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OBJECTIVE : TO FIND REFRACTIVE INDEXES OF A)

WATER B) OIL (TRANSPARENT) USING A PLANE


MIRROR , A EUICONVEX LENS , (MADE FROM A
GLASS OF KNOWN REFRACTIVE INDEX ) AND ON
ADJUSTABLE OBJECT NEEDLE .
APPARATUS :
A convex lens , a plane mirror , water , kerosene oil
, clamp , stand , an optical needle , plumb , line ,
knitting needle , half meter scale , glass slab and a
spherometer .
DIAGRAM :

THEORY :

Small amount of water was added on a flat, plane surface


and a convex lens was placed over it. This forms a planoconcave lens of water between the lower surface of
convex lens and plane mirror.
Let f 1 and f 2 are the focal lengths of water lens and
convex lens respectively, then focal length of the
combination is:

The focal length of the plano-concave lens is,


From Lens Maker's formula,

R 1 = R and R 2 = for water lens.

The refractive index of water is , (ii)

(where R' is the radius of curvature of the concave


surfaces of the plano-concave lens).
The Radius of curvature of the lens, is

Where l is average distance between the legs of


spherometer and h is the difference in the reading of the
spherometer when placed first on convex lens and then
on plane mirror.

PROCEDURE :
a) For focal length of convex lens
1) A plane mirror was placed on the horizontal base of
iron stand and then a convex lens on the plane mirror.

2) The needle was adjusted on the stand such that


there was
no parallax between tip of needle
and its image.
3)The distance between tip and upper surface of lens
was measured using a plumb line and a half meter
scale. The distance between tip of needle and upper
surface of mirror was also measured . The mean of
these two readings were taken . This mean distance
was equal to focal length of convex lens (f2).
b) For focal length of the combination
4) Few drops of water was put on the plane mirror
along with the convex lens over it with its same face
above as before. The was spreads in a form of layer
and acts like a plano-concave lens .
5)The steps 3 and 2 were repeated to determine the
equivalent focal length of combination.
6) Record the observation (table 1)
7) Repeat the steps 4,5,6 for other transparent liquid
(kerosene oil).

C) For radius of curvature of convex lens surface.


8) The convex lens was removed and dried completely.
The spherometer was kept on the lens surface.
9) The three legs of spherometer should be placed
symmetrically on the lens and the central screw tip was
adjusted just to touch the surface of the lens.

10) The spherometer was removed from surface of the


lens and was placed on the plane mirror and the central
screw was turned so that its tip touch the plane mirror
surface and the readings were recorded.
11) The steps 8 and 9 were repeated three times.
12) The impressions of three legs of spherometer were
obtained on paper and their average distance were
marked.

A
l1

l = l1 + l2 + l3 / 3

l2

l3

OBSERVATIONS :
1)
Rough focal length of convex lens =
cm
2)
Table 1 , for the focal length of lens and
combination.
Distance of needle tip

Arrangem
ent

3)
S.N
o.

From
lens
Surface
x1
(cm)

From
Mean
Focal
x = x1 + length
plane
Mirror
x2
x (cm)
x 2 (cm)
2

Table 2, for h.
Initial C.S.R.
on convex
lens
(a)

No. of
complet
e
rotation
s
(n)

Final C.S.R.
on plane
mirror
surface
(b)

Calculation :
1)l = l1 + l2 + l3 / 3 = ............ cm
2)R = l2/6h + h2/2 = ........ cm
3)f1 = ff2/f-f2 = cm
4)
n = 1+R/f1 =

m=(ab) if
a>b =
(100+
a-b) if
a<b

h= n
X
pitch
+mX
pitch

Results :
1) The refractive index of water nw =
2)The refractive index of other liquid (kerosene oil) nl
=

Precautions :
1)The plane mirror should be clean and fully shining
surface.
2)The liquid taken should be transparent.
3)The parallax should be removed tip to tip.
4)The eye should be at a distance about 30 cm from
needle while removing the parallax.
5)Only few drops of liquid should be taken so that its
layer should be thick.

Sources of error :
1)Liquid may not be quite transparent.
2)The parallax may not be fully removed.
3)The spherometer legs should be placed symmetrical
on the surface of convex lens.
4)The tip of central screw should not just touch the
surface of lens or mirror.