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ALAM ENERGIA

Mathematics Form 5

INTRODUCTION

All the whole numbers that we used on daily basis is actually comprises of number in the base of 10. Number in the base of 10 is derived from 10 different digits; 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. This can be proven by looking at our way of calculating ADDITION and SUBTRACTION as follows :

 1794 321 + 2227 - 123 4021 198

The sum of 4 + 7 = 11 ; and since 11 is exceeding 10, then 11 shall be deducted by 10 and the answer of 1 shall be written and 1 to be added to the sum of the other number on the left. The similar process shall take place on the following addition. Under this circumstances, it is proven that all of the number used are in fact of the base of 10.

If we study the process of subtraction as shown above, it is obvious that 3 cannot be deducted from 1 and as such it needs to borrow 1 from 2 (the number on left side of 1). Though 1 is taken from 2, its value is in fact 10 and when added to 1 will gives us 11. This also proves that the number used are in fact of the base of 10.

Based on the understanding above, we can assume that the following base numbers shall have a character as follows :

Base number of 10

Comprise of 10 individual digits of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 only.

10 shall be the maximum digit

Base number of 8

Comprise of 8 individual digits of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 only.

8 shall be the maximum digit.

Base number of 5

Comprise of 5 individual digits of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 only.

5 shall be the maximum digit.

Base number of 2

Comprise of 2 individual digits of 0 and 1 only.

2 shall be the maximum digit.

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

CONVERSION OF BASES

BASE 2 Concept: It is easy to understand the concept by looking at this table.

 INDEX 2 4 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 0 BASE 10 16 8 4 2 1 Info: Base 10 uses the digits 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Base 2 only uses the digit 0 and 1 How to convert numbers from Base 2 to Base 10? E.g. 11 2 = 3 10 ( 1x2 1 + 1x2 0 ) 101 2 = 5 10 ( 1x2 2 + 0x2 1 + 1x2 0 ) 1000 2 = 8 10 ( 1x2 3 + 0x2 2 + 0x2 1 + + 0x2 0 ) 1101 2 = 13 10 BASE 8 By using the same ideology, we can do the same to numbers in Base 8. INDEX 8 4 8 3 8 2 8 1 8 0 BASE 10 4096 512 64 8 1 Remember: Base 8 uses digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. There are no digits 8 and 9. E.g. 7 8 = 7 10 10 8 = 8 10 (1x8 + 0x1) 16 8 = 14 10 (1x8 + 6x1) 55 8 = 45 10 (5x8 + 5x1) 371 8 = 249 10 (3x64 + 7x8 + 1x1) BASE 5 Base 5 uses digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 only. INDEX 5 4 5 3 5 2 5 1 5 0 BASE 10 625 125 25 5 1

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

CONVERSION FROM BASE 10

To convert number from base of 10, we have to use repeated division method :

E.g. To convert base 10 to base of 8

Remainder

8
1043
-
3
8
130
-
2
8
16
-
0
upward
8
2
-
2
0
Hence, 1043 10 = 2023 8
Let us try converting 29 10 to the base of 2
2
29
-
1
2
14
-
0
2
7
-
1
upward
2
3
-
1
2
1
-
1
0

Hence 29 10 = 11101 2

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF BASES

Addition and subtraction process of each base number shall not be exceeding the base number itself. Table below should gave a picture:

 BASE 8 BASE 5 BASE 2 1 + 1 = 2 1 + 1 = 2 0 + 1 = 1 1 + 2 = 3 1 + 2 = 3 1 + 1 = 10 1 + 3 = 4 1 + 3 = 4 1 + 10 = 11 1 + 4 = 5 1 + 4 = 10 1 + 11 = 100 1 + 5 = 6 2 + 4 = 11 1 + 100 = 101 1 + 6 = 7 3 + 4 = 12 1 + 101 = 110 1 + 7 = 10 4 + 4 = 13 1 + 111 = 1000 2 + 7 = 11 4 + 10 = 14 100 - 1 = 11 3 + 7 = 12 4 + 11 = 20 101 - 1 = 100 Number exceeding 7 is deducted by 8 Number exceeding 4 is deducted by 5 Number exceeding 1 is deducted by 2 Borrowed number is equal to 8 Borrowed number is equal to 5 Borrowed number is equal to 2

E.g.

+

Addition and subtraction of 10001 2 + 101 2

10001 2

101 2

10110 2

1 2 +1 2 =10 2

-

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

 10001 2 rd digit: 10 2 -1 2 =1 2 Borrowed 2=10 2 3 101 2 1100 2

Mathematics Form 5

EXERCISE

 1 Convert the number of base 2 into base 10 : 1 111 2. 1000110 3 11110011 4. 1010101 2 Convert the number of base 5 into base 10 : 1 43 2. 112 3 1000 4. 4213 3 Convert the number of base 8 into base 10 : 1 13 2. 56 3 100 4. 777

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

4. Convert the following number of base 10 into bases of :

A) Base 8

 1. 45 2. 100 3. 786 4. 2345 B) Base 5 1. 45 2. 100 3. 786 4. 2345 C) Base 2 1. 45 2. 100 3. 78 4. 234

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

 5 Solve the following addition: 1 10000 2 + 101 2 2. 11 2 + 11 2 3 1001 2 + 111 2 4. 10 2 + 10010 2 6 Solve the following subtraction: 1 10000 2 - 101 2 2. 111 2 - 11 2 3 1001 2 - 111 2 4. 10100 2 - 10010 2

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

FURTHER EXERCISE

PAPER 1

 1 Express 23 10 as a number in base 2. Ungkapkan 23 10 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 2. A 10000 2 B 10011 2 C 10111 2 D 11111 2 2 What is the value of 6, in base ten, in the number 6 145 5 ? Apakah nilai digit 6 dalam nombor 6 145 5 , dalam asas sepuluh? A 5 B 125 C 750 D 6 000 3 Which of the following is true? Antara yang berikut, manakah benar? A 10 2 +1 2 = 110 2 B 111 2 – 10 2 = 10 2 C 100 2 + 11 2 = 110 2 D 100 2 – 1 2 = 11 2 4 What is the value of 2 4 + 2 + 2 5 , as a number in base two? Apakah nilai bagi 2 4 + 2 + 2 5 , sebagai satu nombor dalam asas dua? A 110010 2 B 101010 2 C 110000 2 D 101100 2 5 Express 5 × 2 2 + 2 × 2 3 + 2 5 as a number in base two.

Ungkapkan 5 × 2 2 + 2 × 2 3 + 2 5 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas dua.

A 1000000

B 1000100

C 1001000

D 1100000

2

2

2

2

6

7

8

9

10

11

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

What is the place value of the digit 0 in the number 1043 5 ?

Apakah nilai tempat bagi digit 0 dalam nombor 1043 5 ?

A 0

B 5

C 25

D 100

Express 6 2 + 7 2 as a number in base eight.

Ungkapkan 6 2 + 7 2 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas lapan.

A 44

B 61

C 85

D 125 8

8

8

8

Express 4 4 + 8 as a number in base five.

Ungkapkan 4 4 + 8 sebagai satu nombor asas lima.

A 264 5

B 2020 5

C 2011

D 2024 5

5

2(8 3 ) + 8 2 + 16 =

A

B

C

D

1024 8

1104

2120 8

2220 8

8

11111 2 + 111010 2 =

A 1000110

B 1011001

C 1111001

D 1111110

Express 3 2 + 3 3 + 3 5 + 1 as a number in base 8.

Ungkapkan 3 2 + 3 3 + 3 5 + 1 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 8.

A 280

B 430

C 450

D 5321 8

8

8

8

Mathematics Form 5

12 110101 2 1011 2 =

111011 2

A

B 100000 2

C 110000

2

2

D 101010

13 Given 1001 m = 513 10 , what is the value of m?

Diberi 1001 m = 513 10 , apakah nilai m?

16 Given

that 2 × 5 3

+ 5 2 + 3(5)

=

k 5 ,

find the

value of k.

Diberi 2 × 5 3 + 5 2 + 3(5) = k 5 , cari nilai k.

A 290 5

B 2100 5

C 2130 5

D 2150 5

 A 2 C 8 17 Given 4q4 8 is a 3-digit number in base 8, find B 5 D 16 the value of q if 4q4 8 = 100111100 2 .

14 Express 111000101 2 as a number in base 8.

Ungkapkan 111000101 2 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 8.

700

A

B

C 750

D 800

705

8

8

8

8

15 Given 11000 2 + k 2 = 101010 2 , what is the value of k?

Diberi 11000 2 + k 2 = 101010 2 , apakah nilai k?

10000

A

B

C 10100

10010

D 10001

2

2

2

2

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Diberi 4q4 8 ialah nombor bagi 3 digit dalam asas 8, cari nilai q jika 4q4 8 = 100111100 2 .

A 4

B 5

C

D

6

7

18 Given 64 8 = 2 f + 2 g + 2 h , find the value of f + g + h.

Diberi 64 8 = 2 f + 2 g + 2 h , cari nilai f + g + h.

A 4

B 5

C

D

9

11

19 Given y 2 = 100 5 + 111 2 , find the value of y.

Diberi bahawa y 2 = 100 5 + 111 2 , cari nilai y.

A 10001

B 10010

C 11001

D 100000 2

2

2

2

20 Given 10111 2 < k < 11001 2 , find the value of k as a number in base 8.

Diberi 10111 2 < k < 11001 2 , cari nilai k sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 8.

A 27

B 30

C 31

D 32

8

8

8

8

Mathematics Form 5

PAPER 2

1 Express 2 7 + 2(2 3 ) + 2 + 1 as a number in Ungkapan 2 7 + 2(2 3 ) + 2 + 1 sebagai satu nombor dalam

 (a) base 2, asas 2, (b) base 5. asas 5.

[6 marks / 6 markah]

2 (a) Express 11111110 2 as a number in base 8. Ungkapkan 1111110 2 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 8.

(b)

Express 4331 5 as a number in base 8. Ungkapkan 4331 5 sebagai satu nombor dalam asas 8. [7 marks / 7 markah]

3 Given that 375 8 = m(8 2 ) + 2n + 5(8 0 ), what is the value of m and of n? Diberi 375 8 = m(8 2 ) + 2n + 5(8 0 ), apakah nilai m dan n?

(a)

(b)

Express 3411 5 in expanded notation. Ungkapan 3411 5 dalam bentuk cerakin.

[3 marks / 3 markah]

4 Given 743 8 = p + 4(8) + 3, express the value of p in base 2. Diberi 743 8 = p + 4(8) + 3, ungkapkan nilai p dalam asas 2. [4 marks / 4 markah]

5 Given 2q6 8 is a 3-digit number in base 8, find the value of q if

Diberi 2q6 8 ialah satu nombor 3 digit dalam asas 8, cari nilai q jika

 (a) 2q6 8 = 10011110 2 , (b) 2q6 8 = 190 10 .

[8 marks / 8 markah]

6 Given that 111001 2 m = 100 2 , what is the value of m in base 5? Diberi 111001 2 m = 100 2 , apakah nilai m dalam asas 5? [4 marks / 4 markah]

7 (a)Given y 2 = 10111 2 + 111 2 , what is the value of y? Diberi y 2 = 10111 2 + 111 2 , apakah nilai y?

(b) Given x 2 = 311 5 , what is the value of x? Diberi x 2 = 311 5 , apakah nilai x?

[3 marks / 3 markah]

© Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.