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# LEARNING HOUSE

@
ALAM ENERGIA
www.mathslearninghouse.blogspot.com

Mathematics Form 5

INTRODUCTION
A matrix is an ordered set of numbers listed rectangular form.
The order of the Matrix depends on the rows and columns of the matrix.
Example :
2578
5689
3901
This matrix has three rows and four columns. We say it is a 3 x 4 matrix.
The order of the matrix is 3 x 4.
Row matrix
A matrix with one row is called a row matrix.
Column matrix
A matrix with one column is called column matrix.
Square matrix
A matrix that has n rows and n column, we say its a square matrix.

Column

2578
5689
3901

Row

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

## ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF MATRIX

Matrices can only be added or subtracted by another matrix that has the same order.
Example:
2
4

3
5

2x2

1
3

2
4

2x2

2+1
4+3

3
7

3+2
5+4
5
9

2x2

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION
To multiply a matrix with a real number, we multiply each element with this number.
Example:
2

3
2

4
1

2(3)
2(2)

6
4

2(4)
2(1)
8
2

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

## MULTIPLICATION BETWEEN MATRICES

This product is defined only if A is a (p x m) matrix and B is a (m x n) matrix.
So the number of columns of A has to be equal to the number of rows of B.
The product C = A.B then is a (p x n) matrix.
Example 1:
2
4

3
1

2
3

1
4

2(2)+3(3)
4(2)+1(3)

2(1)+3(4)
4(1)+1(4)
C

The method is that we firstly have to determine the order of both matrices.
Using above example, both matrices A and B has the order of 2 x 2.
We have cancel of the column of the first matrix and the row of the second matrix.
Example 2:
2
4

3
1
A

2x2

2
3
B

2x1

2(2)+3(3)
4(2)+1(3)
C
2x1

Matrix A has the order of 2 x 2, while matrix B has the order of 2 x 1. Hence, we take 2
row from matrix A and 1 column from matrix B, thus forming matrix C that has the order
of 2 x 1.
The next step is the first row of the first matrix multiply with the columns of the second
matrix followed by the second row of the first matrix. Example below gives some
illustration to this notes.
Example 3:
1

a
c

b
d

e
g

f
h

ae+bg
ce+dg

af+bh
cf+dh

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

INVERSE MATRIX
Identity matrix, I, of a matrix of order 2 x 2, A, is

## Inverse matrix of a 2 x 2 matrix, M =

a
c

b
d

10
01

, is M-1 =

EXERCISE
1. Solve the addition and subtraction of following matrices:
a.

12 34

b.

1
2

2 -7 =
-1 6

c.

1 -5
10

3 =
14
-13

d.

45 2

-9 -

-2
-4

-21 -6 9

a.

b. 4

4
1

8
4

2
6

6
4

c.

1
3

12 21 3 -6

1
2

6 =
-5

d.

2 +
4
-1

4 =
-7
6

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

, where AI = IA = A.

1

d
-c

-b
a

Mathematics Form 5

A.

B.

12 7
1 4

C.

1
3
9

D.

12 -1
6 0

8 0
-2 9

-2 4

2 =
-1

A.

2
8

5 =
-1

B.

1
0

9
2

C.

1
9

-7 =
2

A.

1
7

5
1

x
y

20
38

B.

8 2
-1 0

x
y

-4
1

C.

6 9 x
12 -3 y

25
-5

D.

1
0

3
2

0
1

x
y

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

FURTHER EXERCISE

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

## Mohd Amir Faisal 2015. Learning House @ Alam Energia.

Mathematics Form 5

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