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MARCH 1991
by Ron Vogel, Computers and Structures, Inc.
March, 1991
LRFD-COMPOSITE BEAM DESIGN
WITH METAL DECK
INTRODUCTION
This is the companion paper to the "STEEL TIPS" dated January 1987 entitled "Composite
Beam Design with Metal Deck". The original paper used allowable stress design (ASD). This
"STEEL TIPS" utilizes the same three original examples but designed by the Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Method. The purpose is to show the design procedure, the
advantages of the method, and the ease of using the AISC First Edition (LRFD) for design.
Three main areas have been revised from the ASD Approach:
1. Determination of effective slab width
2. Shored and unshored construction requirements
3. Lower bound moment of inertia may be utilized.
A number of papers have been written about these differences and the economies of the LRFD
method. The reader is referred to the list of references included.
Table
1
S U M M A R Y OF
AISC-LRFD
SPECIFICATION
SECTIONS
I3
& I5
SECTION
ITEM
SUMMARY
I3.1
Effective Width,
on each side of beam
(lesser of the 3 values)
b = Beam
Length/8
(L/8)
= Beam Spacing/2
(s/2)
= Distance to Edge of Slab
I3.5a
General
hr
<
Wr >
3.0 in.
2. 0 in.
ds
<
Hs =
3/4 in.
hr + 1 1/2 in.
(Height of Rib)
(Width of Rib)
(Welded Stud Diameter)
(MinimumStud Height)
=
hr +
3
in.
tc
> 2.0 in.
(Maximum Stud Height value for computations)
(Minimum concrete above deck)
15.1
Material
Hs > 4ds
I5.2
Horizontal
Shear Force
(lesser of the 3 values)
= 0.85f'cAc
=
AsFy
-- •
Qn
I5.3
Strength of Stud
Qn
= 0.5 Asc (f'c Ec)
(but not more than Asc Fu)
= 0.5 Asc (f'c wc)3/4 (using E¢ = wcl'5fx•c in above formula)
I5.6
Shear Connector
Placement and Spacing
=
6 ds
Longitudinal
= 4
ds
Transverse
(See LRFD Manual Fig. C-I5.1, pg. 6-177)
Table
2
AISC-LRFD
RULES
-
F O R M E D M E T A L
DECK
(Sections I3.5b and I3.5c)
ITEM
RIBS PERPENDICULAR
RIBS PARALLEL
1.
Concrete Area Below Top of Deck
NEGLECT
INCLUDE
2. Stud Reduction Factor
(N•0'85 [•rrj•Wrl{•SrS-
1}-< 1'0
06•wrl, [hrrJ [ h r -
'
1}
-<
1.0
3.
Maximum Stud Spacing
32
in.
NOT SPECIFIED
4.
Deck Welding
16
in.
NOT SPECIFIED
5.
Minimum Width of Rib
2 in.
NOT SPECIFIED
Page 2 Steel Tips March 1991
Typical Design Problems
Example 1.
Solution:
Design a composite interior floor beam (without cover plate) for
an office building. See Beam A in Figure 1.
a. Strength design
wu= s [1.6 (D.L. + L.L.)]
= 10 [1.6 ( 57 + 20 )] / 1000 = 1.23 kip/ft
-
-
I
.
BAt
i1
(Load factor for D.L. assumed same as for L.L. during
placement of concrete.)
B
Mu -
wuL2 -
(1'23)(30)2 -
139 kip-ft
^
40'
8
8
[
Mu
(12)(139) _ 51 in.3 (Minimum)
^
Zreq-
q•Fy-
(0.9)(36)
b. Servicibility design
Limit construction deflection to 1 in.
(without construction L.L.)
30'
-'
5wL4
(5)[(10)(57)](30)4(1728)
Figure 1
Ireq=
384EA-
(384)(29,000,000)(1.0)
- 358 in.4 (Minimum)
Given:
Span length, L = 30 ft.
Beam spacing, s = 10 ft.
2. Composite Beam Design:
Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in.
Concrete strength, f'c = 3.0 ksi
Concrete weight, wc = 145 pcf (n = 9)
Steel yield stress, Fy = 36 ksi
a. Trial design for required flexural strength
wu = 10 [1.2(87)+1.6(100)]/1000 = 2.64 kip/ft
3 inch metal deck, ribs perpendicular
to beam (hr = 3 in., wr = 6 in.)
No shoring permitted.
wuL2
(2.64)(30)2
Mu =
T
=
8
= 297 kip-ft
For a trial size use formula in LRFD Manual pg. 4-9.
12Mu (3.4)
Beam Weight
=
{ d
2}
•+Yc
-
•) Fy
Concrete slab including reinforcing steel
and metal deck
Framing
Mechanical
Ceiling
Partition
54
where q• = 0.85 and assume a = 1 in.
3
4
d
12Mu(3.4)
d
a
WT
Size
Z
I
•+Yc -
6
Fy
20
(in.)
(in.)
(#/ft)
(in.3)
(in.4)
14
396
12.0
33
W14X34 54.6
340
Total D.L.
87 psf
16
396
13.0
31
W16X31 54.0
375
100 psf
18
396
14.0
28
W18X35 66.5
510
21
396
15.5
26
W21X44 95.4
843
L.L.
57 psf (concrete & framing)
20 psf (men & equipment)
Select W18X35.
For simplicity, the entire 57 psf construction load is
considered as live load during concrete placement.
NOTE: The original Steel Tips design, based upon ASD,
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 3
b.
Verify flexural strength
'
b
I
o.
o
o.
%
;;'•,
.
.
.
.
.
.o
o
'
v *
.
'
,
)
?
o .
:
.
•o°
·
°
n
Effective concrete width (AISC I3.1)
lesser of,
i
i
b
= (2)(30)(12) _ 90 in.
and
8
d/2
/
b
= (2)(10)(12) _ 120 in.
!
i
2
Use 90 in.
1
Design for full composite action
Figure 2
Tmax= AsFy= (10.3)(36)= 371kips (Governs)
Cmax = q• f'c b tc = (0.85)(3.0)(90)(2.5) = 574 kips
Tmax
371
{ f'c b
(0.85)(3.0)(90)
1.62 in.
a
-
a/2 = 0.81 in. (larger than 0.5 in. assumed)
a
Y2 = Yc - • = 5.5 - 0.81 = 4.69 in.
H
o.
'
.
.
.¢.'•
i
t
.,.
.
.
.
.
.
q•Mn=
q•AsFy/d + Y21=
(0.85)(371)I1---•
+4.693
= 4270 kil•2n.
= 356 kip-ft
or from Table on LRFD Manual pg. 4-23
Figure 3
with Y2 = 4.69 in.
PNA = TFL (Top flange location)
Y1 =0in.
= 371 kips
(AsFy)
By
tie
14.69 - 4.501
*mn= ["•.-.-•.0-•.5-J
kip-ft.
(364- 351)+ 351
Yc
Y•2
=
356 kip-ft
> 297
kip-ft
O.K.
d/2
+
Yc
'
a/2
c.
Calculate shear studs
d/2
1
For full composite action
•Qn
= AsFy= 371 kips
T
Assume 3/4 inch diameter by 5 inch long studs.
Qn =
0.5Asc(f'c wc)3/4 = (0.5)(0.442) [(3)(145)] 3/4
=
21.1 kips (<AscFu = 0.442(60)= 26.5 kips)
Check flange thickness
Figure 4
tf= 0.425 > ds/2.5 = 0.3 in. O.K.
Page 4 Steel Tips March 1991
Stud Reduction Factor (S.R.F.)
d. Design for deflection
0.85
Jwr•
•Hs
•/2l•J
lTrr - 1} <
1.0
Deflection after initial construction deflection
(Nr)
085 6 I5,0_
5wL4- (5)(10) [(87 - 57 + 100) ] (30)4 1728
A= -
-
384E Itr -
(384)(29,000,000)Itr
(mr)
13.0
-
817.
--
m.
Nr
S.R.F.
Use
Itr
See Table 3 for Moment of Inertia, Itr computations.
with Itr for gross area, A = 0.46 in.
or L/783
1 1.13 <1.0
1.0
with lower bound Itr,
A = 0.56 in.
or L/643
2 0.80
0.80
A DL = 0.13 in.
3 0.65
0.65
ALL = 0.43 in. or L/837 O.K, (with lower bound Itr = Ilb)
Assume 14 stud locations possible per 1/2 beam
14 (21.1) = 295 kips
The beam may be cambered for the initial
construction deflection
(
Ireq
/Assumeddefiection.
Remaining stud force = 371 - 295
= 76 kips
A=
Iprovided
358
Use twice reduction for doubled stud locations
A = /5--i-•) 1.0 = 0.70 in.
[ (2) (0.8) - 1] 21.1
=
12.7 kips
Camber 3/4 in,
Total per 1/2 beam = 14 + 76/12.7
=
14+6=20
e. Check for shear strength
(distributed as shown in Figure 5)
Total = 40 Studs.
Vu = [1.2(10)(87) + 1.6(10)(100)]15 / 1000
= 39.7 kips
qbVn= •0.6)Fydtw
= (0.90)(0.6)(36)(17.7)(0.3)
BM Span
= 103 kips
II
II
II
II
II
I
l
l
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
or from Table on page 3-31 of the LRFD Manual
qbVn = 103 kips
> 39.7 kips
O.K.
Figure 5
Steel Tips March 1991 Page5
Table 3
Moment of Inertia Calculation
Type
n
Y
in?AY)
y
Io
Itt
(in.2)
(in.)
(
(in.)
(in.4)
(in.4)
(in.4)
1. Gross section
10.3
8.85
91
510
887
25.0
21.95
549
365
35.3
640
18.13
523
1252
1775
2. Neglecting
No tensile concrete for this example. Therefore, Itr is same as for gross section.
tensile concrete
1775
3. Reduced concrete area,
10.3
8.85
91
510
473
XJ'On/F,,
10.3
17.7 +
4.69
231
_3_1
473
equal to
20.6
322
15.60
511
946
1457
NOTES:
1. Itr = 1457 in.4 is considered the "Lower Bound"
L
moment of inertia, Iib and may be found directly from
Table on Page 4-49 of the LRFD Manual.
For
Y2 = 4.69 in.
W18x35 and
Y1 =
Itr
=
1430 + l'
[4.69-4.501 •--°Y--4-'•
'J (1500-1430) = 1457 in.4
Itr
=
lib
Figure 6
2. Modular ratio, n = 9
3. Effective concrete width, b = 90 in.
4. Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in.
5. Ac = 90 (2.5) = 225 in.2
6. Transformed concrete area, A'c = Ac/n = 25.0 in.2
,Ay
7. y
=
-
-
,n
8. d=y-y
9. Itr
= •_fio
+ • A d 2
NOTE: The purpose and advantage of using the lower bound Itr value found in the LRFD Manual tables is to avoid
the above computations. If the deflections using the lower bound Itr are acceptable, the actual deflections
will be conservatively less. Lower bound Itr is based upon the area of the beam and an equivalent concrete
area of and is applicable for full as well as partial composite action.
Page 6 Steel Tips March 1991
Example 2.
Solution:
Design a composite interior girder (without cover plate) for an
office building. See Girder B in Figure 1. The 3-inch deck ribs
are oriented paralled to the girder. Girder is assumed loaded as
shown in Figure 7.
P
P
P
Assume Framing D.L. = 10 psf
Concrete Weight = 50 psf as L.L.
Construction L.L. = 20 psf
I
I
Pu = (10)(30)[1.2(10) + 1.6(50 + 20)] / 1000 = 37.2 kips
PL_
(37.2)(40)_ 744 kip-ft
L
4olo
Mu-
2
2
12Mu_
(12)(744)_ 198 in.3 (Minimum)
Zreq-
•bFy
(0.9)(50)
Figure 7
2. Composite Girder Design
Given:
Span length, L = 40 ft.
a. Trial design for required flexural strength
Beam spacing, s = 30 ft.
Slab thickness, tc = 2.5 in.
Pu = (10)(30)[1.2(90) + 1.6(60)]/1000 = 61.2 kips
Concrete Strength, f'c = 3.0 ksi
Concrete weight, wc = 145 pcf (n = 9)
Steel Yield Stress, Fy = 50 ksi
3 inch metal deck, ribs are parallel to girder.
Mu-
PL2_ (61.2)(40)2 -
1224 kip-ft
No shoring permitted.
For a trial size use formula in LRFD Manual pg. 4-9.
12Mu (3.4)
Beam Weight
= {•-Yc
}
d
-
2 q•Fy
Concrete slab including reinforcing steel
and metal deck
54
where q)= 0.85 and assume a/2 = 2 in.
Framing
6
Mechanical 4
Ceiling
6
d
12Mu(3.4)
WT
Size
Z
I
•q-Yc- d
a
Partition
20
¢
Fy
(in.)
(in.)
(#fit)
(in.3)
(in.4)
Total D.L.
90 psf
21
1175
14
84
W21X83
196
1830
Live
100 psf
24
1175
15.5
76
W24X76
200
2100
27
1175
17.0
69
W27X84
244
2850
Live Load Reduction = 23.1 (1+ D/L)
= 23.1 (1+ 90/100)
Select W24x76.
= 43.9 %
or enter Table on page 4-33 of the LRFD Manual
or
= 0.08 (A - 150)
= 0.08 (1200-150)
with
Y2 =
3.5 in.
=84%
PNA = TFL
(Yc - a/2)
(Full Composite Action)
4)Mn =
1230 kip-ft
> 1224 kip-ft
or
= 40 % maximum
Use 60 psf L.L.
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 7
b. Verify flexural strength
I'
b/n '--'1
C•
g•
,
"
/. :o=:
;
•x,.-•'•Xx,•.•\•.:
•,
':
.•.•
'
• ,
.
.
.
.
.
.
d/2 dl 2+Yo- a/ 2
I
'
-
- " -
-
:
I
Effective concrete width
lesser of,
b = (2)(40)(12)/8 = 120 in. and
b= (2)(30)(12)/2-= 360in.
Use 120 in.
Design for full composite action
/•c
=
2.5b
+
3.Ob
=
4.Ob
2
Tmax = AsFy = (22.4)(50) = 1120kips
(Governs)
Figure 8
Cmax = 0.85f' cAc =
For Ac see Figure 8.
(0.85)(3.0)[(4.0)(120)]= 1224kips
a
Y2 =
Yc - •
=
5.5 - 2.01 = 3.49 in.
4.82"
=
qbMn= qbAsFyld+ Y2)=
(0.85)(1120)I2-•+
3.49/12
I
ct
w
'
k
,"1
't,
,'1
= 1225 kip-ft
> 1224 kip--ft
O.K
a s s u m e - ! - 6 "
_1_
8"
_1_
8"
.!_
or from Table page 4-33 for Y2 = 3.5 and TFL
OMn = 1230 kip-ft
Tmax = Cabove + Cbelow
Cabove= (0.85)(3.0)(120)(2.5)= 765 kips
Cbelow = 1120 - 765 = 355 kips
c. Design for deflection
355
Initial deflection during construction
depth = [(1/2)(120)] (0.85)(3.0) - 2.32 in.
19PL3
(19)[(10)(30)(54 + 6)](480)3
Centroid from top = a/2
A= 384Eis
= 1.62 in.
(384)(29,000,000)(2100)
a_
(765)(1.25)+355(2.5+2.32/2)
2
1120
Camber 1 1/2 inches.
= 2.01 in.
Assumption of a/2 = 2 in. O.K.
Composite deflection using Lower Bound Itr (Ilb).
From Table on page 4-46 of LRFD Manual,
Figure 9
with Y2 = 3.5
PNA = TFL .
Ilb = 4780 in4
D.L. = 90 psf
ConstructionD.L. = 60 psf
L.L. = 60 psf
19PL3
(19)[(10)(30)(90 - 60 + 60)1(480)3
ATL-
384EI-
(384)(29,000,000)(4780)
= 1.07 inches
or
L/450
ALL= (60/90)(1.07)= 0.71 in. or L/673 O.K.
NOTE: The mooment of inertia using the gross area
equals 5510 in.
Page 8 Steel Tips March 1991
d. Shear Connectors
Partial Composite Action
Example 3
= For full composite action
AsFy
= 1120 kips
Design Beam in Example 1 for p•fial
composite action.
('"'1[
]
Reduction Factor =
0.6 [hr J[
1
_< 1.0
SOLUTION:
%
/
a. Determine required shear studs
= 0.6
-1
= 0.8
Estimate number of shear studs for partial composite action
using the following approximate equation
Use 0.8 for stud reduction factor.
Qn = (0.8)(21.1) = 16.9 kips (See Example 1)
Mu - •Mp
'•
,•Qn
No.
[•Mn
- *Mp )
Qn
1120
No.-
-
-- 67 Studs
Qn -
- 16.9 -
67 Studs are required from Zero to Maximum Moment.
Where Mu = Moment demand
Mp = Steel Beam Capacity with •) =
Mn = Full Composite Beam Capacity
0.85
Total = 134 \$•uds,
Use equal spacing for full length.
Mu = 297 kip-ft
{Mp = •Fy Z = (0.85) (36) (66.5)/12 = 170 kip-ft
{Mn = 356 kip-ft
= AsFy = 371 kips
e. Check Shear
Qn = 21.1 kips
Vu --- 1.5 (Pu) = 1.5 (61.2) = 92 kips
•=
Vn = • (0.6 Fy) d tw = (0.9) (0.6) (50) (23.92) (.44)
[356-170) •,21.1)
0.47 (17.6)= 8.2
= 284 kips
> 92 kips
Q.K.
Try 9 studs on each 1/2 beam.
NOTE: The original Steel Tips design, based upon ASD,
used a W27X94 with 92 studs.
Total = 18 studs.
b. Check flexural strength
•Qn
= (9)(21.1) = 190 kips
From Eq. C-I3-4 in commentary of LRFD Manual
190
a = 0.85f'cb- (.85)(3.0)(90)- 0.83 in.
Y2= Yc-a/2= 5.5-0.41 = 5.09
From Table on page 4-23 of the LRFD Manual
for
W18X35
Y2 = 5.0 - 5.09 in.
•Qn
= 187 - 190 kips ( PNA = BFL approx.)
•) Mn = 296 kip-ft (approx. equal 297 kip-ft required) O.K.
Therefore, partial composite action with 18 total studs is
Steel Tips March1991 Page 9
c. Check deflection
DISCUSSION
For deflectioncomputation use the lowerbound value given
in the Table on page 4-49 of the LRFD Manual.
For W18x35
PNA = BFL +
Y2 = 5.0 +_
Ilb = 1170 in.
With the use of the First Edition AISC-LRFD manual,
composite beam design can be simplified, particulary
with partial composite action. As in the past, AISC
has tried to incorporate enough tables and charts to
4
A TOTAL = (1775/1170) 0.46 = 0.70 in.
ALL = 0.54 in.
or
L/667
O.K.
Obviously any number of studs from 9 (47%) to that for full
composite action may be used (per 1/2 Beam Span) with the
associated increase in moment capacity and decrease in de-
flection.
make repetitive design computations easier. Deter-
mining preliminary beam sizes, number of welded
studs and composite beam deflections is now very
straight forward. With a minimum of assumptions (i.e.
location to the compressive force, Y2) preliminary
comparative designs can be done in minutes with the
use of the tables.
PART 4 (Composite Design), PART 6 (Specifications
and Commentary), especially Section I on Composite
Members, and the other references listed. The number
of articles dealing with LRFD composite members
Location of
design is growing as designers are becoming more
.
a/2
. effec'ive concrete
b
familiar with the method and the AISC-LRFD manual.
Y2{ •m.
•t
1)
• - ' - ' T•
I
'
- -
• :
t
(pt s)
[
(••
Y1
(varies
-
Sgure below)
I
I
Y1 = Distance from top of steel flange to any of the seven
tabulated PNA locations.
qn (@ point 5) + •
qn (@ point 7)
qn (@
point 6) =
2
qn (@ point 7) = .25AsFy
4equ•
spaces
Bo\$/l{
Top Flange
I
1
,, BFL
PNA
Flange
Locations
Figure 10
Page 10 Steel Tips March 1991
NOMENCLATURE
Ac
Area of concrete (in.2)
S.R.F.
Stud reduction factor
A'c
Area of concrete modified by modular ratio (in.2)
T
Tensile force (kips)
As
Area
of
steel (in. 2)
TFL
Top of flange location
Area of welded stud (in.2)
Asc
Va
Shear capacity (kips)
BFL
Bottom of flange location
Vu
Shear demand (kips)
C
Compressive force (kips)
Y1
Distance from top of beam flange (in.)
D.L.
Y2
Distance from top of beam to concrete flange force (in.)
E
Modulus of elasticity of steel (29,000,00 psi)
Yc
Total thickness of concrete fill and metal deck (in.)
Ec
Modulus of elasticity of concrete (ksi)
Z
Plastic section modulus (in.3)
Fy
Minimum yield strength of steel (ksi)
a
Effective concrete flange thickness (in.)
Fu
Minimum tensile strength of steel (ksi)
b
Effective concrete flange width (in.)
Hs
Welded stud height (in.)
d
Depth of steel beam (in.)
IIb
Lower bound moment of inertia (in.4)
ds
Welded stud diameter (in.)
Io
Moment of inertia (in.
f'c
Concrete compressive strength at 28 days. (ksi)
Itr
Transformed moment of inertia (in.4)
hr
Nominal rib height of metal deck (in.)
L
Span length (ft)
n
Modular ratio (E/Ec)
L.L.
tc
Thickness of concrete above metal deck (in.)
Mn
Nominal flexural strength 0dp-ft)
tf
Steel beam flange thickness (in.)
Mp
Plastic bending moment (kip-fO
tw
Steel beam web thickness (in.)
Mu
Factored Moment (Required flexural strength) (kip-ft)
Unit weight of concrete (lbs./cu. ft)
Wc
Nr
Number of stud connectors in one rib at a beam
intersection
Average metal deck rib width (in.)
Wr
wu
P•
PNA
Plastic neutral axis
A Deflection (in.)
Resistance factor
Q. Welded stud shear capacity (kips)
REFERENCES
, "Manual of Steel Construction, "First Edition, AISC, Chicago, 1986.
2. STEEL TIPS, "Composite Beam Design with Metal Deck," Steel Committee of California, January 1987.
3. STEEL TIPS, "The Economies of LRFD in Composite Floor Beams," Steel Committee of California, May 1989.
4. Smith, J.C., "Structural Steel Design - LRFD Approach," John Wiley & Sons, Inc., N.Y., 1991.
5. Salmon, C. and Johnson, J., "Steel Structures," Third Edition, Harper & Row, N.Y., 1990.
6. McCormac, J., "Structural Steel Design - LRFD Method," Harper & Row, N.Y.,1989.
7. Vinnakota, S., et al., "Design of Partially or Fully Composite Beams, with Ribbed Metal Deck, Using LRFD
Specifications," AISC Engineering Journal, 2nd Quarter, 1988.
Steel Tips March 1991 Page 11
THE STEEL COMMITTEE OF CALIFORNIA
Northern California
Southern California
43 Quail Court, No. 206
Walnut Creek, CA 94596
(415) 932-0909
9420 Telstar Ave., No. 207
El Monte, CA 91731
(818) 444-4519
Allied Steel Co., Inc.
Artimex Iron Co., Inc.
Bannister Steel, Inc.
Bethlehem Steel Corporation
C. A. Buchen Corporation
Butler Manufacturing Co.
Cochran-Izant & Co., Inc.
Geneva Steel
The Herrick Corporation
Hoertig Iron Works
Hogan Mfg., Inc.
Junior Steel Co.
Lee & Daniel
McLean Steel, Inc.
Martin Iron Works, Inc.
Nelson Stud Welding Co.
Oregon Steel Mills
Palm Iron & Bridge Works
PDM Strocal, Inc.
Reno Iron Works
Riverside Steel Construction
H. H. Robertson Co.