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A network is a system that transmits any combination of voice, video and/or data between users. The
main field on which we were working was networking and the course was CCNA which includes all
the parts of networking.

In a typical LAN, there are various types of network devices available as outlined below.

Hub Repeat signals received on each port by broadcasting to all the other connected ports.

Bridge A layer 2 device used to connect different networks types or networks of the same type.
It maps the Ethernet addresses of the nodes residing on each segment and allows only the
necessary traffic to pass through the bridge. Packet destined to the same segment is dropped.
This "store-and-forward" mechanism inspects the whole Ethernet packet before making a
decision. Unfortunately, it cannot filter out broadcast traffic. Also, it introduces a 20 to 30
percent latency when processing the frame. Only 2 networks can be linked with a bridge.

Switch Can link up four, six, eight or even more networks. Cut-through switches run faster
because when a packet comes in, it forwards it right after looking at the destination address
only. A store-and-forward switch inspects the entire packet before forwarding. Most switches
cannot stop broadcast traffic. Switches are layer 2 devices.

Routers:Can filter out network traffic also. However, they filter based on the protocol addresses
defined in OSI layer 3(the network layer), not based on the Ethernet packet addresses.

Brouter:Has the best features of both routers and bridges in that it can be configured to pass the
unroutable protocols by imitating a bridge, while not passing broadcast storms by acting as a
router for other protocols.

Gateway: Often used as a connection to a mainframe or the internet. Gateways enable

communications between different protocols, data types and environments. This is achieved via
protocol conversion, whereby the gateway strips the protocol stack off ofthe packet and adds

the appropriate stack for the other side. Gateways operate at all

layers of the OSI model

without making any forwarding decisions.



The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model describes how information from a software
application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another
computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual model composed of seven layers, each specifying
particular network functions. The model was developed by the International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) in 1984, and it is now considered the primary architectural model for intercomputer communications.
2.1.1 Characteristics of the OSI Layers:
The seven layers of the OSI reference model can be divided into two categories: upper layers and lower
layers. The upper layer of the OSI model deals with application issues and generally is implemented
only in software. The lower layers of the OSI model handle data transport issue. The physical layer and
the data link layer are implemented in hardware and software.



Data Transport

Data link

Fig: 2.1 OSI Model

2.1.2 Protocols:
The OSI model provides a conceptual framework for communication between computers, but the
model itself is not a method of communication. Actual communication is made possible by using
communication protocols. In the context of data networking, a protocol is a formal set of rules and
conventions that governs how computers exchange information over a network medium.
2.1.3 Physical Layer:
The physical layer defines the electrical, mechanical, procedural, and functional specifications for
activating maintaining, and deactivating the physical link between communicating network systems.
Physical layer specifications define characteristics such as voltage levels, timing of voltage changes,
physical data rates, maximum transmission distances, and physical connectors.
2.1.4 Data Link Layer:
The data link layer provides reliable transit of data across a physical network link. Different data link
layer specifications define different network and protocol characteristics, including physical
addressing, network topology, error notification, sequencing of frames, and flow control. Physical
addressing defines how devices are addressed at the data link layer. Network topology consists of the
data link layer specifications that often define how devices are to be physically connected, such as in a
bus or a ring topology.
The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer of the data link layer manages communications between
devices over a single link of a network. LLC is defined in the IEEE 802.2 specification and supports
both connectionless and connection-oriented services used by higher-layer protocols. IEE 802.2 defines
a number of fields in data link layer frames that enable multiple high-layer protocols to share a single
physical data link. The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the data link layer manages
protocol access to the physical network medium.

Mac Addresses:

Media Access Control (MAC) addresses consist of a subset of data layer addresses. MAC addresses
identify network entities in LANs that implement the IEEE MAC addresses of the data link layer. As
with most data-link addresses, MAC addresses are unique for each LAN interface. Mac addresses are
46 bits in length and are expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. The first 6 hexadecimal digits, which are
administrated by the IEEE, identify the manufacturer or vendor and thus comprise the Organizationally
Unique Identifier (OUI). The last 6 hexadecimal digits comprise the interface serial number, or another
value administered by the
specific vendor.



Mac Addresses, Data-Link Addresses, and the IEET Sublayers of the

Data Link Layer Are All Related (Figure 1k)

Fig: 2.2 Sub-Layer of OSI Layer-2

Mapping Addresses:
Because internetworks generally use network addresses to route traffic around the network, there is a
need to map network addresses to MAC addresses. Different protocol suites use different methods for
determining the MAC address of a device. The following three methods are used most often. Address
Resolution Protocol (ARP) maps network addresses to MAC addresses. Address Resolution Protocol
(ARP) is the method used I the TCP / IP suite. When a network device needs to send data to another
device on the same network, it knows the source and destination network addresses for the data

2.1.5 Network Layer:

The network layer defines the network address, which differs from the MAC address. Some network
layer implementations, such as the Internet Protocol (IP), define network addresses in a way that route
section can be determined systematically by comparing the source network address with the destination
network address and applying the subnet mask. Because this layer defines the logical network layout,
routers can use this layer to determine how to forward packets.
2.1.6 Transport Layer:
The transport layer accepts data from the session layer and segments the data for transport across the
network. Generally, the transport layer is responsible for making sure that the data us delivered errorfree and in the proper sequence. Flow control generally occurs at the transport layer. Flow control
manages data transmission between devices so that the transmitting device does not send more data
than the receiving device can process.
Flow Control:
Flow control is a function that prevents network congestion by ensuring that transmitting devices do
not overwhelm receiving devices with data. A high-speed computer, for example, may generate traffic
faster than the network can transfer it, or faster than the destination device can receive and process it.
The three commonly used methods for handling network congestion are buffering, transmitting sourcequench message.
2.1.7 Session Layer:
The session layer establishes, manages, and terminates communication sessions. Communication
sessions consist of service requests and service responses that occur between applications located in
different network devices. These requests and responses are coordinated by protocols implemented at
the session layer.

2.1.8 Presentation Layer:

The presentation layer provides a variety of coding and conversion functions that are applied to
application layer data. These functions ensure that information sent from the application layer of one
system would be readable by the application layer of another system. Some examples of presentation

layer coding and conversion schemes include common data representation formats, conversion of
character representation formats, common data compression schemes, and common data encryption
2.1.9 Application Layer:
The application layer is the OSI layer closest to the end user, which means that both the OSI
application layer and the user interact directly with the software application.
This layer interacts with software applications that implement a communicating component. Such
application programs fall outside the scope of the OSI model. Application layer functions typically
include identifying communication partners, determining resource availability, and synchronizing

3. IP Addresses and MAC Addresses

It is also called as logical addresses. IP is a 32 bit long and it is divided into 4 octets and dot (.) is used
to separate one octet from another. It is represented in the form of decimals. There are two versions of
IP addresses:
Table3.1: COMPARISION between IPv4 and IPv6



- It is 32 bit long.

- It is 128 bit long.

- It is divided into 4 octets.

- It is divided into 16 octets.

- Ipv4 performs broadcasting,


multicasting and unicasting.

broadcasting, it

- IPv4 is divided into 5 classes:

multicasting and unicasting.

A to E.

- Ipv6 doesnt support classes.

IPv4 is in decimal form.

- IPv6 is in hexadecimal form.


3.1 IP Address Classes:-IP address is a 32 bit address. It is divided into various classes namely
Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E. TCP/IP defines Class D for experimental purpose. TCP
/IP address contains two addresses embedded within one IP address; Network address and host address
as shown in figure


0 bits


31 bits

Class A consists of 8-bit network ID and 24-bit host ID. Class B consists of 16- bit network
ID and 16-bit of host ID. And Class C consists of 24-bit of network ID and 8-bit of host ID.

3.2 How to Assign IP Address to Computer

An IP address assigned to a computer may either be permanent address or address that is assigned to a
computer on a time lease or for temporary basis. Hence, the address granted to computers is divided
into two categories Dynamic IP addresses and Static addresses.

1. Dynamic IP Addresses
Dynamic IP addresses are assigned to the devices that require temporary connectivity to the network
or non-permanent devices such as portable computer. The most common protocol used for assigning
Dynamic IP address is DHCP also called Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. The DHCP grants IP
address to the computer on lease basis.




Network Total Numbers For Number Of Hosts Purpose




Of Per Network


to 27 2 (126)

to 2 (16,384)

to 2 (2097152)

224 -2


216 -2 (65,534)


2 2 (254)



2. Static IP Addresses
Static IP addresses are assigned to the device on the network whose existence in the network remains
for a longer duration. These static IP addresses are semi-permanent IP addresses which remain
allocated to a specific device for longer time e.g. Server.

3.3 MAC Addressing

MAC address is a hardware address that is embedded in the NIC card. It is also known as hardware
address or physical address. Every NIC card has a unique MAC address assigned by IEEE. MAC
address is used to identify the nodes at lower levels of OSI model. The MAC address operates at the
data link layer of the OSI model. MAC address is a 12 digit hexadecimal number (48 bit address). It is
made up of numbers from 0-9 or a letter from A-F. MAC address can be written in any one of the


3.4.1Ethernet Cabling
There are three types of Ethernet cables:

Straight cable
Crossover cable
Rolled cable
1.Straight cable
It is used when we have to connect
.PC TO Switch
PC to Hub
Hub to Router
Switch to Router
Colour Coding for straight Cable

Table 3.3: Colour Coding for Crossover cable



(one end)

(other end)

(one end)

(other end)





















2.Crossover Cable
It is used when we have to connect:
PC to PC
Hub to Hub
Switch to switch
Router to Router
PC to Router
Hub to Switch
Colour Coding for Crossover cable

Table3.4 : Colour Coding for Crossover cable

















3.Rollover Cable
Rollover cable isnt used to connect any Ethernet connections together, but Rollover cable can be used
to connect a host to a router console serial communication (com) port.
NOTE: Straight cable and Cross cables are used for data transfer but Rollover cables are not used for
data transfer.
There are two methods for manufacturing Rollover cables:

Table3.5 : Colour Coding for Rollover Cable

































DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is a protocol that allocates IP address to computer on a
network. DHCP centralized the management of IP address allocation and reduces human error
associated with manual IP configuration. DHCP server supplies all the necessary networking parameters. Two things are always handed out as a part of DHCP configuration: IP address and subnet mask.
Further DHCP will frequently configure clients with optional values, such as a default gateway, DNS

server address, and the address of a Window Internet Naming Server, if one is present. Scenario
showing DHCP server IP address allocation.
Working of DHCP Server
(i)DHCP Scope
(ii)DHCP Super Scope
(iii)Exclusion IP Range
(iv)DHCP Lease Time
(v)IP Reservation

5.1 Routers
In packet-switched networks such as the Internet, a router is a device or, in some cases, software in a
computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its
The router is connected to at least two networks and decides which way to send each information
packet based on its current understanding of the state of the networks it is connected to. A router is
located at any gateway(where one network meets another), including each point-of-presence on the
Internet. A router is often included as part of a network switch .
A router may create or maintain a table of the available routes and their conditions and use this
information along with distance and cost algorithms to determine the best route for a given packet.
Typically, a packet may travel through a number of network points with routers before arriving at its
destination. Routing is a function associated with the Network layer (layer 3 ) in the standard model of
network programming, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. A layer-3 switch is a switch
that can perform routing functions.

5.2 Router architecture and configuration

1.Flash RAM

Flash memory is just like a hard copy of the computer. Flash RAM is the permanent read/write
memory. This memory is used to store one or more copies of router O/S. Router O/S is also called IOS
(Internetwork Operating System).The size of Flash RAM in the router is 4MB to 256MB. This memory
is Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM).
NVRAM is a Non Volatile Random Access Memory. It is used to store the startup configuration of
the Router. It is on chip RAM, its size is 32kb.

3.RAM (Random Access Memory)

It is a volatile memory. All the activities we do are stored in RAM,this means that it holds the running
configuration. RAM of the router is divided into two logical parts.
Primary RAM
Shared RAM

Primary RAM

Primary RAM is used for: (i)Running copy of IOS.

(ii)Running configuration
(iii)Routing table
(iv)Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table (IP address to MAC address)
(v)Processor & other data structure

Shared RAM

Shared RAM is used as a buffer memory to shared the data received from different interfaces. Size of
RAM in a router may vary from 2 MB to 512 MB. The types of memory that may be present in a RAM
(i)DRAM -> Dynamic RAM

(ii)EDORAM -> Extended Data Out RAM

(iii)SDRAM -> Synchronous Dynamic RAM
4.ROM (Random Access Memory)
It has four components:
POST (Power on Self Test)It performs hardware testing.
BOOT Strap
Boot strap specifies from where and which inter operating system is to be loaded.


Mini IOS
.Cisco 2500, 1600
333333 Router Interfaces & Ports


Interface is used to connect LAN networks or wan networks to the router. Interface will use protocol
stacks to send/receive data. Ports are used for the configuration of routers. Ports are not used to connect
different networks. The primary purpose of port is the management of router.
When we access router command prompt the router will display different modes. According to the
modes, privileges and rights are assigned to the user.
1.User mode
In this mode, we can display basic parameter and status of the router we can test connectivity and
perform telnet to other devices. In this mode we are not able to change and save router configuration.
2.Privileged mode
In this mode, we can display all information, configuration, perform administration task, debugging,
testing and connectivity with other devices. We are not able to perform here configuration editing of the
The command to enter in this mode is enable. We have to enter enable password or enable secret
password to enter in this mode. Enable secret has more priority than enable password. If both
passwords are configured then only enable secret will work.
3.Global configuration
This mode is used for the configuration of global parameters in the router. Global parameters applied to
the entire router. All the changes are performed in this mode. But here we cannot see and save the
For e.g: - router hostname or access list of router, password, Banner, Routing, Security. The command
to enter in this mode is configure terminal


Subnetting is a process or a technique to divide large and complex networks into smaller parts or
smaller networks and each network is called as subnet. Subnetting is done to reduce the wastage of IP
addresses ie instead of having a single huge network for an organization smaller networks are created
within a given huge network. Subnetting allows the user to create multiple logical networks within a
single Class A, B or C based networks. In subnetting, the IPv4 address is broken into two parts;
network id and host id. This process borrows bits from the host id field. In this process, the network
size does not shrink but the size of hosts per network shrinks in order to include sub-networks within
the network.
Size of the physical networks is reduced and hence easy to manage.
Reduce network traffic.
Easy to troubleshoot.
Reduce the wastage of IP address.

5.3.1 Subnet Mask

A subnet mask specifies the part of IP address that is to be used for identifying a sub network. A subnet
mask when logically address with IP address provides a 32- bit network address. This binary address
gives the first address in the subnet block specified in the large network.
5.3.2Default Mask
Classfull addresses consists of three classes; Class A, Class B, Class C used for subnet.Each class has a
default subnet mask C lass A consists of eight 1s in the network address field and 24 0s in remaining
field, Class B consists of 16 1s in network address field and 16 0s in remaining field, and Class C
cointains 24 1s in the network address field and remaining 8 bytes as 0s. the default address mask in
binary and dotted-decimal is shown in the table
To Calculate the Subnet Mask
1.Identify the class of address assigned. For this example the class of IP address is Class B.


2.Check the default address mask for the appropriate class and convert it to binary format .for this
example the default address mask is and the equivalent binary format is;
3.Check the no. of 1s in the default mask. E.g this address contains 16 1s in class B, 16 bits 2 octat are
for net id and the last 16 bits 2 octates are for host id.
4.Now if we need 9 subnets. This no. 9 is not a power of 2. the next no. that is power of 2 and greater
than 2 is 16. So, we require 4 extra 4 extra 1s in the network field which has to be borrowed from the
host id field.
5.The total no. of 1s is 16+4=20, as 16 1s are from network id and 4 1s are of additional bits required
for subnetwork. The no. of 0s in the n/w is32-20=12. which defines whole address.
6.Hence address is given as 11111111.11111111.11110000.00000000 and in
decimal format can be given as
Fixed Length Subnet Mask (FLSM)
Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM)
Subnet mask for n/w is 11111111.11111111.11111111.1100000000 ie
range=> 256-192=64
step 4:
Identify the total no of subnets, no. of valid hosts and the broadcast address.
TABLE5.2: SHOWING subnet mask, valid hosts, broadcast address

Sub network



Broabroadcast Address





5.3.3 VLSM
In VLSM to allocate IP addresses to subnets depending upon the no. of hosts. The network having
more no of hosts is given priority and the one having least no of host comes at last and for each
network the subnet is assigned separately. As in the scenario given:


Routing is a process of transferring information through an inter network i.e from one network to
another. Routing connect different networks having ID help in process of routing. The dial-in properties
also allow for specific IP address to be assigned to a user. This is the only way in Window Server 2003
that you can assign a specific IP to a user. To assign a specific IP to a user, check the box next to assign
A Static IP Address and enter a valid IP in the space provided. Static routing can also be specified as
per user. By defining static routes, users can be limited to only specific parts of networks. In an
internetwork a router must then about all the networks present in the for effort websites, there are
hardware routers like CISCO. Even win 2003 server computer configured as router. In simple words
Router is a computer with two network cards. These two network cards, then, are attached to two
different logical IP networks. The routing table helps direct traffic that is passed through the router.
Now when there is a router, also there is a routing table, there is a need to configure the router in order
for that router to pass along traffic to the proper network. There are two ways the routing table can be
built and modified: either manually or automatically.
To route the packet the router must know the following things:

Destination network

Neighbour device from which it can learn about remote Networking.

Possible number of routers to reach the destination.

Best route to reach the destination.


How to maintain & verify the routing information.


Static routing.

default routing.

Dynamic routing.


In static routing an administrator specifies all the routes to reach the destination. Static routing occurs
when you manually add routes in each routers routing table. By default, Static routes have an
Administrative Distance (AD) of 1.
There is no overhead on the router CPU.
There is no bandwidth usage between routers. It adds security, because the administrator can choose to
allow routing access to certain networks only.

Advantages of static routing

(1)Fast and efficient.
(2)More control over selected path.
(3)Less overhead for router.
(4)Bandwidth of interfaces is not consumed in routing updates.

Disadvantages of static routing


(1)More overheads on administrator.

(2)Load balancing is not easily possible.
(3)In case of topology change routing table has to be change manually.

Syntax for Static Routing

Router (config)# ip route <destination N/w> <Subnet mask> <Next Hope- address or exit interface>
[<administrative distance>Permanent].
To check the routing Table of router
Router # show ip route

Fig 5.1: scenario of static routing

Static routing of router (R1)
Router(config)#ip route Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#interface so/1/0

Router(config)# clock rate 64000

Router # show ip route
Static routing of router (R2)
Router(config)#ip route Router(config)#ip route
Router#show ip route
Router(config)#interface s1/0 Router(config)# clock rate 64000 Router(config)#interface s1/1
Router(config)#clock rate 64000
Router#show ip route
Static routing of router (R3)
Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#ip route
Router(config)#interface s1/0
Router(config)# clock rate 64000
Router#show ip route


Default routing is used to send packets with a remote destination network not in the routing table to
the next-hop route. Default routing is also a type of static routing which reduces the routing overhead &
default routing is also used with stub networks. Stub networks are those having a single exit interface.

Default routing is also used for unknown destination. A special address is used to perform the default
routing ie scenario for default routing is same and but the commands used at the routers
having single exit interface like R1 and R3 have different commands.

At Router (R1)
Router(config)#ip route
Router#show ip route

At Router (R3)
Router(config)#ip route Router#show ip route


Dynamic routing is when protocols are used to find networks and update routing table on routers. A
routing protocol defines the set of rules used by router when it communicates routing information
between neighbor routers. In dynamic routing, we will enable a routing protocol on router. This
protocol will send its routing information to the neighbor router. The neighbors will analyze the
information and write new routes to the routing table. The routers will pass routing information receive
from one router to other router also. If there are more than one path available then routes are compared
and best path is selected. Some examples of dynamic protocol are: -RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF

6.2 Two type of routing protocols used in inter networks:

6.2.1 Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs)

IGPs are used to exchange routing information with routers in the same Autonomous System(AS)
number. Routing which is performed within a single autonomous system is known as interior routing.


The protocol that are used to perform this type of routing are known as IGP(Interior Gateway
These protocols are:(i)RIPv1 (Routing Information Protocol Version 1)
(ii)RIPv2 (Routing Information Protocol Version 2)
(iii)EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)
(iv)OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)
(v)IS-IS (Intermediate System to Intermediate System)

6.2.2 Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs)

EGPs are used to communicate between different Autonomous System. Protocol that used to do this
type of routing are called exterior gateway protocols.
Autonomous System:- An autonomous system is a collection of networks under a common
administrative domain, which basically means that all routers sharing the same routing table
information are in the same AS.

6.2.3 Routing Protocol Basics

(i)Administrative Distances
(ii)Classes of Routing protocol

6.3.1 Administrative Distances

The Administrative Distance (AD) is used to rate the trustworthiness of routing information received on
a router from a neighbor router. An Administrative Distance is an integer from 0 to 255, where 0 is the
most trusted and 255 means no traffic will be passed via this route.
If a router receives two updates listing he sane remote network, the first thing the router checks is the
AD. If one of the advertised routes has lower AD than the other, then the route with the lowest AD will
be placed in the routing table. If both advertised routes to the same network have the same AD, then
routing protocol metrics (such as hop count or bandwidth of the lines) will be used to find the best path
to the remote network. The advertised route with the lowest metric will be placed in the routing table.
But if both advertised routes have the same AD as well as the same metrics, then the routing protocol
will load-balance in the remote network.

6.3.1 Classes of Routing Protocols

There are three classes of Routing Protocol
(i)Distance vector protocol
(ii)Link state protocol
(iii)Hybrid protocol.

1.Distance vector protocol

The Distance-vector protocols find the best path to remote network by judging distance. Each time a
packet goes through a router, thats called a hop. The route with the least number of hops to the


network is determined to be the best route. The vector indicates the direction to the remote network.
They send the entire routing table to directly connected neighbors.
The distance-vector routing algorithm passes complete routing table contents to neighboring routers. A
router receiving an update from a neighbor router believes the information about remote networks
without actually finding out for itself. Its possible to have network that has multiple links to the same
remote network, and if thats the case, the administrative distance is checked first.

Figure 6.1: Routing Table (covered networks)


Distance-vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internet work by broadcasting
periodic routing updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast includes the complete routing table.
Routing loops can occur because a every router isnt updated simultaneously. Example: Routing

information protocol(RIP).

1.1 RIP (Routing Information Protocol)

Routing Information Protocol is a true distance-vector routing protocol. It is an IGB (Inter Gateway
Protocol). It sends the complete routing table out to all active interfaces every 30 seconds to its
immediate neighbour. This is slow convergence means that one router sends a request to other about its
route or network get networks which are not assigned to it after all thee three routers have same
networks, this process is repeated to send and receive request so it is called slow convergence.RIP only
uses hop count to determine the best way to remote network, but it has a maximum allowable hop
count of 0-15 by default, meaning that 16 is deemed unreachable. RIP version 1 uses only class full
routing, which means that all devices in the network must use the same subnet mask. RIP v ersion 2
provides something called prefix routing, and does send subnet mask information with the route
updates. This is called classless routing.

Hop Count
It is a way of measurement. Hop count limit is15.This routing supports only 15 routers, if there is one
more router in the network then this routing will fails.

Timers of RIP
(i)Update timers.
(ii)Hold timers.

(iii)Invalid timers.
(iv)Flush out timers.

Route update timer

Router update timer sets the interval 30 seconds between periodic routing updates, in which the router
sends a complete copy of its routing table out to all neighbors.

Router invalid timers

A router invalid timer determines the length of time that must elapse 180 seconds before a router
determines that a route has become invalid. It will come to this conclusion if it hasnt heard any updates
about a particular route for that period. When that happens, thee router will send out updates to all its
neighbors letting them know that the route is invalid.

Hold-down timer
This sets the amount of time during which routing information is suppressed. Routers will enter into
the hold-down state when an update packet is received that indicated the route is unreachable. This
continues until entire an update packet is received with a better metric or until the hold-down timer
expires. The default is 180 seconds.

Route flush timer

Route flush timers sets the time between a route becoming invalid and its interval from the routing
table 240 seconds. Before its removed from the table, the router notifies its neighbors of that routes
impending demise. The value of the route invalid timer must be less than that of the route flush timers.

1.2 IGRP ( Interior Gateway Protocol)

1.2.1 Link state protocol

Also called shortest-path-first protocols, the routers each create three separate tables. One keeps track
of directly attached neighbors, one determines the topology of the entire internet work, and one is used
as the routing tables. Link state routers know more about the internet work than any distancevector routing protocol. Link state protocols send updates containing the state of their own links to all
other routers on the network

1.2.2 OSPF (Open Shortest Path First)

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an open standards routing protocol thats been implemented by a
wide variety of network vendors, including Cisco. This works by using the Dijkstra algorithm. First, a
shortest path tree is constructed, and then the routing table is populated with the resulting best paths.
OSPF converges quickly, although perhaps not as quickly as EIGRP, and it supports multiple, equalcost routes to the same destination. But unlike EIGRP, it only supports IP routing.
OSPF is an IGP protocol. It is a link state routing protocol. It is supported by many operating systems.
Its default AD is 110, hop count limit is unlimited. It is classless routing protocol, supports
VLSM/CIDR. By default the highest IP address of interface will be elected as Router id.

OSPF provides the following features

.Consists of areas and autonomous systems

.Minimizes routing update traffic

.Allows scalability
.Supports VLSM/CIDR
.Has unlimited hop count
.Allows multi-vendor deployment (open standard)
OSPF is supposed to be designed in a hierarchical fashion, which basically means that you can separate
the larger internetwork into smaller internetworks called areas. This is the best design for OSPF. The
reasons for creating OSPF in a hierarchical design include:

.To decrease routing overhead

.To speed up convergence
.To confine network instability to single areas of the network
Each router in the network connects to the backbone called area 0, or theback bone area. OSPF must
have an area 0, and all routers should connect to this area if at all possible. But routers that connect
other areas to the backbone within an AS are called Area Border Routers (ABRs). Still, at least one
interface must be in area 0. OSPF runs inside an autonomous system, but can also connect multiple
autonomous systems together. The router that connects these ASes together is called an Autonomous
System Boundary Router (ASBR).


OSPF Terminology

A link is a network or router interface assigned to any given network. When an interface is added to the
OSPF process, its considered by OSPF to be a link.

Router ID
The Router ID (RID) is an IP address used to identify the router. Cisco chooses the Router ID by using
the highest IP address of all configured loopback interfaces. If no loopback interfaces are configured
with addresses, OSPF will choose the highest IP address of all active physical interfaces.

Neighbors are two or more routers that have an interface on a common network, such as two routers
connected on a point-to-point serial link.

An adjacency is a relationship between two OSPF routers that permits the direct exchange of route
updates. OSPF is really picky about sharing routing information unlike EIGRP, which directly shares
routes with all of its neighbors. Instead, OSPF directly shares routes only with neighbors that have also
established adjacencies. And not all neighbors will become adjacentthis depends upon both the type
of network and the configuration of the routers.


OSPF Topologies database

The topology database contains information from all of the Link State Advertisement packets that have
been received for an area. The router uses the information from the topology database as input into the
Dijkstra algorithm that computes the shortest path to every network. LSA packets are used to update
and maintain the topology database.
A Link State Advertisement (LSA) is an OSPF data packet containinglink-state and routing information
thats shared among OSPF routers. There are different types of LSA packets. An OSPF router will
exchange LSA packets only with routers to which it has established adjacencies. A designated router
(DR) is elected whenever OSPF routers are connected to the same multi-access network. A prime
example is an Ethernet LAN. A backup designated router (BDR) is a hot standby for the DR onmultiaccess links The BDR receives all routing updates from OSPF adjacent routers, but doesnt flood LSA

OSPF areas

An OSPF area is a grouping of contiguous networks and routers. All routers in the same area share a
common Area ID.

Broadcast (multi-access)
Broadcast (multi-access) networks such as Ethernet allow multiple devices to connect to (or access) the
same network, as well as provide a broadcast ability in which a single packet is delivered to all nodes
on the network. In OSPF, a DR and a BDR must be elected for each broadcast multi-access network.

Non-broadcast multi-access
Non-Broadcast Multi-Access (NBMA) networks are types such as Frame Relay, X.25, and
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). These networks allow for multi-access,but have no broadcast
ability like Ethernet. So, NBMA networks require special OSPF configuration to function properly and
neighbor relationships must be defined.

Point-to-point refers to a type of network topology consisting of a direct connection between two
routers that provides a single communication path. The point-to- point connection can be physical, as in
a serial cable directly connecting two routers, or it can be logical.

Point-to-multipoint refers to a type of network topology consisting of a series of connections between a
single interface on one router and multiple destination routers. All of the interfaces on all of the routers
sharing the point-to-multipoint connection belong to the same network. As with point-to-point, no DRs
or BDRs are needed.

Benefits of OSPF
(i)Minimum routing updates.
(ii)Priorities on all the CISCO routers the priority is 1.
(iii)The routers having highest IP address become BRD(Border Destination Router)

3.Hybrid protocol
Hybrid protocol use aspects of both distance-vector and link state protocol. Ex: EIGRP

3.1 EIGRP(Enhanced Interior Routing Protocol)


Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) is a classless, enhanced distance-vector protocol that gives us a real edge
over IGRP. Like IGRP, EIGRP uses the concept of an autonomous system to describe the set of
contiguous routers that run the same routing protocol and share routing information. But unlike IGRP,
EIGRP includes the subnet mask in its route updates. The advertisement of subnet information allows
us to use VLSM and summarization when designing our networks.
EIGRP is sometimes referred to as a hybrid routing protocol because it has characteristics of
both distance-vector and link-state protocols. It sends traditional distance-vector updates containing
information about networks plus the cost of reaching them from the perspective of the adverting router.
EIGRP has a maximum hop count of 255.

Powerful features that make EIGRP a real standout from IGRP

Support for IP, IPX, and AppleTalk via protocol-dependent modules Considered classless (same as
RIPv2 and OSPf).
1. Support for VLSM/CIDR
2. Support for summaries and discontiguous networks
3. Efficient neighbor discovery
4. Communication via Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP)
5. Best path selection via Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL)
Cisco calls EIGRP a distance vector routing protocol, or sometimes an advanced distance vector or
even a hybrid routing protocol. EIGRP supports different Network layer protocols through the use
of protocol-dependent modules (PDMs). Each EIGRP PDM will maintain a separate series of tables

containing the routing information that applies to a specific protocol. It means that there will be
IP/EIGRP tables, IPX/EIGRP tables, and AppleTalk/EIGRP tables.

Neighbor Discovery
Before EIGRP routers are willing to exchange routes with each other, they must become neighbors.
There are three conditions that must be met for neighborship establishment:
Hello or ACK received AS numbers match
Identical metrics (K values)
To maintain the neighbor relationship, EIGRP routers must also continue receiving Hellos from their
neighbors. EIGRP routers that belong to different autonomous systems (ASes) dont automatically
share routing information and they dont become neighbors.
The only time EIGRP advertises its entire routing table is when it discovers a new neighbor and forms
an adjacency with it through the exchange of Hello packets. When this happens, both neighbors
advertise their entire routing tables to one another. After each has learned its neighbors routes, only
changes to the routing table are propagated from then on. EIGRP maintains three tables containing
information about the internetworks.

(i) Neighbor Table

Records information about routers with whom neighborship relationships have been formed.
(ii) Topology Table
Stores the route advertisements about every route in the internetwork received from each neighbor.

EIGRP Metrics
Another really sweet thing about EIGRP is that unlike many other protocols that use a single factor to
compare routes and select the best possible path, EIGRP can use a combination of four:



Switches are generally used to segment a large LAN smaller segments. Smaller switches such as the
Cisco Catalyst 2924XL have 24 ports capable of creating 24 different network segment for the LAN.
Larger switches such as the Cisco Catalyst 6500 can have hundreds of ports. Switches can also be used
to connect LANs with different media, for example, a 10 Mbps Ethernet LAN and 100 Mbps Ethernet
LAN can be connected using a switch. Some switches support cut through switching, which reduces
latency and delays in the network, while bridges support only store-and-forward traffic switching.
Finally switches reduce collision on network segment . A switch is a networking device which filters
and forward packets through the network. It is a layer 2 device. It is more advanced then hub but not as
advanced as router. The basic function of a switch is to manage the signal flow. When the switch is
open, it allows the signal to flow through it and when it is closed, it stops the signal to flow. Switch
connects separate LAN segment. It allows multiple system to transmit simultaneously. A switch is a
hardware device that filters and forward data packets between network segments. Ethernet switches are
used in LAN to create Ethernet networks. Switches forward the traffic on the basis of MAC address.
Switches maintain a switching table in which MAC addresses and port numbers are used to perform
switching decision.


When switches receives data from one of connected devices, it forward data only to the port on which
the destinated system is connected. It use the media access Control (MAC) address of the device to
determine the correct port. The MAC address is a unique number that is programmed in to every
Network Interface Card(NIC). Consider, device A wants to send data to device B. When device A

passes the data, switch receives it. Switch than checks the MAC address of the destination system. It
then transfer data to device B only instead of broadcasting to all the devices. By forwarding data only
to the system to witch the data is addressed, switch decreases the amount of traffic on each network


There are three types of switching method:

1.Store-and-forward switching
The entire frame is received and the CRC is computed and verified before forwarding the frame. If the
frame is too short (i.e. less than 64 bytes including the CRC), too long (i.e. more than 1518 bytes
including the CRC), or has CRC error, it will be discarded. It has the lowest error rate but the longest
latency for switching. However, for high-speed network (e.g. Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet
network), the latency is not significant. It is the most commonly used switching method, and is
supported by most switches.

2.Cut-through switching
It is also known as Fast Forward switching. A frame is forwarded as soon as the destination MAC
address in the header has been received (the 1st 6 bytes following the preamble). It has the highest error
rate (because a frame is forwarded without verifying the CRC and confirming there is no collision) but
the shortest latency for switching.

3.Fragment-free switching ( Modified Cut-through switching )

A frame is forwarded after the first 64 bytes of the frame have been received. Since a collision can be
detected within the first 64 bytes of a frame, fragment-free switching can detect a frame corrupted by a
collision and drop it. Therefore, fragment-free switching provides better error checking than cutthrough switching. The error rate of fragment-free switching is above store-and-forward switching and
below cut-through switching. The latency of fragment-free
switching is shorter than store-and- forward switching and longer than cut- through switching. Bridges

support store-and-forward switching.






use store-and-

forward switching. However, it should be noted that Cisco 1900 switches use fragment-free switching
by default.

7.3 Type of switch based on OSI model

(i) Layer-2 switch

7.3.1 Layer-2 Switching

Layer-2 switching is hardware based, which means it uses the MAC address from the host NIC card to
filter the network traffic. Layer-2 switch can be considered as multi- port bridge.
Layer 2 switches are fast because they do not look at the network layer header information, instead it
looks at the frames hardware address before deciding to either forward the frame or drop it.


Limitations of Layer 2 Switching

With bridge the connected networks are still one large broadcast domain. Layer 2 switch cannot break
the broadcast domain, this cause performance issue which limits the size of your network. For this one
reason the switch cannot completely replace routers in the internetwork.

7.4 VLAN (Virtual LAN)

VLAN provides Virtual Segmentation of Broadcast Domain in the network. The devices, which are
member of same Vlan, are able to communicate with each other. The devices of different Vlan may
communicate with each other with routing. So that different Vlan devices will use different n/w
Vlan provides following advantages: Logical Segmentation of network
Enhance network security

7.4.1 Creating port based Vlan

In port based Vlan, first we have to create a Vlan on manageable switch then we have to add ports to
the Vlan. A Virtual LAN (VLAN) is a broadcast domain created based on the functional, security, or
other requirements, instead of the physical locations of the devices, on a switch or across switches.
With VLANs, a switch can group different interfaces into different broadcast domains. Without
VLANs, all interfaces of a switch are in the same broadcast domain; switches connected with each
other are also in the same broadcast domain, unless there is a router in between. Different ports of a
switch can be assigned to different VLANs. A VLAN can also span multiple switches.

The advantages of implementing VLAN are

It can group devices based on the requirements other than their physical locations.

It breaks broadcast domains and increases network throughput.

It provides better security by separating devices into different VLANs.

Since each VLAN is a separate broadcast domain, devices in different VLANs cannot listen or
respond to the broadcast traffic of each other.

Inter-VLAN communication can be controlled by configuring access control lists on the router
or Layer 3 switch connecting the VLANs.

7.4.2 Types of VLAN

1. Static VLAN


Fig:7.1 Static VLAN

Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the port numbers. It is easier to set up and
2.Dynamic VLAN
Assigning VLANs to switch ports based on the MAC addresses of the devices connected to the ports. A
VLAN management application is used to set up a database of MAC addresses, and configure the
switches to assign VLANs to the switch ports dynamically based on the MAC addresses of the
connected devices. The application used by Cisco switches is called VLAN Management Policy Server
Cisco switches support a separate instance of spanning tree and a separate bridge table for each VLAN.

A VLAN = A Broadcast Domain = Logical Network (Subnet)



8.1General Conclusion
Computer Networking is a very vast project in the present developing era of electronics and
communication. Now a days, computers are used in a wider range. All the organizations are using
multiple computers within their departments to perform their day to day work. Computer network
allows the user to share data , share folders and files with other users connected in a network. Computer
Networking has bound the world in a very small area with it wide networking processes like LAN,


Communication Field


Medical Field

Rsearch Field




1.CCNA Routing and Switching IT Certifications and Career Paths" .
2."Cisco Evolves Associate-Level Certifications, Redesigns CCNA Routing and Switching
Certification to Support Next-Generation Job Roles"
3."Major Updates to Cisco CCNA Exams Announced".
4."Cisco Certification Agreements" . "Introduction Training Resources Cisco Systems" .