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www.elsevier.com/locate/electstud

critical re-examination of Duvergers

mechanical effect

Kenneth Benoit

Abstract

Studies of electoral law consequences typically treat electoral laws as exogenous factors

affecting political party systems, even while acknowledging that political parties often tailor

electoral institutions to suit their own distributional needs. This study represents a departure

from that approach, directly examining one aspect of the endogeneity of electoral systems:

the endogeneity of Duvergers mechanical effect. Theory clearly posits that the Duvergerian

psychological effect of electoral rules occurs in anticipation of their reductive mechanical

effect, yet in empirical models this endogenous character is typically ignored. In this paper I

formalize the two types of Duvergerian effects of electoral laws in a structural model and

implement this model using two-stage-least-squares regression to re-estimate the mechanical

effect model of Amorim Neto and Cox [Electoral institutions, cleavage structures, and the

number of parties. Am. J. Polit. Sci. 41 (1997) 149-174] and Cox [Making Votes Count:

Strategic Communication in the Worlds Electoral Systems. Cambridge University Press

(1997)]. I also generalize the model and compare it to two other approaches taken by Ordeshook and Shvetsova [Ethnic heterogeneity, district magnitude, and the number of parties. Am.

J. Polit. Sci. 38 (1994) 100-123] and Taagepera and Shugart [Predicting the number of parties:

a quantitative model of Duvergers mechanical effect. Am. Polit. Sci. Rev. 87 (1993) 455464]. The results indicate that because electoral structure affects the number of parties in

the legislature both directly through the mechanical effect as well as indirectly through the

psychological effect, simple OLS estimates that do not take into account this endogenous

Previously presented at the 1999 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association,

Atlanta Mariott Marquis and Atlanta Hilton and Towers, September 25, 1999. A full replication dataset

is available upon request from the author. The author thanks Gary Cox and Mike Harrison for ideas and

comments and Matthew Shugart for assistance with his original dataset.

* Tel.: +353-1-608-2941; fax: +353-1-677-0546.

E-mail address: kbenoit@tcd.ie (K. Benoit).

0261-3794/01/$ - see front matter 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 2 6 1 - 3 7 9 4 ( 0 0 ) 0 0 0 3 3 - 0

36

model will overestimate the mechanical effect by 45100%. 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All

rights reserved.

Keywords: Electoral systems; Mechanical effect; Psychological effect; Endogeneity; Duverger

Duvergers famous proposition that the simple-majority single-ballot system

favors the two-party system (Duverger, 1951, p. 217) has generated a huge field

of subsequent empirical research linking electoral structure to the number of political

parties present in a nations political system (Amorim Neto and Cox, 1997; Ordeshook and Shvetsova, 1994; Lijphart, 1994; Taagepera and Shugart 1989, 1993; Blais

and Carty, 1991; Rae, 1967). Theory identifies a dual mechanism by which electoral

institutions shape political party systems: two forces working together: a mechanical

and a psychological factor (Duverger, 1951, p. 224). The mechanical effect of electoral systems describes how the electoral rules constrain the seats that can be awarded

from distributions of votes, while the psychological effect deals with the shaping

of party and voter strategies in anticipation of the electoral functions mechanical

constraints. Analysis of the mechanical effect considers the number of parties winning seats as a dependent variable, using electoral structuretypically represented

by district magnitudeas the key explanatory variable. Research into the psychological effect, on the other hand, focuses on the role of electoral rules in shaping the

number of parties contesting seats, as well as the way that votes for these parties

are cast, often controlling for such factors as ethnic cleavages (Ordeshook and Shvetsova, 1994), issue dimensions (Taagepera and Grofman, 1985), and the character

and timing of presidential elections (Amorim Neto and Cox, 1997).

Empirical research since Duverger, however, has not always drawn a rigid distinction between the two types of effects (for an explanation see Blais and Carty, 1991),

nor has it fully explored the theoretical implications of these two mechanisms for

empirical modeling. Why should it be important to distinguish between the two

effects and to estimate each with accuracy? First, without a clear distinction, as this

paper demonstrates, estimation of the mechanical effect in particular tends to be

biased. Since the psychological effect consists of anticipations of the mechanical

effect, then an incorrect understanding of the mechanical effect may also warp the

psychological effect. Second, real-world political actors, especially those considering

alternative electoral systems, require an accurate understanding of the mechanical

consequences of various electoral rules. Especially in cases of initial electoral system

choice where configurations of political parties may be shaped prior to institutions,

decision-makers will be interested in how electoral rules will reduce the number of

parties through purely mechanical means. Since political science knowledge increasingly influences decision-makers selecting among alternative electoral institutions, a

clear and accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of these institutions

is of critical importance.

In this study I focus renewed attention on the estimation of the mechanical effect.

37

In what follows I express the mechanical and psychological effects in a single structural model, then apply this model to replicate and re-estimate the mechanical effect

reported in Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) and Cox (1997).1 The results indicate that

because electoral structure psychologically influences the composition of votes which

condition the mechanical effect, non-structural estimates of electoral structures

mechanical effect will be overestimated. Variations of this result applied to two other

approaches to estimating the mechanical effect taken from Ordeshook and Shvetsova

(1994) and Taagepera and Shugart (1993) reveal a similar upward bias.

2. Data

My purpose here is to offer a clarification and correction of previous models of

the mechanical effect, not to extend them using essentially new data. For this reason

I have chosen to adhere closely to the data and design of previous empirical research

into the mechanical effect. While this approach carries over all of the flaws in the

data, variable names, measures, and estimation methods of the original studies, it

has the advantage of isolating the essential model for direct comparison. Substantive

work to follow will hopefully incorporate the lessons derived from this re-examination, although a full implementation of these lessons is left to future work. For

example, mechanical effects as defined here really operate at the district level, and

therefore are likely to be obscured when observing only aggregate results.2 Since

the objective of this re-analysis is to focus on an issue in modeling the mechanical

effect, however, the data and methods used here closely follow those of Cox (1997)

and Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) for purposes of directly comparing and extending

previous estimates of the mechanical effect.

The dataset from Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) provides 54 cross-national observations of elections from the 1980s. The dependent variable ENPS refers to the

effective number of legislative parties (1/s2i , where si is party is seat share). The

independent variables include ENPV, the effective number of parties in the electorate

(analogous to ENPS but using vi as party is vote share); UPPER, indicating the

proportion of all assembly seats allocated in the upper tier(s) of the electoral system;

and LML, the natural logarithm of the median legislators district magnitude. Using

the logarithm of district magnitude M is standard practice, designed to indicate the

marginally decreasing consequences of M on the number of parties; for the purposes

of replicating Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) I follow their use of the natural logarithm. Finally, ENETH represents the effective number of electoral groups (analogous

1

Controlling for the number of parties in the electorate was also the approach of Blais and Carty

(1991), to which the following discussion also applies.

2

Another issue which might be raised concerns heteroskedasticity. While heteroskedasticity may be

present in the data, I did not report heteroskedasticity corrections of the standard errors for purposes of

adhering to the previous models. Testing revealed, however that adding these corrections does not change

the significance of any of the estimated coefficients.

38

to the party counts but using gi to denote the proportion of the population of ethnic

group i), based on data collected by Ordeshook and Shvetsova (1994).

3. The model

The mechanical effect of electoral rules may be thought of as a physical limit on

the number of parties which can gain representation. For instance, in any electoral

district at most M parties may win seats (where M represents district magnitude),

no matter how many parties contest the M seats.3 The number of parties winning

seats when M1, however, will depend on the number of parties receiving votes as

well as their relative shares of the votes. Theoretically this is the complete information set necessary to observe the mechanical effect: the electoral rules and the

votes which the rules convert into seats. Once electoral rules are fixed, their effect

is mechanical in the sense that no human manipulation or strategy is involved

(Taagepera and Shugart, 1989). It is mechanical in the sense of accounting not for

political issues, personalities, or culture but only for the limits imposed on such

features by institutional structures (Taagepera and Shugart, 1993, p. 456). Eq. (1)

states this relationship formally, specifying b1 and b2 as the structural parameters

indicating the mechanical effect (and using the variable notation from Amorim Neto

and Cox, 1997).

ENPS b0b1LMLb2UPPERb3ENPVU1

(1)

ENPVg0g1LMLg2UPPERg3ENETHU2

(2)

Eq. (2) specifies the psychological effect, modeling the effective number of parties

receiving votes as a function of electoral rules as well as exogenous social factors

such as ethnic cleavages. It also highlights the endogenous nature of ENPV in Eq.

(2), since the psychological effect is driven by the perceived workings of the mechanical effect in Eq. (1). ENPV is also mechanically related to ENPS, since ENPS will

be equal to or less than ENPV (unless an electoral rule awards seats to parties receiving zero votes or the difference is an artifact of aggregation from districts).

Together the equations fully specify the structural relationship between the mechanical and psychological effects of electoral rules and the additional influence of

sociological factors on influencing the number of parties that both contest and win

office. The first equation separates the filtering of votes into seats by electoral rules,

for a given set of votes. The second equation describes how this set of votes is

3

This is what Taagepera and Shugart (1993, p. 458) forebodingly call the Forbidden Zone, placing

an upper limit of 1.0 on a linear coefficient relating ML to ENPS. While this upper limit of 1.0 will not

apply to the coefficient of LML since LML is logged, in real data the estimate will tends almost always

less than 1.0leading to estimates in practice of 01.0 even for the logged measures of district magnitude.

It is also possible to construct exceptions when district-level data is aggregated, although none exist in

the data used in this study.

39

determined, including its shaping by the the anticipations, both by elites and voters,

of the workings of the mechanical factor (Blais and Carty, 1991, p. 92). Electoral

rules therefore exert a double effect: first in influencing the number of parties that

compete and the concentration of votes they receive, and second by controlling the

conversion of these parties votes into seats. In non-mathematical terms, votes which

are converted by the mechanical effect into seats have been pre-filtered by the

psychological effect, by voters and parties having some knowledge of how the rules

affect the chances of winning seats. It also implies that any observation we make

of the mechanical effect of electoral rules will also represent the influence of the

psychological effect, unless we have a method of taking into account the structural

relationship. While this endogenous relationship is sometimes implicit to previous

models of Duvergers effects, none have attempted to control for it when making

empirical estimates. The model here is therefore distinguished from previous characterizations by the explicitness of its structural treatment of the mechanical and

psychological effects and its direct control for the consequences of this endogenous relationship.

Pictorially we can represent Eqs. (1) and (2) in a path model (Fig. 1), highlighting

the means by which electoral institutions affect seats both directly (the mechanical

effect) and indirectly (the psychological effect) by shaping the votes to be converted

into seats. Because these functions are modeled as stochastic, the error terms U1 and

U2 also affect both models.4 In terms of Eqs. (1) and (2), the structural parameters

Fig. 1.

4

If we strictly interpret the views of Taagepera and Shugart (1993), then the mechanical effect is not

really a stochastic function at all. In practice, however, it is modeled with a residual term, since summary

40

b1 and b2 represent the mechanical effect, while g1 and g2 represent the psychological effect.

The proper method of estimating these parameters depends on the structural

assumptions we can make about the correlation of error terms U1 and U2. If these

error terms are correlated, then in the language of structural equations, the model is

non-recursive. The consequences are that OLS estimates of the structural parameters

will be both biased and inconsistent. In the case of the two effects of electoral systems represented by Eqs. (1) and (2), there is excellent reason to believe that the

errors terms are correlated. First, because the tendency to reduce the number of

parties in both the mechanical and the psychological effects is driven by the same

set of institutional causes, any observation-specific forcessuch those uniquely

occurring in one country or electionnot captured in the systematic part of the

model are likely to have a similar affect on both error terms. For example, an idiosyncratic election where the number of parties competing for election was unusually

fragmented would also result in a potentially fragmented legislature, with the deviation from the psychological effect reflected directly as a deviation in the mechanical

effect. In addition, measurement problems are likely to affect both the psychological

and the mechanical models in a similar way. This is because electoral statistics such

as formula and district magnitude are invariably classified into discrete categories

or averaged at the national level, introducing potentially correlated disturbances

between the psychological and mechanical effect models which both incorporate

them. Both sets of forces should lead us to suspect a structural correlation and to

attempt modeling the problem using a more appropriate estimator. Two-stages leastsquares (2SLS) is one of the simplest methods of estimating structural parameters

for hierarchical and non-recursive models of this sort, producing consistent estimates

of structural parameters (Greene, 1993, pp. 6024). In the two sections which follow

I replicate and then re-estimate using 2SLS three previous empirical models of the

mechanical effect.

Amorim Neto and Coxs (1997) estimates of the mechanical effect provide a suitable setting for testing the model and its implications for empirical observations of

the mechanical effect. First, Amorim Neto and Coxs (1997) study, also reproduced

in Cox (1997), is familiar to many electoral systems researchers and uses variables

and methods common to most previous empirical studies of electoral system consequences. Second, the precise nature of the original study and the thorough description

of its data and variables facilitates replication. Finally, the study also estimated the

characterizations of electoral structure (e.g. district magnitude) are almost never complete, since data is

national- and not district-level, and since each observation of ENPV itself contains error. The empirical

estimation of the mechanical effect can therefore be thought of as an average effect for the system.

While theorizing the mechanical effect to be deterministic raises interesting implications, its treatment

for estimation purposes as stochastic here is completely consistent with prior practice.

41

psychological effect, allowing for an extension of the original results using the structural model developed here.

Result (1) in Table 1 replicates Amorim Neto and Coxs (1997, Table 1) estimate

of the mechanical effect, using ENPV, ENPV*LML, and ENPV*UPPER as independent variables. Their study also included estimates of the psychological effect,

providing a means to obtain predicted values for ENPV to use in a 2SLS procedure

to re-estimate Result (1).5 This yielded consistent estimates for the effect of the

electoral institutions in Result (2) of Table 1indicating that the effect of the multiplicative LML variable is over-estimated by OLS by more than 45% relative to the

2SLS result (0.080 versus 0.055). Note that this replication did not involve any new

variables or any respecification of the original Amorim Neto and Cox (1997)

Table 1

Modeling the mechanical effect. Dependent variable: ENPSa

Independent

variables

Constant

ENPV

ENPV*LML

ENPV*UPPER

LML

UPPER

ENETH

SEE

Adj. R2

N

a

Amorim Neto

and Cox (1997,

Table 1)

OLS

(1)

Structural

approach

No interactive

ENPV

2SLS

(3)

Ordeshook and

Shvetsova

(1994) approach

OLS

(4)

Taagepera and

Shugart (1993)

approach

OLS

(5)

2SLS

(2)

0.582

(0.135)

0.507

(0.048)

0.080

(0.012)

0.372

(0.111)

0.276

(0.144)

0.637

(0.044)

0.055

(0.011)

0.367

(0.141)

0.433

(0.530)

0.589

(0.183)

0.253

(0.097)

0.156

(0.187)

1.504

(0.507)

0.518

(0.128)

0.358

(0.440)

0.358

(0.258)

2.110

(0.264)

0.510

(0.129)

0.240

(0.436)

0.40

0.92

54

0.46

0.90

54

0.54

0.86

54

1.25

0.24

54

1.27

0.25

54

All data are from Amorim Neto and Cox (1997). Standard errors are in parentheses.

5

PV]=1.61+0.52LML+3.95UPPER

The estimate of the psychological effect I used was [EN

5.95PROXIMITY+2.14PROXIMITYENPRES+.51ENETH, all statistically significant at the p0.05

level, which I replicated in order to obtain predicted values for ENPV. The variables PROXIMITY and

ENPRES refer to the time between legislative and presidential elections and to the effective number of

presidential candidates. Although the inclusion by Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) of presidential variables

is unique, for replication purposes I retain their specification here. One reason not to include variables

on the psychological effect on presidential candidate is that these may also be determined by some of

the exogenous social factors included as control variables.

42

regressions, but instead simply combined information from the separate estimates of

each effect into a structural model.

How should these results be interpreted? The answer has to do with the difference

between the total effect of district magnitude on the number of elected parties versus

the specific mechanical effect caused by electoral structure. The total effect of district

magnitude, for instance, includes both b1 and g1, but the mechanical effect refers

only to the former. When the votes to be filtered through the electoral rules have

already been pre-filtered in anticipation of the actual mechanical process, then the

non-structural model provides estimates that are too large, identifying a mechanical

effect from what is actually a total effect.

This endogeneity of the psychological effect can be seen when we compare ENPV

and ENPS for systems even with very different median district magnitudes (Table

2). For some of the elections from the Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) dataset using

extremely disproportional first-past-the-post systems we would observe, because of

the prefiltering of the psychological effect, results just as proportional as those from

systems with PR rules and much higher district magnitudes. The United States, for

example, using a single-member-district system with plurality rules, has 2.03 effective parties in the electorate and 1.95 parties winning seats, for a ratio of 1.04. Similar

results for single-member-district systems are the Bahamas and St Kitts and Nevis

with ratios of 1.08 and 1.00 respectively. Nearly identical ratios are also observed

in systems with much larger district magnitudes, such as Malta (M=5), and in Portugal, Finland, and Bolivia, with magnitudes between 16 and 17.5. In each case, the

psychological effect causes an equilibration between the number of parties that contest elections and the number that win them, and this effect is quite independent of

the mechanical effect of the electoral rules. These examples are selected of course

the full range can be assessed from the regression resultsbut they serve as illustrations of the dangers of observing mechanical effects in situations where the

psychological effect has already caused the parties competing and the parties winning

to equilibrate. This should deter us from the conclusion that the proper formulation

is one which ENPS would equal ENPV, were the electoral system perfectly proportional, with strong electoral systems reducing ENPS below ENPV (Amorim Neto

Table 2

Examples of psychological effect of pre-filteringa

Country

United States

St Kitts and Nevis

Bahamas

Malta

Portugal

Finland

Bolivia

ENPV

ENPS

Ratio

2.03

2.45

2.11

2.01

3.73

5.45

4.58

1.95

2.46

1.96

2.00

3.41

5.14

4.32

1.04

1.00

1.08

1.01

1.09

1.06

1.06

Median M

1.0

1.0

1.0

5.0

16.0

17.0

17.5

a

All data are from Amorim Neto and Cox (1997). None of these examples have additional elements

such as upper-level compensation lists or additional-member systems.

43

and Cox, 1997, pp. 1612) to the extent that the psychological effect does not fully

equilibrate ENPV.

Result (3) from Table 1 estimates a model of the mechanical effect without

multiplying all of the other variables by ENPV, but retaining ENPV as a standard

control variable. This simple additive formulation is consistent with previous

models of the mechanical effect and facilitates direct comparison for the purposes

of illustrating the bias caused by estimating the mechanical effect separately. The

coefficient of UPPER is not significant when not multiplied by ENPV, but for

purposes of comparison I keep it and simply focus the remaining discussion on

district magnitude (LML). The result of 0.253 as a coefficient on LML may be

interpreted as the true mechanical effect estimate of structural parameter b1 from

Eq. (1). This does not mean that the total consequences of district magnitude on

the effective number of parties is 0.253, but merely that this is a better measure

of the strictly mechanical effect of district magnitude where ENPV is fixed and

exogenous. The next section compares this figure to two other previous

approaches to estimating the mechanical effect.

Comparison of the structural approach to modeling the mechanical effect may be

extended to two other classes of previous models. The first type, included in Ordeshook and Shvetsova (1994), includes sociological control variables directly in the

model of the mechanical effect. The second, outlined (although not estimated

empirically) by Taagepera and Shugart (1993), disregards control variables altogether. This section demonstrates the superiority of the structural model to both of

these approaches.6

Result (4) in Table 1 uses the specification of Ordeshook and Shvetsova (1994)

with the data from Amorim Neto and Cox (1997).7 In this specification the operation of the mechanical effect is assessed while holding sociological factors constant. Yet because sociological factors do not intrude on the mechanical process

of vote-to-seat conversion, ENETH is really just a proxy for a measure of votes.

It is incomplete, however, and still results in an upwards-biased estimate of b1

as compared to Result (3)in fact it more than doubles the estimate of the mechanical effect. This occurs because ENETH is only a partial determinant of ENPV,

This section does not strictly replicate either of these two studies, although the Amorim Neto and

Cox (1997) dataset is essentially the same as that used by Ordeshook and Shvetsova (1994). I was not

able to use Taagepera and Shugarts (1993) dataset because even with Matthew Shugarts willing help I

was unable to reconstruct it exactly, and because their estimation procedure is not an empirical one which

can be replicated in the same way. Hence I replicate their model specifications while using the Amorim

Neto and Cox (1997) dataset, which keeps attention centered on the modeling issues which are the focus

of this paper.

7

In fact the data are essentially the same, since Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) used the measure of

ENETH as provided by Shvetsova.

44

and because the psychological effect of LML is still being conflated into the

mechanical estimate through the omission of ENPV. As a consequence the coefficient on LML in Result (4) is an estimate of a reduced form parameter combining several effects, rather than of the structural parameter b1. Appendix A demonstrates this result mathematically.

The second alternative approach to estimating the mechanical effect is simply

to estimate the effect of electoral institutions on the number of parties winning

seats without any control variables. This approach was taken by Taagepera and

Shugart (1993), and followed using the Amorim Neto and Cox (1997) dataset in

the last column of Table 1. It causes a similar upward bias in the estimate of b1,

ascribing a much greater mechanical consequence to district magnitude only for

the limits imposed... by institutional structures (Taagepera and Shugart, 1993,

p. 456), because it fails to control for any other influences. The results in Table

1 show likewise that the estimate of the electoral institution-only model yields

a coefficient double that estimated by the structural model. Here the problem of

endogeneity can be demonstrated as one of simple omitted variable bias: the

omitted variable ENPV is highly correlated with the included variable district

magnitude through the very nature of the psychological effect. In this case the

omitted variable ENPV is both positively correlated with ENPS and with the

included variable LML, causing a positive upward bias in the estimate of LMLs

mechanical effect, detailed mathematically in Appendix B. Because the approach

using ENETH also suffered from this omitted variable bias, it is not surprising

that the two estimates of 0.518 and 0.510 should be similar.

6. Concluding remarks

This study has focused on empirical models of the mechanical effect, attempting to

bring empirical estimates closer to the purely mechanical factor identified in electoral

systems theory. The results demonstrate quite clearly in the context of previous

research that non-structural empirical estimates of Duvergers mechanical effect will

be biased, yielding results stronger than those caused by the strictly mechanical operation of electoral rules. This bias occurs because the operation of electoral systems

on the number of parties winning seats operates twice, both on the conversion of

votes to seats but also on the composition of votes itself. This result is robust to

several alternative approaches to estimating the mechanical effect. A more correct

approach is to model the structural relationship using two-stage least-squares (e.g.)

to separate the purely mechanical workings of electoral rules.

An unbiased estimate of the strictly mechanical effect might be of particular

interest in situations where the number and composition of political parties might

be at least partially independent of the electoral rules. Such a situation is common

in emerging democracies who are selecting from alternative rules based on their

understanding of the mechanical effects of the alternatives. The separate estimation points to the fact that in equilibrium, where ENPV is prefiltered by

electoral constraints, the results might be proportional even though the electoral

45

in the parliament. In such contexts it is the number of political parties in parliament that is the most important immediate issue to electoral law designers, rather

than the more theoretical issues pertaining to strategic voting and party exit and

entry which political scientists prefer to examine under the rubric of the psychological effect. The structural model estimates presented here provide for such

contexts a more accurate picture of the institutional effects as separated from the

equilibrium effects which may only occur after a learning process has taken place.

For political scientists interested in the Duvergerian effects of electoral law, the

approach outlined here clarifies our understanding of the mechanical effect and

focuses attention where it is probably more deserved: on the psychological effect

of electoral laws on political parties and voters.

Substituting Eq. (2) into Eq. (1), we get:

ENPSb0b1LMLb2UPPERb3g0b3g1LMLb3g2UPPERb3g3ENETHb3U2U1

(b0b3g0)(b1b3g1)LML(b2b3g2)UPPERb3g3ENETHb3U2U1

(3)

p0p1LMLp2UPPERp3ENETHV

where the last step substitutes reduced form parameters p0 through p3 for the structural parameters. This formulation highlights the relationship

p1b1b3g1

p1b1

since the effect of both ENPV and LML on ENPS are always positive. Ordeshook

and Shvetsovas (1994) procedure is equivalent to estimating p1, while the 2SLS

model provides a consistent estimate of b1. The estimate of p1 will always be greater

by the product of the effect b3 of ENPV in the mechanical effect model and the

effect g1 of LML in the psychological effect model.

Consider two reduced versions of Eq. (1), omitting the constant and UPPER for

simplicity (not affecting the results):

ENPSb1LMLb3ENPVU1

ENPSd1LMLU3

The OLS estimator d1 for d1 will be:

46

LMLiE(ENPSi)

E(d1)

LML2i

LMLi(b1LMLib3ENPVi)

b1

LML2i

LML2i b3

b1b3

(4)

LMLiENPVi

LML2i

LMLiENPVi

LML2i

where the last term in Eq. (4) is equivalent to the slope coefficient from an OLS

regression of ENPV on LMLa measure of the psychological effect, in other words.

The estimates of the effect of LML in Eq. (4) will therefore be larger than the

estimate of b1 in Eq. (4) by the product of the magnitude of LML in the psychological

effect and by the direct correlation of ENPV with ENPS.

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