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Gamble 1

Annotated Bibliography:
Primary Sources:

Appain. Appians History of Rome: The Syrian War. Trans. Horace White. N.p. n.d. Web. 13
Nov. 2014.
This source was about Hannibal meeting Scipio for the second time. It was very helpful
by expanding my knowledge of what Hannibal did in the years he was in hiding.
Appians History of Rome: The Hannibalic War. Livius. N.d. Web. 22 October 2014.
Appian provides a different point of view different from Polybius and Livy. He is reliable
but Im keeping my head out for bias!
Appians History of Rome: The Punic Wars. Livius. N.d. Web. 22 October 2014.
This source increased my knowledge on the time period in-between the second and third
Punic Wars. I found this source very helpful by helping me stitch everything together.
Appians History of Rome: The Spanish Wars. Livius. N.d. Web. 22 October 2014.
This source greatly increased my knowledge of the final days in the Second Punic War.
This source is reliable, but this historian mainly documents the Third Punic War.
The Battle of Cannae. Fordham University. N.p. Web. July 1998. 19 October 2014.
This source provided me with quotes about Hannibal and interesting facts.
The Character of Hannibal. Fordham University. N.p. Web. July 1998. 13 October 2014.
This source increased my knowledge on Hannibal and what influenced his actions. It also
showed me Hannibal was civilized, the opposite what the Romans think.
Dio, Cassius. Cassius Dio Roman History: Fragments of Book XV. 1914. LacusCurtius. Web.
Nov. 13, 2014.

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This source was very interesting. I had to piece together fragments to figure out what was
going on. It talks about what happened after the Battle of Cannae.
Hannibal in the Alps. Livius. N.p. Web. 25 July 2014. 2 October 2014.
This source compared both Polybius, a Greek, and Livy, a Roman. It helped me rule out
bias by comparing text from that time period so it was very reliable.
Herodotus. Fordham University. N.p. 1862. Web. 11 Nov. 2014.
This source talks about how Greeks made Hannibal seem like Hercules so more people
would follow him. Mrs. Lynch, my teacher, helped me interpret this.
Lancel, Serge. Hannibal. Trans. Antonia Nevill. Paris: Librarie Arthme Fayard, 1995. Print.
Nov. 5, 2014.
This translated book on Hannibal contained pictures of the battle Hannibal took part in. It
really expanded my knowledge and helped me picture what actually happened.
Levene. Livy: On the Hannibalic War. Trans. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Nov. 5, 2014.
This source was written by Livy, a Roman. He tries to make Hannibal seem like a
barbarian but in doing so, he cant mask Hannibals greatness.
Livius, Titus. Livys History of Rome: Book 21. Trans. Canon Roberts. London: J.M. Dent and
Sons, 1905. Print. 13 Nov. 2014.
In this source, I actually found a quote that was good about Hannibal from Livy (the
Roman). It talks about how Hannibal is a great leader.
Livius, Titus. Vol. IV. Virginia: University of Virginia, n.d. Print. 28 October 2014.

Gamble 3
This source is not very reliable due to the fact that it was written by Carthages enemy,
Rome. There is much bias in this source and showed me Hannibal from the perspective of
Rome.
Polybius- The Histories (Book III). LacusCurtius. 1927. Web. 10 October 2014.
This source was reliable providing me with information after Hannibal. It talked about
Hasdrubal and how Hannibals legacy drove him.
Polybius. Polybius the Histories: Fragments of Book VII. 1922. LacusCurtius. Web. Nov. 13,
2014.
This source talks about treaties in-between Carthage and Greece. It is very reliable as it is
written by Polybius, a Greek who is neither on the Romans side of Hannibals
Polybius: The First Punic War. Livius. N.d. Web. 22 October 2014.
This source includes information about why Carthage lost the First Punic War. This
source is reliable because some of my secondary sources back it up.
Rome at the End of the Punic Wars. Fordham University. N.p. Web. May 1998. 15 October
2014.
This source was written by Polybius. It gave reasons as to why Rome won over Carthage.
This source was recommended to me through Mrs. Lynch. It is slightly reliable because it
is written by Carthages ancient enemy, Greece.
A silver double shekel. 230 B.C. The Trustees of the British Museum/Art Resource. An Empire
of the Mediterranean. Web. Nov. 13, 2014.
This is an image of a Carthaginian coin. It has Hannibals face on the front and a war
elephant on the back.
Thayer, Bill. Cassius Dio Roman History. N.p. 16 April 2011. Web. 11 Nov. 2014.

Gamble 4
This source was written by Cassius, a Greek. He filled in multiple gaps throughout my
research like how Hannibal returned to new Carthage.
The Third Punic War. Fordham University. N.p. Web. July 1998. 15 October 2014.
This source provided quotes from the enemies of Hannibal. Its not very reliable due to
most of it may be legend. It also showed how Hannibals legacy lived through others.

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Secondary Sources:
Artiste Tunisien 02. Hannibal Romes Worst Nightmare. Online video clip. YouTube. 27 Sep.
2012. Web. 4 Nov. 2014.
This YouTube video gave me a visual idea of what Hannibal went through and showed
his tactics in action. I found this source very helpful by providing me with new facts.
Basile, Joseph. Clash of the Generals. Jan 1999. ProQuest. Web. Nov. 5, 2014.
This source compared both Scipio, Hannibals enemy, and Hannibal. It provided great
background facts as well.
Battle of Cannae, 216 BC. Digital image. Military History Monthly. N.p., 2 Nov. 2010.
Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
This is an interpretation of what the Battle of Cannae looked like.
The Battle of Lake Trasimene. Digital image. Social Studies for Kids. ClipArt, n.d. Web. 3 Feb.
2015.
I used this source for multiple images.
The Battle of Zama tactics. Digital image. Hannibal Barca of Carthage. Blogger, 15 Feb. 2012.
Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is a tactical map of what occurred at the Battle of Zama.
Brooks, Philip. Hannibal: Romes Worst Nightmare. New York: Franklin Watts, 2009. Print.
This source contained a complete overview on Hannibals entire life. My father
recommended it to me. It is reliable because it backs up everything I know about
Hannibal.
Carthage. crystalinks. N.p. Web. N.d. 4 November 2014.

Gamble 6
This source provided a large background on Carthage. It talked about how it came to be,
the wars it went through, and its destruction. It also provided me with plenty of Greek
historians thatll use as primary sources.
Carthaginean Elephants. Digital image. Geektyrant. Geektyrant Indistries LLC, 2008-2014. Web.
3 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture I used in my website.
Comparing strategies of the Second Punic War: Romes Strategic Victory. Ancient History
Encyclopedia. Parker, James. 13 March 2013. Web. 23 October 2014.
This website provided details explaining why Rome won and what Carthage couldve
done to improve. This source has a lot of ideas.
Dexter Hoyos. Digital image. The University of Sydney. N.p., 8 Dec. 2014. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture of a person I interviewed.
Dodge, Theodore. Hannibal: a history of the art of war among the Carthaginians and Romans
down to the battle of Pydna, 168 B.C., with a detailed account of the Second Punic War.
Boston; First Da Capo Press, 1891. Print. Nov. 5, 2014.
This book has hundreds of images bringing to life what it was like in that time period. It
was really helpful because I could finally see what was going on as I read other sources.
Esbjorn, Julie. Victoria Emma Pagan. Digital image. University of Florida. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 \
Feb. 2015.
This is a picture of a person I interviewed.
Forged by Lightning. Hannibal of Carthage. Render, Angela. 2002-2007. Web. 23 October
2014.

Gamble 7
This timeline helped me set everything Ive learned in order. This is definitely reliable
because it uses primary sources from everyone so there is no bias.
Girin, Eugene. Partisan Revisionism. Carthage Must be Destroyed. Miles, Richard. Nov. 2011.
Web. Nov. 5, 2014.
This source gave me plenty of facts about Hannibals tactics in his battles. It was really
helpful by giving me reasons as to why Hannibal won so many battles
Hamilcar. Digital image. NNDB. Soylent Communications, 2014. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture of Hannibals father.
Hannibal. About Education. Gill, N.S. 2014. Web. 23 October 2014.
This source provided details on Hannibals military career after the Second Punic War.
Hannibal History. 2014. Web. 22 October 2014.
This website gave facts about the treaty after the Second Punic War. I found this source
really helpful giving my plenty of new facts.
Hannibal. The New Book of Knowledge. 2006. Print.
This source greatly increased my knowledge about the time period and the locations. My
mother recommended it to me.
Hannibal. New World Encyclopedia. 19 January 2009. Web. 23 October 2014.
This source helped me stitch together everything that Ive read so far. It was super
helpful!
Hannibal at the Gates: Battle of Cannae. Digital image. Indian Defence Forum. DragonByte
Technologies Ltd, Mar. 2014. Web. 4 Feb. 2015.
This is an image I used in my website.
Hannibal Barca. Encyclopedia.com. n.p. 2014. Web. 23 October 2014.

Gamble 8
This website provided a background of Hannibal.
Hannibal Barca. Fact Behind Fiction. N.p. Web. N.d. 20 October 2014.
This source provided me facts about Carthages location and its recent wars.
Hannibal Barca of Carthage, North Africa. Black History Heroes. N.p. 2014. Web. 23 October
2014.
This source provided strange facts on Hannibal.
Hannibal Biography Biography. 2014. Web. 22 October 2014.
This source talked about the meanings of Hannibals name and Hamilcars name.
Hannibal Crossing the Rhone with War Elephants. Digital image. Penifield. N.p., n.d. Web. 3
Feb. 2015.
This is a picture I used in my website.
Hannibal, Carthaginian Military Leader. finding Dulcinea. N.p. 2014. Web. 30 Oct. 2014.
This source talked about the strengths of Rome and interesting facts about the Second
Punic War. This source is reliable because it was written in 2014 so it contains no bias.
Hannibal meeting Scipio on the Plains of Zama. Digital image. On Topic. Wordpress, n.d. Web.
4 Feb. 2015.
This is an image I used in my website
Historical Map of Lake Trasimene and Vicinity. Digital image. Emerson Kent. United States
Military Academy Department of History, 2014. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture I used in my website.
Hunt, Patrick. Elephants climbing the Alps. Digital image. Archaeolog. N.p., 2 Apr. 2006. Web.
2 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture I used in my website.

Gamble 9
Lacey, James and Murray, Williamson. Conquer or Die!. Aug. 2013. ProQuest. Web. Nov. 5,
2014.
This source did an excellent job with the breakdown of the Battle of Zama. It gave plenty
of facts and mixed a bunch of primary sources together making this reliable.
Life of Hannibal. Dickinson College Commentaries. N.d. Web. 22 October 2014.
This website talked about Hannibals mother and Polybiuss ideas on Hannibal as a
young boy. It is slightly reliable because it only uses primary sources from one person.
Map of defeats and victories in the Second Punic War. Digital image. Hannibal Barca. Weebly,
20 Apr. 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is an image of every defeat and victory Hannibal went through.
Miles, Richard. Carthage: The Lost Mediterranean Civilization. History Today. Feb. 2010.
Web. Nov. 5, 2014.
This source talks about the geography of Carthage. It is very reliable because no primary
sources were needed to prove these.
Mulligan, Bret. The Second Punic War. Digital image. The Second Punic War. N.p., n.d.
Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture I used in my website.
Porter, Barry. At Lake Trasimene, Hannibal Barca combined tactics and psychology to destroy
the Roman army. Oct. 2001. ProQuest. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
This source mainly talks about The Battle at Lake Trasimene but also has a summary of
Hannibals life. It was very reliable because of it mixing primary sources together.
Rome Burning. Digital image. Usu. Daman, 2013. Web. 4 Feb. 2015.
This is an image of Rome under attack from tribes.

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Roman Civilization. World Civilizations. 5th ed. 1974. Print.
This source is defiantly reliable giving facts about Carthage and how the Punic Wars
started. This was also recommended to me by my mother.
The Ruins of a Carthaginian Sector That Was Built under the Reign of Hannibal. Digital
image. Blogspot. Jaouadi, Ahmed, 17 Oct. 2012. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
This is a picture of ancient ruins of Carthage currently.
Scipio Africanus, Fully Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus. Digital image. Great Thoughts
Treasury. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Feb. 2015.
This is an image of Scipio Africanus, Hannibals rival who defeat him at Zama.
Second Punic War. Encyclopedia Britannica. N.p. 24 July 2014. Web. 23 October 2014.
This overview told me about all of the different battles Hannibal was in.
Second Punic War. History of War. N.p. 1 December 2002. Web. 23 October 2014.
This overview had some theories as to ways Carthage couldve won the Second Punic
War. It was really helpful!
Statue of Hannibal. Digital image. Top 10 Facts about Hannibal Barca. Adhikari,
Saugat, 2015. Web. 29 Jan. 2015.
This image of Hannibal was used in my website.
Titus Livius. Digital image. Wikimedia. Wikimedia Commons, 6 Dec. 2014. Web. 2 Feb. 2015.
Wikipedia was an excellent source for images to put in my website.
Toynbee, Arnold. Hannibals Legacy. London: Oxford University Press, 1965. Print. Nov. 5,
2014.
This book was very challenging to read and interpret. Behind the words is plenty of facts
and reasons as to why Rome won the war.

Gamble 11
Western Mediterranean 218 B.C. Digital image. Engrade. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Feb. 2015.
This is an image I used in my website.