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ENGLISH-ARABI C DICTIONARY.

FOK

THE

TRAVELLERS

USE

OF

AND

BOTH

STUDENTS.

STANFORD LIBRARIES

i

*

BY

OP

F. STEINGASS,

TH E

UNIVERSIT Y

LONDON

OF

:

Ph.D.,

MUNICH .

W. H. ALLEN & CO., 13 WATERLO O PLACE,

PALL

MALL.

S.W.

PUBLISHERS TO TH^ INDIA OFFICE.

PUIVTVD

I \

V

J- t

4

<j J 5

LOMDOM :

L'.

ALLEN A

CO1 3

WATERLOO

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(i t

«

.

 

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• • •

PI.AJK.

PREFACE.

THE object of this book is clearly indicated by the title :

it is intended to be a companion to the Traveller who visits the East for pleasure or business purposes, and a help to the advanced Student who begins to translate from English into Arabic. In the interest of the Traveller, therefore, primary regard is paid to the modern idiom, as it is spoken at the present day, principally in Egypt - and Syria. For the benefit of the Student, on the other hand, to still greater extent, recourse has been had to the literary and even poetical Vocabulary; nay, in order to give a fuller idea of the character and richness of this remarkable language, numerous words have been inserted which belong to various slang dialects, as, for instance, the nicknames given to the principal necessaries of life in the Tufaili dialect. Any reader versed in these studies will, therefore, on close examination, find a great deal of curious and useful information condensed in this comparatively small volume.

Guided by the idea that the task of a Dictionary is to supply those etymological facts which cannot be taught by the Grammar, the Author has excluded regular forms of inflexion, but carefully recorded the irregular plurals of nouns and adjectives, both in the Arabic and Roman

iv

PREFACE.

character, and given in fall the Aorists of verbs after the Preterites, in transliteration, both of them in the third person singular. On the above-stated principle, he might have dispensed with the Aorists of the derived forms, and of quadriliteral verbs, as these are regularly formed from their Preterites. To enhance the usefulness of the book, however, it appeared advisible to give those Aorists also. He who studies the language, not from a scholarly point of view, but for practical ends, can scarcely be expected always to remember the rules for the formation of this class of words, and will be glad to find them ready to hand. At the same time, the knowledge of the Aorists enables him to form from them the active and passive participles, or, in the parlance of the Arabic Grammarians, the nouns of the " Agent" and "Patient"; and thus it became feasible to pass over a great many words, which in English are either originally participles, or nouns derived from verbs by the syllables -er, -or, -tor, &c. The Arabic for such words has, therefore, only been given when they have a particular form or a particular meaning of their own. A few examples will illustrate this.

On page 1 of the present volume we find the words Abandoned, Abashed, Abet, Abide. The rules* for the

# These rules are :—The Agent of a triliteral verb follows the measure JcU fd'il, that is to say, the first consonant of the root is pronounced with fi, the second with i. Its Patient follows the measure maf'dl, viz. the syllable ma is placed before the root, whose first consonant is pronounced without a vowel, whilst the second takes u. From derived forms and quadriliteral verbs the two participles are obtained by changing the initial yu or ya of the Aorist into mu y and pronouncing the last consonant but one with i (/.) for the Agent, with a (<>.) for the Patient. Compare the examples, mukis, malruk, mudtiwiui, musta^im, muhajjal, given above.

PliEFACE.

V

formation of the Agent and Patieut teach us that "abandoned," in the sense of 44 forsaken," would be

matrulc; in the sense of "given over," musallam. There-

fore

only the meaning of " profligate " has been rendered

into

Arabic. From the verb hajjal, " he abashed," the

participle muhajjal is regularly derived ; but besides that, the form hajldn is in use, and has consequently been mentioned as an equivalent. From the Arabic Preterite makas or the Aorists yastaqim, yudawim, the active participles, mdkis, mustatfim, mud&wim, are as easily formed as the English " abiding " from the infinitive "t o abide"; and if the Reader knows that the Arabic word yuharrik means " he abets" or " incites," he will not have the slightest difficulty in translating the English word " abettor " by muharrik.

By this appeal to the spontaneous mental activity of an intelligent Student space has been gained for a far greater number of words, both English and Arabic, than other- wise could have been comprised in a volume of the same size. With regard to the sources from which this Dictionary has been compiled, the Author was not contented to consult and to follow the works of a similar scope, which have appeared in France, Germany, and in this country, but he has largely supplemented the information thus gathered by extensive reading of the best Arabic writers up to the present day. Not only Hariri and the Arabian Nights have amply contributed to this little volume, but the works of contemporary authors, as Nasif-al-Yaziji, Dr. Bustani, Faris-el-Shidiac, &c., Manuals in different branches of knowledge, written by natives, and translations

vi

PREFACE.

from European standard books into Arabic, have afforded valuable assistance. Unfortunately the whole of the manuscript was in the hands of the publishers before Dr. Badger's great Dictionary came out, and during the ensuing year, while the printing was unavoidably delayed, the Author's time was fully taken up in preparing an Arabic-English Dictionary, on a vastly enlarged plan (now in the Press); so that, to his very great regret, he could not avail himself of the substantial help which this important work undoubtedly would have lent him.

Nobody can be more keenly alive to the imperfections of this book than the Author, and he will be thankful for any hint which fair and intelligent criticism may have to offer him, with a view to future corrections and improve- ments in another edition. Still, as it is, he ventures to hope that he has, in a certain measure, supplied a real want; and he will feel himself amply rewarded for the care and labour bestowed on it, if it affords aid and wins friends to the study of a language which not only possesses great beauties of its own, and a rich literature, but which will also become of more and more practical importance to Englishmen, as the Eastern policy of the empire follows out its destinies—let us hope, not in narrow-minde I hostility to, but in friendly and mutually advantageous alliance with, the Muhammadan World.

LONDON , September 13th

1882 ,

F.

STEINGASS.

on the day of the Batik of TeUel-Kebir.

t

vn

TRANSLITERATION.

TUB

Arabic

letters

have,

in

this

volume,

been

transliterated

as

follows: —

t

a,

i,

u,

at

the beginning

of

a word

(see the remark on the

 

Hamzah below).

 

b.

<*>

t.

»

s.

j.

Pronounced like the English th in thing.

 

C

T.

A guttural aspirate, stronger than h.

t

h.

Pronounced like the Scotch ch in loch.

*

d.

z.

Pronounced like the English th in that, with,

 

ij*

s.

J*

sh. Pronounced like the English sh in shut.

 

\j>

9.

Strongly articulated s.

d.

<J>

Similar to the English th in this.

Strongly articulated palatal t.

I

2.

Strongly articulated palatal z.

 

£

Strong

guttural,

the

pronunciation

of

which

must

be

 

learnt bv the ear.

 

t

u

g.

f.

<i

q-

k.

J

1-

f

m.

0)

n.

ft

h.

J

w.

cs

y.

The Hamzah has not been marked at the beginning of a word, where it has always the Alif for a prop, r and is pronounced as a, i, u, preceded by a very slight aspiration, like h in the English word " honour."

The vowel signs have been rendered by a for —, i for —, u for —; the

 

|

c —

long vowels by a for

J

«n>

 

, —, or ^,

©

i for

e for

-,

ai for ^- ,

4 for

j—, o for

,

aw

for

f

,

, all to be pronounced as in Italian or

German. The Arabic ^ „ and J— are represented

by i-y and ii-w, the feminine

termination 8— by a-t, in which cases the final letters are joined to the

Vlll

TRANSLITERATION

bodies of the words by a hyphen, *o show that in modern Arabic they are not to be pronounced, unless the two former are followed by a

feminine or plural termination, or the feminine noun in S- is placed in

a state of construction with a pronominal suffix, or another noun pre- ceded by the article.

AS

ENGLISH-ARABIC

DICTIONARY.

A, indef. art. frequently expressed by 8 (fern, term.) subjoined to

gamar,

a generic noun,

as,

"fruitsamara-1 , "a fruit."

rayisa-t ad-dair;

rayisa-t ar-rahibat. ABBEY , S. JT* dair (pi. FY* duy&ra-t, adyira-t).

ABBESS , S. ji^t

A

BACK , adv. (backwards)

wara;

ABBOT ,

8.

rayis

ad-dair

 

\%*

min wara.—(by surprise)

(pi.

rusa) ;

rayis

S&t

<ala gafla-t.

ar-ruhban.

 

A BANDON , V. (leave)

tarak, ya-

truk;

hajar, yuhajir.—(give over) pX- sallam, yusallim.

hajar, yahjur;

A BANDONED , adj. (profligate)

 

fajir (pi.

j^ i fujjar,

fawa-

jir) ;

fasiq (pi.

fasa-

qa-t, jt- i fussaq).

 

A BANDONMENT ,

s.a.

dy

tark;

 

hajr;

hijran; n.

 

in-

tirak; ^

^

inhijar.

 

A

BASE ,

V.

JJ3 zallal, yuzallil;

J ^

azall, yuzill; haqqar, yufcaq- qir; watta, yuwattl.

A BASED ,

adj.

JJ 3

zalil

(pi. AM

zilal,

azilla,

azilla-t);

muhtaqar.

A BASEMENT ,

tafcqir ;

s. S^U* . ljaqara-t; Jtazlil .

A BASH ,

V.

bajjal,

yu^ajjil;

haza, yahzi.

A BASHED ,

A BATE ,

adj.

v.a.

JU

bajl&N.

qallall,

yuqallil;

naqqa§, yunaqqi?;

naqa$, yanqu?.

n.

ABBREVIATE ,

?ir;

qa§$ar, yuqa?- ihta$ar, yahta§ir.

V.

ABBREVIATION ,

8.

ihtigar

iqti^ar. ABDICATE , V. JjU> tanazal 'an,

yatanazal; J)*» ta'azzal, yata'az-

zal;

ABDICATION ,

i'tazal, ya'tazil.

S.

JK* ^

i'tiz&L;

J^ Y

nuzul; JjU> tanazul; d f tark.

ABDOMEN ,

& U ma'na-t (pi.

y f y mu'fin,

ABDUCTION,

mu'un).

salb;

S-JL-

hatf.

-at,

ABERRATION ,

J) U

4ALAL;

tauhan; gala{. ALBET, V. (incite)

^

hamal

'ala, yahmil; harrak ( ala, yuharrik.—(back up) gadd

zahra-hu, yaiidd.

ABEYANCE ,

ALBHOB,

V.

s.^te

ta'ahhur.

**

karih, yakrah;

bagad, yabgud. s.

^/karaha-t ; ^/karahiya-t.

ABHORRENCE ,

istikrah;

ABIDE ,

V.

qa'ad, yaq'ud ;

A BATEMENT ,

s.

Jet e

taqlil; u^^Atf

istaqam, yastaqim ; <XX« makas,

tanqig ;

nuq? ;

nuqgan;

yamkus. — (continue) ^ dam,

mukasara-t.

yadum;

dawam, yudawim.

1

ABI ]

ABILITY , 8. FYJKI qudra-t;

dar;

qabiliya-t.

iqti-

ABORTIVE ,

adj.

(

-

jahi<J ; yai^ naqis.

[ABB

masqut;

ABJECT ,

adj.

haqir;

 

ABOUND ,

v.

kasur, yaksur;

basis,

J^ j

wagd

(pi.

oUfc^

fad, yafid ; fa wafar, yafir, s

^

augad).

ha§ab, yahsib.

ABJEGTNESS ,

S.

daniya-t (pi.

ABOUT , prep. JY *

haul.—(speaking

WUJ danaya);

dana'at;

of

time) J^c 'and;

f*

nahw.—

zilla-t; S;^. haqarat.

(concerning)

'an;

^

fi.

ABJTTBE, v. j&j rafad, yarfud; ***

nakir, yankar;

jahad, yajhud;

ankar, yunkir; yartadd. ABJURATION , s. ^y^t- juhftd; irtidad.

ABLE , adj. yVs qadir ; J>Vi qabil.

artadd,

ABLUTION , 8.

gasl, gusl;

JL

^

igtisal. — (before prayer)

ABOUT ,

nahw. ABOVE , prep. adv. J Y fauq.—(more

adv.

taqriban;

f*

than)

aksar min.

ABRADE , V. JFL akal, ya'kul.

ABRASION , 8. UY - ABREAST , adv.

waliid-in.

saraf, J ^

^

akl.

fi saff-in

ABRIDGE ,

V.,

ABRIDGEMENT ,

see

wadu.— (wito

 

tayam-

ABBREVIATE,

ABBREVIATION.

mum.

ABROAD , adv. (without doors)

ABNORMAL , ad/. <$yW

 

<Judd al-

harijan.—(put of the country),

qanun ;

gair madbut.

barran.

ABOARD ,

adv.

^

fi-'l-mar-

ABROGATE , v. J M ibfal, yubtfl; Ji*

kab.

battal, yubaftil; nasah, yan-

ABODE , 8.

sah.

masakin);

maskan (pi. mahall (pi. JW*

ABROGATION ,

s.

ib^al;

mahall) ; Jy* manzil (pi. JjU*

abtal, yub^il; fasah, yaf-

sah.

nasah, yansah,

manazil).

ABOLISH , V.

J M

ABOLITION ,

s.

J

M

til,

butlan.

ABOMINABLE ,

adj.

IBT^I ;

karih ;

tab -

makruh;

6ani';

mamqut;

maqit.

ABOMINATE,

v.

karih, yakrah;

istakrah,

yastakrih; fj^i

bagad,

yabgud;

maqat,

yamqut.

ABOMINATION , s.a.

makruha-t;

kahr,

makraha-t,

n.

kuhr;

nash; csJy tark.

ABRUPT ,

adj. (steep) y ^amih.—(sudden)

waqif;

^JLc

4 ala gafla-t. ABRUPTNESS , 8. (rudeness) ^V-fcA. ha£ana-t.

ABSCESS, 8. ^

habba-t; J^ ^ dum-

mal,

dummala-t

(pi. J^Uo

damamil);

dumbala-t

(pi.

danabil)

qarh

(pi.

t)j*

quruh).

ABSCOND,

v.

ihtafa, yahtafi;

4

inqalaS yanqali .

ABSENCE ,

giyab.

ABSENT , V.

8.

gaiba-t;

S^W^

gab, yagib.

L/i* makrftha-t;

M

6ani'a-t

ABSENT , adj. (in mind)

OAA—

mu-

(pi.

fonayi');

***** qabi-

^attat;

sahi.

ha-t (pi.

qaMyih, cW* qi-

ABSENTEE ,

s. S-^ ^ gayib.

Mh).

ABSOLUTE ,

adj.

(despotic)

ABORIGINAL ,

adj.

s.

^JA

a?li-y;

mu^laq; Jtel* mustaqill. — (com-

awwali-y;

fi ^

plete)

kamil ; ^

tainm ; ^UJ

mutawaftin min qadim az-

tamam.

zaman.

ABSOLUTION , s.

'a f 11; Syuu mag -

ABORTION ,

turl?.

8.

isqat; C ^ TFRK

fira-t;

lil.

gufran; Js ^

tah-

AB8 ]

A BSOLVE ,

V.

gafar, yagfir;

igtafar, yagtafir.

A BSORB ,

V.

(imbibe) ULAJ na^if,

3

yan^af; s- ^ nagab, yangib, yangub; s^fc Sarib, yakrab.— (wholly to engage) JA* gagal, yaigal.—(be absorbed in thought) J * ^ tetagal, yaitagil.

A BSORPTION ,

£arb.

e. g M

ibtila';

A BSTAIN ,

V.

imtana', yam-

tani'; ihtama, yaljitami, Utf

kaff, yakuff; JJt3 zahad, yahzad

'an).

A BSTEMIOUS , adj. muljtami; zabid.

ihtima;

(all with

A BSTEMIOUSNESS ,

8.

Ua ^

JUfcj zuhd; SJU; zahada-t,

ikfaf.

A BSTINENCE ,

8.

imtina*;

kaff; b&S qata'a-t.

A BSTRACT , adj. (existing in the mind only) mujarrad.

hula-

A BSTRACT , s. (epitome)

§a-t; ^saS^ muhta§ar.

ABUSIVE ,

adj.

s ***** sabib

ssabayib ) ;

satim.

[AC O

(pi.

ABUT ,

V.

itta?al, yatta§il.

 

ABUTMENT ,

 

kabS (pi.

8. (of a bridge) kibas,

akbu$,

 

akbas).

 

ABYSS ,

S.

< umq

(pi.

JUX ^

a'maq);

 

lujja-t

(pi.

lu-

jaj) ;

 

hawiya-t.

 

ACADEMY ,

 

s.

diwan 'ula-

ma.—(school)

madrasa-t.

ACADEMICIAN ,

8.

'alim

(pi.

*Ule 'ulama).

 

ACCEDE ,

 

V.

S^

rada bi, yanja;

qabil, yaqbal.—(to a thronJ) jalas, yajlis. ACCELERATE , V. J^ * 'ajjal, yu'ajjil; asra', yusri'.

ta'jil;

(pi.

ACCELERATION ,

f\j~\ isra*.

ACCENT ,

s.

8.

JSV *

(tone)

lahn

alhan, yy*) luhun).—(pro-

nunciation)

ACCEPT ,

V.

talaffuz. qabil, yaqbal;

A

BSTRACT , V. (separate) jarrad,

taqabbal, yataqabbal.

 

yujarrid.—(purloin) JA* naial,

ACCEPTABLE ,

adj.

maqbM;

yan&il; Jr* saraq, yasruq.

ma^kur ;

munasib.

A BSTRACTION , 8. ±ifr tajrid.—(deep

ACCEPTANCE ,

8.

qabul.

 

thought) iftikar.— (absence

ACCEPTATION , 8. (received meaning)

of mind) sahu.

^jtjus ma'na (pi.

 

ma'ani) ;

A BSTRUSE , adj. <3!* * muglaq ;

fahwa (pi.

fahawi).

 

mubham; daqiq.

ACCESS ,

S. J^-O duhul; J

^

WUG&L.

A BSTRUSENESS ,

8.

ta'qid.

ACCESSIBLE ,

adj.

S^V^ ^

J^ *

Ba "

A BSURD ,

adj.

(

f

mi n

ge r

hi] al-iqtirab.

 

ma'na,

** 4 U( ld al-'aql;

ACCESSION ,

(addition),

 

JU^ muhal.

ziyada-t.— (to

a

throne)

A BSURDITY , 8.

hazayan,

e^

c

julus.

 

'abas.

A BUNDANCE , 8.

hi?b ;

rah?; ^

kasra-t; ziyada-t; ^ raha.

s-^d -

faid;

ACCESSORY ,

adj.

(additional)

J^ J

zayid. — (accomplice) s-ijJ^ iaxik fi-'z-zamb.

ACCIDENT ,

s.

ittifaq;

A BUNDANT ,

adj.

kasir;

mu^iba-t

(pi.

s-St^*

masayib);

fayid; ^

zayid.

wafir;

maufur;

'arida-t (pi.

hadiga-t

(pi.

'awarid);

^a-

A BUSE ,

8. (insult)

bahdala-t,

wadis).

Satima-t. — (misuse)

UA

ACCIDENTAL ,

adj.

'aridi-y;

^at&t-

'aradi-y.

 

A BUSE ,

V.

£atam, yaitim, yas-

ACCLAIM , V. JI A hallal, yahalliL

 

tum; 6attam, yusattim;

yasubb.

sabb,

ACCLAMATION ,

ACCLIVITY ,

8.

s.

tahlil.

'uluwwa-t

(pi.

Acc]

4

[AC H

e J k

tilal, jy j tulM).

'alawi);

J ^

waffaq, yu- tabaq, yutabiq.

J?

V.

tall

(pi.

ACCOMMODATE,

waffiq ;

° f ) vK^ sabab.

ajl ;

bi-

ACCOUNT , v. (esteem) S hasab,

'abbar,

yahsub. — (explain)

ACCOMMODATION,

S.

(adaptation)

yu'abbir;

fassar, yufassir.

munasaba-t;

muwa-

ACCOUNTANT,

S.

S-—muhasib .

faqat.—(agreement) Wu * mu§a-

laha-t.—(comfort) (pi. fjlawazim) .

lazima-t

ACCOMPANIMENT , a. (in music)

taba'a-t.

ACCOMPANY,

V.

?ahab, yu?a-

hib; rafaq, yurafiq;

4

£aya', yusayi .

ACCOMPLICE ,

fi-'z-zamb; s- ^ zamb.

3arik

<JM>J rafiq az-

^

ACCOMPLISH ,

kammal, yu-

kammil; qada, yaqdi; tamman, yutammim; halla§,

yuhallig.

ACCOMPLISHED , adj. (completed)

mukammal.—

^eXo

V.

J

^

pUJ tamam ;

(in

mind

or person) s^

sahib

adab;

latff;

fadil.

ACCOMPLISHMENT ,

itmam;

s. (completion) takmil. —

(tofercte) J ^ fa41 (pi. Jr * fudul,

JUM afdal) ;

fadila-t

(pi.

JaUi fadayil) ; jU'kamal (pi.

^

ACCORD , v. (agree)

ittafaq, ya-

taffiq;

ittahad,

yattahid.—

(grant)

samut, yamsuh.

 

ACCORD,

ACCORDANCE,

itti-

faq;

ittihad;

to^

muwa-

faqa-t.

ACCORDIN G

TO, ACCORDINGLY,

adv.

hasab,

bast); «EXJJ s-^y* 'ala mftjib ?alik. ACCOST , V. (come near) S^ * qarib, yaqrab.—(address) s-^U. hajab, yuhatfb.

ACCOUNT ,

bi-miijib;

S.

TISAB.—(bill)

s^—qavima- t al-hisab.— (narrative) habar (pi. ahbar) ; qi$?a-t (pi. qifa?,^^- 0 ^ aqagig).—(on account

ACCOUNT-BOOK, fiJ

dafatir).

daftar (pi.

ACCOUTRE , V. jabhaz, yujahhiz ; sallah, yusallih.

SJLC <adda-t (pi.

ACCOUTREMENT ,

S.

<udad) ; yter tajhiz.

ACCRUE ,

V.

J

^

hasal, yah^al;

zad, yazid. ACCUMULATE, v.a. ^ kawwam, yu-

jama', yajma*;

kawwim;

fJ

lamm,

yalumm;

n.

ljtama', yajtami*;

iltamm,

yaltamm.

ACCUMULATION,

S.

takwim;

jam* ; W lamma-t.

ACCURACY, S.

sahhat;

dabt;

diqqa-t;

ACCURATE ,

adj.

(JJA^ mudaqqiq.

tadqiq. kji-A* madbut;

ACCURSE, V. YI F la'an, yal'an ; la'an, yula'in.

ACCURSED ,

adj. Qfb*

e ^ U mal&'in) ;

ACCUSATION,

mal'un (pi.

(pi.

la'in.

tuhma-t

^

^ikawa-t; o^ 1 ^akwa.

tuham) ;

^ikaya-t;

ACCUSATIVE ,

an§ab);

bi-hi.

t.

^

S- ^

na?b (pi. Jy^Wi^ al-maf'to

ACCUSE ,

V.

^

taham bi,

ya-

thim;

^

^^ ^

i^taka

'ala,

yaitaki.

ACCUSER,

S.

^ ^

tahim;

y^sJU

mu^taki:

mudda'f.

'awwad f ala, ta'aw-

ACCUSTOM,

V.

^

^

yu'awwid.—(oneself) wad, yata'awwad.

ACCUSTOMED,

ma'luf;

mu ( -

;

waja' (pi. GW^ wija',

adj.

muta'awwid;

tad. ACE, s. OY fard (pi. ass.

ACHE ,

firad)

<j*

S.

£W)\ aujaO.

ACH ]

5

[AD D

ACHE , V. G* Y tawajja', yatawajja 4 ; ittaja', yattaji*. ACHIEYE , v. J* ^ kammal, yukam- mil; (* » tammam, yutam- mim. ACHIEVEMENT , s. 'ajiba-t (pi. sHtW^ 'ajayib) ; SJ^A. hamida-t (pi. AfcW hamayid).

'ard.

mu'taridan; u&ydVf

bi-'l-

fa'al,

'amal, yu'amil. ACT, S. (deed) > 4 fi'l (pi. JU*\ af'al); J** 'ami (pi. JUcI a'mal). —(decree) y\ amr (pl.j^ty awi- mir), ^UJ firman.—(of a drama)

ACT, v.

J**

yaf'al;

ACID ,

adj.

y^ W

hami4;

> jaz ' (pi. \yA ajzA').

 

naqis;

madir.

ACTION , s. (law-suit)

da'wa-t

ACIDITY , s.

hamftda-t.

(pi.

da'wat) ;

da'wa

ACIDULATE , V. {J**- hammad, yu-

(pi.

da'awa) ; gty niza'.—

hammid.

 

(battle)

waq'a-t

(pi.

ACKNOWLEDGE , V. Y>\ aqarr, yuqirr;

i'taraf, ya'tarif. s.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ,

i'tiraf. — (thanks)

iqrar;

Sukran. ACORN , s. TY* ballut.

ACQUAINT ,

ahbar, yuhbir;

u^c 'arraf, yu'arrif.

ma'rifa-t

(pi. ma'arif).—(knowledge) fte 'ilm (pi. fj * 'ulfim).

rada, yarda; J* 5

V.

ACQUAINTANCE,

ACQUIESCE , V.

^

s.

waqayi'); fyV^* muharaba-t. ACTIVE , s. (in grammar) sigat al-ma'lum ; Jc M al-fa'il. ACTIVE , adj. dy harik ; IAU naiit; suni'.—(in grammar) muta'addi. ACTIVITY , s. haraka-t; t^Ai

na£at;

himma-t.

ACTOR , S. (stage-player) Sla'ib ; la'ab; ^oU ^adi.

ACTUAL,

haqq.

adj.

taqiqi-y;

qabil, yaqbal; J

JA*^

imtasal

ACTUALITY, S.

haqiqa-t;

li, yamtasil.

waqi'a-t (pi.

waqayi').

ACQUIESCENCE ,

S.

qabul;

rida; JU*^ imtisal.

ACTUATE , V.

dy

harrak, yuharrik;

hamal, yahmil.

ACQUIRE ,

V.

imtalak, yam-

ACUTE ,

GTVI Q&TF';

J U

hadd;

^

U

talik; iktasab, yaktasib;

ma^i.—(ingenious)

zaki;

^

b&wal, yuha^il;" JU nal,

fa^in.

yanal.

ACUTENESS ,

8. Sjto. hidda-t;

^J^.

ACQUIREMENT ,

ACQUISITION ,

S.

hiddiya-t.—(acumen) A^aifitna-t;

imtilak;

iktisab;

L.\jh

firasa-t;

zakawa-t.

 

J*** tah^il.

ADAGE , S. (proverb)

magal

(pi.

ACQUIT , V. RF barrar, yubarrir, YTE

J

^

amsal).—(old

saying) J%5

gafar, yagfir;

halla?, yu-

qaul (pi.

aqwal, Ji^V^ aqa-

halli?.

wil).

ACQUITTAL ,

fara-t. ACRE , S. (field) J& * haql (pi. JYFE* fcuqM) ; ^ git (pi. gitan). —(measurement) gt o faddan (pi. ^ J U fadadin). ACRID , adj. hirrif; y MURR

S, YKE 'afit; SYWU mag-

(pi. j\f \ amr&r);

hamiz.

ACRIMONIOUS,

ACRIMONY ,

S.

murra-t.

ACROSS,

adv.

adj.

yy

J W HARR.

marara-t;

iy

mun^arifan;

ADAMANT , S.

almas.

ADAPT ,

nasib, tabaq, yutabiq.

V.

yunasib;

ADD , V. sJ>\A adaf, yudif; yazid.

zM,

ADDER ,

afa'i). ADDICT , T?. (oneself) ^ ta'aw -

S.

af' a

(pi .

wad

dicted to) wala' bi, yaula*.

'ala, yata'awwad.—(be

ad-

ADDITION ,

i^afa-t.

S.

SJ^ J

ziyada-t;

ADD ]

[ADM

ADDRESS , V. (tpeak to)

hatab

A DJUNCT ,

s.

£arik (pi. d\jt>\

yuhatib; kallam, yukallim

aSriik,

suraka); s-s^ nayib

(acc.).

(pi.

nuwwab).

ADDRESS ,

S.

hu^ba-t (pi. S- ^

A DJUNCTION ,

s.

d\yZb>\

igtirak.—

hutab); hitab.—(of a letter)

(addition)

 

idafa-t.

Q'unwan al-maktub.

A DJURE ,

V.

^

aqsam

ADDUC E V. (bring forward) FJ * qad-

dam,

zakur, yazkur.

yuqaddim. — (quote)

ale-hi bi-'llah-i, yuqsim; naSad, yunasid.

A DJUST ,

V.

rattab,

yurattib;

ADEPT ,

s.

mahir

(pi.

ma-

^ nazzam, yunaggim;

hara-t) ;

habir.

tabaq, yu^abiq.

ADEQUATE ,

adj.

J^V *

muwafiq;

s-—munasib ; JfcS layiq.

ADEQUATENESS,

ADEQUACY,

S.

A DJUSTMENT , 8. s^ y

tanzim.

tartib; ^Jtui?

A DJUTANT , 8.

s- ^

naqib (pi.

liyaqa-t;

^

muwafaqa-t;

nuqaba);

nayib

(pi.

v^y

munasaba-t.

nuwwab);

mu'awin.

ADHERE , V. (stick)

iltasaq

A DMINISTER ,

V.

dabbar, yudab-

bi, yalta§iq ; rf lazam, yalzam.—

(be a partisan) g* s ma', yata'a^^ab.

ta'a§§ab

ADHERENCE,

ADHESION,

S.

J^ S

lu§uq; ofifti iqtiran. — (agree- ment) rida ; jUrt ittifaq.

ADHERENT ,

s.

rafiq

(pi.

rufaqa , SMj rufqa-t , jVi j rifaq) ;

iJh^ la?iq.

ADHERENT ,

ADHESIVE ,

adj.

<>ASU

multa§iq; lazij ; multa-

zij. ADHIBIT , V. J***-^ ista'mal, yasta'- mil; «jy> garraf, yugarrif.

ADIEU ,

ADJACENT ,

s.

wada*.

adj.

J-A**

mutte^IL;

mujawir;

ADJECTIVE ,

s.

mulagiq.

wa§f

(pi.

ausaf); SJlo 9 ifa-t;

(pi.

nu'ut).

na'at

ADJECTIVELY ,

ADJOIN ,

V.

adv.

na'atan.

yal?aq ;

wa?al, ya$il; J-f^ itta§al, yatta-

9il.

ADJOINING ,

see

ADJACENT .

ADJOURN ,

V.

ahhar, yu'ahhir;

JeM ambal, yumhil; ^J ^ hazaf, yahzif.

ADJOURNMENT , s.jta'hir;

imhal;

hazf.

J

^

ADJUDGE ,

ADJUDICATE ,

V.

J

hakam li, yahkum.

ADJUDICATION ,

s. ff*- fcukm (pi.

fcukiima-t.

a^kaiii);

bir; ^Xft- hakam, yahkiim ; ^L -

8a8, yasus.—(physics) yu'alij.

S.

J&J*

J*^ wakil (pi.

alaj,

tadbir;

S. tf A* mudabbir; ^

amir al-bahr;

4

wukala).

A DMINISTRATION ,

^-W- siyasa-t.

ADMINISTRATOR,

A DMIRAL , S.

y+rtR u~f&j raiyis al-bahr.

A DMIRALTY ,

bahr;

bahr.

S.

ijte

imarat al-

al-

naga'ra-t

A adj. s

DMIRABLE ,

'ajib.

A 8. s- ^

DMIRATION ,

'ajab;

ta'ajjub;

isti'jab.

A DMIRE ,

V.

S-V ^

ta'ajjab min,

yata'ajjab.

A DMIRER ,

S.

S-

^

muta'ajjib.—

—(lover)

<a^iq.

A DMISSIBLE ,

adj.

J*a* yuqbal

aor. pass.) ;

maqbiil.

( 3

A DMISSION , s. (to a person or place)

wu?M. —

ijaba-t; J^ i

dahhal, yudahhil;

grant)

duhul; (granting) qabAl, qubM.

V.

J ^

A DMIT ,

adhal,

yudhil.— (allow,

J ^ qabil, yaqbal.

A DMITTANCE ,

S.

idh&l;

J^ J

dahl; J ^ J duhfil.

A DMIX ,

V.

|ialat,

yahlut;

mazaj, yamzaj.

A DMIXTURE ,

ablat) ;

S.

hilt

ihtilat.

(pi. Lk\

ADM]

7

[AD V

ADMONISH , V. ^ na?ah, yan§ah;

ADULTERY ,

8.

UJ

zina; <>~ I FISQ;

kej wa'az, ya'iz;

nabbah, yu-

haun, hawan.

 

nabbih.

ADULTNESS ,

8.

bulug;

ADMONITION ,

wa'aza-T;

balugiyya-t.

ir^ad; s-^ / targib.

 

ADULTRESS , 8. Jertj zaniya-t (pi.

AJDO, 8.

gauga;

galgala-1;

zawani).

idtfrab.

ADVANCE , V. ^JS taqaddam, yata-

ADOLESCENCE ,

8.

6abubiya-t.

qaddam.— (money)

sallaf,

ADOLESCENT , adj. 8.

Sabb (pi.

yusallif; ^y>\ aqra<J, yuqrid.

gW* 6ubban, s^W^ aSbab,

ADVANCE ,

8. ^us taqaddum.—(of

£ababa-t) ;

6abub.

money)

A3L. salaf ;

daf'

ADOPT ,

V.

(a son)

JJV "

tabanna,

muqaddam.

 

ADVANCEMENT ,

8.

taqdim;

yatabanna; "W ittahaz-hu abnan, yattahiz j izzahar,

^ J ^ taqaddam ; s^J ^ istidraj ;

yazzahir. — (an opinion)

J>y tarraqi;

 

irtiqa'.

ADVANTAGE ,

8.

S^ U

fayida-t (pi.

tahassan, yatahassan ; j&A ihtar, yahtar.

JoUi fawayid) ;

manfi'a-t

ADOPTION ,

8.

tabanni;

(pi.

manafi').

tabniya-t ; jL-d^ ittihaz ; Sy*

S^JJt banftwa-t az-zahira-t.

ma'bud;

ADORABLE ,

adj.

s-^^ wajib as-sajada-t.

ADORATION ,

sajada-t;

ADORE ,

V.

J

s. S^W*

'ibada-t; sujud. sajad li, yasjid ;

ADVANTAGEOUS, adj. gfo nafi*; mufid.

ADVENT ,

8.

§iyam al-

al-

milad;

—^

^

maji

masih. ADVENTURE , 8. ^Ve 'arid (pi. ^

'awfirid);

ha^ar

(pi.

YIJ U

'abad, ya'bud.

 

hitar,

ahtar);

S^W-

mu-

ADORN , V.

zan, yazin;

zay-

hatara-t (pi.

maha^ir).

yan, yuzayyin ; j y

zawwaq, yu-

ADVENTURER ,

8.

^y

^

TAFSUNI-Y

zawwiq.

(pi. kaAik tafa^ina-t).

ADORNMENT ,

8.

yi^y

tazwin ; J^ J

ADVENTUROUS,

ADVENTURESOME,

zawaq;

zuhruf.

adj.

mujtari;

jasir.

ADRIFT ,

adv.

bi-'L-'aum;

ADVERB ,

8.

harf

(pi. s^ ^ hu-

'ayim-an.

ruf) ;

zarf (pi.

zuruf).

ADROIT ,

adj.

Satir

(pi.

ADVERBIAL ,

adj. ^ ^

zarfi-y.

Suftar) ;

ADROITNESS ,

J labiq ; yfcU mahir.

8.fij^OA.samara-1;

ADVERBIALLY ,

ADVERSARY ,

adv.

zarfan. 'adu-w (pi. ^s d

a'adi).—(in a law-

fUcU ah-

8.

labaqa-t;

mahara-t;

a'da;

ma'rifa-t;

haffa-t.

suit)

f^-

ADULATION,

G.

tamliq;

§am) ;

^

muwajaha-t;

taba^bu?.

hu?aina).

ADULATORY, adj. inumalliq; (jUs* mutamalliq; ^l y muwa- jih.

ADULT ,

ADULTERATE , V. ^ zawwar, yuzaw-

^

balig.

ADVERSE ,

hasm

(pi.

hasim

(pi.

c-AJU^

muhalif;

** dudd, didd; bi-'l-'aks.

^aqawa-T;

adj.

muhasim.

adv.

ADVERSELY ,

bi-dudd ;

ADVERSITY ,

8. ^UA

wir;

gas£, yagu3£.

JuJ^

afsad, yufsid;

nahs; SJA sidda-t (pi.

yid) ; J dubaila-t; nakad.

sada-

ADULTERATION ,

8.

rt

fasad; y^y tazwir.

ADULTERER ,

zunat).

8.

zani

ifsad;

(pi.

ADVERT ,

i'tana, ya'tani; taqayyad, yataqayyad.—

asar ila, yu^ir. habbar, yuhab-

V.

(refer to)

ADVERTISE ,

V.

ADV ]

8

[A N

bir;

ashar, yu&iir.

ahbar,

yuhbir;

ADVERTISEMENT ,

ahbar);

s. j**- habar (pi. ittra-t;

i'lam.

ADVICE ,

8.

na$iha-t (pi.

na§ayih) ;

Saur (pi.

as-

war).

ADVISABLE ,

adj.

LAYIQ;

wajib ; s-—munasib .

ADVISABLENESS ,

ADVISABILITY ,

8.

munasaba-t. ADVISE , V. ^ na§ah, yuna?ih;

^ aJle jW aSar 'ale-hi bi, yu£ir. ADVISED , adj. (prudent) ?ahib tadbir (pi. s^W-* a§hab). ADVISEDLY , adv. (on purpose) qagdan.

ADVOCACY ,

S.

safiVa-t.

ADVOCATE ,

S.

JEF , wakil

(pi.

^

wukala) ; ^W * inuhami;

munadil;

M* faqih (pi.

fu-

qaha).

ADVOCATE ,

6affa'.

AERATE ,

V.

V.

tasaffa', yata- hawwa, yuhawwi;

ffy rayyah, yurayyih.

AERIAL ,

adj.

^V *

hawayi-y.

AEROLITE ,

S. IS^Y***-

hajar hawi-y.

AERONAUT ,

s. \ff \

musafir AL-

hawa.

APAR ,

adv.

ba'id.

ba'id ;

q* min

AFFECTED , adj. (not natural) muta^anni'.

AFFECTION ,

wadda-t;

AFFECTIONATE ,

s.

JE *

mail;

mu-

muhabba-t.

adj.

wadud;

6afiq ; s-^y* mn^ibb ;

wadadi-y.

AFFIANCE ,

V.

hajab, yah tub ;

haftab, yuhaftib; £abak li-'z-ziia-t, yaibuk.

AFFIANCE , s.

AFFIDAVIT ,

hutba-t.—(confi-

bi-

dence) i'timad.

8.

taqrir

qasam.

AFFILIATE ,

see

ADOPT .

AFFINITY ,

8.

qaraba-t;

nasaba-t.

AFFIRM ,

V.

akkad,

tf

qarrar, yuqarrir.

yu'akkid;

AFFIRMATION ,

isbat;

AFFIRMATIVE ,

ta'kid; tahqiq; f.yS taqrir.

adj.

S.

ta^diqi-y;

V.

tahqiqi-y ; ^WJ ijabi-y.

^

la?saq, yula§§iq.

s.

mutta^ala-t.

V.

ahzan,

agamm, yugimm;

yuhzin;

bala,

kasar ha^ir-hu,

h

AFFIX ,

AFFIX ,

AFFLICT ,

yablA;

yaksir.

AFFLICTION ,

s.

huzn

(pi.

ahzan,

huzun) ;

gamm

(pi.

gumiun) ;

Wkaba-t .

AFFLICTIVE ,

adj.

(J*

mugiinm;

AFFABILITY ,

S.

lu{F; &VU lata-

mukaddir.

 

fa-t;

sahulat

al-

AFFLUENCE ,

s.

^

gana;

J

U

mal

ahlaq;

ba*asa-t.

(pi. J

wusa';

AFFABLE ,

adj.

halim;

sarwa-t;

amwal) ; ^ kasra-t;

rahaC

latff;

<j~<j>\

anis;

\J*yM

ba-

AFFLUENT ,

adj.

gani;

 

m.

AFFAIR , S. F\ amr (pi. umur) ; haja-t (pi. cWW hajat, Wj, c2T* tawayij); J/ A sugl, 6agl (pi. JV-^-At a£gal, Jj-*-* £ugfil). AFFECT , r. (injluence) asgar, yuassir. — (touch, move) feannan, yuhannin; raqqaq, yuraqqiq.—(pretend) & qallad, yuqallid; aghar, yuzhir.

AFFECTATION ,

AFFBCTEDNESS ,

taQannu';

mubaha-t.

8.

wafir; Jjazil ; ^

V.

kasir.

AFFORD ,

wahab,

yahab;

'ata, ya'ti. — (be able) qadar, yaqdir.

AFFRAY , s. ^rajja-t ; cWj^ irtijaj. AFFRIGHT , V. OY T hawwaf, yuhaw-

wif; gy

ar'ab, yur'ib.

fazza 4 , yufazzi 4 ;

V.

ta'adda 4 ala,

AFFRONT ,

yata'adda; ^azza , yu'azzi.

s.

"ta'addi;

AFFRONT ,

aziya-t;

hu; V^iri -

jk ^

naq 9 fi taqq-

An]

AFLOAT, adv.

AFOOT , ADV. 'VFCU

AFORE , adv. J-J ^

'Ayiman.

m&iyan. MI N qabL

AFORE-HAND ,

AFORE-TIME ,

adv.

sabiqan; taJU salifan;

qadiman ; pi*** ^

AFORE-MENTIONED,

min qadim.

AFORE-NAMED,

0

mazkur.

AFORE-SAID , adj. j^^

AFRAID ,

adj.

hayif (pi.

huwwaf, hiyyaf, haul). —(ta afraid) \jU . haf, yahaf;

faza', yafza'; Ja* jafal, yaj-

min jadid;

gy

fil.

AFRESH , adv. J^J^ ^

l y

sani marra-t.

AFRONT , adv.

qabilan.

qu?ad; h^

AFTER , prep, (of place)

wara.—(of

time)

min ba'd.

MU -

half;

ba'd;

AFTER ,

adv.

AFTERWARD,

min

summa.

AFTER ,

conj. U

AFTERWARDS,

ba'd-hu;

ba'd

ma;

f f

ba'd ann ; U sgabb a ma.

AFTERNOON ,

8.

^

'a?R ;

'asriyat;

ba'd ag-zuhr. aidan;

dudd, didd ;

AGAIN ,

min

adv.

^

again)

^

jadid.—(again and

mararan.

AGAINST , prep.

4 ala;

AGE,

8.

(period

JW^ ajyal) ; duhftr) ;' 'usftr).

hilaf.'

 
 

'UMR;

^

sinn.—

of

time)

J** jail

(pi.

'a?r

dahr (pi. (pi. jUct a'gar,

AGED , adj.

'ajftz ; jW*^ ihtiyar ;

musinn; ta'in fi-'s-sinn.

AGENCY ,

8.

wasita-t.

AGENT ,

s.

kala) ;

AGGRANDISE ,

wakala-t;

wakil (pi. ^

fa'il;

V.

wu-

yu-

J>Ac <&mil.

kabbar,

'azzam, yu'a^gim ;

kabbir; g- j wassa',

yuwassi';

J *

zad 'ala, yazid.

AGGRANDISEMENT,

8.

takbir;

ta'zim,

izdiyad.

tausi';

9

[AGO

AGGRAVATE, V. (make worse) J * saqqal, yugaqqil; yv ?ayyar arda,, yusayyir.—(make angry) sag^ab , yugdib; iW ag&z>

yugiz.

AGGRAVATION,

igdab.

s.

saqla-t;

AGGREGATE ,

ma< ;

v.a.

jama', yaj-

kawwam, yukawwim.

AGGREGATE,

AGGREGATION, S.

£**»

jam';

la-t.

AGGRESS ,

V.

takwim; &W jum-

ha,jam, yahjum ;

J

^

hamal, yahmil.

AGGRESSION , 8. PJV *

hamla-t.

bujum ;

AGGRESSIVE,

di.

adj.

muta'ad-

AGGRESSIVENESS, s. ta'addi. AGGRESSOR, s. ^V A hajim;

muta'addi; ^ ^

badi.

AGGRIEVE ,

V.

'azzab,

yu'az-

^

zib;

zalam, yazlim.

ahzan,

yuhzin;

(See AFFLICT. )

AGHAST , adj.

hairan.

AGILE ,

J^^c *&jil;

J U *

ahif-

fti) ; gij- sari' (pi. o^r* sur'an;

f- s > pi.

na^ata-t; ra^aqa-t; hiffa-t; 'ajala-t. SAJ^ tarra^ yuharrik;

ra jj» yarujj ; y* hazz, yahuzz ; tjl* qallaq, yuqalliq; hay- yaj, yuhayyij.

s^^ 4 ^

sur'a-t;

(pi.

^iUd. hiMf,

adj. ^

^amlal;

na^ ;

oU ^

hafif

ahfaf,

slr&O 5

ra^iq.

AGILITY ,

s.

sahama-t;

^amlala-t;

AGITATE ,

AGITATION,

hayaian;

rajja-t; Sy^ huzza-t; idtirab; qalaq. AGITATOR , S. VSJ^* muharrik; ^si darrab fitan.

AGO, adv. min qabl. V. n.

AGONISE ,

sabiqan;

J^J

naza', yunazi';

a. s^fc 'azzab, yu'azzib.

AGONY,

icjU* munaza'a-t;

niza'

al - maut;

sakrat al-maut.

2

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