


(. 156)

(. 159)

26

Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
system of checks and balances
(p. 142)

areas of wide concern (p.142)

concurrent powers (p. 142)

to provide voter qualifications


(p.143)

a conference committee
(p. 144)

to entertain foreign leaders (p.144)


to have a negative connotation
(p. 146)
vague party programs = rigors of
political ideology (p. 149)
to pay membership dues (p. 150)
a strong advocate of smth (p.152)

to overturn a law (p.144)


political affiliation (p. 148)
to undergo initiation (p. 150)
low voter turnout (p.150)
to leave the tired old baggage of
bigotry (p.155)
to enhance ones life (p. 154)

to hold high office (p. 154)


crass mediocrity (p. 155)
nuclear proliferation = a nuclear
freeze
(p. 163)

its inherent in human nature


(p. 156)
vexing problems (p. 164)

Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


1) a system of government in which several states form a unity but remain independent in internal affairs. (p.142)
2) the process of making someone a legal citizen of a country that they
were not born in (p. 143)
3) issue-oriented groups with broad concerns (p.146)
4) existing in three parts (p. 155)
5) a person who changes from one opinion to an opposite one in a way
which shows that they are not loyal to people who share the original opinion.
27

Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word-combinations.


democracy (p. 142)
a conference committee
(p. 144)
an ombudsman (p.155)
Social Security (p.160)

concurrent powers (p.142)


a lobbyist (p.146)
Medicare / Medicaid (p.160)

Exercise 5. Answer the following questions using the key words in


brackets.
1. Name the form of government in the USA. What is a democracy?
What does the nations Constitution define? (vote for ; swear to abide by
the Constitution)
2. What features were created to guard against the possibility of concentrating power in the hands of few? (principle of limited government; to
guard against; separation of powers; a system of checks and balances).
3. What is federalism? Name the powers that the federal government
and the states possess. (areas of wide concern; provide for; establish its
own criminal justice system)
4. What are so called concurrent powers? Study the table on p. 143
(enforce laws, provide for the health and welfare;)
5. Describe the function of the legislative branch. What is Congress comprised of? ( are elected to serve; heavily, sparsely populated states; the
term is; stands for election)
6. Who is engaged in making laws? Describe the procedure of creating a law. (initiate legislation; a bill is introduced; the bill is voted on;
reject a bill; a conference committee is made up of; is sent for his signature)
7. What is the executive branch responsible for? (administer the laws;
preside over)
8. Describe the powers of the president. (appoint secretaries; entertain
foreign leaders; make treaties; serve as; is elected to a 4-year term)
28

9. What two constitutional duties is the vice-president assigned?


( preside over; in the event of a tie; assume presidency). Name the unique
feature of the American system.
10. What is the third branch of government? What is its important function? ( is headed by; to determine laws; violate the Constitution)
11. Why does no branch of government have superior power? Give
examples of how the system of checks & balances works. ( limit the powers; veto laws; override a veto; overturn a law; usurp power )
12. How can groups and individuals exert pressure and try to influence government policy?
(elected officials; circulate petitions; exert influence).
13. What are interest groups in the USA? What do they focus on? What
do different types of interest groups have in common? ( issue-oriented; focus
on; to sway public opinion; )
14. Who is a lobbyist? What are their duties and functions? Why do
they play a significant role in American democracy? Study the picture on
p.158 and comment on it. ( exert direct pressure; specialize in smth; possess an insiders view; have a negative connotation; resent interference;
turn to them for valuable data;)
15. Name the tree features characterizing the party system in the USA.
16. What two political groupings emerged when the nation was founded? Prove that the balance between the Democrats and the Republicans
has shifted back & forth. (two party system; alternate in power; dominate politics; retain support at local levels)
17. What are the main differences between Democrats and Republicans ? How do Americans perceive the stance of these parties? (embrace
a wide range ; overall political & economic goals;
favor private enterprise; perceive the stance)
18. What are so called third parties? Why are they incapable of assuming power? (attract voters; win a seat; fade away)
19. What is the main reason of the lack of party unity within American
parties?(disagreement is common; vote against the party line; contrast
sharply with smth; parties are decentralized; clarify issues; undergo no
initiation; pay no membership dues)

29

20. What are the factors that contribute to low voter turnout? (lose interest; elections are held on; voters choice is limited; the outcome of the
election)

Exercise 6. Match the words and word combinations with their definitions and use them in the sentences of your own.
1. The act of obtaining money or advantage
through the dishonest use of political power
and influence

A. advocate

2. difficult, tiring and needing a lot of effort

B. graft

3. someone who publicly supports or suggests


an idea, development or way of doing smth

C. usurp

4. a person who doesnt have much skill


or ability at anything

D. the nuts and


bolts

5. to take control or a position of power, esp.


Without having the right to

E. arduous

6. existing as a natural or basic part of smth

F. inherent

7. the practical facts about a particular thing


rather than theoretical ideas about it

G. mediocrity

Exercise 8. Translate from Russian into English.

Exercise 7. Complete the sentences with one of the following appropriate words:
rigours, turncoat, a tie, to imbue, usurp, injunction, exert, mettle,
graft, vexing, nuts& bolts, inherent, to sway, vague

30

1. The result of the election was .


2. Through the mist I could just make out a figure.
3. The government has to deal with the problems of how to reduce
spending
4. His speech failed to his colleagues into supporting the plan.
5. When it came to the of running a business, he was clearly unable
to cope.
6. His poetry is with deep religious feeling.
7. They survived the of the winter.
8. The real test of her political came in the May elections.
9. The court has issued an to prevent the airline from increasing its
prices.
10. Dont believe him. He is a traitor and a .
11. Some managers considerable pressure on their staff to work extra hours
without being paid.
12. There are risks in almost every sport.
13. The whole government was riddled with , bribery & corruption.
14. The powers of local councils are being by central government.

1. .
2. .
3. , , , , .
4. ,
.
31

5. .
6. .
7. , , , .
8. ,
, ,
, .
9. , , . ,
.
10. , ,
.

Exercise 9. Topics for general discussion.


1. Compare the political system of the USA and Russia. What are the
differences and similarities?
2. Comment on the following (p.150)
Political parties, interest groups, and elections are opportunities for
citizens to participate in the democratic process. How can Russian people be politically involved?
3. Its common knowledge that Democrats and Republicans tend to be
similar. Do you favour political homogeneity or political pluralism?
4. Speak about the doctrine of separation of powers, by who it was propounded. How it is exercised and whether it has influenced government
structures in the countries worldwide.

32

Unit 11
Education
Part A (pp.188192)

Exercise 1. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situation in which they are used.

to boast (p. 190)


to eliminate (p. 190)
desegregation (p. 191)
to speed up (p. 191)
education gap (p. 191)
handicapped children (p. 192)
illiterate (p. 192)
academic curricula (p. 192)
sacrifice(p. 192)

school attendance (p.188)


tuition (p. 188)
census Bureau (p. 189)
core curriculum course (p. 189)
rigorous standards (p. 189)
lax standards (p. 189)
degree factory (p. 190)
penmanship (p. 190)

Exercise 2. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions.



(.190)
(.190)
(.190)

(.190)
(.190)
(.190)


(.191)

(.188)
(. 188)
(.188)
; (.188)
(.188)

(.188)
(.189)
(.190)

33

Exercise 3. Give the concept of the following definition.


1) the price of or payment for an institution;
2) to be engaged in formal studies after the graduation;
3) to be inserted, registered in a list, catalogue etc;
4) not tense, firm or rigid;
5) very strict;
6) a test to check the quality of being competent;
7) the course offered by an educational institution;
8) a quality or style of handwriting;

Exercise 6. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.

Educational opportunities in the United States are highly varied. High


school students at the same grade level do not take the same courses. Students who do not plan to go to college may be enrolled in classes such as
basic accounting, typing, or agricultural science, along with core curriculum courses such as mathematics, social studies and English. Collegebound students may be enrolled in college-preparatory courses such as
chemistry, political science, or advanced writing. Which courses a student takes depend on his or her abilities and future goals, but also on the
particular course offerings of the school. Some elementary schools offer
computer and foreign language courses.

1.
.
2. , 12
, ,
.
3. , , , , , , .
4. , ,
, , .
5. , .
6. ,
,
.
7.

.
8. - ,
,
, .
9. .
10.
, ,
, , , ..

34

35

Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words word-combinations.


to eliminate (p.190)
contribution (p.190)
to boast (p. 190)
desegregation (p. 191)

to speed up (p.191)
compulsory (p.191)
illiterate (p.192)
to sacrifice (p.192)

Exercise 5. Translate the following passage from English into Russian.

Exercise 7. Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the list.
Change the form if required.
rigorous
enroll
tuition compulsory

eliminate
board of education
penmanship
lax

1. School attendance is for all children.


2. Public education from kindergarten through grade 2 is taxsupported; no is required.
3. Those who dont plan to go to college may in accounting
classes, for example.
4. The standards which must be met to attain a high school diploma
are different, they can be in some schools and in others.
5. In public schools the decisions about school are made by
6. Almost every elementary school instructs children in
7. inequalities, the federal government has increased its share of
school financing.

Exercise 8 Fill in the gaps with prepositions from the list.


in(2) at(2) by on

to

from for

up

1. Most private schools are run religious organizations.


2. The education system in the US has made significant advances
educating an ever greater proportion of the population.
3. High school students the same grade level do not take the same
course.
4. Some students may be enrolled classes such as basic accounting.
5. Which courses a student takes depends his or her abilities.
6. There are small arts colleges which grand degrees students who
concentrate in specialized field.

36

7. the end of the spectrum are less desirable institutions, which accept any high school graduate.
8. Public schools receive the bulk of their funds local property taxes.
9. the first major contribution of federal aid education was in 1965.
10. Another measure introduced to speed integration was compulsory bussing.

Exercise 9. Answer the following questions.


1. How many times do children have to attend school a week? (how
many hours a day)
2. What advances were made to American education system according to a 1985 Census Bureau Study?
3. What are the educational opportunities in the United States?
4. What optional subjects can be offered at elementary and high
schools?
5. What are the main reasons for such diversity in course offerings?
6. What institutions referred to as degree factories? And why?
7. Who decides the selection of textbooks?
8. Where do the public schools receive their funds from?
9. Is the education that each child receives equal?
10. What are the reasons for such inequalities in education?
11. What steps are made to sped up the process of desegregation?
12. What can you tell about the handicapped children?
13. What are the claims made by the national Commission on Excellence in Education?

Exercise 10. Topics for general discussion.


1. Educational opportunities in the United States and in Russia.
2. There is no national education system in the United States.
3. The ways of financing education in the US and in Russia.

37

Unit 15
The Media
Part A (pp.261265)

Exercise 1. Suggest English equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
to convey information
to tune in
readership levels
to suffer a decline in circulation
suburban readers
dramatic decline in competition
a wire copy
to take a lead from smb
to impose a more rigorous separation of fact from opinion
to disclose classified information
to pursue investigative reporting
adversary stance towards government
wide diversification in programming
to win high audience ratings
explicit language

(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.262)
(p.262)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.264)
(p.264)
(p.265)

Exercise 2. Suggest Russian equivalents of the following expressions


and reproduce the situations in which they are used.
,



38

(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.262)



,




,
-
,

(p.262)
(p.262)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.264)
(p.264)
(p.264)
(p.264)
(p.264)
(p.265)
(p.265)

Exercise 3. Guess the concept of the following definitions.


1) newspapers and magazines (p.261);
2) newspapers published weekly, monthly, bimonthly, quarterly
(p.261);
3) a newspaper published every morning (p.262);
4) to publish a story in a newspaper (p.263);
5) big, serious, important (organization) (p.263);
6) an organization giving permission to smb to become a radio or TV
broadcaster (p.264);
7) a limited group of viewers for whom some special programs are
broadcast (p.264);
8) the type of television that was first invented and has been known to
people for more than 70 years (p.265).

Exercise 4. Give definitions of the following words and word combinations.


to tune in
consumption
to rank

(p.261)
(p.261)
(p.261)
39

to comprise
detachment
editorial (pages)
controversy
to be intent on doing smth

(p.262)
(p.263)
(p.263)
(p.264)
(p.264)

Exercise 5. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian.


1. The United States have become what social observers sometimes
call a media state, a society in which access to power is through media.
2. The print and broadcasting media not only convey information to
the public, but also influence public opinion.
3. The broadcasting media, capable of mass-producing messages and
images instantaneously, have been largely responsible for homogenizing
cultural and regional diversities across the country.
4. Newspapers have suffered a decline in circulation from peak years
around the turn of the century largely because of the trend of urban populations moving to the suburbs.
5. Some established metropolitan newspapers are now published in
zoned editions for different regional audiences.
6. Both the New York Times and the Washington Post syndicate their
staff-written stories to regional newspapers all over the country.
7. Newspapers around the country and, significantly, television news
programs take lead from the Times in deciding what is and is not a big
story.
8. The American press, especially in recent decades, has insisted on
objectivity and detachment in news reports, usually imposing a more rigorous separation of fact from opinion than do newspapers in other countries.
9. When, in 1971, the Washington Post and New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, a classified U.S. Defence document about
the origins of the U.S. involvement in the
Vietnam conflict, the Supreme Court ruled that the newspapers were
within their rights to publish the material.
40

10. Viewers whose tastes are not satisfied by the many offerings of
network and local programs are now increasing their options by subscribing to cable televisions.

Exercise 6. Fill in the gaps with words and phrases from the list.
Change the form if required.
wide diversification of programming
subscribe to cable television
suburban readers
disclose classified information
encourage consumption of products and services
readership levels
rank TV program
resignation of the president
satellite dish
within ones rights
pursue investigative reporting
be responsible to the audience demands
drive out of business
decline in competition
win high audience ratings
cease publication
1. The new program helped the channel .
2. The policy pursued by all TV stations always .
3. A lot of people do not want because they are not sure they can
find interesting programs there.
4. Everyone in America is to either watch television day and night
or pretend he does not.
5. This radio broadcasting station cannot provide for because
grants from foundations have been dramatically reduced in size.
6. It is almost impossible to make a newspaper .
7. A is now an attribute of every tenth family in the city.
41

8. can lead to a political crisis.


9. Due to competition from radio, TV and Internet have gone
down for the last dozens of years.
10. There is a trend of smaller companies by larger competitors.
11. is an event that very seldom takes place today.
12. I dont think we can this as one of the most reliable sources
of information.
13. Dramatic loss of interest to the project has led to among participants.
14. look through newspapers only for crime reports, sports and
fashions.
15. Journalists often come to unexpected and sometimes even unbelievable conclusions.
16. Advertising companies use the media .

Exercise 7. Paraphrase the following sentences.


1. Publishing secret data can lead to a court procedure.
2. Our department always follows the instructions of our Head office.
3. I will pass the news to my boss first time tomorrow.
4. Strange as it might seem my father has never been the master of
the family.
5. Our readers are people living in the suburbs.
6. Lets fix cable television they say you can watch lovely films
every day.
7. The Trade Union leaders insisted on observing all the rights of the
employees.
8. The show became very popular among most viewers because a lot
of famous actors took part in it.
9. The decision of the Prime Minister to leave his post was quite unexpected for the members of the Cabinet.
10. Both radio and TV broadcasting provide for a big choice of different programs for any audience.

42

Exercise 8. Translate the following sentences from Russian into English.


1. , , ,
.
2. .
3. 40 (
500 1962.),
, .
4. , .. ,
.
5. , , , .
6.

7 9 .
7. ,
, .

Exercise 9. Answer the following questions using the key words in


brackets.
1. Why is the USA called a media state? (access to power; channel of
information)
2. How does the media influence public opinion? (the print and
broadcasting media; to convey information; every American household;
to tune in; mass-producing messages)
43

3. Why must most newspapers, radio and TV networks be responsible to their audiences demands? (cultural significance; to influence voters; to encourage consumption of products)
4. Why are readership levels in the USA not as high as they once
were? (to cope with competition; the trend of urban populations of moving to the suburbs)
5. What makes most suburban readers prefer to get serious news
from TV but not newspapers? (to rank television as the most believable
source of news; to be a restless TV prisoner)
6. Why is television ranked as the most believable news source in the
USA? (buying programs from independent TV companies; wide diversification of programming)
7. What is the meaning of the words the journalism of sight and
sound? (a new form of journalism; a universal medium; a one-way street)
8. Why are life-style and home-living sections often added to
many suburban newspapers? (to meet the public demand; to make newspapers more like magazines)
9. What is the result of concentrating media operations in the hands
of just a few publishers and corporations? (a dramatic decline in competition; to drive out of business; to be under chain or group control)
10. Why are some cities called one-owner towns? (competing
newspapers; to have a single publisher)
11. How can news monopoly increase the chance that the public
may be misinformed? (conglomeration; to counterbalance errors; questions of objectivity)
12. Who do we call chain publishers? (to own newspapers all over
the country; to comprise daily newspaper circulation)
13. Why is opinion excluded from news columns and where is it
presented? (a rigorous separation of fact from opinion; to be presented
on separate editorial pages)
14. How is objectivity tried to be preserved by monopoly newspapers? (objectivity and detachment; example with the Washington Post in
1976)
15. What does the First Amendment to the American Constitution
state? Give examples of court battles provoked by the controversy over

the role of the media. (to abridge the freedom of the press; to disclose
classified information; to pursue investigative reporting; to transgress
the bounds of journalism)
16. Whose money is the American broadcasting system supported
by? (congressional appropriations; grants from foundations; contributions from viewers; advertising)
17. What helps the three major networks, ABC, CBS and NBC win
high audience ratings? (to be affiliated with; to sell programs to distribution companies all over the country)
18. What are the advantages of cable television? (to increase the
number of programs; specialized programs; to program 40 different
channels)
19. Why was family viewing time from 7 to 9 oclock in the evening introduced in the USA? (to debate over a link between violence on
TV and in society; to protest against sexual suggestiveness on TV; religious right)
20. What may different groups of TV viewers lobby? (a better standard of childrens TV; to object to explicit language and immorality on
the TV screen)
21. Which format of TV entertainment is the most popular in America? Why? (an entertainment-oriented medium; to be opposed to news,
information, education, instruction; to prefer situation comedies, movies,
sports programs, police dramas, shows)
22. What is the future of print and electronic media? (TV as the third
parent; to affect the times; TV is destroying everything conversation,
the habit of reading, etc.)

44

45

Exercise 10. Fill in the gaps with appropriate prepositions.


1. Television which typically tunes about six hours a day powerfully influences public opinion.
2. Newspapers have to cope competition from radio and television.

3. Some established metropolitan newspapers have lost their readership new weekly suburban newspapers.
4. A lot of local newspaper publishers are driven business by
larger competitors.
5. Most newspapers rely heavily wire copies from the two major
news services, the Associated Press (AP) and the United Press International (UPI).
6. Newspapers around the country and, significantly, television news
programs take a lead the Times.
7. The American press, especially in recent decades, has insisted
objectivity and detachment in news reports.
8. Some programs, often educational or cultural, appeal a highly
selective audience.
9. More and more radio and television broadcasting stations provide
wide diversification in programming.
10. Most commercial television stations are affiliated one of the
three major networks, ABC, CBS, and NBC.
11. Programs that aim mass entertainment are preferred over educational and news programs.
12. Critics charge that networks often emphasize the personalities of
newscasters the expense of issues of public importance.
13. A lot of viewers have a chance to increase their program potions
subscribing cable television.
14. Conventional television has to struggle to retain its audience as
people switch to cable viewing, satellite TV or renting video cassettes.
15. During hours of family viewing time adult programs containing
violence and sexual suggestiveness are kept a minimum.

Exercise 11. Topics for general discussion.


1. TV programming policy in our country and in the USA.
2. Values propagated on TV.
3. The future of print and electronic media.

46


AMERICA IN CLOSE UP
.
.
25.01.09. 6084/16.
. . 3. 400 .

47

48