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TEST 01
ON PHYSICS AND PHYSICISTS
I. ,
().
. Michael Faraday is a British physicist and chemist, best known for his discoveries
of electromagnetic induction and of the laws of electrolysis. The research that established
Faraday as the foremost experimental scientist of his day was, however, in the fields of
electricity and magnetism. In 1821 he found the existence of the magnetic field around
a conductor carrying an electric current. Faraday followed this accomplishment with the
discovery of electromagnetic induction. He also investigated the phenomena of electrolysis and discovered two fundamental laws: that the amount of chemical action produced by
an electrical current in an electrolyte is proportional to the amount of electricity passing
through the electrolyte; and that the amount of a substance deposited from an electrolyte by
the action of a current is proportional to the chemical equivalent weight of the substance.
. Sir Isaac Newton is an English physicist, mathematician, and natural philosopher. He
is considered one of the most important scientists of all time. Newton formulated laws of
universal gravitation and motion laws that explain how objects move on Earth as well as
through the heavens. He established the modern study of optics and built the first reflecting
telescope. Newtons revolutionary contributions explained the workings of a large part of
the physical world in mathematical terms, and they suggested that science may provide explanations for other phenomena as well. Newton took known facts and formed mathematical theories to explain them. He used his mathematical theories to predict the behavior of
objects in different circumstances and then compared his predictions with what he observed
in experiments. Newton began with the laws of motion and gravitation he observed in nature, and then used these laws to convert physics from a mere science of explanation into a
general mathematical system with rules and laws.
. Zhores Alferov is a Belarus-born physicist who was co-winner of the 2000 Nobel
Prize in Physics. Alferov shared half of the Nobel Prize with the American physicist Herbert Kroemer for their independent yet parallel improvements to semiconductors during the
early 1960s. Their enhanced semiconductor design is widely used in microelectronics. Alferovs major work centered on creating faster transistors. Transistors regulate the passage
of electrons and are found in almost all electronic devices. Semi-conductors, materials that
have the properties of both a conductor (capacity to carry an electric current) and an insulator (resistance to an electric current) are one of the key components of transistors. Alferov
experimented with structures made of layers of different semi-conducting materials. By
combining separate materials in layers as thin as a few atoms, he vastly improved transistor
performance. These layered semiconductors are called heterostructures. Today, the heter-

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TEST 01. ON PHYSICS AND PHYSICISTS

ostructures are used in satellite communication systems, in the base stations for mobiletelephone networks, and in the fiber-optic technology that speeds Internet data throughout
the world.

1. A breakthrough in modern technologies was achieved by


A. Newton and Alferov
B. Kroemer and Faraday
C. Faraday and Alferov
D. Alferov and Kroemer

2. The scholar who can be reverentially called a man for all times is
A. Faraday
B. Alferov
C. Newton
D. Kroemer

3. The scientists who received a major prize for their innovation are
A. Newton and Alferov
B. Kroemer and Faraday
C. Faraday and Alferov
D. Alferov and Kroemer

4. The scientist who possessed a unique gift for scientific prediction is


A. Faraday
B. Alferov
C. Newton
D. Kroemer

5. The scholars who united several branches of science in their research are
A. Alferov and Kroemer
B. Faraday and Alferov
C. Newton and Faraday
D. Kroemer and Newton

II. .
(15). .
(1) In the eleventh century, people noticed that if there was a small hole in one wall of
a darkened room, then the light coming through the hole would make a faint picture on the
opposite wall of the scene outside the room. A room like this was called a camera obscura.
Artists later used a box camera obscura with a lens in the hole to make the picture clearer.
But it was not possible to preserve the image that was produced in the box.

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(2) In 1727, Johann Heinrich Schulze mixed chalk, silver, and nitric acid in a bottle. He
found that when the mixture was exposed to the light, it became darker. In 1826, Joseph
Niepce put some paper dipped in a light-sensitive chemical into his camera obscura which
he left on a window. The result was probably the first permanent photographic image.
(3) The image Niepce made was a negative, a picture where all the white parts are
black and all the black parts are white. Later, Louis Daguerre found a way to reverse the
black and white parts to make positive prints. But when he looked at the pictures in the
light, the chemicals continued to react and the pictures went dark. In 1837, he found a way
to fix the image. These images are known as daguerreotypes.
(4) Many developments were made in the nineteenth century. Glass plates coated with
light-sensitive chemicals were used to produce clear, sharp, positive prints on paper. In the
1870s, George Eastman proposed using rolls of paper film, coated with chemicals, to replace glass plates. Then, in 1888, Eastman began manufacturing the Kodak camera, the first
modern lightweight camera which people could carry and use.
(5) During this century, many great technological improvements have been made. One of
the most important is color film. This is made from layers of chemicals that are sensitive to
red, green, and blue light, from which all other colors can be made. Although now, for example, we make and see photos of the earth from space, the basic principles of photography
have not changed since Niepce took his first photograph.
. How It All Began
. Changes or Non Changes, Basic Principle Stays
. Camera Obscura Working Magic
D. Unheard-of Possibilities of Color Photography
E. In the Beginning There Was Light
F. Photography: More and More Accessible
G. Images Are Here to Stay

III. .
(1) For a long time people have been trying to prove that ghosts are real. It has not
been an easy job. Most of the evidence comes from people who say they have seen ghosts,
but people can tell lies and make mistakes. A photograph of a ghost would be a more
solid piece of evidence, and there have been a lot of photographs that were supposed to
show ghosts most of them not very convincing. People began trying to take pictures
of ghosts from the time photography first developed in the mid-nineteenth century. But in
the early days photography was crude; people did not understand it very well, and they
made mistakes.
(2) A classic mistake was almost made by Frank Podmore, one of the early psychical researchers in Britain. The word psychical means things of the spirit, and Podmore studied

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TEST 01. ON PHYSICS AND PHYSICISTS

reported sightings of ghosts. One day he was shown a picture of the inside of an English
chapel. In the picture was the faint, ghostly outline of a human face. The photographer said
that nothing unusual had happened during the picture taking. Only after the film was developed did he see the human face and recognize it as that of a young friend who had recently
died a tragic death.
(3) Podmore, who had seen lots of fakes, was impressed. He thought the man was honest.
Podmore showed the picture to someone else, without telling the story of the dead boy. This
person identified the face as that of a woman about thirty. But whether a boy of eighteen or a
woman of thirty, there did seem to be a ghostly face in the picture. How did it get there? The
answer lies in the way photographs were taken many years ago. Photographers would set up
a camera on a three-legged stand called a tripod. They would expose the film and then walk
away because it could take a long time for the image to register on the film, particularly if
the light was not bright. The inside of a chapel, for example, would not be well lighted, and
such a photograph could take an hour or more.
(4) During that period someone might walk into the range of the camera and even stare
at it for a few seconds. Cameras were unusual in the early days, and people were curious
about them. The image of the intruder would register lightly on the film, and when the picture was developed, it would appear faint and ghostly. Many of the early ghost pictures
were not mistakes at all. They were deliberate fakes. Professional photographers would take
a picture of a person in the studio, and when the picture was developed, what appeared to be
a ghostly figure would be standing behind or alongside the living person. Usually this figure
was identified as a dead friend or relative. These so-called spirit photographs often cost a
lot of money, and they were all fakes.
(5) For years spirit photography was popular in many parts of the world. Then, in 1875,
a photographer was arrested by the police in Paris. At his trial he freely admitted that
he had faked his pictures and showed the dummy he had used as his spirit. But many
people who had bought spirit photographs from him refused to believe that the pictures
had been faked. Spirit photography hasnt been popular for a long time. When we look
at some of the old spirit photographs today, wonder how anyone could have been fooled
by them.

,
( 15).
1. Proving that ghosts are real was not an easy job, as
. the only evidence was hearsay and unconvincing photographs.
. the quality of photographic evidence left much to be desired.
. ghosts generally avoided photographers.

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2. A classical mistake was almost made by Frank Podmore, who


. did not question the truthfulness of the ghost picture.
. didnt believe the ghost picture was real.
. trusted the photographers honesty.

3. The answer how the image of a ghost appeared in the picture lies in
. the quality of the photo because a clear image tend to fade out quickly.
. the way the photographs were taken many years ago.
. the character of a photographer who had to be honest and sincere.

4. People were curious about cameras, because


. this technical innovation was an exciting novelty.
. they believed cameras might bring them profit.
. they were sure cameras attracted ghosts and spirits.

5. Many of the early ghost pictures were not mistakes at all, as


. ghosts really existed at those times.
. they were deliberate fakes.
. spirits liked to be photographed.

( 68).
6. solid (1)
. convincing

. tough

. flimsy

. unusual

. primitive

7. crude (1)
. approximate

8. be fooled (5)
. be stupid

. be deceived

. be approved of


( 912).
9. Only after the film was developed did he see the human face and recognize it
as that of a young friend who had recently died a tragic death (2).
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TEST 11
ON WORLD ART CULTURE
I. ,
(E).
A. Masks are among the worlds oldest and newest works of art. Theyve been used
to celebrate religious rites, to work hunting or harvest magic, and as parts of costumes
for plays, parties, Carnival, and, of course, Halloween. A mask can be fun or frightening,
mysterious or awe-inspiring. But every mask does two important things at the same time: it
hides the maskers everyday face and draws attention to the person or thing the masker has
temporarily become.
B. When King Tutankhamen died, artists were given only seventy days to cast his solid
gold death mask; that was the time needed to mummify the body. The true likeness of the
eighteen-year-old ruler covered the head and shoulders of the mummy. The shining gold
portrayed the king as the glowing sun god, Ra.
C. Commedia dellarte actors wore half masks called leather faces during their skits.
They played to crowds in the open streets and piazzas, and half-masks left their mouths
uncovered so everyone could hear the funny things they said. Each leather face was shaped
to represent a special character that the audience recognized, like a clown or a merchant.
Masked parties were popular among the nobles of Venice. Despite the variety of fashionable clothing, only two types of masks are wornwhite ones with sharp noses or small,
round black ones that cover just the center of the face. Masks contrasted sharply with fancy
dresses.
D. Spirit-of-the-seal masks were carved by the Eskimo during the long, long nights
of the northern winter, a sacred time. But masks were used in village ceremonies and
celebrations all year long. Sea creatures were necessary to the villagers way of life,
and the maskers sang and danced to honor the creatures and to ask for good luck and
a successful hunt. The feathers on this mask added life to the dancers imitation of a
swimming seal.
E. The Queen of Carnival wore the bird of the rain forest mask, which was her costume, too. The artist covered a bent-wire frame with thousands of sequins, and then draped
it with drifts of red, blue, green, yellow, pink, and purple cloth to color the parrots feathers.
Poles at the sides allowed the Carnival dancer to raise the birds wings, and small wheels on
a supporting platform helped her to propel the parrot along the streets.

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TEST 11. ON WORLD ART CULTURE

73

1. The mask that was supposed to work hunting magic is described in


A. Section A
B. Section B
. Section D
D. Section E

2. Some theatrical masks are described in


A. Section A
B. Section B
. Section D
D. Section C

3. Masks worn on special festivities to hide a persons true identity are discussed in
A. Sections A, B
B. Sections C, D
. Sections D, A
D. Sections E, C

4. A mask created to immortalize somebody is depicted in


A. Section C
B. Section D
. Section A
D. Section B

5. The mask that covers more than just a face is described in


A. Section A
B. Section C
. Section D
D. Section E

II. .
(16). .
(1) The London A-Z is a little book containing page after page of street maps. By
referring to the alphabetical list in the back, you can find your way to any address in
the city. Many people living and working in London use it on a daily basis. But what
few people realize is that the little book has only existed since 1936 and it was the work
of one woman named Phyllis Pearsall. Phyllis was not a cartographer by profession. In
fact she was a portrait artist and the project grew out of her frustration at never being

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74

able to find the houses of her clients. There were very few maps of London at that time
and those there were, although they included roads, tended to focus on geographical
features. They were not really intended for the general public and certainly didnt include street names.
(2) Seeing a gap in the market, Phyllis started her mapping project. It was a huge undertaking. She got up at five every morning and she would walk and walk, systematically
sketching streets as she saw them, and ended up walking three thousand miles along twentythree thousand streets in a single year. She became very obsessed with completing this task,
maybe because her father had been a map-maker with his own company in London, but hed
gone bankrupt. That had affected her greatly, and when she started this project, he was unsupportive saying: Youll never do it. Ill give you a week. So she really wanted to prove
that she could run a business, that she could outdo him.
(3) The maps themselves are different from most other kinds of map in that they
dont have their basis in mathematical calculations. When you look at an A-Z map, the
emphasis is on the streets, so youll see where you want to go. But an A-Z map distorts reality for the convenience of the pedestrian and driver. That is why Phyllis was
disregarded by a lot of the academics of the map world. She had no qualifications in
cartography at all, just lots of determination. As an artist she was very efficient, though,
probably sketching about five roads an hour, and she was also extremely observant,
with a great eye for color, and that was the other striking thing about the A-Z maps
when they first came in.
(4) But right at the end of the project, she almost had a disaster. She was cataloguing
all the streets shed sketched on index cards, arranged in shoe boxes around her tiny
flat, and shed got as far as the Ts. One hot summer night, she left the T box on her desk,
next to an open window. She was woken up by a storm. A big gust of wind had taken
hold of the T box and blown it out of the window. She ran to the window, looked out,
and she could see a whole fluttering of white index cards on the street and one white
card on top of a red bus. She ran down, scooped all these cards up and ran in front of the
bus waving, but it didnt stop. Later, she and her editor went through all the cards, but
couldnt find which street was missing. Fortunately, when the book got to the printers,
somebody there spotted it and said, Excuse me, Mrs. Pearsall, but is there any reason
why you've left out Trafalgar Square? and it was one of the most famous addresses in
the whole city!
(5) Initially, she found the books very difficult to sell. She tried to interest all the large
department stores, but at first no-one saw the potential. Then finally, a large chain of newsagents agreed to stock them on a strictly sale or return basis. And they took off immediately.
Today, bookshops stock A-Z maps of most British cities and they have been imitated all
over the world.

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.............................................................................................................3
TEST 01. ON PHYSICS AND PHYSICISTS .................................................................4
TEST 02. ON MATH AND MATHEMATICIANS ....................................................... 11
TEST 03. ON ASTRONOMY AND ASTRONOMERS................................................17
TEST 04. ON COMPUTER SCIENCE AND COMPUTER WIZARDS ......................23
TEST 05. ON ENGINEERING AND HANDICRAFTS ...............................................30
TEST 06. ON CHEMISTRY AND CHEMISTS............................................................37
TEST 07. ON BOTANY AND ZOOLOGY...................................................................44
TEST 08. ON PSYCHOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY .............................51
TEST 09. ON GENERAL BIOLOGY AND GENETICS .............................................58
TEST 10. ON PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY....................................................................65
TEST 11. ON WORLD ART CULTURE.......................................................................72
TEST 12. ON FINE ARTS .............................................................................................79
TEST 13. ON FOREIGN LANGUAGES ......................................................................86
TEST 14. ON WORLD LITERATURE AND WRITERS .............................................93
TEST 15. ON RUSSIAN LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE....................................100
TEST 16. ON WORLD HISTORY ..............................................................................107
TEST 17. ON RUSSIAN HISTORY............................................................................ 114
TEST 18. ON SOCIAL SCIENCE...............................................................................121
TEST 19. ON THE SCIENCE OF ECOLOGY ...........................................................127
TEST 20. ON PHYSICAL EDUCATION ...................................................................134
KEYS ...........................................................................................................................141
........................................................................142

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