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A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or databetween
users. The main field on which we were working was networking and the course was CCNA
which includes all the parts of networking.

In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined below.

Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other connected

Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or networks of the
same type. It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each segment and
allows only the necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. Packet destined to the
same segment is dropped. This "store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole
Ethernet packet before making a decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast
traffic. Also, it introduces a 20 to 30 percent latency when processing the frame. Only
2 networks can be linked with a bridge.

Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through switches run
faster because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after looking at the
destination address only. A store-and-forward switch inspects the entire packet before
forwarding. Most switches cannot stop broadcast traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices.

Routers :Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on the protocol
addresses defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based on the Ether net packet

Brouter:Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be configured
to pass the unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not passing broadcast
storms by acting as a router for other protocols.

Gateway: Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet. Gateways enable

communications between different protocols, data types and environments. This is
achieved via protocol conversion, whereby the gateway strips the protocol stack off
ofthe packet and adds the appropriate stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all
layers of the OSI model without making any forwarding decisions.



The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a
software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software
application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed
of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The model was developed by
the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered the
primary architectural model for inter-computer communications.

2.1.1 Characteristics of the OSI Layers:

The seven layers of the OSI reference model can be divided into two categories: upper layers
and lower layers. The upper layer of the OSI model deals with application issues and
generally is implemented only in software. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data
transport issue. The physical layer and the data link layer are implemented in hardware and



Data Transport

Data link

Fig: 2.1 OSI Model

2.1.2 Protocols:
The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for communication between computers, but
the model itself is not a method of communication. Actual communication is made possible
by using communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a protocol is a formal

set of rules and conventions that governs how computers exchange information over a
network medium.

2.1.3 Physical Layer:

The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional
specifications for activating maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between
communicating network systems. Physical layer specifications define characteristics such as
voltage levels, timing of voltage changes, physical data rates, maximum transmission
distances, and physical connectors.

2.1.4 Data Link Layer:

The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link. Different
data link layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics, including
physical addressing, network topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow
control. Physical addressing defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer.
Network topology consists of the data link layer specifications that often define how devices
are to be physically connected, such as in a bus or a ring topology.

The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of the data link layer manages communications
between devices over a single link of a network. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802.2
specification and supports both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by
higher- layer protocols. IEE 802.2 defines a number of fields in data link layer frames that
enable multiple high- layer protocols to share a single physical data link. The Media Access
Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer manages protocol access to the physical
network medium.

Mac Addresses:
Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data layer addresses. MAC
addresses identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the
data link layer. As with most data- link addresses, MAC addresses are unique for each LAN
interface. Mac addresses are 46 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. The
first 6 hexadecimal digits, which are administrated by the IEEE, identify the manufacturer or

vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI). The last 6
hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number, or another value administered by the
specific vendor.



Mac Addresses, Data-Link Addresses, and the IEET Sublayers of the

Data Link Layer Are All Related (Figure 1k)

Fig: 2.2 Sub-Laye r of OSI Layer-2

Mapping Addresses:
Because internetworks generally use network addresses to route traffic around the network,
there is a need to map network addresses to MAC addresses. Different protocol suites use
different methods for determining the MAC address of a device. The following three methods
are used most often. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps network addresses to MAC
addresses. Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is the method used I the TCP / IP suite. When
a network device needs to send data to another device on the same network, it knows the
source and destination network addresses for the data transfer.

2.1.5 Network Layer:

The network layer defines the network address, which differs from the MAC address. Some
network layer implementations, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), define network addresses
in a way that route section can be determined systematically by comparing the source
network address with the destination network address and applying the subnet mask. Because
this layer defines the logical network layout, routers can use this layer to determine how to
forward packets.

2.1.6 Transport Layer:

The transport layer accepts data from the session layer and segments the data for transport
across the network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data
us delivered error-free and in the proper sequence. Flow control generally occurs at the
transport layer. Flow control manages data transmission between devices so that the
transmitting device does not send more data than the receiving device can process.

Flow Control:
Flow control is a function that prevents network congestion by ensuring that transmitting
devices do not overwhelm receiving devices with data. A high-speed computer, for example,
may generate traffic faster than the network can transfer it, or faster than the destination
device can receive and process it. The three commonly used methods for handling network
congestion are buffering, transmitting source-quench message.

2.1.7 Session Layer:

The session layer establishes,

manages, and

terminates communication sessions.

Communication sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between
applications located in different network devices. These requests and responses are
coordinated by protocols implemented at the session layer.

2.1.8 Presentation Layer:

The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied
to application layer data. These functions ensure that information sent from the application
layer of one system would be readable by the application layer of another system. Some
examples of presentation layer coding and conversion schemes include common data
representation formats, conversion of character representation formats, common data
compression schemes, and common data encryption schemes.

2.1.9 Application Layer:

The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI
application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.

This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component.
Such application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer
functions typically include identifying communication partners, determining resource
availability, and synchronizing communication

3. IP Addresses and MAC Addresses

It is also called as logical addresses. IP is a 32 bit long and it is divided into 4 octets and dot
(.) is used to separate one octet from another. It is represented in the form of decimals. There
are two versions of IP addresses:
Table3.1: COMPARISION between IPv4 and IPv6


- It is 32 bit long.

- It is 128 bit long.

- It is divided into 4 octets.

- It is divided into 16 octets.

- Ipv4 performs broadcasting,


multicasting and unicasting.

broadcasting, it

- IPv4 is divided into 5 classes:

multicasting and unicasting.

A to E.

- Ipv6 doesnt support classes.

IPv4 is in decimal form.

- IPv6 is in hexadecimal form.


3.1 IP Address Classes:-IP address is a 32 bit address. It is divided into various classes
namely Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. TCP/IP defines Class D for
experimental purpose. TCP /IP address contains two addresses embedded within one IP
address; Network address and host address as shown in figure


0 bits

31 bits

Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-bit host ID. Class B consists of 16- bit network
ID and 16-bit of host ID. And Class C consists of 24-bit of network ID and 8-bit of host ID.

3.2 How to Assign IP Address to Computer

An IP address assigned to a computer may either be permanent address or address that is
assigned to a computer on a time lease or for temporary basis. Hence, the address granted to
computers is divided into two categories Dynamic IP addresses and Static addresses.

1. Dynamic IP Addresses
Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the
network or non-permanent devices such as portable computer. The most common protocol
used for assigning Dynamic IP address is DHCP also called Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol. The DHCP grants IP address to the computer on lease basis .




Network Total Numbers For Number Of Hosts Purpose




Of Per Network


to 27 2 (126)

to 214 (16,384)

224 -2




216 -2 (65,534)



to 221 (2097152)

28 2 (254)




2. Static IP Addresses
Static IP addresses are assigned to the device on the network whose existence in the network
remains for a longer duration. These static IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses
which remain allocated to a specific device for longer time e.g. Server.

3.3 MAC Addressing

MAC address is a hardware address that is embedded in the NIC card. It is also known as
hardware address or physical address. Every NIC card has a unique MAC address assigned
by IEEE. MAC address is used to identify the nodes at lower levels of OSI model. The MAC
address operates at the data link layer of the OSI model. MAC address is a 12 digit
hexadecimal number (48 bit address). It is made up of numbers from 0-9 or a letter from AF. MAC address can be written in any one of the formats:


3.4.1Ethernet Cabling
There are three types of Ethernet cables:
Straight cable
Crossover cable
Rolled cable
1.Straight cable
It is used when we have to connect
.PC TO Switch
PC to Hub
Hub to Router
Switch to Router
Colour Coding for straight Cable

Table 3.3: Colour Coding for Crossover cable



(one end)

(other end)

(one end)

(other end)

































2.Crossover Cable
It is used when we have to connect:
PC to PC
Hub to Hub
Switch to switch
Router to Router
PC to Router
Hub to Switch
Colour Coding for Crossover cable


Table3.4 : Colour Coding for Crossover cable

















3.Rollover Cable
Rollover cable isnt used to connect any Ethernet connections together, but Rollover cable
can be used to connect a host to a router console serial communication (com) port.
NOTE: Straight cable and Cross cables are used for data transfer but Rollover cables are not
used for data transfer.
There are two methods for manufacturing Rollover cables:

Table3.5 : Colour Coding for Rollover Cable


































DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allocates IP address to
computer on a network. DHCP centralized the management of IP address allocation and
reduces human error associated with manual IP configuration. DHCP server supplies all the
necessary networking param-eters. Two things are always handed out as a part o f DHCP
configuration: IP address and subnet mask. Further DHCP will frequently configure clients
with optional values, such as a default gateway, DNS server address, and the address of a
Window Internet Naming Server, if one is present. Scenario showing DHCP server IP
address allocation.

Working of DHCP Server

(i)DHCP Scope
(ii)DHCP Super Scope
(iii)Exclusion IP Range
(iv)DHCP Lease Time
(v)IP Reservation


5.1 Routers
In packet-switched networks such as the Internet, a router is a device or, in some cases,
software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be
forwarded toward its destination.
The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each
information packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is
connected to. A router is located at any gateway(where one network meets another),
including each point-of-presence on the Internet. A router is often included as part of a
network switch .
A router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use
this information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a

given packet. Typically, a packet may travel through a number of network points with routers
before arriving at its destination. Routing is a function associated with the Network
layer (layer 3 ) in the standard model of network programming, the Open Systems
Interconnection (OSI) model. A layer-3 switch is a switch that can perform routing functions.

5.2 Router architecture and configuration

1.Flash RAM
Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer. Flash RAM is the permanent
read/write memory. This memory is used to store one or more copies of router O/S. Router
O/S is also called IOS (Internetwork Operating System).The size of Flash RAM in the router
is 4MB to 256MB. This memory is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory

NVRAM is a Non Volatile Random Access Memory. It is used to store the startup
configuration of the Router. It is on chip RAM, its size is 32kb.

3.RAM (Random Access Memory)

It is a volatile memory. All the activities we do are stored in RAM,this means that it holds the
running configuration. RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts.
Primary RAM
Shared RAM

Primary RAM

Primary RAM is used for: (i)Running copy of IOS.

(ii)Running configuration
(iii)Routing table
(iv)Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table (IP address to MAC address)
(v)Processor & other data structure


Shared RAM

Shared RAM is used as a buffer memory to shared the data received from different interfaces.
Size of RAM in a router may vary from 2 MB to 512 MB. The types of memory that may be
present in a RAM are:
(i)DRAM -> Dynamic RAM
(ii)EDORAM -> Extended Data Out RAM
(iii)SDRAM -> Synchronous Dynamic RAM

4.ROM (Random Access Memory)

It has four components:
POST (Power on Self Test)It performs hardware testing.
BOOT Strap
Boot strap specifies from where and which inter operating system is to be loaded.


Mini IOS
.Cisco 2500, 1600
333333 Router Interfaces & Ports

Interface is used to connect LAN networks or wan networks to the router. Interface will use
protocol stacks to send/receive data. Ports are used for the configuration of routers. Ports are
not used to connect different networks. The primary purpose of port is the management of

When we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. According
to the modes, privileges and rights are assigned to the user.

1.User mode
In this mode, we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity
and perform telnet to other devices. In this mode we are not able to change and save router

2.Privileged mode
In this mode, we can display all information, configuration, perform administration task,
debugging, testing and connectivity with other devices. We are not able to perform here
configuration editing of the router.
The command to enter in this mode is enable. We have to enter enable password or enable
secret password to enter in this mode. Enable secret has more priority than enable password.
If both passwords are configured then only enable secret will work.

3.Global configuration
This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. Global parameters
applied to the entire router. All the changes are performed in this mode. But here we cannot
see and save the changes.
For e.g: - router hostname or access list of router, password, Banner, Routing, Security. The
command to enter in this mode is configure terminal


Subnetting is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into smaller
parts or smaller networks and each network is called as subnet. Subnetting is done to reduce
the wastage of IP addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization
smaller networks are created within a given huge network. Subnetting a llows the user to
create multiple logical networks within a single Class A, B or C based networks. In
subnetting, the IPv4 address is broken into two parts; network id and host id. This process
borrows bits from the host id field. In this process, the network size does not shrink but the
size of hosts per network shrinks in order to include sub- networks within the network.
Size of the physical networks is reduced and hence easy to manage.
Reduce network traffic.
Easy to troubleshoot.
Reduce the wastage of IP address.

5.3.1 Subnet Mask

A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network.
A subnet mask when logically address with IPaddress provides a 32- bit network address.
This binary address gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network.

5.3.2Default Mask
Classfull addresses consists of three classes; Class A, Class B, Class C used for subnet.Each
class has a default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and
24 0s in remaining field, Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in
remaining field, and Class C cointains 24 1s in the network address field and remaining 8
bytes as 0s. the default address mask in binary and dotted-decimal is shown in the table
To Calculate the Subnet Mask
1.Identify the class of address assigned. For this example the class of IP address is Class B.

2.Check the default address mask for the appropriate class and convert it to binary format .for
this example the default address mask is and the equivalent binary format is;


3.Check the no. of 1s in the default mask. E.g this address contains 16 1s in class B, 16 bits 2
octat are for net id and the last 16 bits 2 octates are for host id.

4.Now if we need 9 subnets. This no. 9 is not a power of 2. the next no. that is power of 2 and
greater than 2 is 16. So, we require 4 extra 4 extra 1s in the network field which has to be
borrowed from the host id field.

5.The total no. of 1s is 16+4=20, as 16 1s are from network id and 4 1s are of additional bits
required for subnetwork. The no. of 0s in the n/w is32-20=12. which defines whole address.

6.Hence address is given as 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and in

decimal format can be given as
Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM)
Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)
Subnet mask for n/w is 11111111.11111111.11111111.1100000000 ie
range=> 256-192=64
step 4:
Identify the total no of subnets, no. of valid hosts and the broadcast address.

TABLE5.2: SHOWING subnet mask, valid hosts, broadcast address

Sub network



Broabroadcast Address






5.3.3 VLSM
In VLSM to allocate IP addresses to subnets depending upon the no. of hosts. The network
having more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and
for each network the subnet is assigned separately. As in the scenario given:



Routing is a process of transferring information through an inter network i.e from one
network to another. Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing.
The dial- in properties also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. This is the
only way in Window Server 2003 that you can assign a specific IP to a user. To assign a
specific IP to a user, check the box next to assign A Static IP Address and enter a valid IP in
the space provided. Static routing can also be specified as per user. By defining static routes,
users can be limited to only specific parts of networks. In an internetwork a router must then
about all the networks present in the for effort websites, there are hardware routers like
CISCO. Even win 2003 server computer configured as router. In simple words Router is a
computer with two network cards. These two network cards, then, are attached to two
different logical IP networks. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the
Now when there is a router, also there is a routing table, there is a need to configure the
router in order for that router to pass along traffic to the proper network. There are two ways
the routing table can be built and modified: either manually or automatically.

To route the packet the router must know the following things :

Destination network

Neighbour device from which it can learn about remote Networking.

Possible number of routers to reach the destination.

Best route to reach the destination.

How to maintain & verify the routing information.


Static routing.

default routing.

Dynamic routing.


In static routing an administrator specifies all the routes to reach the destination. Static
routing occurs when you manually add routes in each routers routing table. By default, Static
routes have an Administrative Distance (AD) of 1.
There is no overhead on the router CPU.
There is no bandwidth usage between routers. It adds security, because the administrator can
choose to allow routing access to certain networks only.

Advantages of static routing

(1)Fast and efficient.
(2)More control over selected path.
(3)Less overhead for router.
(4)Bandwidth of interfaces is not consumed in routing updates.

Disadvantages of static routing

(1)More overheads on administrator.
(2)Load balancing is not easily possible.
(3)In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually.

Syntax for Static Routing

Router (config)# ip route <destination N/w><Subnet mask><Next Hope- address or exit
interface> [<administrative distance>Permanent].
To check the routing Table of router
Router # show ip route


Fig 5.1: scenario of static routing

Static routing of router (R1)

Router(config)#ip route Router(config)#ip route Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#interface so/1/0
Router(config)# clock rate 64000
Router # show ip route
Static routing of router (R2)
Router(config)#ip route Router(config)#ip route Router#show ip route
Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router(config)#interface s1/1
Router(config)#clock rate 64000
Router#show ip route

Static routing of router (R3)

Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#ip route


Router(config)#ip route

Router(config)#interface s1/0
Router(config)# clock rate 64000
Router#show ip route


Default routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing
table to the next-hop route. Default routing is also a type of static routing which reduces the
routing overhead & default routing is also used with stub networks. Stub networks are those
having a single exit interface. Default routing is also used for unknown destination. A special
address is used to perform the default routing ie scenario for default routing is
same and but the commands used at the routers having single exit interface like R1 and R3
have different commands.

At Router (R1)
Router(config)#ip route
Router#show ip route

At Router (R3)
Router(config)#ip route Router#show ip route


Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing table on
routers. A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by router when it communicates
routing information between neighbor routers. In dynamic routing, we will enable a routing
protocol on router. This protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router. The
neighbors will analyze the information and write new routes to the routing table. The routers
will pass routing information receive from one router to other router also. If there are more


than one path available then routes are compared and best path is selected. Some examples of
dynamic protocol are: -RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF

6.2 Two type of routing protocols used in inter networks:

6.2.1 Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs)

IGPs are used to exchange routing information with routers in the same Autonomous
System(AS) number. Routing which is performed within a single autonomous system is
known as interior routing. The protocol that are used to perform this type of routing are
known as IGP(Interior Gateway Protocol).
These protocols are:(i)RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol Version 1)
(ii)RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2)
(iii)EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
(iv)OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
(v)IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)

6.2.2Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs)

EGPs are used to communicate between different Autonomous System. Protocol that used to
do this type of routing are called exterior gateway protocols.
Autonomous System:- An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common
administrative domain, which basically means that all routers sharing the same routing table
information are in the same AS.

6.2.3Routing Protocol Basics

(i)Administrative Distances
(ii)Classes of Routing protocol

6.3.1 Administrative Distances

The Administrative Distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information
received on a router from a neighbor router. An Administrative Distance is an integer from 0
to 255, where 0 is the most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route.
If a router receives two updates listing he sane remote network, the first thing the router
checks is the AD. If one of the advertised routes has lower AD than the other, then t he route
with the lowest AD will be placed in the routing table. If both advertised routes to the same
network have the same AD, then routing protocol metrics (such as hop count or bandwidth of
the lines) will be used to find the best path to the remote network. The advertised route with
the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table. But if both advertised routes have the
same AD as well as the same metrics, then the routing protocol will load-balance in the
remote network.

6.3.1 Classes of Routing Protocols

There are three classes of Routing Protocol
(i)Distance vector protocol
(ii)Link state protocol
(iii)Hybrid protocol.

1.Distance vector protocol

The Distance-vector protocols find the best path to remote network by judging distance. Each
time a packet goes through a router, thats called a hop. The route with the least number of
hops to the network is determined to be the best route. The vector indicates the direction to
the remote network. They send the entire routing table to directly connected neighbors.
The distance- vector routing algorithm passes complete routing table contents to neighboring
routers. A router receiving an update from a neighbor router believes the information about
remote networks without actually finding out for itself. Its possible to have network that has


multiple links to the same remote network, and if thats the case, the administrative distance
is checked first.

Figure 6.1: Routing Table (covered networks)

Distance-vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internet work by
broadcasting periodic routing updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast includes the
complete routing table. Routing loops can occur because a every router isnt updated
simultaneously. Example: Routing information protocol(RIP).

1.1 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

Routing Information Protocol is a true distance-vector routing protocol. It is an IGB (Inter
Gateway Protocol). It sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30
seconds to its immediate neighbour. This is slow convergence means that one router sends a
request to other about its route or network get networks which are not assigned to it after all
thee three routers have same networks, this process is repeated to send and receive request so


it is called slow convergence.RIP only uses hop count to determine the best way to remote
network, but it has a maximum allowable hop count of 0-15 by default,meaning that 16 is
deemed unreachable. RIP version 1 uses only class full routing, which means that all devices
in the network must use the same subnet mask. RIP v ersion 2 provides something called
prefix routing, and does send subnet mask information with the route updates. This is called
classless routing.

Hop Count
It is a way of measurement. Hop count limit is15.This routing supports only 15 routers, if
there is one more router in the network then this routing will fails.

Timers of RIP
(i)Update timers.
(ii)Hold timers.
(iii)Invalid timers.
(iv)Flush out timers.

Route update timer

Router update timer sets the interval 30 seconds between periodic routing updates, in which
the router sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbors.

Router invalid timers

A router invalid timer determines the length of time that must elapse 180 seconds before a
router determines that a route has become invalid. It will come to this conclusion if it hasnt
heard any updates about a particular route for that period. When that happens, thee router will
send out updates to all its neighbors letting them know that the route is invalid.

Hold-down timer
This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. Routers will
enter into the hold-down state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is

unreachable. This continues until entire an update packet is received with a better metric or
until the hold-down timer expires. The default is 180 seconds .

Route flush timer

Route flush timers sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its interval from the
routing table 240 seconds. Before its removed from the table, the router notifies its
neighbors of that routes impending demise. The value of the route invalid timer must be less
than that of the route flush timers.

1.2 IGRP ( Interior Gateway Protocol)

1.2.1 Link state protocol
Also called shortest-path- first protocols, the routers each create three separate tables. One
keeps track of directly attached neighbors, one determines the topology of the entire internet
work, and one is used as the routing tables. Link state routers know more about the internet
work than any distance-vector routing protocol. Link state protocols send updates containing
the state of their own links to all other routers on the network

1.2.2 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standards routing protocol thats been
implemented by a wide variety of network vendors, including Cisco. This works by using the
Dijkstra algorithm. First, a shortest path tree is constructed, and then the routing table is
populated with the resulting best paths. OSPF converges quickly, although perhaps not as
quickly as EIGRP, and it supports multiple, equal-cost routes to the same destination. But
unlike EIGRP, it only supports IP routing.
OSPF is an IGP protocol. It is a link state routing protocol. It is supported by many operating
systems. Its default AD is 110, hop count limit is unlimited. It is classless routing protocol,


supports VLSM/CIDR. By default the highest IP address of interface will be elected as

Router id.

OSPF provides the following features

.Consists of areas and autonomous systems
.Minimizes routing update traffic
.Allows scalability
.Supports VLSM/CIDR
.Has unlimited hop count
.Allows multi- vendor deployment (open standard)
OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion, which basically means that you
can separate the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas. This is the best
design for OSPF. The reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design include:

.To decrease routing overhead

.To speed up convergence
.To confine network instability to single areas of the network
Each router in the network connects to the backbone called area 0, or theback bone area.
OSPF must have an area 0, and all routers should connect to this area if at all possible. But
routers that connect other areas to the backbone within an AS are called Area Border
Routers (ABRs). Still, at least one interface must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an
autonomous system, but can also connect multiple autonomous systems together. The router
that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous System Boundary Router


OSPF Terminology

A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network. When an interface is
added to the OSPF process, its considered by OSPF to be a link.

Router ID
The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router. Cisco chooses the Router ID
by using the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces. If no loopback
interfaces are configured with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all
active physical interfaces.

Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network, such as two
routers connected on a point-to-point serial link.

An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of
route updates. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information unlike EIGRP,
which directly shares routes with all of its neighbors. Instead, OSPF directly shares routes
only with neighbors that havealso established adjacencies. And not all neighbors will
become adjacentthis depends upon both the type of network and the configuration of the

OSPF Topologies database

The topology database contains information from all of the Link State Advertisement packets
that have been received for an area. The router uses the information from the topology
database as input into the Dijkstra algorithm that computes the shortest path to every
network. LSA packets are used to update and maintain the topology database.


A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containinglink-state and routing
information thats shared among OSPF routers. There are different types of LSA packets. An
OSPF router will exchange LSA packets only with routers to which it has established
adjacencies. A designated router (DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the
same multi-access network. A prime example is an Ethernet LAN. A backup designated
router (BDR) is a hot standby for the DR onmulti-access links The BDR receives all routing
updates from OSPF adjacent routers, but doesnt flood LSA updates

OSPF areas

An OSPF area is a grouping of contiguous networks and routers. All routers in the same area
share a common Area ID.

Broadcast (multi-access)
Broadcast (multi- access) networks such as Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to (or
access) the same network, as well as provide a broadcast ability in which a single packet is
delivered to all nodes on the network. In OSPF, a DR and a BDR must be elected for each
broadcast multi- access network.

Non-broadcast multi-access
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) networks are types such as Frame Relay, X.25, and
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These networks allow for multi-access,but have no
broadcast ability like Ethernet. So, NBMA networks require special OSPF configuration to
function properly and neighbor relationships must be defined.

Point-to-point refers to a type of network topology consisting of a direct connection between
two routers that provides a single communication path. The point-to- point connection can be
physical, as in a serial cable directly connecting two routers, or it can be logical.

Point-to-multipoint refers to a type of network topology consisting of a series of connections
between a single interface on one router and multiple destinationrouters. All of the interfaces
on all of the routers sharing the point-to-multipoint connection belong to the same network.
As with point-to-point, no DRs or BDRs are needed.


Benefits of OSPF
(i)Minimum routing updates.
(ii)Priorities on all the CISCO routers the priority is 1.
(iii)The routers having highest IP address become BRD(Border Destination Router)

3.Hybrid protocol
Hybrid protocol use aspects of both distance-vector and link state protocol. Ex: EIGRP

3.1 EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol)

Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance- vector protocol that gives us a real
edge over IGRP. Like IGRP, EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe
the set of contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information.
But unlike IGRP, EIGRP includes the subnet mask in its route updates. The advertisement of
subnet information allows us to use VLSM and summarization when designing our networks.
EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has characteristics of
both distance-vector and link-state protocols.

It sends traditional distance-vector updates

containing information about networks plusthe cost of reaching them from the perspective of
the adverting router. EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 255.

Powerful features that make EIGRP a real standout from IGRP

Support for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules Considered classless
(same as RIPv2 and OSPf).
1. Support for VLSM/CIDR
2. Support for summaries and discontiguous networks
3. Efficient neighbor discovery

4. Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)

5. Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
Cisco calls EIGRP a distance vector routing protocol, or sometimes an advanced dis tance
vector or even a hybrid routing protocol. EIGRP supports different Network layer protocols
through the use of protocol-dependent modules (PDMs). Each EIGRP PDM will maintain a
separate series of tables containing the routing information that applies to a specific protocol.
It means that there will be IP/EIGRP tables , IPX/EIGRP tables, and AppleTalk/EIGRP

Neighbor Discovery
Before EIGRP routers are willing to exchange routes with each other, they must become
neighbors. There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment:
Hello or ACK received AS numbers match
Identical metrics (K values)
To maintain the neighbor relationship, EIGRP routers must also continue receiving Hellos
from their neighbors. EIGRP routers that belong to different autonomous systems (ASes)
dont automatically share routing information and they dont become neighbors.
The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor
and forms an adjacency with it through the exchange of Hello packets. When this happens,
both neighbors advertise their entire routing tables to one another. After each has learned its
neighbors routes, only changes to the routing table are propagated from then on. EIGRP
maintains three tables containing information about the internetworks.

(i) Neighbor Table

Records information about routers with whom neighborship relationships have been formed.
(ii) Topology Table
Stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received from each

EIGRP Metrics

Another really sweet thing about EIGRP is that unlike many other protocols that use a single
factor to compare routes and select the best possible path, EIGRP can use a combination of


Switches are generally used to segment a large LAN smaller segments. Smaller switches such
as the Cisco Catalyst 2924XL have 24 ports capable of creating 24 different network
segment for the LAN. Larger switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 6500 can have hundreds of
ports. Switches can also be used to connect LANs with different media, for example, a 10
Mbps Ethernet LAN and 100 Mbps Ethernet LAN can be connected using a switch. Some
switches support cut through switching, which reduces latency and delays in the network,
while bridges support only store-and- forward traffic switching. Finally switches reduce
collision on network segment . A switch is a networking device which filters and forward
packets through the network. It is a layer 2 device. It is more advanced then hub but not as
advanced as router. The basic function of a switch is to manage the signal flow. When the
switch is open, it allows the signal to flow through it and when it is closed, it stops the signal
to flow. Switch connects separate LAN segment. It allows multiple system to transmit
simultaneously. A switch is a hardware device that filters and forward data packets between
network segments. Ethernet switches are used in LAN to create Ethernet networks. Switches
forward the traffic on the basis of MAC address. Switches maintain a switching table in
which MAC addresses and port numbers are used to perform switching decision.


When switches receives data from one of connected devices, it forward data only to the port
on which the destinated system is connected. It use the media access Control (MAC) address
of the device to determine the correct port. The MAC address is a unique number that is
programmed in to every Network Interface Card(NIC). Consider, device A wants to send data
to device B. When device A passes the data, switch receives it. Switch than checks the MAC
address of the destination system. It then transfer data to device B only instead of
broadcasting to all the devices. By forwarding data only to the system to witch the data is
addressed, switch decreases the amount of traffic on each network link.



There are three types of switching method:

1.Store-and-forward switching
The entire frame is received and the CRC is computed and verified before forwarding the
frame. If the frame is too short (i.e. less than 64 bytes including the CRC), too long (i.e. more
than 1518 bytes including the CRC), or has CRC error, it will be discarded. It has the lowest
error rate but the longest latency for switching. However, for high-speed network (e.g. Fast
Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet network), the latency is not significant. It is the most commonly
used switching method, and is supported by most switches.

2.Cut-through switching
It is also known as Fast Forward switching. A frame is forwarded as soon as the destination
MAC address in the header has been received (the 1st 6 bytes following the preamble). It has
the highest error rate (because a frame is forwarded without verifying the CRC and
confirming there is no collision) but the shortest latency for switching.

3.Fragment-free switching ( Modified Cut-through switching )

A frame is forwarded after the first 64 bytes of the frame have been received. Since a
collision can be detected within the first 64 bytes of a frame, fragment- free switching can
detect a frame corrupted by a collision and drop it. Therefore, fragment-free switching
provides better error checking than cut- through switching. The error rate of fragmentfree switching is above store-and- forward switching and below cut-through switching. The
latency of fragment- free
switching is shorter than store-and- forward switching and longer than cut- through
switching. Bridges only support store-and- forward switching. Most new switch models also
use store-and- forward switching. However, it should be noted that Cisco 1900 switches
use fragment- free switching by default.

7.3 Type of switch based on OSI model


(i) Layer-2 switch

7.3.1 Layer-2 Switching

Layer-2 switching is hardware based, which means it uses the MAC address from the host
NIC card to filter the network traffic. Layer-2 switch can be considered as multi- port bridge.
Layer 2 switches are fast because they do not look at the network layer header information,
instead it looks at the frames hardware address before deciding to either forward the frame or
drop it.

Limitations of Layer 2 Switching

With bridge the connected networks are still one large broadcast domain. Layer 2 switch
cannot break the broadcast domain, this cause performance issue which limits the size of your
network. For this one reason the switch cannot completely replace routers in the

7.4 VLAN (Virtual LAN)

VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation of Broadcast Domain in the network. The devices,
which are member of same Vlan, are able to communicate with each other. The devices of
different Vlan may communicate with each other with routing. So that different Vlan devices
will use different n/w addresses.
Vlan provides following advantages: Logical Segmentation of network
Enhance network security

7.4.1 Creating port based Vlan

In port based Vlan, first we have to create a Vlan on manageable switch then we have to add
ports to the Vlan. A Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a broadcast domain created based on the
functional, security, or other requirements, instead of the physical locations of the devices, on

a switch or across switches. With VLANs, a switch can group different interfaces into
different broadcast domains. Without VLANs, all interfaces of a switch are in the same
broadcast domain; switches connected with each other are also in the same broadcast domain,
unless there is a router in between. Different ports of a switch can be assigned to different
VLANs.A VLAN can also span multiple switches.

The advantages of implementing VLAN are

It can group devices based on the requirements other than their physical locations.

It breaks broadcast domains and increases network throughput.

It provides better security by separating devices into different VLANs.

Since each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain, devices in different VLANs cannot
listen or respond to the broadcast traffic of each other.

Inter-VLAN communication can be controlled by configuring access control lists on

the router or Layer 3 switch connecting the VLANs.

7.4.2 Types of VLAN

1. Static VLAN

Fig:7.1 Static VLAN


Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the port numbers. It is easier to set
up and manage.
2.Dynamic VLAN
Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the MAC addresses of the devices connected to
the ports. A VLAN management application is used to set up a database of MAC addresses,
and configure the switches to assign VLANs to the switch ports dynamically based on the
MAC addresses of the connected devices. The application used by Cisco switches is called
VLAN Management Policy Server (VMPS).
Cisco switches support a separate instance of spanning tree and a separate bridge table for
each VLAN.

A VLAN = A Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet)


8.1General Conclusion

Computer Networking is a very vast project in the present developing era ofelectronics and
communication. Now a days, computers are used in a wider range. All the organizations are
using multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work.
Computer network allows the user to share data , share folders and files with other users
connected in a network. Computer Networking has bound the world in a very small area wit h
it wide networking processes like LAN, MAN, WAN.


Communication Field


Medical Field

Rsearch Field





1.CCNA Routing and Switching IT Certifications and Career Paths" .
2."Cisco Evolves Associate-Level Certifications, Redesigns CCNA Routing and Switching
Certification to Support Next-Generation Job Roles"
3."Major Updates to Cisco CCNA Exams Announced".
4."Cisco Certification Agreements" . "Introduction Training Resources Cisco Systems" .