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JEREMY TAYLOR JON WRIGHT introduction 4 The IELTS Reading test 6 Unit 1 Full of energy © Getting started 7 ‘© Spotlight on language: energy collocations working from context 8 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 1: multiple choice 8 {© Vocabulary bulder 1: building your bank of words and phrases " ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 2: paragraph headings: producing a paragraphheading question. + 11 ‘© Vocabulary builder 2: energy idioms; modifiers and intensifies ” Unit 2 Health, wealth and happiness © Getting started 9 ¢ Spotlight on language: health and happiness collocations * 20 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 1: skimming end scanning: sentence completion; word building: dealing with new words a '® Vocabulary builder: paraphrase practice 25 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 2: speed reading: paraphrase practice: identiying text types; skimming for style: skimming for content; sentence completion 26 Unit 3 Communication © Getting started Pa ‘© Vocabulary buider 1: communication vocabulary: working from context 2 ‘© Spotlight on exam skils 1: short-answer questions; ‘matching headngs 3 ‘© Spotlight on language: prefixes 36 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 2: topic sentences: word: bulding practice; mutiple choice; pick from alist 36 ‘© Vocabulary builder 2: prepositional phrases ‘erganizing words a Unit 4 Work and money © Getting started 45 “© Vocabulary bulder 1: jobs and professions 46 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 1: identifying what is required; looking at words in context; dealing with unknown words a ‘© Vocabulary builder 2: paraphrase prattce; choosing words from a list 50 ‘© Spotlight on exam skills2: matching names; word boullding; matcting sentences 52 Unit 5 Society and social issues © Getting started 97 ‘© Vocabulary builder: social issues; word building 58. ‘© Spotlight on exam skills 1: summary completion; exam practice 50 ‘© Spotlight on language: forms with ~ing; active and passive infinitives 6 ‘© Spotlight on exam skils2: note completion 6 “Contents Unit 6 The world around us © Getting started © Spotlight on exam skills 1: table completion ‘© Vocabulary buikler: verbs of charge; processes |@ Spotlight on exam skills 2: flow-chart completion ‘© Spottight on language: conditional practice; sentence complation; useful exprasions with if «© Spotlight on exam skills 3: table completion; ‘expressions with earth Unit 7 Sell, sell, sell © Getting started © Vocabulary builder 1: advertising {© Spotlight on exam skills 1: True/ False / Mot Given '® Vocabulary bulkier 2: lifestyle; colocation practice ‘© Spotlight on exam skills2: True / False / Mot Given {© Spotlight on language: parephrase practice © Spotlight on exam skills 3: True/ False / Not Given; vocabulary development 8 The road to success © Getting started Spotlight on exam skills: Yes/ No /Not Given Vocabulary bulkier: postive and negative expressions; success and failure ‘© Spotlight on larguage: understarding tre author's Point of view; patterns in a text © Spotlight on exam skill 2: what i the author saying?: ‘Yes /No/ Not Gven Unit 9 Networks © Getting started «© Spotlight on larguage 1: describing groups {© Spotlight on exam skils 1 classifying © Vocabulary builder: words in context ‘© Spotlight on larguage 2: oppositions and contrasts; ‘comparing and contrasting {© Spotlight on exam skills 2: exam practice Unit 10 Sport, leisure and time © Getting started © Spotlight én exam skills 1: labeling a diagram: questiontype review {© Vocabulary builder: working with context «© Spotlight on larguage: chronology: paraphrase practice © Spotlight on exam sill 2: exam gractice ‘Answer key Useful websites for IELTS Reading practice * How this book will help you with the other IELTS papers Vocabulary skills Answer-sheet skills Dictionary skills A summary of IELTS tips 6 nm n m 7 gee as 90 3 93 96 105 107 107 0 am 13 7 119 8 v8 126 9 15 136 138 140 142 144 Full of energy . In this unit, you will: © discuss a range of energy sources and their effect on the environment ‘© study and practise multiple-choice questions © study and practise parazraph-heading questions. Getting started 1 Look at these three forms of energy production and discuss the questions below. 1 Areany of these systens used to produce energy n your country? 2. Which system is the best/worstfor the environment? 3 Which system(s) do you think will stil be in use in 100 years’ time? 2 a Put these energy sources into the appropriate column of the table below, biofuel biomass aval ethanol fossil fuel gas hydro-electric power nuclear power peat solar power tidal enersy wind power non-renewable energy resources renewable energy resources b Answer these questions about the energy sources, 1 Which of them involve burning? 2 Which do you thinkare the safest 3. How many did you have to look up in a dictionary? 3 Discuss these questions. 1 What can we do to prepare for the time when non-renewable energy resources run out? 2 What effect does our thirst for energy have on the environment, and how is likely to change in the future? 1 Fulllof energy EF Spotlight on language 1 Full of energy Energy collocations 1 Write four or five sentences that reflect your opinion or the situation in your country. Use these collocations, which are all based on the words source and 1 According to. 2 The scurce of energy we read about most in my country... 3 In myopinion, we should use more... 4 Greenenergy Is. 5 Auuselul source of .. Example: According to gnvernatent sources, plans to promote green eneray are now receNing more attention than exer before, Collocations are an important part of natural, fucnt language. You can be sure every text in the IELTS test will contain a numberof them, as ther are a equent feature ofall speaking and writing. Learning common collocations ils an excellent way o make Your English sound more natural Write ott collocations and useful expressions for different energy soutces in your noteboos —the more context you can give your examples, the better: Working from context 2 Which energy sources are being talked about in these sentences? It is the same source in a, b and c in each case, 1 a Astheseamsof. sw and iron were exhausted, or became unprofitable to work, mining and smelting diminished, b Aftera leisurely tea by a fire, Iasked the clerk to phone for a tax © He watched Peter climb onto tke large heap of soon by the wall and start tofila bag. Energy source =... 2 a In the Philippines, the aim is toreduce the heavy dependence on imported b Ithinkitsfairto say thatthe really top-quality olives ure usually sold in rather than in brine, © In 2010, the tragedy at the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig led to the release of an. estimated 750,000 cubic metres Of srensnn-intothe sea, with serious ecological consequences. Bnergy source =: 3 @ Thequestion ofhow to create an economical and relicble supply of electricity without the costs and environmental disadvantages of. approached from two separate directions. b TheOxford Survey of Childhood Cancers compared th: job histories of the fathers of children with cancers to those of the fathers of healthy children and found that thow who worked with materials were mare at risk, Its :ecoming increasingly difficult to take seriously claims that the civil side of power has nothing to do with. Energy source =, so POWEE WAS. weapons. - Spotlight on exam skills 1 Multiple choice “Multiple-choice questions test vour ability to read for specific information. There are different types of multiple choice. This type offers you a ‘stem’ — sometimes an incomplete statement or a question ~ and three or four possible answers. Read the questions before you read the passage so you know what you are looking for, 1 Read this text, then answer the question that follows. Energy profile of the Czech Republic ‘The Czech Republic's dependence on energy imports has been quite favouratle to dato (32% of eneray demand is met by imports); however, itis sttuctura ly ‘unbslanced. The county's dependence on oll is about 95%, and in the case of naturel gas, itis about 98%. The Czech Republic also imports nuclear power, but the primary resource, uranium ofe, is available and produced domesically. In 2006, some 260,000 tonnes of oil and 150 mom* o natural gas came from indigenous resources. However, the county's dependence on eneray imports is ‘expected fo grow (lo almost 50% by 2020), A number of direct anc indirect ‘measures must be adopted to siow the rate at whieh the Czech Rapublic’s dependence on energy imgortsis increasing. Key measures include those geared towards promoting energy efficiency, supporting renewable energy resources in ‘areas where they are effectve (in accordance with the government's energy policy: 8% by 2010 and 16.9% by 2030), supporting nuclear energy (zero-2mission ‘energy sources) and impreving the avaiiabiliy and extending the life span of the hidden potential of indigenous sold fuels, mainly browr coal. mom =i sabe meee adapted rom wwe curacao Which ofthese statements best describes energy use in the Czech Republic? A The country imports almost all ofits energy. B The country’s nced for imported energy is likely to deerease through energy efficiency. The country considers nuclear power as one of the potential solutions to the problem of imported energy. D The country aims to double ts energy efficiency between 2010 and 2030. the Czech Republic's increasing need for eneray imports cm = = =a 2 You are going to read a longer text about our increasing need for energy. Before you read, predict which of these topics are likely to be discussed. ‘energy-saving measures nuclear power pollution health risks population growth scientifcresearch transport nance 3 Read the text on page 10 and answer the three multiple-choice questions that follow. Energy crisis? What crisis? Joking at the forcnts for the wold’ emery ‘demandls for the future is pretty frighening. As the ‘population of the world has inereased, so has our thirst for energy, Should we build more nuclear poiver stations, as these don’t produce the carbon Gioxide that conventional coal or gas-fired power lations produce? But wait a minute~ruclear power is dangerous! Following the accident in Cemnoby! in. 1984, many people turned against nuclear power, preferring greener options like wind and solar power. But how reliable is wind power? Even n windy parts ofthe world, like western England, the wind turbines fare not always turning. What could make up the shortfall when the wind stops blowing? Coal? Far too dirty, Gas? Cleaner than coal, but it still produces irbon dioxide, Nuclear? Too dangerous and politically sensitive. Solar power? In northern Europe? You must be joking, That future generations will have to find altematives goes without saying, Without trying to ‘sound too apocalyptic, there is no way that we can maintain our present lifestyles. [ts stil not clear just how much damage we have already done, and are currently doing, to the planet, but the vast majority of scientists believe that we have to do something. If we accept that change has to take place, we can consider what the catalyst will be for such change. Will it be governments telling us to save energy in various ways? Will it be companies producing ever more energy-efficient products? Or will it be people that change? Some may change for ideological reasons, Eelieving that to save the planet they will heed 10 change and will stop driving their gas- sualing ur by loursan haleg her houes 025 jegrees ir winter so that ey can sit n shorts and a ‘T-thin to watch their home cinema. Many more are likely to change, not for ideological reasons, but for financial anes. AS the price of energy increases ~ Which, unless anew cheap source of energy is found, italmost ettanly will~peaple wil face stark choices; ‘money fo: food or money for hesting. (Interestingly, since the recent financial crisis, there has been a Significant increase inthe numbe- of people growing, their own food and consequently the demand for allotments, once seen as the preserve of old men, has skyrocketed.) itis quite probable that we won't be able to rely on the governments of the world t> get us out of this dificult station. Most democratic governments are ‘not arourd for more than a decade, so its clear that they are more likely to ook at the short-term rather than long-term difficulties. Perhaps surprisingly, some of the poorest people in the world ‘will be least affected. If you are a subsistence farmet, growing enough food for your family ard just a few more vegetables to sell atthe market, then you are unlikely to have high energy requirements. However, ifyou cant live without yout Car and spend a high proportion of your income on energy imits various forms, then itis highly likely that ‘You will have to accept some quite dramatic changes inyour life, 1. According fo the writer, our energy needs inthe future 'A will depend on how the climate changes. B involve equally dangerous options € have no easy solution, ‘D must include a cleaner use of ga. 2. The writer feels that most people will change their behaviour . ‘A because energy will be more expensive inthe future. B because governments witl encourage @ change in attitude. because new technology will improve ‘energy efficiency. D for ideological reasons. ‘3 According tothe text, in eeent times demand for allotments has A fallen quickly. B steadily declined. risen slowly. D increased dramatically. 1 Full of energy Comments 1 The answers to the questions are in order in the text, so you «an presume that the answer to number 1 is somewhere near the beginning. ‘A Not correct. Aspects of climate are mentioned, but not dimate change. B Not correct, Danger s only mentioned in ‘connection with nucear power © Correct. The fact there are questions about each form shows there is no easy answer. D Not correct. Gas is mentioned, but not as a ‘must’ 2 The key to the answer isin the words most in the question and many more in the key sentence in the tex. A Correct +B Not correct: This is speculative. € Not correct: This is also speculative. D Not correct: More will change for financial reasons, 3 You may well not know the word allotment, but you don’t need to know it :o be able to answer the ‘questicn. The text states that there has been a significant increase in the number of people growing their own food and consequently the demand for allotments ... has skyrocketed. Again, you may na: have seen the word skyrocke'ed before, but the word does suggest something going up very quickly, so the ansiver is D. Vocabulary builder 1 Building your bank of words and phrases . As you work through this book, you will increase yotr vocabulary inthe process. This ‘will help you read faster and understand texts more ecsily. Keep a notebook with you and. ‘add any useful new words, expressions or collocation: to it, ideally with a bic of context so that you can see how the word or phrase is used. Cne very important focus is on developing your awareness of paraphrase — different ways of saying the same thing, This is because in the est, the questions will rarely use the same grammar ard key words as ‘occur in the text, 1 Look at the relevant paragraphs of the text on page 10 and find words or expressions that havea similar meaning to these definitions. 1 quite scary (paragraph 1) pretty frightening, normal, traditional (paragraph 1) ‘more environmentally frendly (pacagraph 1) compensate fora deficiency (paragraph 1) is obvious (paragfah 2) continue living as ve do (paragraph 2) types of car that consume a lt of fuel (paragragh 3) hhave difficult decisions to make (paragcaph 3) solve this problem (paragraph 4) 10 use most of the money that you eam to buy something (paragraph 5} war nueun 2. Which of the words or expressions in Exercise 1do you think will be most useful for you? - Spotlight on exam skills 2 Paragraph headings ‘To match paragraph hecdings to paragraphs, you have to understand the basic idea ~ the ‘gist — of a paragraph, There will always be more headings than yeu need. 1. Which of these is the best title for the passage on page 127 A Solar power turns darkness to light in Zimbabwe ( B Ambitious project curtails land degradation § : c UNDP invests $7 million in Zimbabwe | D Shamva’s farmers share solar power systems | 1 Fullof energy © 11 In the early 1990s, numerous villages tured to solar powe in par's of Africa where one ‘might least expect to stumble upon an oasis of lights shimmering in the pitch-black night, Perhaps themost ambitious project of this nature, and one thatis often cited, is a Zimbabwean, project supzorted by UNDP through the Gobal Environment Facility (GEF), The initiative, Jointly funded by GEF (S7m) and Zimbabyve ($400,000), installed some 9,000 solar power systems throughout the county ina bid toimprove living standards, but also to curtail land ‘degradation and pollution. ‘The River Estate near Shamva, 70 kilometes from Zimbabwe's cap tal, Harare, boasts one ofthe best solar-village models inthe counzy. Fifty-two commercial farming families share systems: there is one system for every two houses. Each family has two lamps and a ‘connection fora radio or small television set. The new lighting systems have improved the ality oft for the community. They have extended study hours for schoolchildren, reduced , "ural-to-urtan migration in the area, and upgraded health stendards by electrifying a local health cent. apd om wwanens tis only A which Als the correct answer. 2 Read the paragraph below and decide which of these headings best suits it, and why. A Adifficult balancing act for news organizations B The poten‘al dangers of alternative medicine ; © Alternative medicine fights back 3 Read the text Our energy requirements on page 13. thas seven paragraphs, ‘AG. Choose the correct heading for each paragraph from the list above the text. There are more headings than you need. Write the correct number (i-x) next to each question (1-7). 1 Paragraph A 2 ParagraphB 3 Paragraph 4 Paragraph 5 ParagraphE 6 Paragraph z 7 Paragraph 3 12 1 Full ofenergy re 1 The process of physical development Dealing with food Beneficial activities iv Reserves of fat v Mother's milk Our energy requirements List of Headings vi Forms of exertion vil Expecting a baby vill Essential processes ix Mental relaxation x Energy asa key to life ‘As human beings, we depend on energy in many ways. Aa ee te 3s This comprises a series of functions that are essential forlife, such as cell function and replacement the synthesis, secretion and metabolism of enzymes and hormones to transport proteins and other substances and ‘molecules; the maintenance of body temperature; the uninterrupted work of cardiac and respiratory muscles; and brain function. The amount of energy used for basal metabolism ina period of time is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR), and is measured under standard conditions that include being awake in the supine position after ten to 12 hours of fasting and eight hours of physical rest, and being in a state of mertal relaxation in an ambient environmental temperature that does not cause hheat-generating or heat- v >>>>> 18 1 Full of energy CLASSROOM WORKOUT Defending one kind of energy supply ‘© Work in groups. Each group chooses a different fuel source and thinks of as many advantages ofits chosen fuel source as possible in five minutes. ‘© Make notes —and try to include key words and expressiors from the different texts in this unit ‘© After the five minutes, take turns to stand up and tell the -est ofthe clas the advantages that you came up with. Use your notes, but don't read from them. This will be followed by two minutes of questions from your fellow studers, so be ready for some telcky questions. CHECK YOURSELF ‘© Make a list of 10-15 collocations or expressions that you could ase in a discussion or. the topic of energy. ‘© Write down five facts you know about energy asa result of reading the texts in this unit. SUMMARY In this unit, you: ‘© discussed the -ange of energy sources aveilable and their effect on the environment, What conclusions did you come to? © looked at collocations connected with energy. How many have you written down ina notebook? ‘uudied and practised! multiple-choice questions. What are the key things to remember about them? ‘© read about energy supply in the Caech Republic. Is the Czach Republic in a better or ‘worse situatien compared fo your country? ‘© read about a potential energy crisis. Do think there will be an erergy crisis, or will we be able to make a smooth transition to sustainable resources? ‘© started building up your bank of words, phrases and paraphrases. You should check back on your ist regularly. adding new words wheneveryou can. ‘© studied paragraph-heading questions and practised them. Do you feel that you can. cope with this kind of question in the testno\ ‘@ practised writing your own paragraph-heading questions. How difficult was it to create plausible distractors? ‘Over to you 1 Askyour Fiends how they feel about the world’s eneray resources, 2. Read newspapers and magazines to ind out the latestnews on energy issues and how they affect the world environmentally and politically 3. What would you suggest to someone who asked for advice about how to reduce theirenergy consumption?" * will ome ber ale Health, wealth and happiness . In this unit, you will: © practise skimming, scanning and speed © study and practise sentence completion © read different types of text, Getting started 1 These photos show important factors for staying,healthy. Discuss the questions below. Saree 1 Towhat extentis cost a factor in these things? 2 Which of these factors most often occurs) in the news in your country? Why? 2 Rank these factors from 1 to 10 in terms of importance for your health (1 = most important). © not smoking © not drinking alcohol getting enough sleep avoiding stress ceating healthy food ‘keeping in touch with friends and family taking regular exercise avoiding exposure to the sun avoiding polluted areas getting immunised against preventable diseases ‘uss these questions. 1 Why do some people find it dificult to do the right thing for their healthand well-being? 2 Do you think enough is done to promo:e campaigns for/against any of the factors in Exercise 2? 3 Which of these things should be contrelled by the government, and which should be leftto the individual? 2 Health, wealth and happiness | 19 Fr Spotlight on language Health and happiness collocation 11 Make as many collocations connected with health and happiness as you can by combining word: and phrases from box A with those from box B. A : 8 chill condition cut down on factor ° | feel-good fidcle : fitasa headache on cloud lifestyle out of over the sedentary splitting stop smeking be in high spirits watch | your weight 2 Complete these sentences with collocations from Exercise 1. 1 Victoria has been .if. high. SPICES. ever since she got into Cambridge University. 2 The diet magazine says that a good way to lose weight isto. : 3 When Petra got her exam results, she was She passed with. flying colours, 4 [put in such long hours at work that when I get home Ijest.. 5 My grandfather's 93, but he's as... 6 Itis common fr footballers to say they are... they feel about winnirtg a big match. 7 Our dependence on computers has meant that many of us lead a... 8 That noise is giving me a 9 ‘Thesingle most important thing anyone can do to improve their health is .-when they are asked how 10 Physical exercise releases endorphins inte your blood, and that gives you a 11 Tean't have any chocolate, t's not an allergy —I'm just. 12 I'm going to start jogging again because I'm. = 13 Discuss to what extent you agree with these comments, and explain why. You have to wark at Health and happiness are connected. You being heal:hy, but being canit be happy (Fyowre happy is something you not heaithy. can't reilly control You can. decide to be happy, whatever your ctroumstances. 20 2 Health, wealth and happiness re Spotlight on exam skills 1 Skimming and scanning 3 While you can go inte the IELTS test with a lot of confidence and exen enthusiasm, one thing you don't have 2 lot of in the exam is time, Your ability to reaé quickly and to process the informaticn effectively is of paramount mportance. Fach text that you have to zead will be up to 900 words long, s0 you need to develop the ability to read quickly. ‘Two key techniques tat can help you do this are skimming and scarning Skimming strategies ‘Skimming involves running your eyes quickly over the text to find out che main ideas contained within i. 3 Ie is usefl to: ‘© read the questions frst to know what you are locking for (© read the ttle ofthe text and any subheadings ‘© read the first paragraph to see where the article is heading ‘© ‘cad the frst line of each subsequent paragraph ‘© read the last paragraph, which may inelude a summary and/or corelusion 1 see how any diagrams or pictures could relate tothe article. While skimming, ydu should: «© try to read three or four times faster chan normal ‘© get a good idea of what the article is about without checking new words in the dictionary ‘© underline key words, e.g dates, places, figures © focus on key words tke nouns, verbs, adjectives, Seanning strategies ‘When you look for someone's name ina telephone directory or look a word up in 2 dictionary, you don't read every ine. You can scan ‘hrough the text w find the information that you sre looking for. For this to be successful, you need to now what ‘you are looking for, That means you should read the question Fist and idenrify key ‘words in ito guide you. Tis usefil to: ‘¢ read the questions o you know what you are locking for © find the relevant pat of the text as quickly as posible {© avoid reading the text line by fine ‘© avoid mouthing the words as you read be aware of key words inthe distractors that may also occur in the text. They may wrongly make you think you have the right part the text ‘While scanning, you should # ook for Key wordsin the text — nouns that reflect the questions, and words like problem, solution, ides, gal, improvement, dangér {look for key words hat help you interpret the text and the writer's opinion ~ verbs like must, can, bel cnre, increase, ofr, measur, clangeand adjectives and edverbials like probly, without doas, defines, posible, much wore {© ‘think of paraphrass for key words from the question and look for them in the text. ‘The two strategies ~ skimming and scanning — work together. If you have skimmed the text effectively, then you will have a better idea of where to find the information you are looking for. You may have underlined an importan fact, date, igure or key word. While scanning, you may notice other key words which you can underline, Five ways to practise skimming and scanning 1 Get ito the habit of reading longer texts and articles in English regularly. 2 Pay particular attention to the frst and last paragraphs ofan article. 3 To get the key idess ofa text, before you read, atk yourself who, where, wht, why, when and how? Tey to find the answers to those questions as you read through an aniele, 4 Don't focus on new vocabulary, and don't use a dictionary on you: fist reading of a text 5 Don't try to vocalize the text as you read —use your eyes, not your voice. 2 Health, wealth and happiness a 1 Practise your skimming and scanning with the article below about happiness. Read it quickly to find out what it says about the following: 1 sources of happiness. 2 the relationship between happiness and polities 3. research into happiness 4 living standards and happiness 3 How measure nappies 6 how different countries promote happiness How can we measure happiness? by Philip Johnston ‘Western leaders are looking beyond traditional indices of economic and social well-being and turning to ways of measuring national happiness. What makes you happy? The smell of rew-mown grass on a spring ‘moming, pethaps; or the laughter of your children. For many of us, happiness is spiritual, individual, dificult to define and ephemeral. {A Buddhist monk with no possessions beyond his clothes and an alms bow! might consider himself happier tran a City financier with homes on three continents Personal happiness is something we all aspire to; so what about national a happiness? Can the well-being of a country be measuree? Is it possible to aggregate all those individual experiences into a happiness iadex that can be published quarterly, along with crime statistics, inflation rates and unemployment figures? Some political leaders think itis. They subscribe to the idea that measuring a nation’s well-being by its economic output is a policy dead-end. Is this wise? “The consideration of happiness and hew to maximise itis hardly a new activity. thas exercised great minds from Socrates to Montaigne and on to Bentham, Mill and the authors of the American Declaration of Independence. But while philosophers tended to deal with how we should lead our lives as individuals, the idea of happiness both as a science and a specific aim of national policy has only taken off in the past decade or so. It is hardly surprising that the idea appeals to many politicians, especially when most of the economic news is gloomy and government policy is couched in the downbeat language of austerity. In such circumstances, looking beyond the traditional measurements of national well-being is a reat temptation, even if it risks being criticized as a gimmick that has no place in the serious business of politics Moreover, economists believe that the pursuit of public happiness as a policy goal has merit even when the economy is booning. This is because, as their data have become more comprehersive ard sophisticated, they have noticed one apparent paradox: tha: despite the fact that Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has increased subs-antially in the industrialized West, the levels of human contentmen: have remained static. ‘This realization encouraged Lord Layard, professor ai the London School of Economics and adviser to a former prime minister, to urge the last 22. 2 Health, wealth and happiness Labour government to recognize that economic growth need not be an overriding priority. He believed governments should embrace the principle that ‘the best society is that where the people are happiest, and the best policy is the one that produces the greatest happiness’. ‘They found this hard to do because so litle was known about what mad> people happy. But, as Lord Layard points out, ‘The first thing we know is that in the past 50 years, average happiness has not increased at all in Britain or in the United States — despite massive increases in living standards.’ In better-off countries, in other words, simply raising incames does not make people any happier. In truth, Prime Minister David Cameron has been thinking along these lines for a whie. Shortly after he became Tory leader in 2005, he said: "Well-being can’t be measured by money or traded in markets I's abou the beauty of our surroundings, the quality of our culture and, above all, the strength of our relationships. Improving our society's sense of well- being is, | believe, the central political challenge of our times.’ He added: = ‘ts time we admitted that there's more to life than money, and it's time \we focused not just on GDP but on GW8 — general well-being.’ In order to avoid a politically biased view of what'constitutes national contentment, it would be essential to have an independent body such as the Office for National Statistics deciding what questions to ask and when to do so. A survey conducted in the middle of a cold, wet January, for stance, might produce significantly glcomier results than one carried ut in summer months. So what might a list of questions contain? Measurements of national well being are already included in cross-border surveys carried out by the UN. of the OFCD* and include such indicaters as a perceived lack of corrupton; low unemployment; high levels of education and income; and the number of older people in the Jzbour market. Using such criteria, polls can try to paint a picture of what a country thinks about itself. Itseems that modern politicians have beught so heavily into the idea that the state can do everything that they have deluded themselves into believing it can deliver the most elusive of all human desires: happiness. They have been persuaded that itis possible to measure life satisfaction and that its achievement on a national scale should be a goal of government. The difficulty is to establish an index that does not remain static of decline, After all, which politician will enjoy being accusec of making his fellow citizens less happy than they were? | measuring happiness is a relatively new phenomenon in the West, it has underpinned the public policy of ore country for almost 40 years. ‘The kingdom of Bhutan has pursued the goal of ‘gross national happiness’ since 1972. In addition to the promotion of equitable socioeconomic development and the establishment of good governance, it also stresses the importance of the preservation and promotion of cultural values. liprobably helps, too, that there is little in the way of traffic, commuting into mijor cities does not involve an hour-long journey crushed together like sardines, television was banned until 1999 and the Himalayas, provide a visual backdrop to a stunning sub-tropical landscape. No ‘wonder they are happy. . Onin kc Ecole Ceopeaton nd Developer ‘op om raw tgraph.co-sk 2 Health, wealth and happiness | 23 Sentence completion 1 Remember you're looking for specific information, 2 Do grammar check as your read: does the gap requir a singular or plural noun, verb, an adjective, an adjective plus a nour ...2 3 Use words from the text 4. The stem isnot likely to have the same words in the text, so skim the text for synonyeis and paraphrases 5 Be careful with spelling, {6 Remember that the answers are in the same order asin the text. 7 Numbers can be writen as words or numbers (e.g. rar oF 10). 8 Hyplienated words count as one word (so nel-bemng is one werd). 2 Read the text on pages 22-23 again and complete these sentences with NO MORE THAN THREE words from the text. Use the scanning tethniques on page 21 to help you find the answers. Underlire the sections of the text that helped ‘you to find the answers, 1 Some politicians feel that it is not wise to focus on a country's... 2. Governments ave only really taken the importance of promoting national happiness seriously in... 3. While the idea of measuring happiness appeals to some politicians, others believe it COU bE ns nnsinmnnnnnfOF lacking in seriousness. 4 Although there have been ...::0n0.00in personal wealth, people in the rich West ‘are not happier. 5 For David Cameron's goverament, the attempt to increase the . people is key priority. 6 Surveys may kave different results depending on the weather, with. results being possible for those carried outin winter, AS part ofits policy of promoting happiness, the government of Eutan thinks It is important to easure the country remains ue to its 8 According to te writes, Bhutan has the alvantage of having most no -~ which isa source of stressin Western countries. ofthe 3 When you have finished, answer these questions. 1 How long did you take on your first reading? 2 Which questions did you manage to answer? _ 3 Do you think you need more practice skimming and scanning? Word building ‘One good way of building 2 large and flexible vocabulary isto focus on word building For example, in the text on pages 22-23, a key word was bappies: Related words are sappy, unbappy,bsppe, happiest, wnbapper,bgpo, unbapply. Can you hak of one more? 4 a Spend five minutes looking up the words related to happy in the dictionary to find expressions they occur in, then decide which is needed to complete each of these expressions. 1 sw martied 6 many. returns 2 MOFEtHAN snseninns ED 7 lived, _weveralter 3 ending, ee for me, .. 4 families 9 vv HOU 5 keep them.. rm 10 vm18.a good book. bb It’s a good idea to do this with one or two key words for each text you read. Which other key words could you choose from the text? 24 2 Health, wealth and happiness UL Dealing with new words with, However, don't panic because: |e working our the mearing from the context Pete tey that ne ex nthe ILS est wl consi oar that you are onfiniar q 1 you ate sure to know -he vast majority of the words and expressions in each text 2 many of the new words or expressions will not be important | 3 important words or phrases are likely to be guessab e from the context they are in. {in the test, you won't beable to use a dictionary, so you need skills and strategies for dealing with new vocabulary. Some of the most useful include: -wotking our the mearing from the form and function of the word or expression {ignoring the word or expression if you think itis not important. have not seen this word or expression in English before, but itis very similar to a word in my language, 5 Read the text on pages 22-23 again and highlight every word or expression you have not seen before. Then write them in the aopropriate section of 2 en abl havenot seen this word or 2xpression in Eng ish before, but | can work out its meaning from the context. Ihave not seen this word or expression in English before and | can't work out its meaning from the context, but this does not affect my overall understanding of the text, have not seen this word or expression in English before, | can't work our its meaning from the cortext, and, as 2 result, |don’t have an overall understanding of the text. Paraphrase practice 11 Find two-word phrases in the text on pages 22-23 which match these definitions. 1 receiatly cut grass. something that seems to be illogical et one ww all the people who are in work someone who works in the money markets {figures showing the level of thefts. physical attacks, etc, statistics showing how many people are olt of work ati official strategy developed for a whole country by the leaders of that country ‘an organization which works separately from the government 2 Which of these phrases are most useful? Find five more expressions in the text that you think are worth learning. 2 Health, wealth and happiness 25 r Spotlight on exam skills 2 Speed reading ‘The problems of reading slowly. ‘© You might net finish all the texts. ‘© You croate extra pressure for yourself, 1 You probably waste lors of rime on sections of the texts that are noteelevant tothe answers you need, «# Slow reading does not necessarily make you a more accurate reader. ‘© You will prokably read less in preparation forthe test Being abl to read quickly and accurately gives you many advantages: ‘© You get the gist ofthe texts faster, o can orient yourself more quickly. ‘© You will be rore confident that you can read.all the texts. | © You wil be rore confident of having enough time to answér all the questions. ‘© You have more time to check your answers ‘© When preparing for the exam, you can get note practice with» wide variety of texts on different topics. 1 Read this text, paying attention to the ‘chunks’ or groups of words between ‘the / marks. One useful techrique / to increase your reading speed is this: / when you read a line of text, / which is typically 12-14 words, / don't let your eyes zest on each word, / This is a very inefficient way of reading. / Your bran should have no problem / coping with ‘chunks oflanguage, / four or five words at ¢ time. This means you will move your eyes / three times per line, not 14. / It does take practice, / bat its a skill you should develop /if'you want to get a good result / in the IELTS test./ This type of reading is / ‘much easier when you know collocations and phrases / because it essence you ‘chunk’ the text / into groups of words that go together. Another technique you can use to improve your reading speed isco focus your eyes more ‘ of less down the middle of the paragraph youre reading. Yout brain ean actually notice and make sense of the words around your forts. At first, this can seem strange and might snot be easy to do, but it gets easier with practice, 2 Try to read the text on the next page about the history of Manchester in no. more than one minute by focusing on the words in bold. Then decide whether ‘each of these statements is true (T) or false (F). 1 The text is about the geography of Manchester. 2 The text is factual rather than opinion-tased. 3. Manchester was already an important population centre wher: the Romans arrived org 4 The population only started to grow witt the Industrial Revolution. 5 Without cotton, the history of the city would have been different. 6 The only work available in Manchester was in the cotton mills. 7 ‘Transport was an important element ofshe Industrial Revolution, 8 ‘The attraction of the work available was it was well paié. 9 Families in Ireland sent their children towork-in Manchester. 10 ‘The city briely changed its name as a result ofits rapid growth. |. 26» 2 Health, wealth and happiness The History of Manchester Although the history of Manchester stretches back to Roman times, when a small settlement {grew up around the Roman fort known as Mamuiciam, it was not until the later years of the ceightoenth century that it became a population centre of any great magnitucle. Reccrds {indicate the population grew from 10,£00 to approaching 80,000 injust afew decades, {increasing to around 150,000 by the Industrial Revolution, which saw its transformation {nto the country’s and the world’s leading industrial metropol ‘The engine for this change was cotta, which began to be imported via the port of Liverpool and which was delivered by canal to Manchester inthe attr part of the eighteenth century. The rapid and profitable boom in textile manufacture saw the streets of |Manchester and surrounding towns become home to huge numbers of cotton mills textile print works and engineering workshops. The expansion of transpert links facilitated this evelopment. In 1824, one of theworl’s first public omnibus services began in Manchester, ‘quickly followed in 1830 by the opening of the first steam passenger railway linking Liverpool and Manchester. Often overlooked, however, was the ‘human fuel’ that made all his possible. The promise ‘of work, however poor the pay, however bad the conditions, resuled inwave after wave of {immigration from the surrounding countryside and abroad, the villages and towns of Ireland in particular, where terrible poverty and the threat of famine drove whole families te leave everything they knew fora life in Cottonopolis asthe city was dubbed. Paraphrase practice 3 Decide if these expressions from the text above are simi expressions in italics or not. in meaning to the 1 ofany great magnitude of some size and importance 2 metropolis capita ety 3 theenginefor thischange what was mainly responsible for this development 4 rapid ... boom in quick change in 5 aciltated this ‘made this possi 6 often overlooked with a view over a particular place Identifying text types We read different sorts of texts in different ways and for different purposes. For example, ‘we don't read & telephone directory for pleasure, oF ty to Fearn facts from an advertisement. Being able ro identify what soe of text you are reading helps you in many ‘ways. Understanding the purpose ofthe text and knewing how the aizhor expects you to react gives you control over how to read it more effectively. . Discuss the differences between the types of text below. © format and layout © fact and opinion register and language © grammarand vocatulary © headings and illustrations © length. 1 an advertisement / history book 2 alegal document / newspaper article 3 personal story / a book review 4 an information leaflet / an encyclopaedia 2 Health, wealth and happiness © 27 Skimming for style 5 Read these extracts (A-H) from different types of text about immigration and match them to the text types in Exercise 4. Immigration derives from the Latin word migraio and means the act ofa foreigner entering a country in the aim of obtaining the right of permanent residence. Immigration may have economic or politcal fotivaion, rhe matter of family Te: taifiction o: caused by natural disaster In many cases, immigrants simply desite 1 Improve their circumstances by relocating, ‘Timofey Phin s surely one of the most memorable of Nabokov's charactors, We ‘meet a bald and middle-aged teacher of Russian, and discover that he's completely lost. Much thal he encounters in the world around him is a source of confusion. including timetables, the use of articles in English and also ~20mica ly the habits of the Americans who are his neighbours, Tyese are all things that many if not all fellow immigrants are likely to have in comtron with hirn, Yet nin Is @ unique character, both in life and in Iiterature, ‘Tie vaecisr date of the fest human occupa ‘tion of Australin a ikey to retain unknown, ‘but evidencohas been uncovered tagcat “human proseaso onthe continent erat least 40,000 years. Migration from Buropo dates from 1788, whoo the fst transports bearing convieted eriminale made the long journey ‘south, This was quickly “llowed in the wary 1790s by the fst wave of voluntary — snd hheneo free immigrants, . Immigration contol concerns both how and why people from countries outside the UK are allowed to enter the country and now long they are permitted to remain. Furthermore, it governs ‘what they may and may not do while during theit stayin the UK; for exam2le, whether they have the right to obtain paid employment, whether relatives may join them here, and whether they have access to the National Health Service and similar state benef. The paragraphs that fllow ‘ve advice about all aspects of immigration cortal 'yed Ahmed, 22, «bright and hardworking young man, is studying at a leading Brish university co become a account. When his application {renew his vsaso he eould stay hereon completion of his three year degre course was approved, ihe inl daision as not Bae on the sonbution ke could make to this country. sca the ae he'd taken upplayingericket fora local ‘hb since his arrival from Bangladesh fumed out tobe the buss ofthe judge's dceison With over 25 years’ experience of providing a comprehensive range of immigration and ; legal services, we offer our cients a friendly and professional service for all immigration needs. Our extensive experience enables us to advise you on the arospects of success ‘and problems tobe aware of when submitting an application. Working together, we will use ‘our experience to find a solution that matches your needs wherever possible. As specialists, in business immigration, we have developed a range of stratozies that can assist ‘organizations in abtaining work permits, visas and rights to remain, ‘eame to this country atthe age of 12, When 1 started high school, I could hardly understand the language. That seems an age ago. Now I'm married, studying at college and would like 19 become a teacher. ‘Unfortunately, that ean’t happen as a result ‘of my status as an illegal immigrant. The fnure now seems so uncertain. But we are 28» 2 Health, wealth and happiness good people, we don't have a criminal record, we pay taxes, we go to school, we work hard, and we lave living here. 1 just Want a chance to get the jb I fel deserve, and to normalize our sifaation. Ultimately, We aim to use the years we've been here as Justification to become naturalized, so we ‘cat be treated as citizens ofthe country. directions are given under Part [of Schedule 2 of Schedule 3 to the 1971 Act fora "7 person's removal from the United Kingdom, and directions are also so given for the ‘removal ith him of persons belonging to his family, then if any of them apeeals under * section 58, 63,66, 67 or 69(1) or (3), the appeals to have the same effext unde paragraphs 10 to 14 in relation tothe directions given in respectof each of the others as ithas in relation tothe directions given in zespect ofthe appellant. ee a ae Skimming for content 6 How many of the extracts in Exercise 5 mention: 1 education? 2 nationalities? 3 work? 4 ree time?” 5 lawand law-breaking? 7 These expressions are taken from the extracts in Exercise 5, but each one has ~ an extra word. Scan the extracts to find which one each expression is from and cross out the exra word. 1 speedy professional service 2 then quickly followed in 3. source of considerabk confusion 4 entering a European sountry 5 all persons belonging to 6 have the legal right to 7 university degree course, 8 hardly understand anything Sentence completion ‘8 Answer these questions about the extracts in Exercise 5 using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS for each answer. 1 The aspect of English grammar Pnin finds most problematic 2 Preceding those who zhose to settle in Australia by a few years, the first European migrants. 3 Immigration control includes rulings on whether people are allowed to look for 4 The hope to live toget'er again with one's... for immigration. is in some cases a reason, 5 The author of extract hopes to change nationality by being seve 88 result of the length oftime she has spent in the country. 6 Extract H states that anyone under threat of. soso from the countey as a right to appeal. ‘9 Complete these sentences logically using the number of words indicated in brackets. Then compare your answers with a partner. 1. Tspent last weekend serene «(2 words) 2 Idid/didn’t go to the dnema last week because .. (3 words} 3 If {had more money, would... smu (2 words) 4 [eel happiest when I... (3 words) 5 My favourite time of day is... ---(L worl) 6 What worrles me most about the Future 18 .ennsnonne «(3 WORE) 7 Two techniques for reading quickly are (words) 8 Allthe short texts above involve the theme of. sw (1 Word) 2 Health, wealth and happiness | 29 > ciassroom workout Arguing a position {© Thinkaboutthese two statements: ~ Health isfar more important than happiness. Happiness s far more important than health, ‘© Workin groups. Half the groups find as many arguments as pessible which supportthe rst statement, The other halfdo the same for the second statement. You have five minutes to think of your arguments. Try to use Key expressions from this unit. Then present your argument to the class. The group with the most convincing arguments wins. > CHECK YOURSELF ‘© Make a list offive different sorts of text ir English that you plan to read this week in oer to practise skimming and scanning techniques. They must come from diflerent sources and be on dilferent topics. You should allow at least 20:minntes for each type oftext. ‘© Make a list of 10-15 collocations or expressions that you could use in a discussion on the topic of health and happiness. © Write down three facts vou now know asout ways of measuring happiness as a result of reading the textsin this unit. > summary In this unit, you: ¢@ looked at maay words and collocations connected with health and happiness, How many did you write down In your notebook? ¢ read about skimming, scanning and speed-reading techniques. What are the advantages of reading quickly in the IELTS test? ¢ looked at sentence-completion questions. What common mistakes do some students ‘make with this question type? © looked at coping with new words. Do you know why it isnot always necessary or useful toreach out for your dictionary when you come across tnknown words? > PP \ Pf overtoyou 1 Look online to see what health Issuesare likely to became more important in the future 2 Try tofind three articles gnline or in newspapers and magazines about how to be happy ang healthy. 3 Some people say that happiness is the by-product of doing something else. Think of three examples that prove or disprove this point and tell your friends 4 Find sometexts you think are interesting and practise breaking them into logical ‘chunks’. Ityou work with a friend, see Ifyou both agree on how to ‘chunk’ the same text. i bed 30 2 Health, wealth and happiness ENED Communication ; In this unit, you will: ort the | ‘© look at a range of communication methods end their related vocabulary : ‘© study and practise short-answer questions im this ‘© study and practise more multiple-choice questions ing ‘© look at pick-from-a-list questions. Getting started 1 Look at the three photos of ways of communicating. Where are/were they used? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each method? esult nts 2 Choose the four most important forms of communication from the list below for: 1 you, your friends and family 2 the world of business 3. the world of education 4 people who travel. fax landine telephones email communication drums internet mobile phones letters face-to-face communication Morse code books newspapers posters radio publicanneuncements social media Justify your choices. 3 Discuss these points. 1 Give two reasons why people might choos2 not to use some of the mear: communication listed in 2 Which ofthe communication methods in Exercise 2 are likely to still be with us in the year 2100: ercise 2. ve reasons for your ans! 3 Communication © 31 j 32 3 Communication Vocabulary builder 1 Communication vocabulary 1. Match words from column A with words from column B, and words from column B with words from column C to form useful expressions about ‘communication. Examples: business communication, communication oreakccwn A B c business communication a message channels of communicator breakcown direct communicative door effective communicatively effectively communicate in sign language communicating problems skills systems 2 Complete these sentences with expressions from Exercise 1. 1 Not speaking the same language as sour customers can lead to, lpreakdown... One thing a(n) _.can dois to build trust with the other person. The key 10 -nne.--------i8 to speak clearly and with a smilz on your face. -. When yor work in sales seve 86h 28 ication, 2 3 4 It's imperative to have good. 5 with every member of my family. 7 According to social scientists, about 70% of our message is conveyed by 8 Even when relationships between countries are bad, it's important to keep so OED. 9 The ability t .isimporsant when you have deaf friends. 10 Letter writing has largely been replaced by sa Working from context 3 Which forms of communication do these sentences relate 10? 1 Tonly follow people that follow me, ard [never open DMs from people I don't know. 2. You're through to Ms Grubshaw. 3. There seeras to be a problem with the printing mechanism, so you'll have to sendit away to be repaired. 4 Standing there with your hands in your pockets in an unironed shirt and shoes that have neve: known polish; what kind of impression doyou tink you're making? Some mies oes ot és 6 Lonly recently found out that by hold ng down a key for longer, it makes the number appear rather than a leter. Use more expensive paper and have your address and contaet details printed at the top ofthe page you want to make a professionel impression. rr Spotlight on exam skills 1 Short-answer questions 1 Read the questions (whieh follow the order of the text) and underline key words, 2 Scan the text, looking for the key words er synonyms and paraphrase. 3 Check the word limit required and stick to it! 4 Look at what structure (eg. plural, verb frm, prepositions) is require. 5 Make sure you copy words accurately. 6 ‘You can write mumbers as words or figures (len or 11) 7 Hyphenated words count as one word. 1 Read this passage, then answer the questions below. Choose NO IMORE THAN ‘TWO WORDS 'from the passage for each answer. Not just a lot of hot air "There isa revolution going on in Africy; nota political _as in tural arensitis common for many people to share a” ‘ene, but an economic one. The drivingforce behind this _single phone, which explains why researchers clain that | _=evolution is the humble mobile phone. Once the preserve around 80% 0 Africans use mobile phones regulady. of the elite (which was also the case in Europe an Although rany associate the continent principally with “America not so long ago), the mobile phone is now ‘areas of business such as farming and mining, both of | ubiguitests as there are over 600 million African Which do have long and sticcessful history there, we Subscribers, from Morceco and Tunisia in the north to Should not mek the mistake of assuming that there is South Afsics, with 93 malion in Nigers ane, putting it any less busines innovation in Afeea than in the tthe op ofthe list However, others, ke Egypt arenot industrialized nations. The banking industry has Loon ‘behind and changes im sales taxes in Kena, for ‘quick to see the potential of increased phone use, end ‘example, resulted in a 200% increase of sales in’one year. many Africans notably in Kenya with 8.5 millon users, Even this figure doesnot truly rfieet the number of users, now do their banking via a mobile phone. 1 Whatis the cause ofthe great change that is taking place throughout Attica? 2 Whici social class has lost its monopoly of mobile phone use? 3, Where do most African mobile-phone users live? 4. Where are phones most likely to be co-cwned? . 5, Whici area of business has taken most advantage of mobile phone usage? 2 Look at these answers to Exercise 1. Which of them are incorrect, and why? Make any corrections that are necessary. 1 mobil phone 4 rural area 2 theelte 5 farming and mining 3 in Nigeria alone Comments © Incorrect: Check the spelling ~ the answer is mobile phone. Correct : Incorrect: Check the word limit - the answer is Nigeria OR in Nigeria. Incorrect: This should be plural — the answer is rural areas. Incorrect: Answer is wrong (be careful when the question repeats key words fromthe text, as they are often distractors) and too long ~ should te banking / banking industry. . ndit that 3. Answer these questions IN NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS. 1 Whatis the topic of the main story ii today's news? 2 What hasbeen the biggest surprise for you this week? 3 Whatdo you most admire about your favourite person? 4 How would you improve the educational system of your country? 5 What's your main ambition for this year? the 3 Communication | 33 34 3 Communication + | 8 How far does a whale song carry? 4 Find an interesting story in today’s news, Make a list of cuestions that start: © What..? @ Why..? @ How..? @ Towhatextent...? © Inwhich...? @ Accordingto,...? @ Givea reason for... How many can you answer in three words or fewer? Matching headings 5 You are going to read a passage called Whale communication on page 35. The text has six untitled paragraphs A-F. Choose the correct heading for each Paragraph ‘rom the list of headings below (i-ix). —_— | Questions 1-6 | i Musical futures: i Sod mystery solve | | The aventiveness of song (7 y Sing ng effects aeons 1 Paragraph A . 6 Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. a ten Questions 7-12 7 What is the length of an individual whale song? | 9 What sound do whales emt in an effort to locate food? 10 What are whales in the same schoo! believed to display through song? 411 What inncvation enabled whales to be hunted in dramatically larger numbers? 12 What measures have been suggested to protect whales? 7 Find words or expressions in the passage which mean the same as the following, 1 nearly complete darkness (paragraph C) avery short period of ime (paragraph C) especially (oaragraph D) have some function (paragraph D) Start a journey / have the intention of paragraph E) when two object strike each other witk force (paragraph E) impressive and inspiring (paragraph E ‘suggest or indicate that (paragraph F) SS ae | Whale communication . tis only comparatively recently that we have become aware ofthe hauntingly Dboautiful sounds made by humpback whales. The hydrophone, microphone that ‘can be used in water, was developed by the Betish scientist Ernest Rasherford, and is particularly good at detecting the prosence of submarinos urderwater. During the Cola War, a Fermudian, Frank Watlington was working forthe US government, and it was his job o use hydrophones to listenout for Russian submarines, While ‘he was doing this, Watlington noticed that humpback whales appeared to ‘sing’. Later, Watlingtor's work was taken up by two other researchers, Roger Payne and Scott McVay, who studied the nature of these kumphack whale ‘gongs’. They found that the various sounds produced by the whale formed a song which lass for about ‘90 minutes and is hen repeated by the whale ‘or hours or evendaye. Scientists believe thare are two main reasons jor whales to make soun ts: ‘echolocation, so thatthe whales know what objects (and perhaps food) are around ‘hem; and communication, Whales are capable of cormmunicating to other whales over huge distances. Sound waves travel faste: through water (around. | kilometre per second) than through air, and the sound ofa whale can travel thousands of Inlometres through the oceans. Many different species of whale are capable o' making noises and some of them (aswell as dolphins and porpoises) are believed to use echolocation. Some whales look for food, sich as squid, down to a depth cf 1.8 kilometres, and at that depth there is virtually 20 light at al. Without being able fo locate thox food, the whales are going to go hungry. The whales send ont ssries of clicks and listen out for the ‘echo ofthe sound, From this, the whale is able to work out whatis around it and ‘can respond accerdingly. The eystem whales tse is highly complex, bt itis, similar fo the way that you can tell direction ofsound. You have two ears and when ‘a sound is made, ‘he sound reaches one ear a taction of a second befcre the other, ‘From this information, your brain can work outthe direction of the sound. Imaddition to echolocation, some whales, mos! notably the humpback whale, are ‘capable of producing alzange of notes which appear to be a form of ‘communication. Fumpback whales in one schcol (as groups of whales are known) ‘tend fo sing virtually the same song. Perhaps like footoall supporters they are demonstrating group identity, showing that they belong to the same school. Other schools, particularly those found in other oceans, sing songs which are quite different, It is alsc quite likely thatthe songs py a role in courtship. It is generally the males that sing, so perhaps they aro also trying to attract females. Fox millions of years, whales have swum in the great oceans ofthe vrorid and only recently have they had fo contend with a predcior: man. Inthe 18th and 16th centuries, many countries had fleets of ships which set out o bring back whales, The 20th century saw the development of factory ships which wore capable of ‘ulling and processing thousands of whales. Inthe 1930s, over 50,000 inhales were ‘lied annually. wasn’t until 1986 that a moratorium was agreed to stcp whale ‘hunting, and scioatists hope that the number ofwhales will recover. So-can the ‘whales of the word now cruise about without acaxo in the world? Sadly not. The growth of trade inthe world has meant that the:e are now more ships, particularly lange container stips, than ever before. Infact, the Worldvride Fund for Nature WWF) says that large numbers of northern right whales are killed in collision with ships. But itis rot only the physical danger tha ships present. The loud noises of ships’ engines are very likely to disturb the whales, and the WWF have called for shipping resizictions in cortain areas. In recent years, here have been many casos o! whales dying or, beaches. Could te reason for these tragedies have somethingto do with the no'se polhtion that these majestic creatures have to live with? There is no definite answor 70 the ‘question, but it has attracted considerable research, and findings seer to point to. rma’s industrial activities in the ocean. With an ever-growing need for oil, more and more drilling takes place offshore. To asse3s the likelihood of the presence of oil, seismologists sse sonar to workout the underlying geology. The scunds used in such tests are believed by some people to have a highly damaging effect on ‘whales, either simply disrupting their method of communication, or, some scientists believe, actually killing them. With an ever-increasing aman population ‘and dirindling resources, whales face an uncertain future. While it is likely that ‘we will ever know exactly why whales producing their whale songs, the vrotld will bea much poororplace without them. 3 Communication 35 36 3 Communication Spotlight on language Prefixes 1 Look at these words taken from the article on page 35. Without looking back at the text, match the two parts of the word (1-3 to a-c), then match each word to Its definition (ill). 1 kilo a metre i avehicle which can operate underwater 2 hydro’ b marine ii an instrument which can 3e used to record sound in water 3 sb ¢ phone ii aunit of distance equivalent to one thousand metres 2 Use a dictionary to find more words with these prefixes. Lkilo- 2 hydro- 3 sub- 4 tele S bie 6 pos 7 pre~ Keep a list of new words with these prefixes in your notebook. ht on exam s| Topic sentences ‘One good reeson for paying particular attention tothe firstline of paragraph is that this is normally the topie sentence. The funeticn of atopic sentence is fo express the main idea of the paragraph, This is essential guidance forthe reader as to what the paragraph will be about. ‘Topic sentences generally consist of two parts the topic itself and he controlling idea. ‘You ean thirk ofthe topic in terms of nouns or noun groups, eg. fe in the 20th century, =the importarce of social media, the communication of whales. These example topics are quite genera, probably too general forthe writer to tackle effectively. | Ce os Ua eee Cee ee Reuinches el] usually reveals the writers opinion or atitade towards the topic, o- highlights a specific | focus that defines, ot limits, what the weiter will write about. Consequently, i indicates | | | the direction ofthe paragraph, Look at this example ‘The basis of any foreign language can be mastered given suictent me and practice ‘The topic isin bold, the controlling idea i in italics. It clearly states an opinion that defines and limits the topic. The reader would expect te rest of the text to deal withthe time clement and the sor of practice that will help you master a language. 1 Decide which ate the topics, and which the controlling ideas, in these sentences. 1. People ean overcome communicatior barriers by thinking carefully about the ‘message they hope to impart. 2 There areseveral advantages,to legrning foreign languages at school. 3 Publicly available computer applications require litte knowledge of programming, skills for obvious reasons, 4 Newborn babies learn to become effective communicators qalckly fora number of vital reasons. 5 Learning how to get what you want in business is not difficcitif you follow these steps 6 There areseveral ways to make a profit from starting your own blog. 7 Languages die out for a range of different reasons, 8 Successful advertising depends on specific features that capture the attention of the public, 2 Discuss whether you think these sentences follow on logically from the corresponding topic sentences in Exercise 1. 1 Fallure to do this can result in anything froma simple misunderstanding between friends to causes of acute personal embarrassment and even los: business contracts at worth millions of dollars. to 2 AsLatin has no native speakers, itis considereda dead language, which is why some argue that itis a waste of time to study it. 3. The various programming languages our technology depends on share many ‘common features. 4 Ifthey did not establish lines of communication with their carers, they would soon die, as they are incapable of feeding o protecting themselves frm danger. 5 First, you must be very clear about what you want when you start any business transaction, and thet in turn requires you to think about what your cent wants from you: 6 Blogs have grown enormously in popularity inhe past 18 months, and this is a trend that isset to continue. 7 Two interesting examples are gradual language death, which occurs when ininority languages are in contact with a dominant language ~as isthe case with American Indian languages and English — and bottom-to-iop language death, which is the process ofthe language beginning to change in places such as the home and the street until it only survives in special contexts such as religious services, 8 All advertising is an appeal to an audience to become a consumer ofa given product or service of some scr. comments gs 1 Yes. It presents the consequences of failure to think carefully about intended messages 2. No. Itdoes not link withthe controlling idea that there are advantages to - learning languages. 3 No, It does not link to the controlling idea that the reasons are obvious. 4 Yes. It provides examples that explai se itis vital for babies to learn t0 communicate. F 5 Yes. tis the first step mentioned in the controlling idea. 6 No. Itis about blogs, but is not linked logically to the controlling idea, which is about ways of making money. 7 Ye cites examples of the different reasons language death can o« 8 No. It doesn’ link o the controling idea, which makes the reader expect information on the specific features of advertsing that capture the attention. 3 Read back through the texts you have read in the first three units of this book to find topic sentences and controlling ideas. ‘Be careful: not all types of text have topic sentences. Narratives, descriptions af processes and descriptive texts may not have topic sentences, asthe development of idexs and argurients are perhaps not the main focus of these text types. Word-building practice 4 Check in your dictionary to find expressions using these words and phrases. speach 7. sped FOE ons Multiple choice verbs, dates, etc, questions style, ete 1 Read the questions and undertine the key words, which sre usually nouns, names, 2 Scan the text and underline the key words and synonyms or paraphrases ftom the 3 Be careful: ifthe same word(s) are in the option and in the tent, it might be a distractor. Check the logic and meaning, not just the words, 4 Remember that the questions may focus on specific facts ot opin-ons 5 ‘The final cuestion may test your understanding of the cext as a whole — its purpose or 6 When you have identified the right place nthe tex, careilly analyze each option (A-D) one by on 5 You are going to read a text about how languages change. Before you read, what do you think the text will say about the following? 1 animals 2 Latin 3 research into languages 4 language learning 5 age 6 culture 6 Read the text below to see if you were right. Language is one of the defining characteristics. of humans, and one of the key features that distinguishes humans from animals, so language loss raises serious questions about our history, our humanity and perhaps abotit our future, too. Any study of the history of anguage shows that languages, like humans, develop over time. According to sone estimates, around 7,000 languages are still spoken in the world. This number is an indication of the diversity, vitality and range of human experience in all comers of the globe. Butnot all those languages are equally healthy. Continuing the metaphor of growth and +. development, while some languages are robust and powerful, others are in the process of diseppeating, In fact, research indica:es that languages are dying out at an unprecedented rate, Some believe that by 2100, the vast majority of these languages, perhapsas many as 99% of them, will no longer exist in the spoken medium. If this were plant life, or whales and dolphins, the outery would be enormous. Yet, surprisingly, there seems to be little interest in this terrible attrition. To understand why and how this is happening, itis useful to look at some of the misunderstandings about language. An 38 3 Communication important distinction is the difference between ‘an extinct language and adead language. When many of the spoken languages of the Native American Indians were replaced as a result of colonialism by English, French, Spanish or Portuguese, they became extinct. ‘Acdead language may share many features ‘with an extinct language, but a erucial distinctions that there may be situations where a dead language stil serves a purpose. Typical exemples would be the use of the Janguage in special scientific, egal or religious “contexts. Latin, by this definition, is dead but not extinct. Let us take this example further, It is true that Latin has no living native speakers, and no children learn it at their mother's breast. Yet ti still studied in sct0ols and universities, and the literarure is still available and widely read, though that is not sufficient to bring it to life. In linguistic terms, the Latin spoken by the soldiers, traders and settlers — Vulgar Latin, as opposed! to the classical form spoken and written by the Roman upper classes ~ wes subject to the normal process of change that languages commonly experience, and eventually developed into the family of Romance languages like French, Italian and Spanish. Old English similarly has no native “shes now, but did not become extinct it sy morphed into Middle English, then ‘Exc Modern English and so on until it the modern English we speak now. Lesguage has never been static. All living ses embody change, and always have isin the nature of languages to change = Sime. This reflects the process by which Sof us learns our own language. We can g0 ced the obvious difference in language use cen children and adults and assert that no speakers of any language actually speak scally. People from different regions-even sound different. Even within families ‘Shtly knit speech communities, factors see = age, gender, education, intelligence, Sosty, openness to risk and new sences result in slight differences in Through encounters with others, we across new words, different tions, and subtly or explicitly these integrated into our speech. These , tiny though they may individually ‘sehen together build a picture of language ‘being in a state of constant flux and ant. AS no one speaker ever speaks -ectrety of the language in all its variants, “eS all its vocabulary, and no two speakers ‘Se language identically, it follows that the ge itself is a shifting force. ‘What we are witnessing today isa clear “Sesonstration of what many find an ortable truth. Languages compete for ‘Dominant languages attract speakers wn minority languages for a variety of chiefly including prestige, education ‘employment. This happens over time, and in several stages, For example, speakers, Gece to replace elements of their mother swith something from the language they ‘strracted towards. And should their home have some element that is absent the new target language, speakers may st There may even be a stage where cers are functionally bilingual, but this ‘seemally fadein favour of the dominant in the process known as assimilation. “Fe Bes not always been voluntary. In the "SS conquering armies or administrations subjugated a community and imposed ‘Se = of their language, perhaps on pain of “Sot or other less Severe consequences. Sewedays, itis largely cultural forces that are "= eck behind assimilation. In our global “ssseomy, languages with global reach offer more possibilities of every type. Local diclects end languages spoken in isolated communities reall at risk. ‘There are many cases of languages in terminal decline, with members of the younger generation no longer being able to have a conversation in the language of their grandparents because they have switched toa new, more global, less local language. In such cases, although the language is still spoken, it is moribund, and language death can be predicted with certainty as the transmission of the language from one generation to another has ended. This is normally a slow process that takes place over several generations, with each set of children learning less and less of the language of home. Finally, the language only exists in the domain of traditional use, where it might be recited in poetry or song, or used in religious or ritual contexts, Should we be more worried? Precisely because language death isa natural phenomenon, many believe little can be done 4o prevent it, and we should let nature tase its course. There are even voices that applaud the logic of a move towards asingle global language, a unifying force that they claim ‘would put an end to misunderstandings between nations and individuals. ‘What is lost when a language ceases to exist? Languages constitute immense stores of accumulated human knowledge derived from thousands of years of experience. In these times of instant messaging via email, texts and ‘Twitter, it may come as a surprise to learn that ‘most languages through history have not been written down at all, but have lived in the cultures, routines and memories of people who have developed the skills and strategies that have enabled them to-create systems of survival appropriate to the environments and ‘Grcumstances they inhabit, These languages are records of the plants and animals the people shared their envircnment with, the ways they were used or feared. They can be compared to catalogues of stories, weather patterns, social norms, local traditions, sengs, sayings, ways of living, loving, fighting, and conducting trade and business. For linguists, languages are much more than collections of words. Above all, they are records of cultural heritage and ways of expressing a community's relationships with nature, between themselves and the wicler worle, 40 3 Communication 7 Read the text again and answer these questions. Questions 1-5 Choose the correct letter, A, B, Cor D. 1 Inthe fst pragrap, the writer expresses suprise that ‘A so many lmguages ar inthe press of sapearing 'B not many people cen concemed about he loss of languages. language change spear to be speeding up. D there are still so many languages being spoken. 2 According to the writer, the main difference betiveen dead and extiret languages is ‘8 nobody peaks dead languages B extinct languages are not sud at schol or univers there are sbustions when dead language: are used D eatinet languages ied Yo resist the normal proces of change, 3 The attraction of dominant languages is A they are easier to learn than minority languages. B people ean practise elements of them at Lome. C they appear to offer a better life to their speakers. D they encourage people to be bilingual. 4 A language may be considered in terminal decline ‘A when different generations cannot understand one another, B in cases where several generations each Lave fewer children, C unless children are interested in traditions such as poetry and song. D if grandchikiren have not learned the language of their grandparents. 5 Language lossis: ‘A we lose the ability to read and understané the old languages. B cack languzge can teach usa unique history of life in one part of the world C some languages are not suited to modem forms of communicatior, D iit is not something we should think of asa natural process. Pick from a list In this question “orm, you have to pick correct answers from a list. You will be asked to. pick a number of answers from a list of options ~ perhaps three answers from between six and eight options. The answers may not be in text order. Read the rubric carefully to make sure you know how many answers you are expected to give. © It helps to underline the key words in each question thar help you identify the sort of information required. The answers may be based on specific information, in which case you should unerline the key words in the text. (© The answers may also be based on a undersanding of the author's opinion, so you need to read the text carefully (© Check that your answers match thé numberof answers stated in the rubric. |B Underline the key words in the question and options below, then do the task. Which THREE of the following things are mentioned in the text? A How an app funetions B What application software may be used for © The length of time that apps have existed D The bright future of application software E Who writes the apps F The percentage of people using mobile apps G The problems associated with tse of mobile apps Apps “Application software has been around for decades and allows the user to perform various tasks, such es decument manipulation or modification of digital Images. With the advent of rore powerful mobile phones, a huge new field of robe aplication, or apps has evelope Many apps ste wate by enthusiasts and are availablefor free. Others are developed by companiesand given away for free in the ho>e that you will upgrade to en app which is rot Free, but with better features dr with no advertising, For apps that are not ee, the money s normaly divided between the app develope (around 77) andthe distribution provider (around 25%). Games are one of the most popular apps, with over 90% of smartphone users playing a mobile gare at least once a week. Comments. A Incorrect: There is no mention of how an app functions. You are unlikely to get a very technical description in the IELTS test ee B Correct: Document manipulation, modification of digitsl images and games are mentioned. = wie = © Correct: The fist line states that application software has been around for decades. ee E Incorrect: While apps certainly appear to have a bright future, thereisno mention of it in the text. Be careful not to make judgements based on your own ‘general knowledge rather than what isin the te E Correct: Both enthusiasts and companies are mentioned as writers of apps. F Incorrect: While some percertage figures are given, they don’t refer to the percentage cf people using mobile apps. = G Incorrect: There is no mention of the problems associated with the use of mobile apps. = a 9 Now look back at the text on language on pages 38-39 and do Questions 6-8 ° Choose THREE letters, A-G. ‘The list below gives some reasons for language change. Which THREE reasons are mentioned by the writer of the text” ‘A occupation or control by powerful foreign nations B modern methods of communication C the desire each person feels tobe different D anagreed need fbra global larguage E the influence of our contacts with others F the natural consequence of the passage oftime G the increasing demand for bilingual speakers 3-Communitation © 41 a2 3 Communication _Mocabulary builder 2 Prepositional phrases Fe good way of improving your fluency in English is to make a collection of useful prepositional phrases. They are a gular feature ofall types of speaking and writing and + often form key ‘chunks’ ofa text, Every time you read a test, make a list of useful new expressions with prepositions. 1 Complete these sentences with the correct prepositions. Check your answers b looking for the bold phrases in the text on pages 38-39 (they are not all in sequence), then find five more useful examples in the text. 1 Thereare a number of ways.. Jooking at this question, 2 Weare. the process of changing’our computers, 3 Weplan to introduce these chenges. tages. 4 There are considerable differences. -~ ability between adults and childr earning new languages 5 Planning what you want to say generally results... effective message. 6 Chiidren often learn new languages easily, as apposed tend to slave away with books and private lessons. 7 Thecompany developed several years into a worldwide business, 8 Weare moving +s situation where all ecmmunieation will tase place virtually amore adults, who Organizing words 2 Add these organizing words and expressions to the correct categories in the ‘table below. One expression may fit in more than one category. J ontopofthat 2 meanwhile 3 likewise 4 in short 5 asfallows 6 claim 7 hence 8 whereas describing procedures the next step, once you have done that, at this point time sequences initially, at first, subsequently, thereafter, finally giving examples such as, for instance, to give an example, to illustrate the «Point, by way of example, a case in point, as is witnessed by proof of this cussing results | consequently, as a result ‘comparing alike, in the same manner, similarly, not only .. butalso, in the same vein, of a similar nature, correspondingly, a furthe instance, a related case, more or less, nat in the least, to a lesser degree contrasting actually, however, yet, in contrast, on the other hard, alternatively, differ from, although ‘adding information additionally, in addition, what's more, besides, moreover, in the same vein reporting information | according to, assert, maintain, argue a case, make a case, present en argument, believe concluding to sum up, in conclusion, thus, finally summarizing ina word, to sum up, allin al, taken as a whole 3 Chose the most logical continuation (A-D) of each of these sentences. 1 Before man went into space, many animals were launched inte orbit; for instance .. A they were testing to se if man could cope with the conditiors. : B adog. fruits, a dog and a chimpanzee. D using a rocket ard a parachute. 2 Many people were concerned! about the possible health risks of mobile-phone masts. Consequently .. A there was a series of masts built all over the country. B_ masts were disguised as trees. C the health risks were never investigated. D many people were not concerned about the problem any mere, 3 Many people think of Morse code as being a slow method of communication, but actually t.. A Is used by the USNavy. B is both speedy and effective when used by experts is widely used by many people around the world. D was invented by Thomas Edison. 4 Although 7 roo pie ene wa ara aa ee nee. B fax machines are no longer used as email Is cheaper and faster. € forms of social media such as Twitter are comparatively new, they have become ‘an important means of communication. D people in Aitica have an opportunity to use their mobile phenes asa ‘bank account. 5 Not only do many people pay high roaming charges for their mobile rhones, they also. A have problems uaderstanding the rates offered by the variovs companies. B enjoy high-speed internet connection. € travel to many different countries. D have many applications which can help them find their destination, dren ‘Comments 2 1 For instance implies that there will be some examples, which s not the casein A (or D. In8, only one example is given, so the correct answer isC. 2 The word consequently shows that the results will be described consequences, and is illogical, so 8 is the correct answer. 3 The word actually mplies that you are contrasting something and A, C and D are not. B is the correct answer, as it contrasts slow with speedy. 4 The word although implies a contrast. in D, only one thing is mentioned. In A, there are two things mentioned, but they are not being contrasted. in 8, two things are mentiored and they are being contrasted, but the senterce structure doesn't work with although. Only C is the correct answer. = 5 Not only... (but) aso tells us that further similar information is coming. The first part of the sentence is something bad (high roaming charges! and in 8, Cand D, ‘the second parts are all positive, so the answer is A. : and Care not 3 Communication «43 > ciasszo0m workout Them and us ‘© Work in groups. Each group chcoses a diferent continent. © In your groups, do some researc using encyclopaedias, newspapers or magazines, online sources to fin ~ which animals are in danger o disappearing on that continent, and why ~ what arguments there are for protecting these animals. ‘¢ Prepare a presentation to the other groups about what you have found. ¢ Havea class vote on the most eflzctive means of rotecting the animals. > ‘CHECK YourseLF © Makea lst of 10-15 diferent prefixes, For each prefix, ty to find three diffrent useful words, (© Write down five facts you know about diferent forms o communication as aresul reading the textsin this unit. > summary Tn thisuait, you: ¢ looked at communication collocations, How mary did vou writ in your notebook? ¢ read about whale communication. Are you optimistic or pessimistic about the futur of whales? © studied word-building with prefses. This sa great way to expand your vocabulary. ‘What can you do to continue learning new words with arefixes? ‘© read about topic sentences and controlling ideas. How can this help you find an ans inthetext? © studied ‘matching headings’ questions. Why ist mportant to read the whole text before choosing an answer in thistask type? © Tooke at prepositional phrases. These are useful when you see language In chunks Tatherthan as individual words aad can help speed up your reading, How meny wer new fer you? + © looked at organizing words, These will help you get a better idea ofthe flow ola text and ail prediction. Ifyou have a good idea of what is coming next, then you kavea better chance of understanding the whole text. How many expressions were new toyou? Overtoyou + 1 Havea discussion with your friends about which forms of communication you think are most and least imporcant. 2. Goonline and find out about what forms of communication might be available soon, 3 Find a newspaper or magazine article or an online debate where people discuss advantages and disadvantages of social media and make a note of their arguments. 3 Communication aa >>>>r>>: 3 Communication > classroom workout Them and us ‘© Work in grcups. Fach group chooses ailferent continent. ‘© In your groups. do some research using encyclopaedias, newspapers oF magazines, and online sources to find: ~ which animals are in danger of disappearing on that continent, and why ~ what arguments there are for protecting these animal ¢¢ Prepare a presentation tothe other groups about what ou heve found, ‘© Have a clas: vote on the most elective means of protecting the animals, > cHeck yoursetr © Make a lst of 10-15 different prefixes. For each prefix, try to find three different useful words. «© Write down five facts you know about diferent forms 6! communication asa resultof reading the exts in this unt > summary In this unit, you: © looked at communication collocations. How many did you write in your notebook? © read about whale communication. Are you optimistic or pessimistic about the future of whales? © studied word-building with prefixes. This is a great way to expand your vocabulary, What can you do to continue learning new words with prefixes? © read about tople sentences and controlling ideas. How can this help you find an answer: in the text? ‘© studied ‘matching headings’ questions. Why is it important to read the whole text before choosing an answer inthis task type? © looked at prepositional phrases. These are useful when vou see language in chunks rather than as individual words and can help speed up your reading. How many were new for you! © looked at organizing words. These will Lelp you get a better idea of the flow ol'a text and aid prediction. Ifyou have a good idea of what is coming next, then you have a better chance of understanding the whele text, How many expressions were new toyou? Over to you ‘ 1 Have a discussion with your friends about which forms of communication you think aremost and least important, 2 Goonlineand find out about what forms of communicatior might be available soon, 3 Find a newspaper or magazine article or an online debate where people discuss acvantages and disadvantages of social media and make « note of their argements, Work and money In this unit, you will © discuss the skills needed for diflzrent jobs ‘© study and practise matching names © study and practise matching sentence endings. Getting started 1. How do you think the people in the photo are feeling? 2 A job interview can be a difficult experience. Which of these ideas would you recommend to a friend before an interview? '® Do your homework and read up on the company @ Look the interviewer in the eyes and give him or her history; make sure you check its marketing materials a strong, confident handshake. You're the kind of and mission statement before the interview so you person who gets results ~ that’s the message you can make some reference to them. Give some serious _want to give. thought to what questions you can ask aboutthe © Make a deliberate effort to find out the name of the ‘company and the job during the interview. interviewer and use it on several occasions during ‘© Invest in some new clathes so you make a good the interview. impression at the interview. Do your best io look @ ‘Make it clear that you are ambitious andl are smart. If your clothes are coming apart at the seams, determined to work hard to get to the top and run so will your hopes o* getting the job, ‘your own business ané day, ‘@ Have a look in a mirror before you make your way @ Ifthe interviewer makes a oke, laugh loudly to into the interview room. All your good work will, show that you've got a great sense of humour, and come to nothing if they remember you forthe piece * that you can get on well with people. tf spinach stuck to your teeth. © Don’t make the mistake of arriving with just minutes ‘© Prepare for the sort of questions most likely tocome _to spare. Give yourself plenty of time, up: your strengths, what qualifies you for the job, __@ Be modest about your skills. You don’t want to come reasons for leaving your current position. If asked ‘across as arrogant about weaknesses you may have, come clean about a @ Make a point of informing the interviewer ofall time when you tried to do too much but don'ttell_ your talents, You get things done and you've got a e them how you madea mess of your last relationship. good business head. 3 Read the advice again and make a list of useful expressions with these verbs. Lcome 2do 3 get 4gve 5 make 4 It’s a good idea to keep a list of expressions with common verbs. What expressions do you know with these verbs? 1go 2find 3 take 4 Work and money | 45 Samm Vocabulary builder 1 Jobs and professions 1 Put these jobs and professions into what you consider to be the correct categories in the table below. Each one may appear in more than one category, or they may not appear in any. chemical engineer firefighter mental-health nurse _shcpkeeper portrait photographer professional football player ballet dancer politician carpenter social worker historyteacher dentist computer programmer require alotof require a lot of likely to be in not given the natural talent study/aining great demand recognition they in the future deserve 2 Which three of the jobs in Exercise 1 would you most like to do? Which three jobs would you least like to do? Why? 3 Match each sentence beginning (1-12) to the correct ending (a-D. 1 Thave to make important decisions... Itdoesn't take a lot of courage to visit me. [joined because T hoped and still hope... Itcame as a shock to my parents... plan indetail because there's so mach . “My motivation is not to make a fortune... Helping people deal with problems is stressful... Iwork long hours, but always find the time ... I's physically demanding, and takes a lot of practice .. 10 Tenjoy working with péople... 11. My time!s taken up with research into new food preducts .. 12 Working on efficient software solutions involves expertise. a that can help feed the planet safely bb ..but to work with my hands ¢ «as it really is a painless experienice these days. 4... in diflerent subjects such as algorithms and formal logic. € .» and creating something with lasting memorles for them. f that I was earning so much so young, .« Yetincradibly rewarding at the same time, h i i k 1 warauewn .. to make a big difference to people'slives. .. to get to the top of the profession. to talk to customers, as it’s part ofthe service, that car. go wrong in a lesson. that car: be matters of life and death. 4 Which job(s] from Exercise 1 do you associate with each statement in Exercise 37 r Spotlight on exam skills 1 Identifying what is required ‘When you are looking for the answer to a question, there isa lot of text to consider and ‘you da not have time to te-tead the whole text far each question. Itis vital that you ‘identify exactly what you are ooking for ~ this will make te task of finding the eight answer a lot easier. Check the questions and pay attention t> whether you need to find a fact, a name, a number, an opinion or something else, and whether the answer is a singular or a plural, a present ora past, ec. 1 Underline the key words in these questions which indicate what scrt of answer to look for. Then suggest what the answer could be this will help your prediction skills.” * 1 In addition to banks, where do people in Switzerland invest their money? 2 What happens to British bank accounts that are dormant for more than 15 years? 3 What, according to Dr Kirg, was the most important factor which led to the banking crisis? 4 According to the text, who are the main instigators of banking changes in Uganda? 5 Which are the two most important decisions facing acouple planning to take out a mortgage? 6 How many people in Nigesia use thelr mobile phone to access their benk account? 7 What difficulties did the team have to overcome before they could sta-t their business? '8 How were small businesses in Denmark affected by the introduction of a new business tax? 2 Look in your dictionary and find five expressions with work that you think are useful. Looking at words in context In the text on page 48 about >mployment in Australia, there are a number of words and ‘expressions which may not be familiar to you. Here are tips to help you guess the meaning of unfamiliar words or expressions 1 Read the paragraph that the word or expression appears in so you know the topic and general focus ofthe txt. 2 Focus closely on the sentence with the new word or exoression, Read the words around the nev: item(s) ard check the grammar. What part of speech isthe new word fr expression? | 3 fies a verb, does it séem to be a verb of motion, possession, emotion, speech, change, ete? 4 If ies an adjective, does itscem to relate to quality, dimension, material, character, origin, ete? 5 Ifit's a noun, does it seem 10 be concrete or abstract, a ype of person, category of ‘object, et? 6 Try to guess whether it ins a generally positive or negative mening, 7 Look’2t the grammat: is txe verb present or past? Is it ative or pasive? 8 Look at how the word is formed. Words with prefixes such as dei, im, wn- ate likely to have an ida of negaivty ot absence. Words with suffixes suchas -atian, fit, sv are likely 10 relete to abstracts, qualities, processes, etc. If the word is part of a longer expression, doesit seem to be literal or idiomatic? {9 Sometimes you can guess the meaning because the word will relate to another word ‘or idea in the text, and may be a synonym, an opposite or an example 10 Pay atention to sound, to. Often the sound of 2 word can give an impression of something heavy, unpleasant, loud, etc. — or the opposite. | 4 Work and money | 47 Employees working longer to keep jobs Australians are being asked to work longer hours as bosses celay hiring new staff In the biggest jobs slowdown in two decades, now dataftom the Australian Bureau of Statisics reveals. ¥ Almost $0,000 workers were turfed out of their obs in the lead-up to Christmas, ‘with many who kept thelr obs asked to shoulder an ever-increasing burden, the Herald Sun reports, as employers have been asking staff to work longer hours, rather than taking on new workers: ‘While tere is less work available, we are also working harcer, with the number “of hours worked rising by 0.3 per cent in December,’ Commsec chief economist Craig James said. Mr James tipped unemployment to rise to as high as 5.7 per ccont this year. “Afior holding out for the past six months, Aussie busiresses have finally decided to bite the bullet. They have to, and that's why they have started culling staff — albeit modesty.” ‘The data came as acting Treasurer Bill Shorten warnad that more jobs could be Jostf conditions in Europe worsen. "There is a tough year ahead of us in Australia, " with big challenges in the global economy, which will inevitably impact on our ‘economy,’ he said, ‘The fall in employment in December surprised many economists who were forecasting an increase of 10,000 jcbs. Part-lime workers were hit hard in the lead-up to Christmas, with 63,700 stipped of employment. The figures showed {ulktime employment was up 24,600 last month. The uremployment figure actually remained stable on 5.2 per cent nationally, as fewer people looked for Z ‘work. Mr James said the dour figures would force the Reserve Bank’s hand for a Fobruary rate cut from the current 4.25 per cent. lope rom wn new 3 Read the passage and then choose the correct options for each of the words in bold. 1. Turfed out is a) noun /a verb and sesms b) postive / negative. Itmeans: A given extra money. B given less money, © dismissed. D head-tunted, . 2 Burden isa) a noun / an adjective and seems b) positive / negative. Ttmeans: A money. B load. C time. D work. 3. Tipped sa verb of speaking / emotion. Itmeans: A gave advice. B predicted © worried. D wroteon akeyboard. 48 4 Work and money 4 Bite the bullet is a) literat/ idiomatic and seems b) postive / negative. ‘Temeans: A choose to do something unpleasant. B take arisk. C fel positive about the future. D dosomething illegal 5 Culling isa verb ofa) action / thinking and seems b) positive / negative Itmeans: A getting rid of, B employing. C behaving badly towards. D supporting. ; 6 Douris an adjective of a) quality / size and seems b) sostive / negative, Itmeans A impressive. B long term, © unexpected. D depressing. 7 4 Match each source of infcrmation (1-3) with the correct statement below (A-E). There are two statements which do not match any of the sources. 1 Craig James 2 Herald Sun ; 3 Bill Shorten A Economie changes in otter countries will influence the situation in Australia. B There are fewer job vacarcies being advertised at present, © Workers are being put under pressure to work mote. D Further increases in the number of people without work are likely. E The problem of unemployment aflects some groups of workers particularly harshly. Dealing with unknown words 5S Try the following to improve your ability to deal with unknown words. ‘© Bach day this week, find an article online or from a suitable newspaper or magazine that contains 10-15 words or expressions that you don't know. © Spend ten minutes guessing what the words mean without using a dictionary. Then see how accurate your guesses were, © Keepa score of how many words you guess more or less correctly each day. Ifyour score improves from day 1 to day 7. well don2. We recommend that you continue to practise like this once a week, Ifyour score has not improved much, then. continue with dally prac:ice for two more weeks. Vocabulary builder 2 Paraphrase practice Effective readers have lange vocabularies. One of the keys tc success in IELTS is to develop large vocabulary of synonyms. 1 Match the words on the left (1-19) to those on the right (a-s) that have the sam or similar meanings. 1 tucrative “a lack 2 employer b wrong 3 reason © produce 4 mbtaken 4 belie? 5 shortage € outcome 6 manofacture f characteristic 7 normally & profitatle 8 arfificial h undertake 9) result i attribute 10 basis j factory owner 11 pactly k in part 12 opnion 1 various 13. perform, m motive 14 often 1m foundation 15 several o start 16 feature P man-made 17 esential 4 regularly 18 create r vital 19 ascribe 8 generally 2 This paragraph contains many words or expressions that have similar meanings to those in Exercise 1. How mary can you find? Any economist will agree that entrepreneurs are crucial tothe ‘development of every branch of industry. Frequently, the most successful ‘are those serial entrepreneurs who have set up multiale businesses in the ‘course oftheir careers. Research traditionally explains the success of these individuals who find themselves bosses ofa string of prosperous businesses in terms of traits such as risk-taking and competitiveness. However, genetic analysis carried out in America suggests that ths view may be erroneous, or at best only true toa certain extent. According to some social scientists, serial entrepreneurs are actualy distinguished! more by their sociability. Thoir findings are the first ttempt to ‘demonstrate that business success could have genetic roots. This represents a new approach tp how to understand this category of ‘entrepreneurs and the driving force behind their innovations. rt teeter 3 In each of these sentences, decide if the word in brackets has the same meaning as the word in bold. 1 The new visa restrictions could have far-reaching consequences for companies involved in international travel. (serious) 2 News of local terrorist activity unsurprisingly Lad a dramatic impact on hotel bookings. (influencei ‘The government is seluctant to increase taxes again. (planning) 4 There have been further complications. (additicnal) 5 Altera successful career in banking, he eventually went on to become politician, ortunately) 6 Industry leaders agree that the decline in educational standardsis a growing problem, (issue) 1 Price rises would be likely to reduce demand for our products. (boost) In most Countries, there isa stigma attached to being declared bankrupt. (reward) ‘The situation has recently started to show signs of improvement. (ately) A period of work exserience ean enhance yourCV in the eyes of future employers. (improve) Hien Choosing words from a list Some of the exercises inthe IELTS test require you to complete sentences or nates using ‘words from a list. There are generally more words in te list than there-are gaps, so you Jhave to read carefully. Use these tips to help you. 1 Read the text and cherk what type(s) of word are required (0 fil exch gap —nouns, ‘verbs, adjectives, sumbers, ete. 2 See how many of each type‘of word there are inthe box, and see which fits best in the mp. ¥ 3 Check if you can use 1 word or phase more than once. A Make sure you spell the words correctly when writing the answers. 4 Complete the text below using words and phrases from the box. There are more choices than gaps, so you will not need to use ail of them, asan advantage bankruptcies computer creation deposit account | | doing well entrepreneurs failures foracharge forthebest happily | international joblosses large managers managing proliferation | se redundancycheque struggling solering ‘Nomatter how difficult the business climate is, there is always some good that can come from tough trading conditions. Although 1... are obviously a very ‘unwelcome sign that a business is not 2 common Surpeisingly, they can, in the Jong term, sometime Work OUt 3 ensennmnee A, ..companies are Torced to lose people, the result can be a 5 of small compantes starting up, as talented 6.. voottrn an idea into a business, often funded by a Zain i 5 Think of three different ways of summarizing the key ideas of the text in Exercise 4, focusing or: 1 entrepreneurs 2 redundancy cheques 3 tough trading conditions. 4 Work and money 51 Spotlight on exam skills 2 Matching names 1 You have © relat information to a number of people, places, categories or theories et. 2 Look atthe list of names, then scan the ext to find ther. Underline them inthe text. 3 Remember that names may appear in several places in the text. 4 Check the insrctions to see if names can be matched with just ene or more than cone option 5 There may be dstractors that do not match any name. 1 Read this text and choose the most suitable heading for each paragraph (A-D), Bye, bye banknote The End of Money by David Welman, reviewed by Jacob Aron ‘A Money in all its forms / No money'n my pocket / Is money evil? Ce ugh or cla rarove Youn te Poa ares olan nO can you? Increasingly money isan abstraction residing on 3 computer drive Hovriong wil te ut hard cueny spears apiber? Te Eno ‘Money, journalist David Wolman sets Out to discover what a cashless world ight ook lke and how we will arive there, On the way, he geis distracted by thoce on the fringes of society. The book opens with Glenn Guest, a US pastor who believes credit cards anc online banking are tools of Satan, designed to bring about the end of the world. An entertain-ng notion, but not relevant to anyone just fed up with carrying a cunk of change B_ Cash aud crime {Loose change / Curroncies and copies Later, Woiman visits Bernard von NotHaus, creator ofthe iberty Dollar ‘currency. Until 2009, it was available electronically, n note form and as coins though von NotHlaus denied they were coins, which he says only governments can mint. Such semantic wrangling failed to prevent him being found guilty of counterfeiting, Its rot surprising, asthe Liberty Dollar closely mimics many features ofthe US dalla, using “Trust in God! instead ‘af In Cod we Trust’ for example. Itseems odd to focus on stich a strange character when, as Wolman points out alterative carencies suchas the Brixton Pound in London succeed without falling foul oF tre law. © The cost of cash / Social consequences / Crime pays ‘The book is better when focusing on the real implfstions of moving away” from cash: a particularly good chapee details the mobile- banking revolution inthe developing worl, whichis slowing countries such as Kenya to : Teapirog the need for expensive ATM and banking infasteucture Interesting oo, ae the arguments for abolishing cach, suchas the fac hat making hard currency isa costly business, as maich av percent of annual Gross Domestic Product for some countries. Cash is used to prop up crime: ‘vale bills provide an anonymous way fo conduc transactions Uk excrange offices no longer take €500 notes after an inquiry found that nine inevery ten of them were used by criminals. D Alternative banking systenis | Téchsological money { The future is here So what might replace cash? Wolmen touches on energy as a unit of ‘currency, and whizzes through virtual currencies like World of Warcraft {g0ld, Facebook credits and Bitcoin, suggesting conversion software could let people oay using whatever they have fo hand. Ultimately, though, one the feetng that the cashless society x already with us, atleast for those that ‘want it. Early in the book, Wolman mentions his attempt to-avoid cash for anentice year, but other than a few awkward moments when splitting restaurant bills or passing lemonade stands, he rarclyrofere to st again — perhaps because parting with your cash is easier than You right expect dale tor ew Ss t 52 4 Work and money 2 Decide which category (A-E) each of the statements below (1-8) falls into. You may use any letter more than once. A alact or an opinion exoressed by David Wolman B fact or an opinion exoressed by Jacob Aron afact or an opinion exaressed by Glenn Guest D afact or an opinion expressed Bernard von Notfiaus Fa fact or an opinion not expressed inthe text Not having cash couldreduce costs of government. ‘No individual has the right to make coins. No society can manage without money. Not all alternatives to official currencies ace illegel Nobody should use credit cards. No computers are designed to manage our money, Nobody actually needsto use cash now. Nothing is more dangerous than carrying cash with you. 3 Complete these sentences using no more than TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the text for each answer. 1 One of the questions the book asks is how near is te time when we will live in @ society that 2 Von NotFfaus was unsuccessful in defending himelf against the charge of 3 In developing countries, people are using technolegy creatively toavoid ‘he difficulties and expense involved in establishing @ een 4 As research in the UK indicates their attraction to those involved ia crims, some high-value notes cannot be accepted in. Word building 4 a Without using your dictionary, look at the text and explain what these 3 expressions mean. Paragraph A Paragraph C 1 hard curreney 8 to leapficg the need for 2 sets out 9 acosily business 3 onthe way 10 to prop up (crime) 4 the fringes of society ees Paragraph B 11 touches en 5 mint (a coin) 12 whizaes trough 6 semantic wrangling 13 have to band 7 falling foul of 'b Now check in your dictionary to see if you were right. '5 Discuss with your colleagues the advantages and disadvantages of: 1 cash 2 cheques 3 credit cards 4 money alternatives such as bartering. 4 Work and money | 53 Matching sentences ) ‘This task type tests your understanding of the main ideas in a text. ) 6 You are going to read a text about an important development in the theory of ‘management. Before you read, discuss what you know about the following. 1 Henry Ford 2 mass production 3 how to motivate workers 4 the reed for flexibility at work the relationship between managers and workers Scientific Management in the workplace The ear and computer manufacturing plants, the work ‘environments we go to every day; the hospitals we are treated in, and even some of the restaurants we might cat inall funetion more efficiently due to the spplication ‘of methods that come from Scientific Management. In fact, these methods of working seem so cormonplace and so logical toa etizen of the modern world that itis ‘lmos. impossible to accept that they were revolutionary only 100 years ago, Scientific Management was developed in the first quarter of the 20th century: its father is commonly. accepied to be F.W. Taylor. Taylor recognized labor productivity was largely inefficient due to a workforce that functioned by “rales of thumb.” Taylor saried out, studies to ensure that factual scientific knowledge would replace these traditional “rules of thumb.” The backbone ‘of this activity was his “time-and-motion stidy.”" This involved analyzing all the operations and the motions performed in a factory, and timing them with a stopwatch. By knowing how long it took to perform. ceach of the elements of each job, he believed it would be possible to determine a fair day's work. Work, he contended, was more efficient when broken down into its constituent paris, and the maxagement, planning, and decision-making functions had been developed elsewhere. As this implies, Taylor viewed the majority of workers as ill-educated and unft to make imporiant decisions about their work. ‘Taylor's system ensured the most efficient way would be used by all workers, therefore making the work process standard. Invariably, managers found that ‘maximal efficiency was achieved by a subdivision of labor. This subdivision entailed breaking the workers’ asks into smaller and smaller parts. In short, he specified not only what was to be done, but also how was tobe done and the exact time allowed for doing it ‘One theory based on the Scientific Management ‘model is Fortism. This theory refers to the application of Henry Ford’s faith in mass production—in his case, ‘of ears—and combined the idea of the moving assembly line with Taylor's systems of division of labor and. piece-te payment, With Fordism, jobs are automated 54 4 Work and money ‘or broken down into unskilled or semi-skilled tasks, The pace of the continuous-flow assembly line dictated work But Ford’s theory retained the faults of Taylor's. Autocratic management ensured a high division of labor in order to effectively run mass produetion; this led to little workplace democracy, and alienation. Equally, ‘with emphasis on the continuous flow of the assembly line, machinery was given more importance than workers, ‘The benefit of Scientific Management lie within its ability providea company wit the focus to organize its structure in order to meet the objectives of both the ‘employer and employee. Taylor ound that the firms that introduced Scientific Management heeame the world’s ‘most carefully organized corporations. Scientific Management, however, has been criticized for “de-skillinz” labor. As jobs are braken down into their constituent elements, humans become litle more than “machines” in the chain. Their cognitive input is ‘not required: iis best if they do not have to think about their tasks. Yet the average intelligence of employees has risen sharp y; people have been made avware of thei value as humaa beings. They are no lenger content to ceive only financial reward for their tasks. It has been recognized that productivity ard success are not just obiained by controlling all faciors in the workplace, but by contributing to the social well-being and development o”the individual employes. Higher levels of access to technology and informatio, as well as increased competition, present another difficuky to theory of Sc entific Management in the 2Ist century, Modern orgarizatiors process huge amounts of input, and employees no longer work in isolated units eut off from the organization at large. Managers recognize they are unable to control all aspects of employees’ functions, as the number layers of information factored into everyday decisions is so high that it is imperative employees use their own initiative. High competition between organizations also ‘means that companies must react fast to maintain market positions. All this forces modem companies to maintain high levels of fexibility. In the era during which Scientific Management was developed. each worker had a specific task that he or she ‘had to perform, with litle or no real explanation of why, ‘or what part it played in the organization as a whole. In this day and age, it is virtually impossible to find ax ‘employee in the developed world who is not aware 0° ‘what his or her organization stands for, what their business strategy is, how well the company is performing, and what their job means to the company ‘ssa whole, Orgenizations actively encourage employee: to know about their company and to work across ‘departments, ensuring that commmunication at all levels is mixed and informal, ‘Another weakness in Scientific Management theory is that it can lead to workers becoming too highly specialized, therefore hindering their adaptability to new situations. Nowadays, employers not only want workers 10 be efficient, they must also exhibit flexibility. In conclusion, itcan be seen that Scientific Manag2ment is still very much part of organizations today, Its strengths in creating a divide between management functions and work functions have been employed widely at all levels and in all industries. In addition, its strengths in making orzanizations efficient through replacement of “rules of thumb” with ssientific fact ensured its widespread application, taptom wre ait ome 8 Complete this task. Questions 1-6 : Complete each sentence with the correct ending A-H. According to the article: 1 Productivity 2. Time-and-motion analysis ‘A. meant a job was reduced to a number of basic elements, B was considered undesiraste in the role of the workers. became specialized in certain unchanging work routines, D measured the exact time it ook to do each part ofa job. E carefully calculated wha: was required for the success of a business. F was an application ofa theory to mass production, took a critical view of the style of management. H suffered as a result of established inefficient practices. Questions 7-14 Complete this summary using the list of words A-N betow. Scientific Management thecties are responsible for many ofthe procedures in evidence in today’s companies. The key to this was the 7.. “analysis of what each jeb involved in order to replace’ .. ‘with scientific knowledge. True efficiency could ‘only be reached when the different processes in the workplace were made E Ford applied these principles to car production, where werkers did specific jobs an the 10 srennernnne« However, the theory was criticized for vewing people 88 UD nu mens fs they were expected to be able to perform their tasks Without 12 acces, Tit ‘motivation, aceording to the theory, was supposed to be smply 13. ‘Nowadays, companies recognize that the best results also depend on other factors, such as promoting the 1 9f the workers and tlcir professional and personal development, A labour productivity Hi de-skilling ! B time-and-motion division of labour © moving assembly line 3 Ainaneial reward . D stopwatch K standard E thinking Lmachines F rules of crumb Maverage intelligence G backbone IN social well-being ‘4 Work and money | 55 ! Vocabulary builder Social issues 1. How many paired expressions about social issues can you make using these words? Example: social issues Sai violence labour immigrants groups hate rates pregnancy domestic underege minorities teenage crime discrimination crimes 2 Discuss these questions. 1 In your opinion, what are the most serious social ssues allecting people where ‘you live? 2. Which problems could be solved by the following @ better education ‘© improved job opportunities © greater respect for individuals © more extensive hedltheare Word building 3 Rank these expressions according to how useful you think they are. antisocialbehaviour = + high society in today’ssociety ‘know hire socially social climber social engineering social life social skills social work socialite unsoclal hours 58» 5 Society and social issues ‘Summary completion 1 Complete these extracts with expressions from Exercise 1 on page 58. [feel most strongly about 2 cr.semmennes PdOK't think most young girls are ready to accept the responsibilities that go with motherhood. What's more, it elmost guarantees that they will be unable to finish ‘their education, and in al likelihood, that will have severe consequences for the sort of work they will he eble to find, ifany. Police figures coniirm that 3 have increased enormously over the past decade, with burclary and car theft rising dramatically in all areas of the country. While it is impossible to atfribute this to ane single cause, itis often pointed out that 4 as is a frequent motive for crime, as addicts struggle to get money to feed their addiction, which is why it should be a top priority to address the issue of drugs. A mark of any 5 is how it tolerates people from different backgroundsand people who have different lifestyles or ‘viewpoints. We have made tremendous progress in dealing with intolerance of all sorts. The end of 6 in the workolace ‘means that women are no longer paid less than men for the same job. Similarly, you can't discriminate against gay people on the grounds of their 7. These are positive steps. right that clothing companies should ensure involved in the manufacture of the clothes they sell because tno children ere 5 Society and social issues 59 | Ina multicultural society, different communities have to learn :0 get along with one another. Most people would say that 10 cenensnnine Bring Colour and new ferspectives that are to " 9e welcomed. They tend to work hard, often doing the jobs we consider beneath us. But in times of unamployment, it is common for people to blame ‘outsiders’ and in particular an sun fOr taking ‘our’ jobs, and extremists call for m to be repatriated. I don’t think it’s right that in the name of science we torture millions of fnnogent ereatures just so we can have better cosmetics, shampoos or even medicines. The systematic mistreatment o° dogs, cats, mice, rats, rabbits and others in this way is abuse, pure and simple, and we should be ashamed of it, Because I believe in 12 I won't wear fur, either, I How tolerant are we really? We preach tolerance, the ‘acceptance of those whe differ from us, but the reality Is that 13 . occur every day in all our cities. People are insulted, attacked or worse for being black, or gay, or followers of a diferent religion. Ask any members of 14 vo and they will tell you they know someone who has experenced this personally, and that it makes them feel like second-class citizens. Civil disturbance, the breakdown of law and order, is a symptom of deep problems in society and isoften sparked by a single incident that comes ater allengthy period of 15. ...Itean genenally be understood asa form of protest. In many cases, peacoful demonstrations have become violent as a small group which may or may not be organized causes chaos by their actions, whether flanned or unplanned, [Every sentence in a text serves @ purpose. Each sentence in some way relates back to the previous one, for example by adding more information, giving 2 contrasting oprnion or supporting an opinion with an example. Understanding how sentences relate to one another isa key reading skill. Iris also very useful when completing notes or summaries 60 5 Society and social issues 2 Read the extracts in Exercise 1 again to find expressions that are examples of: 1 causes 5 illustrations and examples 2 consequences 6 generalizations 3 facts 7 definitions 4 opinions 8 predictions | pe a | start with: ‘move on to: general point specific deals | statement Gualicaton ofthe statement pinion ——m—_ support forthe opinioe | guestion answer problem, solution 3. Which of the above patterns can you find in the extracts in Exercise 17 4 Complete these paragraphs so they are true fer you. ee Societies are based on both trust and tradition. An example of this is 5 sum nnnsnmnne€xtmiple of trust). In my country, opinions are divided about traditions. Some people think itis important to keep traditions such 356. {example of tradition). On the other hand, others do not ‘worry so much when traditions are lost. To give an example itis no longer common for young people in particular t07 snmmnmnnone (example . of tradition yourg people don't follow now). What this shows is that 8 (your interpretation of what is hapoening to traditions). In my opinion, in the near future, it is likely that 9 noun (prediction about future development) TE frnposebte tor Grsipa iniicuisis ap mace reset henge: Gre! problem these cays is that change Is happening more quickly than before ‘as a result of 10 (couse(s) of change). Of course, for some people, this is unwelcome and may even represent a threat to values and a _ Way of If they hold dear. These people are likely to try to protect the ite they are familiar with by 14. sn (actions they may take to do this). Others, for example 12, sn (QrOUPS who are in favour of change), are more open to change. : '5 Which social issues have appeared most recently in your national news? ‘Summarize the stories, paying attention to who, where, what, why, when and how. 5 Society and social issues | 61 Exam practice 6 You should spend 20 minutes on this task. 1 can put my cash card into an ATM anywhere in the world and take out a fistful o local currency, while the corresponding amount Is debited from my bank accaunt at home. I don't even think twice: regardless of the country, I trust that the system wll Work ‘The whole world runs on trust. We trust that people ‘on the street won't rob us, thet the bank we deposited money in last month returns it this ‘month, that the justice system punishes the guilty ‘and exonerates the innocent. We trust the food we buy won't poison us, and the pecple we let in to fix ‘our boiler won't murder us. Society is an interdependent system that requires widespread co-operation to function. People need to act in ways that are expected of them, to be Consistent and compliant. And not just individuals, but organizations and systems, but in any co- operative system, there is an alternative, parasitic strategy available ~ cheating. A parasite obtains the benefits of widespread co-operation while at the same time taking advantage of I. There are ~ and always vill be ~ robbers, crooked banks and judges Who take bribes, So how do we ensure that the parasites are kept to a small encugh minority to not ruin everything for everyone? The paradox is that itis in our collective interest to be trustworthy and to co-operate, while Its in ‘ur individual self-interest to be sarasitic and defect, or cheat. If too many defect, society stops functioning, the crime rate soars. international banking collapses and judicial ruings become available for sale to the highest bidder. No one would trust anyone because there wouldn't be enough trust to go around. . If we can increase the benefits o° co-opefation or the costs of defection, we can induce people to act In the group interest because it i also in their self= interest. These mechanisms have been called societal pressures. A bank's reputation in the ‘community is a societal pressure. So is the lock on the ATM that keeps criminals out. In reality, there is a complex interplay of societal pressures. The most basic are maral systems regulating our own behaviour. Most of us try not to treat others unfairly because it makes us fee! bad and we know they will treat us badly in return. Most don't steal because we feel guilty ~ and there are consequences when we are caught, We recognize It isin our long-term self-interest not to act in our immediate self-interest. Morals and reputation worked well enough for primitive lifestyles, but these began to failas society grew too large. Trust is personel and intimate among people who know each other, and morals and reputation are easily limited to an in- ‘group. Institutional systems ~ lans ~ formalized reputational systems, and securt:y technolagles allowed societal pressures to scale up as we ‘expanded into ever-larger groups. 5 Society and social issues ‘This trust Isn't absclute, of course. Not every societal pressure affects everyone equally. Some ‘care more about their reputations, others are naturally law-abiding and st ll others are better at picking locks. But the goal isn‘ total compliance, just to limit the scope for defection. Criminals stil target ATMs, and the occasional rogue benk ‘empiayee steals monzy from accounts. But for the most part, societal pressures keep defector damage ‘small enough to keep the system intact. But sometimes the scope s too great, and Underlying systems came crashing down, ‘Overishing has destrayed breading stocks in mary places. Crime and corruption have devastated some ‘coun‘ries, The international banking system almost, collapsed in 2008. But in gererel, societal pressures, ‘work as 2 delicate ba ance ketween co-operation ‘and defection. The belance ts't static ~ technological changes disrupt it all the time. The ‘changes can be related to defecting, so ATM-based “card-skimmers’ make it easier for criminals to steal my cades and empty my bak account. Or they may be related to security, with computerized auditing technology making it more difficult for fraudulent transactions to go through the system unnoticed, Life becomes dangerous and insecure when new technologies, innovations and ideas increase the ‘scope of defection. Defectors innovate. New attacks become possible. Existing attacks become easier, cheaper, more reliable or more devastating. More eope may defect, smply because it's easier to. in response, society must also innovate, to reduce the scope of defection and restere the balance. This dynamic is as old as civilization. GGiebal banking, ter-orists with nuclear weapons, ‘genetic engineering, 2io-weapons, pandemics: we Row yave such dangerous systems that a few defectors can wreak havoc <0 great that reactive Febancing might no: be enough. Worse stil, by the tme that society realizes the gravity of the situation, irreversible damage may already have been done. To add to the complexity, not all defectors are bad. Neither co-operation nor defection relate to any absolute standard of marallty. It Is defectors ‘who are in the vanguard for change, such as those who relped escaped slaves n the US before the Civil War. It is defecters whe agitate to overthrow the repressive regimes they live under. Hon to achieve the balance is at the core of many fof our debates about introducing laws to police the Intemet. Anonymity 's essential to freedom ang liberty and saves the lives of dissidents everywhere, Yet It also protects criminals, Copyright both protects and stifles innovation. The big challenge will Ee to understand how to simultaneously provide both more societal pressure to deal with the threats of technology, and less pressure to ensure an open, free and evolving sodety, (i ape New Se Question 1 ‘The list gives some of the problems faced by a society based on trust. Which two problems are mentiored by the writer? Choose TWO letters A-E. 'A The difficulties of relying on international co-operation. 'B The rewards for experienced criminals will always prove a temptation, € The developments of technology can make criminal activity easier. 'D The measures that could be used to control crime could also limit our freedoms. E The cost of trying to prevent all forms of cheating is too high. Questions 2-5 Choose the correct leter A, B, Cor D. 2. We tend to actin a trusting and co-operative way because A the collective itereSt is greater than our individual interst. B group and individual interest are generally equal € the consequences of cheating are too ureat. D itis in our nature to actin a moral manner. 3 The writer says that trust is limited because A it does not include our opinions ofthe law. B we only trust those we are familiar with, C itis linked to our personal reputation D it is likely that cheats do not trust anyone. 4. The examples of overfishing and the problem of the banking system show that 'A. problems affect both sociaty and the natural world B the system of trust is not reliable. C the balance between co-oreration and cheating is always at risk. people who cheat the system will sometimes have an advantage. 5 According tothe writer, defectors from the system A find it increasingly easy te cheat. B cau hope to achieve positive solutions to problems. are generally intelligent and innovative, D try to do as much damageas possible. Question 6 Which of the following is the mest suitable ttle for de text? ‘A The impossibility of co-opertion in a world of cheats B Tho increased threats toa functioning society CC How to keep criminals in check for the benefit of society The importance of technology in balancing tisk and reward in society E The complexities of society based on trust Questions 7-10 Contplete the summary ofthe third paragraph belo. Choose no more than THREE words from the passoge for each gap. Society isa network of related elements that depend on one another. What holds society together and enables itto work effectively isthe 7. ofits members, For this {o happen, it is important that people behave as & "which appli equally to % _ However, some may aim to abuse tis system for their own benefit by 0 _. These are the parasites wo enjoy the fruits of co-operation while exploiting it selfishly for their eurposes, 5 Society and social issues 63 j 64 5 Society and social issues ‘Comments a Answer: 6 D © (...ATiabased ‘card skimmers’ and ‘new technolegies’. . increase the scope of defection.) D (Anonymity is essential to freedom and liberty .. Yet it also protects criminals) ‘Ais not mentioned at all. 8 may be understood, but is not mentioned; € is not specifically mentioned, though logical, as the text says the goal is not to make everyone comply, but to limit the scope for cheating, a2 A Correct. This is the paradox mentioned in the fourth paragraph. B' Incorrect. tis contradicted in the text € Incorrect. It is mentioned as one example regarding stealing, not as a genera ‘act, and human nature is not mentioned. D Incorrect We have learnt to balarce collective and personal intrest as society has grown = itis not natur a3 A Incorrect. Although the law is mentioned several times, our opinion is not the focus. B Correct Incorrect: Reputation is mentioned as a means of regulating small groups. D Incorrect: The trust of cheats is not mentioned. as A Incorrect: These are used as examples of the bigger problem of maintaining a balance between co-operation and cheating. Incorrect: The system is not discussed in terms of reliabil ty. Correct. The balance isn't static. incorrect: Although itis true technology gives cheats an advantage, the purpose of the example Is to show the scale of the problem, not the means by which it was achieved, Qs A Incorrect, Although some cheats use technology, “here is no mention of all defectors doing this. B Correc.. Defectors helped slaves escape and work to overthrow bad governments. « € incorrect. While defectors innovate, it is not clear they all do. D Incorrect. There are examples of clobal problems, but there is nothing about these being the goal of all defectors. 26 A Incorrect, The text does not say that co-operation is impossible. B Incorrect. The increased threats are given as an example of current problems € Incorrect. The text doesn’t menticn discouraging criminals specifically. D Incorrect. Technology s just a fact of lif. E Correc: Q7 widespread co-operation/cooperation QB expected Q9_ organizations and systems Q10 cheating vos Re-read the text and find ten useful expressions to write in your vocabulary book. Explain to your friend why you have chosen these expressions and why you think they are useful. | r Spotlight on language : — Forms with -ing 1 For each of the sentences below, decide whether the clause with the ~ing form: gives an explanation or reason b lists a sequence of activities © provides a descripton, 1 Coming from a small family. Lam more comfsrtable in small groups. 2 Having been unemployed myself, Iknow how soul-destroying the experience canbe. . 3 Having completed his military training, he went on to become an oficerin the army. | 4 Never having lived in anything but a small village, she found city ike overwhelming atfirst, Expecting the house to be empty, the burglar broke the window and went in, Shouting and screaming, the crowd started to run’at the police cordon. Directly om arviving in the country, they applied for refugee status. Having no qualifications, they had no illusions about the sor's of jobs they could find Sleeping where they can, begging and even sealing if necessary, the homeless live from day to day oa the margins of society. 10 He decided to make a formal complaint, having been treated unfairly ~in his se opinion ~by his immediate superiors. ead. Active and passive infinitives 2 Decide whether one or both options in italics are grammatically ard logically correct in these sentences. 1 There is still alot ‘0 do / to be done before we ean consider the situatton acceptable. 2 I'm disappointed because I expected to have fished / to be finished before now. 3. Nobody can deny that the law on discrimination needs to be changed / to have been changed. 4 There is something to be sti / to be saying for providing additional support for ‘minority groups. .- 5 The report seems to be suggesting / to have been suggested a red.ction in police presence as a calming measure in the worst ected areas. 6 Itremains to see /to be seen whether the government measures actually improve the condition. 7 Fivemonths afterthe riots, life inthe inner-city areas seems tobe improving / to be improved, 8 The authorities failed to have been put / to put m place the sortof safety net that could help these vulnerable people. 9 The desire to be apreciated / to have appreciatedis so fundamental in all ofus that it hy can almost be considered / be considering a human need. 10 ‘Ifwe want to prevent these problems developing into social unrest, we need tobe tacking / to have been taking action right now before itis too Tate. 5 Society and social issues | 65 Spotlight on exam skills 2 Note completion 1 Read this text and answer Questions 1-16 on page 67. ‘A. A secial problem can be defined as a condition that is considered ‘undesirable by sulficient number of members cf a specific commt constitute a group. There are, however, degrees of social problem, ranging. from the relatively trivial to those that are so serious es to call into ‘question the most important values of the society in question. On some there is likely to be consensus, while others may provake extreme debate. "Nobody could claim that social problems such as murder and traffic ddeatas resulting from drink driving are to be accepted! as minor issues. However, itis not hard to find examples of other social problems that divide opinion. Teenagers playing loud music in a public park on finishing their schoo! day obviously do not consider thei behaviour unreasonable, but it may well be considered an extremely undesirable social condition by ‘othe: groups who feel they have an equal right to enjoy the park and its facilites. Similarly, a number of non-smokers hold the view that smoking, is an undesirable social condition that should be banned or restricted in all ‘outdoor public areas, B_ Nevertheless, research indicates there are factors that determine the degrze to which a phenomenon comes to be perceivec and accepted as a social problem. For example, the likelihood of a condition being, cons dered a social problem is much greater if the group it affects are themselves powerful; that is, if they are figures of influence. For this reason, the problems that made life difficult for the peor tended to escape notice until they had some impact on the rich and middle-class citizens, for example when they became victims of crime. In the United States, the problem of drug abuse attractec substantially more attention once it spread from the lower-class, predominantly non-white population and begas to affect the sons and daughters of the educatec middle class. © By much the same logic, if a condition has an impact cn a small subsection of the population, it will more easily escape attention than when its, adverse effects impact on a larger social group. Again, in the United States, the poverty of African Americans has featured much more prominently than the poverty of Native Americans. This can partly be explained by the fact that African Americans constitute a much larger group and are more visibie. D The third factor relaes to the dynamics of the condition. If the number of people directly affected is seen to be increasing rapidly, public awareness will tise. For example, we become used to prevciling levels of crime, traffic congestion, atmospheric pollution and even political corruption. But shou'd there be a sharp rise in intensity in one ofthese, public concern will also increase. One case of politcal corruption a rear may be a source of concern for our institutions, butfive such cases n one month will force‘ully grab the publiv’s attertion. E_ Alsoworth a mention is the role played by the mass media, which, according to many commentators, have largely and urfortunately failed in any attempt they might have mede to address social p-oblems. In fact, some would go further and state that if anything, television, radio and newspapers have actually contributed to the problems that exist and made them worse. This s toa great exent because they have reinforced the stereotypes that relate to race, class and gender rather than tackle them. F Until the advent of the Internet, television was withou: doubt the primary vvehide through which society received its information and also the mirror ‘of society in the way in which itreflected its values and expectations. Television has a vital role to play in the presentation of news and. information. Consequently, what a particular station chooses to present as newsworthy will inevitably influence the way viewers interpret bath their society and the world eround them. G All too often, televisior news programmes tend te focus on stories that present negative images of minority groups. We are bombarded cn an almost daily basis with stories of minorities engaging in crimes such as robbery, murder and rape. These crimes by implication become characteristic of minorities, The success stories that could counterbalance this negativity are remarkably absent. The single mother who, despite the odds, finishes college with a good degree; the young man from th inner city who works his way up from the factory floor « hold a positicn of ‘esponsibility in the company ~ these stories rarely feature. Questions 1-12 Complete the notes below. Choose no more than TWO WORDS from the text for each answer. What's a social problem: Definition: A condition that a group views a8 1 acimsnne Can be 2. ar extremely serious ‘Consensus on drink driving and 3 vnnnnmans ‘Loud music in a park: debatable Factors influencing acceptance of social problems + If people affected have power and 4...u Example: 5. ‘rot considered a problem when it was Kimited to lower dass. + Size of the population itaffects Example: poverty of 6 su Was overlooked. Habit ‘We get used to problems like pollution, ete. However, 7 attract attention, will auets Addressing social problems unsuccessful or not attemted. May have made problems9....... ‘Example; race, class, gender 10. .-not tackled, but 1. Few examples of stories of 12 ‘ Questions 13-16 ‘The passage has Seven paragraphs labelled A-G. Which paragraph contains the following information?” Write the corvect letter, A-G. NB You may use any letter more than once. 13 The significance of the sizeof the group of those affectee 14 Deciding to ignore the postive 15 Disappointments about lack of influence on the prablems 16 Disagreements of interprettion of social problems Make a collection of senterces with ~ing forms and infinitives when you next read an article online or in a newspaper. Make a copy of the article and cut out all infinitive and ~ing forms (and remember to keep a copy of the original so you can check). The next day, see how many of the gaps you can remember accurately. 5 Society and social issues 67 a > classroom workout Crime and technology ‘© Brainstorm alist of crimes and write them on the board. ‘© Work in groups, Half the class discusses how technology can be partly responsible fer ‘the crimes listed. The other half discusses how technology could make a contribution to preventing the crimes. You should try to use at least 5-10 expressions from this unit. fier five minutes, make pairs with one person from the other group. Discuss the two positions,and add further ideas. > check yourseLF : ‘© How many different social issues can you remember being mentioned in this unlt? Read the texts again to check ifyou were right. (© What other social issues are you aware of? > summary In this unit, you: ¢ discussed a number of social issues. Which are most prevalent where you live? €# looked at collocations connected with so-al issues. How many have you written down in your notetook? ¢ looked at common patterns that organize texts. How many can you remember? studied diferent ways sentences develop nto texts. How can this help you with the exam? ¢ studied and practised note and summary completion questions, What are the key things to remember about them? © practised structures with ~ing forms and infinitives. Which were not new for you? >> DD D fF overtoyou 1 ace ie wi ie Lat Sg a a HE you live. 2 Read newspapers and magazines to find out the latest news on what 3 Go onlineand find websites that support minority grcups around the world. What action do they think is necessary to Improve thelr situation? What can 68 5 Society and social issues The world around us In this unit, you will: © discuss the most pressing problems facing the environment ‘© study and practise diagram labelling ‘© study and practise chart and flow-chart completion, Getting started 1a Match the photos (1-9) with these environmental issues (2-j). a alrpollution band use and endangered species _¢ chemicals and toxins dclean water ¢ dimatechange f deforestation _g demand for energy h oceans and fisheries i ozone layer depletion j waste management b Which photos could represent more than one environmental issue? 2 The environmental problems in Exercise 1 represent ten serious threats to the environment. Which do you consider to be the five most serious? Which two do you consider the least important? . 3. Which of the ten environmental issues do you associate with these expressions? floods and droughts drinkable water_ safe and renewable energy endangered species pesticides and chemical compounds ultraviolet illegal logging and cutting down the rainforest overfishing landfill rubbish dumps smog loss of habitat the consumer society recycling unleaded petrol acid rain polar ce caps__ fleet of trawlers contamination of rivers, lakes and seas risk of disease 6 The world around us | 68 i r Spotlight on exam skills 7 Table completion ‘1 Match these texts (1~10) with the ten issues from page 69 (a-j). The top 10 most serious threats facing the environment in the 21st century 70 6 The world around us 1 Thisis an alencompassing issue. tt Includes rising sea lavels that treater loxwlyng countries; changes in rainfall patterns that can give rise to more severe classroom workout Crosswords ‘@ Workin pairs Each pair draws a crossword grid (suggested size is 12x12) and makes crossword pusle using the environmental problems mentionedin this unit and the expressions with eath from Exercise 2 on page 79. The answers should be a mixtureof nouns, verbs and adjectives. Write the clues for your answers, then swap crossword puzdes ivith another pair. ‘© Which pairisquickest to solve the puzzle? > check yourseLr © Make alist of 10-15 verbs you could useto discuss changes involved in the different processes mentioned in this unit © Write down fle facts you know about th: importance of water as a result of reading the textsin this unt. > summary Inthis unit, you © discussed a number of challenges facing the environment, What are the five most serious, in your opinion? Tooked at verbs of change. How many have you written cown in your notebook? ‘completed a chart with vocabulary abou: processes. How many words did you know? practised flow-chart completion. What are the key points to remem! practised table completion, Can you change the words you find in the text? practised conditional structures. Which were not new for you? did some parephrase practice identifying similarities and differences between short texts, Why Isit important to be able to spot paraphrases in the exam? >>>>> 1 Make a collection bf expressions with f, unless, otherwise and whether and try to use at least ane every day. 2 Read newspapers and magazines to fad articles about business, scientific, economicend natural processes. 3 Go onlineand find websites that tackle environmental issues. Read them and evaluate how convincing their arguments are, Pay attention to the verbs of change they use in their texts. lt 80 6 The world around us Sell, sell, sell In this unit, you will: © discuss advertising © study and practise True / False / Not Given tasks @ learn collocations about marketing. Getting started 4 Look at these three photos and decide what could be the most effective way of advertising each product. What features of each product would you want to stress? 2. Complete the table below with these phrases. ‘ime-saving low-cost highinprotein greattaste _ precision-engineeree healthy gums long-lastingsmile money-saving lowfat labour-saving for whiter tecth high-performance environmentalimpact _ good for you electric toothbrush, hybrid car | milk 3 In your opinion; which of these forms of advertising would be most suiteble for the three different products? 1 TVadvertising 6 newspaper ads 2 billboards 7 radio ads 3 telephone marketing 8 trade flrs 4 social media 9 bulk mailing 5 free samples 10 email 7 Sell, sell, sell 81 82 7 Sell, sel, sell Vocabulary builder 1 Advertising 1 Read the short texts below and on page 83 (A-F) and decide if these statements are True (7) False (F) or Not Given (NG). 1. Everyone has a favourite form of advertising, but the most annoying is generally acknowledged to be full-page advertising in newspapers and glossy magazines, 2 Companies must be able to give evidence that the claims made in their advertising are true, 3 Theamoust of advertising we are subject to has increased dramatically in recent years asa result of social media and email, with its daily dose of unwanted spam. messages 4 Special techniques are employed to make sure produc’s appeal to children, 5 Iris easier to advertise cheaper products such as educational toys than mote ‘expensive items like hybrid cars. 6 There is growing public concern about the influence advertising may have on certain groups of people, 7 Customersbuy products inthe clear bale that the benefits of the products advertised are truthful. 8 The aim ofall advertising and promotional material isto persuade people to take : course of action, which is usually to parchase the product or service tn question. 9 tis generally accepted that all adverts aim to create clear messages that are quick and easy to understand ‘A company that produces baby milk has been criticized by the advertising watchdog for making a number of claims that were ruled to be misleading and no: supported by robust evidence, The company said it accepted the ruling in its entirety {An unsatisfied customer is taking Honda to court for what she alleges are the shortcomings of her hybrid car. Having originaly made the purchase of the car in the expectaticn of saving Tioney at the petrol pump, she claims the car fils to deliver the 51-miles-per-gallon performance advertised. Following years of increasingly vociferous complaints Lom educational bodies, parents, church groups and others, the government is to launch an Official inquiry into the possible harmful eifects of adve-tising, on children, Tt plans to investigate evidence of connections between adverts and anxiety, eating diserders and drinking. ‘The advertising of trys is aimed at two distinct grcups. When adverising te ildren the emphasis placed on fun and excitement, an effect achieved by the focus on bright colour, fast moving images and the cssociation with famous TY characters, The use oflarge boxes in packaging enhanc this attractiveness. Wher advertising to adults, however, itis the educational benefits that are promoted. In a seties ofstudies designed to analyze consumer reactiors to ertising daims, scientists found that ambiguous descriptions tend toe interpreted in tw ‘ther infer that the attributes refer to technical details that cre likely to >rmative to people who are more knowledgeab e than they they es is simply When asked about atitudes towards different formsof advertising, consumers rated interruptive o intrusive formats such as telemarketirg and spam email as most annoying, and print advertising in newspapers or ‘magazines and outdoor advertising were rated most positively, althoush nobody is likely to confess to wanting more advertis ng in their lives. 2 Find and underline at least ten expressions relating to advertising in the texts above. 3 Match the two halves of these marketing collccations, then match them with their definitions (2-7), Example: | trade mars, 1 trade revenue 2 sales reputation 3 product loyalty 4 exclusive research 5 good agreement 6 market mark 7 brand launch, 8 franchise endorsement 9 celebrity rights ‘a when something new is brought to the market b when no one else is allowed to provide the same service ° -c_a:nameoreymbelwhich identifies product — d_ when people think highly of person or company customers sticking to favourite products f an arrangement with a parent company to rana related business 8 the money that is generated hr surveys to find out there is a demand for a service in an area i the use of the famous to promote a product 7 Sell, sell, sell 83 In this questior type, you need to decide whether a statement is tru, false or not given in the text, Tips 1 Scan the'tex: to find the relevant paragraph. 2 Look for tex which supports the statemnert, though don't expect to see exactly the same words, True / False / Not Given 3 Look out for anything to show that che statement is not true, and pay particular attention to verbs that contradict or negat: a sentence, suck as dems, refise,eiicize. “4. When you Fave scanned the text and located the relevant place in the text, if there is no informaton, then the answer is ‘Not 5 The questions follow the order ofthe tet 6 ‘You must only base your answer on the information inthe text, not on what you may know. If the information is tue but not written in the text, he answer is‘Not Give 7 Also pay atenion to comparative structures, and to words and ex2resions that qualify aastatement, such as mils, always offer, nero verbs that have different degrees of truth such as mgget, claim, belie, bn 8 Jost write “True, False’ of ‘Not Given. No further information isrequited. ee Remember, there will be at least one of each type of answer, es 1 Read this text and decide whether the statements below are True (1), False (F) or Not Given (NG). Pay attention to the underlined words in the questions. You've got mail - and LOTS of it! thas been estimated that an aston shing 71% ofall mail addressed to you - direct mail — is junk mail, This is all mail looking for business from you. You are a potential cus:omer, and someone, somewhere is hoping you will buy, oF at least respond to, some compelling offer. That's annoying enough, but add te that figure all the unsolicited generic ~ hence indirect ~ mail that is shoved through your letterbox without your name ont, and you havea figure of truly staggering proportions. To that ean be added all the advertising material inserted inside every newspaper of magazine you pick ‘up, generally in effect doubling their size, be calculated. 7 Sell, sell, sell itis not always clear what the purpose of direct mails. ‘There is more dizect mail in the UK tan elsewhere in the world. Most people receive more direct mall tban indirect mall. ‘The author has a negative opinion ofjunk mail, ‘Newspapers and magazines often carry additional advertising. ‘The true figures for the amount of dect and indirect mail sent out cannot which isa specific problem with the format. Statistics are hard to come Ly, rather like a closely guarded secret; however, some calculate that at least 3.4 billion items 0° direct mail and 13 billior items of unaddressed mail such as inserts and flyers were sent out in 2005 in the UK alone. While the environmental impact of such use of paper is clearly significant, the sheer volume of the issue ~ which is similar in every developed country in the world - is an indication that there is something in it for businesses, otherwise they simply wouldn't engage in such a costly and labour-intensive activity. Every year, people in the UK receive about 13 billion items of indirect mail Businesses invest in these forms of advertising because the are profitable. Comments 1 False: This i all mail looking for business from you. Not Given: There is no mention of other countries. Not Given: The passage dees not compare the quantties of both types of mall ‘True: That's annoying encugh ... inserted inside every newspaper or magzine you pick Up -. ‘True: Statistics are hard te come by ... some calculate that at least. This is the figure for 2005. ‘True... there is something in it for businesses BY OURUN 2 Re-read the two sentences in the right-hand column of the text on page 84 (Statistics ... activity.) and try to write three statements for each senten that would produce a True answer, one a False answer and one a Not Given ‘answer. Which is the easiest/hardest to write? Vocabulary builder 2 Lifestyle 9 + Complete the sentences below with the words in the box. There is one word you will not need. Peretti een ae) Beene ei Ss eeepc 1 Itcan’t be easy being a to football manager, as the players almost al have a fragile -onssunsennenthat the manager hus to cope with. 2 [twas notlong ago that mobile phones were only used by the most. ‘members of society, with everyone else using public phones and lanclines. 3 Should you Weal eensu0e--ene-Clothes for an interview, orisit better that your personality is what they remember? 4 Inthe past, many peopleconnected the word * with things like drags, but nowadays, people realize that work can also fall nto the same category. 5 Would you like to lead a et-setting nnn 0¢ Would you preier to stay in one place with your close family and friends? 2. Which word did you not use in Exercise 1? Are you one? What are the symptoms ‘of being one? Is it a serious problem or a bit of a jeke? Collocation practice 3 Complete these collocations from the text on page 84 without re-reading it. Vat encan 6a guarded secret 2 shove ao 3 staggering. 4 advertising... 5 handto. sft 10 there's something, 4 Complete the missing prepositions in these expressions from the same text. 1. mail addressed «one ¥OU. . 2. Looking. s2 business from 3 without your mame nus Ae gaBe sno nnneSucha costly activity 7 Sell, sell, sell «85 4 r Spotlight on exam skills 2 True / False / Not Given 1 Read this text carefully. Shopping for what we need or what we want! Over the past hundred years, shopping has grown to become one of the leading pastitres of an increasing proportion of populations in rich and developing nations alike. Indeed, for many ~ and this is not necessarily restricted to the most affluent - shoppinc is cited as the number-one hobby. Changes in modem lifestyles mean that for many famiies, itis no longer eating together but shopping thai bonds them as a family, at least at the weekend, The era that invented the term ‘shopaholic’ witnessed Shopping, originally the necessary process of exchangiag goods or services in order to eat and dress, become acknowledged as a serious addiction ifnoi by all branches of medicine, at least by the general public, and as such, itis an issue that merits serious study. One reason for this lies in how the products we shop foraxe marketed. Itis not simply a case of presenting the public with a product in an eye- catching manner. Advertising works by focusing on the promotion of our e909, the sense of ourselves that we identify with, xather than on specific objective facts of whatever it is we buy. The ‘feel-good factor" often associated with purchasing items can be explained in these terms rather . than price or value, although of course everyone likes to feel that he or she has got a bargain. Companies know ‘hat they don't sell products, they ‘sell us lifestyles, regardless of whether they are selling a cheap daily necessity or a special luxury item: everything from our breakfast cereals tothe cars je is marketed in this way. We buy a toothbrash or a pair of jeans and we actually buy into an image of ourselves that is defined by what we have, not who we are. 2 Look at the underlined phrases in the text and the expressions in bold in these statements, then decide if the statements are True (7), False (F) or Not Given (NG). 1 Shopping has only recently become a social pleasure. 2 The interest in shopping as a way of spendirg time crosses social and national borders 3 In most families, shared mealtimes have been replaced by sopping es an opportunity for funily togetherness, 4 Medical research is being conducted into the problem of excessive shopping. ‘The success of an advert relies on more than the nature and properties of the product itself 6 The act of buying something ereates a sense of satisfaction, as longs the buyer has got value formoney. 7 Itiseasierto sel cheaper products than more expensive items because they don't rely on sophisticated sales techniques. 8 Our possessions make statements about our identity, 86 7 Sell, sell, sell Comments 1 False: The first line talks about over the past 100 years, which cannot be considered ‘only recently’ 2 True: The text refers to rich and poor peop e, and in rich and developing nations. 3 False: There is adifference between many and most families. The qualifier at least at the weeend also makes the generalization false. 4 ‘Not Given: Although there is mention of the phenomenon being acknowledged by some branches of medicine and that further study is merited, there is no mention that research is being carried out. This does not mean that research isn't being carried out, simply that such research is not mentioned in the text. 5 True: There is reference to adverts promoting the feel-goos factcr and lifestyle ‘which are not connected to the nature and properties of the product itselt. 6 False: While itistrue that many people like to get a bargain, a sense of satisfaction can be achieved by other mears, such-as the feel-good factor. 7_ Not Givent Expensive and inexpensive goods are mentioned, but t is not discussed whether cheaper goods are easie: to sell. Although this may be the case, as it is notstated in the text, the answer has to be ‘Not Given’ 8 True: Asstated in the last sentence of the text. 3 Read this text, then decide whether the questions on page 88 are True (1), False (F) or Not Given (NG). The development of market research ‘There have been considerable improvenents to the way preducts and services are rrarketed over the years. Much of this can be attributed to the creation of market research as an industry, which saw its beginnings in the latter pert of the 1920s in the United States with the work of aman named Daniel Starch. ‘The common practice at that time was for copywriters to think up ‘an appropriate and perhaps catchy text to attract the attention of the buying publie, publish the ad, and then hope that readers would act ‘upon the information provided and buy the product or service, ‘During the easly 1930s, Daniel Starch developed the theory that in order to be effective, advertising must be seen, read, believed, remembered ‘and then acted upon. He went on to develop a research company that would stop people going about their business in the streets, asking them if they read certain publications. If they did, his researchers would show them the magazines and ask if they reagnized or remembered any of the ads found in them. Having collected the data, he then compared the number of people he interviewed with the circulation of the magazine to calculate how effective those ads were in reaching their reaters. Thus surveying or ‘market research’ was bor. As time went on, many more market-research companies began to ‘emerge and fcllowed Starch’s example. was not long >efore they were working to improve on his techniques. George Gallup, whose name is ‘now associated with opinion polls, developed a rival system that was known as’aided recall’, which prompted those interviewed to recall the ads seen in a publication, without actually showing them the ads. This rival system was later adopted by companies to measure the effectiveness of radio and television advertising, In the late 1980s, Ronald Lindorf founded what would beone of the largest market-research companies in the United States, Western Wats, The focus of Western Wats was to leverage the current technology of 7 Sell, sell, sell 87 WATS telephone lines to conduct survey research. There was no longer a need to interview people on the streets cr to organize and conduct focus groups. A representat-ve in a call center could collect all of the data desired. This greatly ircreased the number of surveys collected each year and improved the market-research model ten-fold, Over the last five to ten years, market -esearch has taken another great leap forward in terms of methods of data coll2ction. While surveys arestill employed, this is largely done via irtemet connection. Wester Wats (recently renamed as Opinionology) is still the largest market- . research company in the US and collects the majority of their research i via their online panel called Opinion Outpest. Rather than cold-calling anindividual in the search for data, the company as online studies that anvone interested in participating in can sign up to receive and freely share their opinion. It is much less intrusive, and the quality of data 's often much higher, since people can participate on their own schedule, instead of being rushed when they receive a phone call from a call cater. This use of internet technology shows how far the quest to gather public opinion has come since the 1820s, when it is said that the first recorded straw polls ~ the term comes from farme-s throwing a handful of straw into the air to check which direction the wind was coming from = were recorded. Nowadays, it seems that everyone from political : ‘parties to companies marketing toothbrushes wants to see which way the wind of public opinion is blowing before making a decision. ae ape rm wotnmketcewehwer | 1 Market research was developed when Daniel Starch was employed to see hew effecrive and memorable advertising was. 2 Methods corisidered appropriate for researching the efllectiveness of radio ard television advertising differed from those used by Starch, 3, Western Wats introduced metlnds generally considered less efficient than those of Starch and Gallup. 4 ‘The-ebranding of Western Wats as Opinionology resulted in the creation o'the biggest market-research company in the world, 5 There had been no interest in finding public opinion before the market-research industries began their work in the last century. 4 Think of two different ways of expressing the same meaning as these phrases : from the text above. 1 ‘There have been considerable improvements .. 2. Thecommon practice af that time 3... act upon the information provided .. 4 Astime went on, 5 It was not long before... 88> 7 Sell sell, sell e Spotlight on language Paraphrase practice 1 Explain the di 1 process / procedure / production line job / career / profession / busines launch your product / promote your product / stock your product sell by /sell out / sel for earn / deserve / be worth ‘man management / middle management / micro-managenent acknowledge / admit / agree claim / state / allege ference between each of these words or expressions. 2 Complete these sentences with words or expressions from Exercise 1. 1 Inbig companies like ours, we have lots of systems in place. In fact, we have a : {for everything, from ordering stationery to asking for paternity leave, Infact, min the. ..of Writing new guidelines for using the car park. 2 Leaving his last company praved to be a good _-move for Kim, Within ‘two years, he was managing adepartment. Not long aller that... Feally took off and soon he had a place on the Board, 3. You may have had the best product in the world on the market for ages, bat if you don’t know how to vewwnn then you are unlikely t9 succeed, as shops will not be willing to. 4 Supermarket managers are lk: jugglers. They have many products that have a date, and money is wasted if they are not sold promptly. Also, they ofa particular product, they will have to deal with some iraie customers. 5 It’s sad fact of life that you den't always get what you. However, it's also true that when you... something by the fuits of your owa labour, ‘you appreciate It more than ifyou have the same thing asa gift. . 6 Now that [am in .sensmnnn» Tam answerable to some people, and other peoale are answerable to me. [try to delegate wherever I can. However, when I vas ‘younger and starting out in business, the way my boss treated me was the perfect example of. He checked everything I did, and I hated it. 7 While you may not... nn ith everything that big corporations do, you AWE 10 enn nenns thelr Success in the last 100 years. 8 He doesnt simnmenenn-to heve stayed within the law all his life, but he's far from being the criminal that some people mu 3 Complete these sentences logically. 1 To keep their products rolling aff the production tine. 2 The profession a lot of people want to go into 3 Launching a new product is olten both risky and expensive because 4 These days, top computers sell for. 5 In business, knowing how much something is worth . 7 Sell, sell, sell 89 90 True / False / Not Given 1 Read this text, then do the exam task on page 91. How an advert is created ‘You may love them or oathe them, but a lat of work ‘goesiinto creating the advertisements that we see, hear or read. Although they may only be 3) seconds long, or 8 few lines of text and a photo, there has probably been weeks iF not months of work behind the production of the advertisement, But what is the [process which leads to the production of an ‘advertisement? There is no one path that all ‘advertising agencies take, but there are some ‘general ideas which are common to the vast majority of advertising projects, First steps “The first stage (s when the client'contacts the ‘advertising company and submits a bref, which, by defintion, is not that long, It could be thata ‘company wants to launch a new product. Thousands ‘of new products are launched every year, tut very few of them become successful and are stil around ten years after their launch. The company may want. to improve its market share, How many different ‘Companies are there selling cars, chocolate bars or Computer services? There are only a limitee number of customers, so companies are willing to ssend a lot ‘of money on increasing their share of the pie through advertising, The company may simply want. to remain the market leader and realize that advertising may be the key to their success, The ‘Company could be a regular dient who was satisfied with en earlier campaign or it could be a new ‘company who has been impressed with other ‘campaigns you have handled. Research begins ‘Once the bref isin the hands of the advertising company, the research can begin which vll include ‘an analysis of the client's current products end their position in the market place, The company tself is likely to be able to provide that data, but the advertising agency may need to do further research, to measure the perception of the product cempared to the client's competitors and also the kind of advertising the competition is using, ‘Then the company will disouss a wide range of factors about the produc itself: what are the ‘demographics (age, sex, education, income levels, ttc.) and location of the people who are likey to use the product? It is well known that some products sel Very well in some areas but not in others. Mushy peas, for example, are very popular in the north of Englard, but are rarely seen on dinner plates in the south. Seasonality Is another factor which can influence an advertising campaign. You don’ see many adverts for lawn mowers in November, or ‘adverts for snow clearers in June for obvious reasons. Such factors need to be considered before planning begins. ‘Now to the plan (Once the basic research is over, its up to the planning team to decide how the target audience Can best be reached in the most cost-effective way. ‘They may decide on the best pricing structure for the company, perhaps offering the product at a lower price inivally so that people try the products, They need tr decide on which media channe's will be used. Is the product something visual, so television is the best medium’ Or can the product be advertised using radio advertising, wich is generally much cheaper? Companies wil also look at targeting the advertising: if the products suitable for travellers, then they may have adverisements in trains and at airports. If the product § likely to sell well to sportspeople, then a poster campaign in and ‘around sports centres might be the best way. Another important role for he planning team is to start creating the content that will woo the potential ‘customers and help the company’s seles skyrocket. ‘The goal of advertisers isto produce a slogan that people remeniber and use on a regular basis ~ promoting brand awareness well outs the original advertisement. Executing tie plan ‘The creative team will then decide exactly how the ‘message will be presented. Wil the v sual material used feature a serious person in a write coat? Will it bea happy, successful looking couple? Maybe an ‘animated character? They also need to decide whether the message will tell you how good the product is or how good you wil feel when you use the product. Once the advert tas been created on paper, itis usually “farmed out to outside production ‘companies who will do the actual recording or filming with some people within the agency tracking the whole process so that the advertisement is produced within a certain timeframe end, very importantly, as financial penaltes could otherwise be involved, within budget. Following up Once the advertisements have appeared on TV or in ‘2 magezine, the advertising agency fallows up to make sure tht the ads were shown when they were ‘supposed to be shown and also to see how effective the campaign was. OF course, the bes: measure of success Is when your dients return again and again, Perhaps with happy tales of boasting sales volumes, 2s they are clearly satisfied with your work. ‘So next time you hear, read or listen to an. advertisement, spend a moment or two considering all the work which went into producing it. 7 Sell, sell, sell Questions 1-$ Do the following statements agree with the information given in the passag? Write TRUE Ife statement agrees with the wformation FALSE fhe statement contradicts the bnformation NOT GIVEN if here is no information on this 1. Many products enter the market, but few of them survive longer than a Gecade, 2 There are more companies selling computer services than cars. 3. Location of likely customers is one factor that can affect how an advertising campaign is organised. 3 4. Radio advertising is much cheaper than advertising through magazines and newspapers. 5. Advertising agencies usually carry out all the work themselves, ffom research, planning ‘and creating the fizal film, rather than using the expertise of other companies. Questions 6-12 Complete the following table with NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the text. Stop 1: initial phae Ab. is given to the advertising agency. Step 2: research Tis necessary to produce Tanne OF BOW the ‘company is doing aompared 1 ils competitors, “Age, sax and education of the potential customers are just thee ofa 8 that need to bs considered by the company. No company wantsto pay | People tend to buy products oo much, so the advertising| they are familiar with, 50 | company must look fora | 10. --i8 a vial part campaign that isthe most | of an advertising strategy. 98 nnn fot their client, | [Step 4 execution | Some companies ae fined | ifthey don’t stay 1" when | carrying out project. Sep 5: folowp Tnereased sles ie just one 2 fore conapany. Employ ai eifac oaicaeca exer importa ons. Vocabulary development 2 a Complete these useful expressions and collocations from the text on page 90. How an advert is created First steps 1 Love them OF .ncsnmennewne eM 4 feware still. ss ten years after (their launch) 2 alotof work. winto 5 improve its market... B the rrre 6 alimited ...: sce 7 the.. wm te their success b Now find more useful expressions and callocations from the other sections of the text. 7 Sell, sell, sell 1 92 v v ¥ v 7 Sell, sell, sell > ciassrcom workout The art of persuasion. ‘© Work in small groups. Choose oneitem that you have with you, for example awatch, ‘phone, a book. © Think cfthe positive qualities ofthat item and prepare @ short presentation forthe ‘other groups to convince them that they should buy that item, Try to use some ofthe Jainguage that you have seen in this unit. © Which aroup can make the most convincing preseatation? > check voursetr © Look beck through the unit and make a collection af ideas and expressions which are 28) positve of and b) critical about advertising, © Draw atable and summarize the Ideas In two columns. > summary ree enya @ looked at various forms of advertising. Which forms of advertising do you find most effective, and why © studied many collocations connected with marketing. Were any of them new to you? @ looked at True / False / Not Given questions, Whaterrors do some students make with this particular question form? did table completion exercise, Doyou feel comior able wth this question form now? © read about the history and methods of market research, What did you learn? collected useful expressions from the passages. Which ars most useil? Over to you © Goonline and compare the websites of three different advertising agencies. What products or services do they advertise? Which seems the most creative? © Find the website ofan official body that checks adverts (such as the Advert'sing Skantards hagnoy www sa srgald) Bid os wha tags do, waa resoTERS they have on their website, and what the advertising codes are. The road to success In this unit, you will: © discuss success and failure ‘© study and practise Yes / No / Not Given tasks @ look at patterns in a ext, Getting started 41 These photos show different aspects of success. Think about what kinds of success these people might have achieved, and which is the most important to you. 2 What role might be played by ‘each of these aspects in the successes in Exercise 1? luck talent hard work determination mcney support and encouragement opportunity Spotlight on exam skills 1 Yes / No / Not Given Read the text below and on page 94. Are the answers to thes2 statements "Yes", ‘No’ or ‘Not Given’? According to the writer. ‘anyone can be successful at school ifthey set the right targets all forms of success cepend on had work, everyone has some sort of ambition, ‘success in sport often depends on making sacrifices. the financial rewards compensate for the fect that sporting careers are short. ene many people fa The nature of success We live in a world where success is highly valued in all. ficlds of endeavour. However, is it really possible to ‘compare success in business or sports with success in the academic world of studies? Suceess at school come from, certain amount of application and certainly isnot given to.everyone, although nobody actually aims to do bedly in ‘exams. But what does it ead to? The correlation between ‘200d exam results asa teenager and 2 good degree and ‘success beyond one’s studies is hard to measure. This is perhaps because school and university are seen as steps towards something further and not a goal in their own righ, Suceeis in exams, you might say is ike winn.ng part of a race, but not the race itself. Despite the hign to understand one ofthe key elements of business success, ‘expectations that they might have had the reality is that millions of graduates aero the world ae in-obs that do notstech them, oe are not particularly well-ewanded; ‘any recent graduses are unable to even finda job of any sort in these times of economic uncertainty. 13 other ‘words, aeademie sucess seems to bean unreliable indicator of actual potential. Sporting suecess ings Local, national or fternatonal acclaim, ad inthe ese ofthe mest opuar professional sports, financial rewards that are beyond the each of most ‘of us, What do mes! successful sportsmen ard women haven common? Natural ability and great deal of tuaning, for sure. Many wil have decided to tum their 8 The road to success | 93 backs on the partcs and socializing of their peers in order ambitions in business will tribute their success to putting to do more lengths in the pool or more hours in the gym, in long hours inthe early stages of theit career, and to work on their sprint or serving ar eyeling or passing determination. In eddtion, however, they will almost fechniques, Another sad fact of sporting life is thatcareers always mention something that i ll too often overlooked are short and often plagued by injury by those for whom business is simply a way of paying the In business, success is generally measured by salary _bills, and that's novation, Business success does not, ‘ather than specific achievements, records or popularity. come to those wha simply do their jobs or fallow their ‘When asked, most people who have fulfilled their leaders, It is ereatie, Vocabulary builder Positive and negative expressions ‘1 Complete the table below by putting these phrases whether they are positive or negative. to go unrecognized to fall atthe last hurdle to meet your objectives tomakeasreamconetrue tobacklire tocome tonothing to fall on your feet to achieve your fullpotential to go from strength to strength, tonotcutthe musterd tobomb tofullilanambiuion to go down the drain tohit the jackpot to fall by the wayside togobelly up to go according to plan to leave something to be desired 0 categor'es, according to positive | 2 Complete these sentences using some of the phrases from Exercise 1 In the correct form, In some cases, more than one answer Is possible. 1 Noteveryone get to -vmnn However, the sense of purpose that comes from aiming todo sos, in a way, its own reward. 2 Notevery suecessstory makes it into the headlines, and despte whet might be implied by newspapers that follow the carees of the celebrities, its all oo often the case that achievement. : 3. Wehad a new sales manager and he seemed obe destined forthe top, but alter “three weeks, we decided he just ld tenn 80 we had to lt him go, 4 Twrote 12 eBooks which sold afew hundred copies each, but finally. with my 13th eBook. sling ever 400,000 copies. 5 invested £200,000 ina new software company, but unfortunately the company sont Host the money. negative initogd ae 3 Write four more sentences using some of the other phrases in Exercise 1. 4 Look back at the text on pages 93-94 and find at least eight expressions relating to success and/or failure, Example: highly valuea 5 Discuss these questions with a partner. 1 What isthe dillerence between success in spott and business? 2 What are the qualities ofa successful student? 3 How do you meastre success in life? 4 Isthere too much emphasis on trying to be suecessful, given that only a few people manage to reach the top? 94 8 The road to success Success and failure 6 Complete these quotes with the correct form of success or failure. You may need to change the noun to an adjective or verb, 1 Aatfitst you don't ssnsnmnannnes UY, ty agaln. (William E Hiekson) _-isthe opportunity to begin again more intelligently. (Henry Ford) ‘The only real ssn tlie is the -t0 try. (anton) Behind every . man isa wise woman. (anon) ‘When one doorcloses, another door opens: but we often look so Ieng and so regretfully atthe closed door that We wmmm.msnuut9 see the ones which open for us. (Helen Keller) 6 Anyone who says dictionary. (anor) ween * isnot in their vocabulary should buy a better 7 Aman may -enensn many times, buthe isn't a on vv-tuntil he begins to blame somebody else. (Robert Browning) 8 Haste in every business brings... mo (Herodotus) 9 An . person is one who can build firm foundations with the bricks that, thers throw athim or her. (Ralph Waldo Emerson) 10 What we call y-meeornow- Is not the falling down, but thestaying down. (Mary Pickford) 7. The expressions in 1-7 below contain a number of useful collocations, but each set contains one word/expression that does not form a collocaticn. First, use your dictionary to find which word/expression does not belong in each set. Then choose the correct collocation to complete each of the sentences, making any necessary changes 1 makea success /yourfortune /adeal/a failure OK, let's _.lllet you have the ear with air conditioning ifyou sign the contract today. . 2 hit rock bottom /buck / the success {the jackpot / the nail oa the lead | the spot Shorily after [tock over the company. it butin the last three years, ‘we have gradually recovered and we shouldbe inthe black next year. 3 lose sight of / touch / a fortune / your job fan idea / your lie interest your balance ( your mind When the housing bubble Burst, I .onnnnn and Inow have precisely £14.37 in the bank. 4 goin practice / access / independence / welgt/ ground / a reputation We aren't the market leaders yet, but we're . or our biggest competitor. win the lotery / new customers / people's respect /a prize /the election / hands down / some decisions / a contract ‘When our products are entered into a competition with our competitors, ours nnn very time, as they are so much more eficient 6 deserve a holiday / failure /a mention / careful consideration / a medal Considering all the work you've done, you really do : 7 earn a living / ycur car /« fortune (a reputation / your keen takes quite afew years for you to.. nwa 8 a competent and success lawyer 8 Think of sentences in which the other collocations in Exercise 7 could be used. B The road to success 95 96 8 The road to success Understanding the author's point of view 1 For each of these sentences, decide whether the author is being positive, Negative or neutral. For the positive and negative ones, underline the key words Which helped you find the answer. Circle words any that you think were distractors. 1 1 truethat when Alex took over the stub there were many(fablen but under his leadership, it has gone from strength to trent 2 France hasalways had an excellent reputation for high-quality food, but many French students these days will grab aburger for lunch, so I think the future of French cuisine is uncertain. 3 Many peope hire barges on the various canals in England and spend one or two weeks cruising around with their family, 4 Tollowing the stock-market crash, thete was a spectacular decline, and as yet there {smo light at the end ofthe tunnel 5 Theelectriccar has seen both technical advances and also u number of setbacks, so.the jury is still out on its future. 6 While the motor cat produces pollution and causes accidents. the benefits it brings in terms of increased mobility and transport of goods fer outweigh the negative aspects Despite a promising start, i looks like the company will soon be facing bankruptey. 8 Thereason many people set up their own business is tomake money, despite what they say about fulfilment and personal satisfaction. Patterns in a text Poor readers tend to read a text asa sequence of individual words that make up individual sentence, whereas a good reader wll look for how ideas ae presented through parters in a text. You first looked zt patterns inthe text in Unit 5 {pages 59-61) The seven examples in Exercise 2 wil take you alle firther. 2 Match these text patterns (1-7) with the statements below and on page 97 (a-g). 1 statement + example 2 problem + solution 3 question + mswer . 4 history + sequence of events 5 description ~ evaluation 6 for + against 7 compare + contrast My father ransa printing busingss, which was set upin 1899 >y his great grandfather. They moved to new premises in 1922 and have continued to expand since then. ‘They were the fist company to use colour printing in newspapers and were one ofthe ist to go digital in the 1980s b For many years, rim brakes were the on'y kind available to cyclists, but in recent ‘years, disk brakes have become popular. While both types of brake perform the ‘same function, the disk brakes are more effective in wet weather. Rim brakes are significant}; “aper and are also easier to maintain. so remain popular with ‘some cyclists. © Making organ donation opt-out rather than opt-in means that many more lives will be saved. However, some people are uncomfortable with the idea of people 1g pressured ints organ donation and feel it should be up to the individual to opt in. 4 Just what kind of education is best for business leaders ofthe future? Undoubtedly one that offers a solid grasp of economics as well as modern languages. €e Large mumbers ofchildren in some parts ofthe world suffer from blindness. The simple addition ofvitamin C to their diet could prevent this devastat:ng problem. F Having studied atthe Hopewell Institute for taree years, [have to say that have been very happy. The facilities are top class, the training is second to none, and Lam confident thatI will get a great job as a result There are some things that America can do mote effectively than Europeans. For example, measles has been eradicated from the Americas, but is still common in Europe, Note that the two pats can often be reversed, but witha slight change of emphasis. For example, in item g above Measles bs bch enacted from the Americas bi tillcommon in Europe. There ere some things that America can do more ejectvely than Europeans. ere, the example inthe second sentence now reads asa judgment an forms a stronger conclusion than in the original s 3 Look at the underlined words and phrases in this text and answer the questions below to help you decide what the expressions tell you about the writer's opinions about Clive Sinclair and his invention, the C5. 1985 Sinclait CS The much- Sir Clive Sindair was a 1 very rion, 2 eccentric gerius publicized launch who 3 amassed a fortune in the manufacture of was 7 an 4 revolutionary — indeed 5 visionary — electronic unqualified devices and products. These included calculators, disaster. Itwas held in the middle ‘of winter and the watches, meters, pocket TVs (1975), micro-computers (1980) and home computers (1982, when computers were stil in dedicated rooms). (CBs skated on the Like TVs and computers, the idea of producing an ‘snow The press. electric vehicke had been 6 a constant preoccupation __was 8 merciless. Safety and Advertsing Standards for him. In the '70s, ecological Issues wore in tho ‘organizations got involved. Sales and production forefront, and the British goverment passed legisttion 9 nosedived, and te company 10 was wound up in that allowed electric-assisted cycles to be used without October of the same year. alicence, as jong as they didn't exceed 15mph. ‘ape rom we erase com 1. Does the author feel that Sir Clive has too mach money, or is the anthor simply stating afact? 2 Most people would be happy to be called a genius. What eflect does the addition of the word eccentric have on the statement? 3 Do you feel amassing a fortune is positive, negative or neutral? 4 Positive, negative or neutral? 5 Positive, negative or neutral? 6 i Positive, negative or neutral? ‘The author could have said The lawnch didn't go quite as Sir Cive had wished. What is the dference be:ween this sentence and the original? 8 Can you think of other words to describe the reaction of the press? Through the use ofthe word rirelless, how did you think the author saw the comments from the press? 9 What other words could the author have used instead of novedived? 10 What other words could the author have used instead of was woul up? 8 The road to success 97 F spotlight on exam skills 2 What is the author saying? ‘Questions in the Reading Paper often depend on understanding the intended function, of sentences ‘1 Match the pairs of sentences below (2-f) with the functional category (1-6) to which they belong. 1 opinions 2 statements of fact 3. generalizations 4 paraphraseso’the same information 5 opposites’ 6 deductions © ‘The numbe- of cancer patients survivirg more than ten yearshas increased by 21% in the last 40 years, © Cottain insects are regarded as pests, which by using insecticides and other techniques. b e Tenzing Norgay was a Nepalese mountaineer who partnered Sir Bamund Hilary ‘on the first escent of Everest. © Everest was irst climbed by two men: Sr Edmund Hilary and his climbing partner, Terzing Norgay rom Nepal. € © People who take drugs to enhance their sporting performance should be banned ‘ for life. ¢ Harvard is undoubtedly the best univ ‘business. d © Tobe successial in business, itis very important to get along with people and fitin so that peop'e appreciate your company and want to dobusiness with you. ¢ Itmay be su:prising to hear, but most successful businesspeople describe themselves ¢s not particularly social. Tey require that distance to make ruthless decisions which may be painful, but wil ultimately benefit the company. € © Asthe numter of animel experiments has gone down dramatically but the ‘number oftnew drugs remains constant, i is likely that far fewer products are tested on animals compared to 30 yearsago. «Nineteen British prime min{sters all went to the same sc100l ~ Eton College —s0 sending your child to Fton could seriously increase the chances of your son or daughter becoming Prime Minister. : Fe Americans tend to be heavier than other nationalities, but on the whole, their dentistry is p-obably the best in the world, ‘© People with tattoos are far more likely to go to prison than those without tattoos, why people attempt to control them ity for someone hoping to go into 2 Now choose four of the functional categories from Exercise 1 and write a sentence about what you did yesterday for each one. 98-8 The road to success Yes / No/ Not Given “These questions are quite similar to True / False / Not Given (TPNG) questions, the difference being thatthe TENG questions ask you to look at information in the text and decided whether the information in the question is tue, false or not given. In Yes / No / Not Given questions, you are asked to consider the writer's opinion about a particular subject, so you may not be focusing on one specific piece of information but a general Tips impression you ger fiom the text 1 Read the statement carefilly so you know exacty what you ate looking for. 2. The statements are always in sequence through he text, so you don't need to go back to the beginning — simply kesp reading forthe rexe answer. 3 When you read the text, if you think the statement may or may mot be te specific detail is lacking, then the answer is ‘Noi Given’ 4 Ifthe Statement ccntradiets the writer's opinion, the answer is ‘No. 5 Watch out for those dstractors! A common one is chat the statement refers to an ‘pinion but nor tke write’ opinion. Remember that one way to make a judgment bout something i o use a comparative structure, so pay attention to these 3 Read this text and do the exam tasks that follow on pages 100-103. READING PASSAGE 1 You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-13 which are based on Reading Passage | below, because ‘The case for eyeling to school All parents want the very best for their children, particularly when it comes to schools and school life. Ofcaurs, they not only expect the school to take care of the mental needs oftheir children but also ~ and this has been subject to great neglect in the last 20 years - their physical needs. People appreciate that money i ight, and rolody enjoys paying taxes bat heres a grewing feeling that something needs to be done about children’s healt, and many believe that schooks and the government have a big responsibility. ‘Twenty-five yeas ago, many children eter eyed cor walked to school. Very few children were laken to schoo! by mummy or daddy. The percentage today? Just 1% of primary pupils and 2% of secondary pupils cycle to school. Many parents ‘will say that roads these days are too dangercus, that they HAVE to drive their children to school. ‘The number of children being driven to schoo! has doubledin the last 20 years. So one reason thatthe roads are dangerous is because so many parents rive their children to schoot~ the infamous ‘school nun. Is this a vicious citcle out of which we ‘cannot escape? This is a hotly contested topie, and ifa solution is tobe found, it will take the co- ‘operation ofthe government, local authorities, schools, parents, and perhaps most importantly, schoo! pupils. “tg! Very few people are suggesting that government should ban parents Etom driving their ‘children to school, What many would like to see is ‘alot more effort put into promoting eyeling, “he ‘government should build networks of cycle paths Fadiating out from schools and suitable cycle parking facilities a school. Organizations like Sustrans, a UK cherty supporting sustainable transport by encouraging people te travel on foot, by bike or by public transport do their best to help schools, but not al schools want to.co-operat. ‘This sometimes gces to bizarre extremes, In Portsmouth, a woman wanted her son to eycle to gchoo but the stl really want hn to wever, agreement was successfully reached ~ on the condition that his mother drove behind him and picked up his bike when he reached school and took it home egain, reversing the process in the aftemoon, But ifthe case sto be won, itis not good enough to rely on anectiotal evidence. So what are the relevant facts in this issue? Well, e's take a look at children’s health fora start. In 1995, around 10.9% of boys and 12% of girls between the ages of two and 15 were obese. By 2007, those figures had jumped to 168% ad 16.1% respectively, By 2050, scientists have predicted that 70% of girls and 55% of boys will be obese. ‘True, diet has an effect on this, bat physical exercise not only telps you maintain a healthy ‘body weight, but also leads to healthy bone development, a strong muscle and cardiovascular system and improved co-ordination. Interestingly, a study in California showed a direct link between children’s fitness levels and acaderiic scores in Iiteracy and numeracy. Those in th fittest category scored twice as high as those inthe lowes: fitness category. Not only can cysting make you fiter and smarter, if also gives you a great sense of 8 The road to success 99 100 independence. You decide when you cycle home, ‘whether you stop on the bridge to look at he ish, whether you go past the bakery with the fantastic ‘smells or whether you just go straight hone and read a good book. Children who are driven to and from school don’t have these options. They are dependent on an adult - not something many chien want roviding safe cycle routes and encouraging children to cycle will not only improve thelr physical and mental well-being and their sense of independence, it will also lead to a reduction in congestion and pollution in the area where they live. Children will not be the only ones to benefit, as the cycle routes would not just be for ehidren ‘Anyone could use them to travel around, zo shopping, visit friends, ete. without needing a car {which could save families thousands of pounds a yea. Sustrans has started developing such cycle routes and they have had geeat success with the work they've done, For example, in the town of Market Harborough, they added 17 miles of cycle routes, But the aig question i, are the residents of, Market Harborough actually geting on their bikes The ansver sa resound ye There are 400,000 trips a year on the path, 50,000 ofthese {tips made by children not bad for a town with a population of st 21,000. Interestingly. 38% of the people using the path could have made the same jourmey by ear, but chose not to So what of the future? Will we allow the vicious ‘rele to continue so that more and more children are driven to work because of the congested, polluted and dengerous roads? Or will we give bur children the opportunity to idea bike fo school along uncongested unpallted and, mostot all, safe cycle paths? The answer appears blindingly obvious, but whether we as a society have the willpower to carry out the necessary ‘work remains to be seen Questions 1-5 ‘Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 1? Write YES Ifthe statement agrees with the views of the writer NO. {fthe statement contradicts the views of the writer NOT GIVEN ‘fit is impossible to say what ihe writer thinks about Hs Questions 6-9 Complete the sentences below, ‘Schools have given insufficient attention to the physical wel-being of children. ‘Sustrans could work harder to ensure the co-aperation of schools ‘The case of the nother following her chil Cycling ean help children develop a degree of responsibility fo: themselves. Society in genetal will ckearly encourage more children to cycle to school her car is not untypical Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer 6 According to the writer, schools are guilty ofthe children in recent times. 7 Twice as many children ate wang to school compared to 20 vears ago, 8 There has beena massive increase in the number OF. ch Idren, 9) Researeh indicaies there is a strong connection between and achievement at school. Questions 10-13 Complete each sersence with the correet ending, A-E, below, 10 A school in Portsmouth 11 A study in California 12 The population of Market Harborough 13 A team of sciemists A. expects o see hizh levels of overweight children inthe future, B isnot keen to see children cycling C has suggestions ‘or improving literacy and numeracy. D supports and develops eyele routes for children, E enjoys the benefits of new cycle routes, F does not rely on anecdotal evidence, 8 The road to success of certain needs of

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