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Greater Mekong Subregion

Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Human Resource Development (WGHRD-4)

Vientiane, Lao PDR
5-6 September 2002
The Fourth Meeting of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Working Group on Human
Resource Development (WGHRD-4) was held in Vientiane, Lao PDR from 5-6 September 2002.
The Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Lao PDR
hosted the meeting in cooperation with the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
The objective of the meeting was to arrive at a consensus on the proposed framework
for HRD cooperation under the GMS Program (the HRD framework), in the context of the GMS
Strategic Framework (GMS Framework) endorsed in the GMS Ministerial Meeting held in
Myanmar in November 2001. The HRD framework was to be used as the basis for firming up
the HRD cooperation program and for prioritizing projects in support of the GMS Program. The
meeting therefore reviewed the Development Matrix on the HRD flagship program, which was
included in the GMS-SF, entitled Developing Human Resources and Skills Competencies.
The HRD Matrix included a short analysis of projects, which comprise the HRD flagship
The participants included government representatives from the Kingdom of Cambodia,
the People's Republic of China (PRC), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the
Union of Myanmar, the Royal Thai Government, and the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Also
present were representatives of multilateral and bilateral organizations with strong presence in
the GMS. The list of participants is attached as Appendix 1.
The Meeting consisted of the following sections: opening/ welcome remarks; introduction
to the meeting/ expected outcomes; presentation on the GMS Program Strategic Framework
and flagship programs; status of projects/ programs; presentation on draft framework for HRD
cooperation; country presentations; breakout session 1 and plenary on the HRD framework;
breakout session 2 and plenary on the HRD matrix pipeline; and closing session. The Agenda
and Program of the Meeting is attached as Appendix 2.

Opening Session

Mr. Arjun Thapan, Director, MKSS, ADB, welcomed the participants and introduced H.E.
Somphnong Mongkhonvilay, Minister to the Prime Ministers Office, Lao PDR, to deliver the
opening remarks.
H.E. Somphong Mongkhonvilay welcomed the participants and wished everyone a
pleasant stay in Lao PDR. He provided a quick overview of the vision and goal of the GMS
Strategic Framework adopted in the last GMS Ministerial Meeting in Yangon in November 2001.
He cited the need to re-examine HRD thrusts in the GMS, following the inclusion of the HRD
flagship program, Development of Human Resources and Skills Competencies, in the GMS
Strategic Framework. He cited the objective of the meeting to review and discuss the framework
for HRD in the GMS, which aimed to identify a strategy for action to optimize HRD programs/

projects. He added that the GMS Program had become more realistic in terms of development
cooperation among GMS members, which would be discussed in the forthcoming 11th GMS
Ministerial Meeting in late September 2002 in Phnom Penh. He hoped that the discussions
during the two-day meeting would contribute significantly to the improvement/ refinement of the
GMS Strategic Plan. He then declared the 4th Meeting of the WGHRD open, and wished the
meeting a great success.
Plan of the Meeting/ Expected Outcomes
Mr. Thapan explained that the meeting was significant in that ADB had just undergone a
major reorganization, which created a full department devoted to the Mekong subregion. Since
the WGHRD had not met for two years, he cited the need for a review of what had been done
with a view to defining the future work plan. He suggested that the group meet more often, at
the very least, once a year. He said that much remains to be done in education, health and
labor. He cited the need to act quickly if we are to have an impact in meeting the millennium
development goals for the social sector. He then proceeded with the plan for the meeting,
noting that after the presentations on the GMS Program Strategy, the report on HRD activities
and the proposed framework for HRD cooperation, it was planned that the participants would
present on recent country developments in HRD. This would be followed by the first breakout
session to discuss the HRD framework and the plenary presentation on the groups findings. At
the end of the meeting, the group was expected to come up with a consensus on the framework
for HRD cooperation and the HRD pipeline for the HRD flagship program.
Presentation on the GMS Program
Mr. Toru Tatara, Head, GMS Unit, ADB, gave a history of the WGHRD and stressed the
achievements in the HRD area of the GMS Program, such as the projects in drug control, on
HIV/ AIDS prevention, the study on ethnic minorities, and training on environmental information
systems. He then gave a quick overview of the GMS Program and its achievements for the first
decade, notably the promotion of mutual trust and confidence among the GMS countries, which
helped expand cross-border trade and investment. He said that in addition to support for
infrastructure projects, the program also developed institutional mechanisms for cooperation in
eight sectors, including HRD and environment. He proceeded with a discussion of the GMS
Strategic Framework endorsed at the 10th GMS Ministerial Meeting in Yangon in November
2001. He explained that the Framework was to be implemented through five strategic thrusts
and ten flagship programs, two of which relate to HRD and environment. He then explained the
critical role of HRD in the GMS-SF, and explained the contents of the development matrix that
contains a pipeline of projects for HRD cooperation. He gave the goal and objectives of the
HRD flagship program, and proceeded with an analysis of the matrixs components, and of the
participatory approach adopted for the GMS strategy. Finally, he informed the meeting of the
forthcoming GMS Summit of Leaders in November 2002, which will be crucial to successful
implementation of the GMS Program in the next decade.
Accomplishments Since the Last WGHRD Meeting
Mr. Indu Bhushan, MKSS, ADB, provided the status of project/ programs under WGHRD
since the November 1999 meeting in Kunming, PRC. He first provided the underlying principles
adopted by the WGHRD for regional cooperation in HRD. The group had agreed to focus on
issues that:

a. have cross border implications;

b. provide economies of scale (like purchase of vaccines);
c. provide opportunities for cross-country learning and sharing of experiences (such as
Cambodias experience in AIDS care);
d. are regional public good in nature (such as development of toolkits for HIV/ AIDS).

He then outlined the projects completed since the last meeting, as follows:
a. RETA: Health and Education Needs of Ethnic Minorities- Lao PDR and Cambodia
reports have been published also in local languages;
b. RETA: Preventing HIV/ AIDS in GMS- developed toolkits providing guidelines on
how to organize HIV/ AIDS programs for mobile groups;
c. Small Scale RETA: Drug Eradication in GMS- summarized the good practice
examples of drug control;
d. SSRETA: Support to 6th ICAAP (International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the


Mr. Bhushan then briefed on ongoing projects as follows:

a. Community Action for Preventing HIV/ AIDS ($8 million, funded by JFPR)
b. Support to Rollback Malaria ($0.6 million)


Other initiatives and activities mentioned were:

a. Meeting of the Health Ministers in Hue;
b. Proposal for Japan Fund for ICT for HIV/ AIDS (with UNESCO and SEAMEO)
c. Proposal for Cooperation in Alternative Development for Drug Control in the GMS
(with UNDCP).

Mr. Thapan suggested that participants take down notes of issues and questions they
would like to raise. The opportunity for an open forum would be given after the presentations to
save time.
Presentation on Draft Framework for Cooperation in HRD
Dr. Ernesto Franco, HRD Consultant, first presented the steps in developing a
framework, namely, assessment of external environmental forces for change, assessment of
institutional capability (internal environment), taking stock of vision/ mission and goals, all of
which lead to criteria for prioritization and flagship programs and projects. He said that a
framework could serve a number of uses, such as acting as road map for the future, and
providing rationale/ ownership, and cohesive set of principles. He proceeded to examining a
framework in action, the GMS Program strategy, which embodied a vision, mission and goals,
among others. For the GMS framework, the four stages in developing the framework was
presented. The fourth stage was the matching of environmental forces, institutional capacity,
mission and priorities to determine major policies, programs and projects. The end results were
the strategic thrusts of the GMS Program and the flagship programs. He then showed the same
approach needed to develop the HRD framework. The issue he raised was whether to include
productivity as a leverage always. He then presented the critical questions needed towards
development of an HRD policy and an HRD model. He showed a diagram summarizing the
GMS Program Development Strategy, and showed a similar diagram for the HRD Strategic
Framework, highlighting the gaps between what countries want to do, and what they can
actually do.


Country Presentations

Mr. Chroeng Sokhan presented the general situation of Cambodia- its land area,
population, GDP growth rate, etc. He provided key policy statements concerning HRD. He gave
a quick health situation analysis, including the health work forces composition and distribution.
On the current health HRD situation, he listed the institutions involved in health/ sciences
training. Main problems concerning training included those related to the use of the system,
coordination, standards/ accreditation, quality enhancement, and others (lack of funds and
training materials, limited intake capacity of institutions). There were also problems with
legislation, and professional registration, accreditation, and performance assessment.
For education, he showed a system totally destroyed by war but which significantly
expanded in the past decade. However, public expenditures were still low and policies lack
support for the sector. Major issues included the lack of budget for reform and high level of
centralization. He proceeded with proposed policy areas and medium term objectives for
education. Among priorities was to ensure equitable access of poor and ethnic students and
For labor, he provided the institutional set up and situation analysis of the sector,
including the workforce participation rates and employment rates. He noted the situation with
respect to child labor, including their working conditions. He concluded that unemployment and
underemployment were two major problems to be solved, compounded by the high population
growth rate.
Mr. Sun Xinhua presented the country profile for China (population, urban share, life
expectancy, literacy rate and per capita GNP) and administrative structure (provinces,
prefectures, etc.). He cited in particular the set-up for the Ministry of Health and the three planstwo on HIV/ AIDS prevention and control, and one on national TB control. He then gave briefs
on the HIV/ AIDS and TB situation in PRC and Yunnan. He gave the priority areas for health,
namely, communicable disease control, expansion of surveillance system (involving experience/
information exchange), and health promotion (improving community awareness and behavior
change in mobile populations).
Mr. Dai Xiaochu presented on labor issues and recent trends in China, such as robust
inflow of investments and high growth of GNP. He cited challenges faced by the economy in the
face of the Asian crisis and September 11 terror attacks. One was the problem of absorbing the
new entrants to the labor market. The transition from agriculture to manufacturing required
major adjustments in both the labor force and the public sector. Another issue was the
displacement of workers from streamlined state enterprises. Among the required responses
were to pursue high economic growth rates, to promote tertiary/ service industries, to enhance
worker quality, and to improve labor market information system. Efforts were underway to
improve vocational skills (through distance method).

Mr. Bounsom Phommavihane began with general statistics for Lao PDR- population,
fertility, life expectancy, infant/ maternal mortality rates, literacy rate, enrolment rates and GDP
per capita. He gave the health sectors long term vision, goals and objectives of the health
sector development and reform. Key objectives were to improve quality and expand coverage.
He outlined the overall basic strategies comprising 21 components, including sector-wide
coordination, financial management capacity, capacity building in decentralized context,
promotion of gender perspective. There were 30 very high priority programs in health finance,
health education, infectious disease control, primary health care, maternal/ child health,
nutrition, hospital services, etc.
He then gave the education strategic vision and overall policy. The latter called for
expanding basic education, abolishing illiteracy and improving quality, among others. Education
development programs for 2001-2005 were presented, together with the targets for various
levels of schooling (i.e., primary, secondary, non-formal, etc.) and needed actions under various
objectives (such as increasing equitable access and improving quality/ relevance).
Mr. Bounsom proceeded with strategy for Lao Labor Development for 2000-2005. He
gave the objectives of the strategy, which included labor skill/ regulation, properly regulating
foreign labor, and expanding recruitment service, and improving labor information system.
Dr. Maung Maung Win cited the formation of manpower planning coordination committee
under the Ministry of Labor. He cited the Department of Labor as focal point for subregional
labor information network (SLIN) to apply common GMS skill standards. For occupational
welfare the Ministry of Labor carried out measures to balance worker rights with productivity of
the enterprise. He cited the various programs under the national employment service, overseas
employment service and vocational training.
In health, the National Health Committee laid down the National Health Policy composed
of 15 elements. From this the National Health Plan was formulated, and one of its projects was
the Development of Human Resources for Health. A long-term visionary health development
plan was drawn up to meet future health challenges. Priority was accorded to rural health
development as the majority resides in rural areas. To develop human resources in health, he
explained the major programs contained in the National Health Plan, Special Four-Year Plan
and Rural Health Development Plan.
For education, the Ministry of Education was functionally the main sponsor of training
and education in the areas of basic education, teacher education and higher education. The
Education Department had aimed at giving basic education to all citizens and to reduce illiteracy
by half. In accordance with the Four- Year Plan for Promotion of National Education the Ministry
of Education was in the process of upgrading/ strengthening schools and institutions. He
explained the various developments in basic education, higher education, e-education,
vocational education, and literacy.

Mr. Apinan Phatarathiyanon gave the HRD achievements in terms of poverty reduction,
education, public health and labor, and remaining problems such as increased unemployment,
inequitable regional development, and limited access to services. For health, government
enforced the National Health Act and the National Health Insurance Act, reformed the public
health system, and adopted universal health insurance at flat rate of 30 baht, which guaranteed
equal access to nationally accepted health care.
He noted that the New Education Act, launched in 1999, would allow reforms to make
Thailand a knowledge-based society. Other major components included an education
technology system and information network, public education for the disabled, and selfeducation. Literacy rates and length of schooling improved, but remaining problems included
increase in mental problems (due largely to the crisis), wide urban/ rural gaps and lack of
standard quality education.
For labor development, government established the new Ministry of Social Welfare and
Human Security. Private sector was seen as key to develop labor skills. Government also
targeted development of skills responsive to the needs of enterprises, reducing the migration
from the countryside and the creation of labor relations system to enable all sides to participate
in solving labor problems. Also he reported the progress of the establishment of the Excellent
Institute of Thailand under GMS which was proposed in the first phase of GMS HRD Working
Group. The training can be extended to GMS Countries on the year 2003. This institute was
supported by the German Government. The name of this institute has been changed to the
Chiang-Saen International Institute for Skill Development (CS-IISD) located in Chiang Rai
Mr. Apinan presented the elements of the 9th National and Social Development Plan with
HRD as an important strategy through people empowerment, improved social protection
system, drug abuse prevention, development partnership promotion, etc. He finally enumerated
the recommendations for HRD cooperation which included alignment with corridor development,
regularized labor mobility and markets, and information exchanges between GMS working
groups, among others.
Viet Nam
Mr. Nguyen Ba Can gave the overall picture for education, including mapping and
enrolment levels of the education system from pre-school to secondary and on to higher
education. He gave a brief of current educational programs, which included adult, ethnic
minority and gender education. Issues concerned quality and efficiency, disparity by regions and
equitable access. The focus of the education programs included improving quality and
efficiency, ensuring equitable access, modernization, standardization, etc.
For the health sector, he gave general facts on life expectancy, number of health staff,
physician-population rations, etc. He gave different categories of health sector manpower. The
sectors policies and targets were then presented, which included health staffing at all levels,
increasing quality of staff, maintenance quality of workers, proper distribution of staff, increasing
private sector role, etc.

For labor, he noted the trends and targets in employment and job creation. Policy wise,
he noted government priorities such as employment generation, and support for vulnerable
groups to integrate into the labor market, among others. Program-wise, the initiatives were to
improve worker employability, to modernize the labor market information system, and to
modernize public employment services, among others. Remaining issues included surplus
labor, mismatch between supply and demand, poor quality, poor labor market information, etc.

Breakout Session 1- Plenary Presentation (HRD Framework)

Guidelines for Breakout Session 1

Mr. Paul Chang explained the plan for the breakout session. Dr. Sandra Tempongko
(SEAMEO-Tropmed) provided the participants with the guidelines for the breakout session 1,
which was to analyze the HRD framework using the following questions:
a. What are the challenges/ issues in the environment that are impacting on their
respective sectors?
b. What areas of capacity building need to be strengthened to cope with the identified
c. Given the GMS vision/ mission statement, what do we envision for the GMS people?
The groups proposed to move the plenary presentations for the next day to enable them
to complete their discussions and to prepare their powerpoint presentations.
GMS Scholarship Program
Mr. Chang presented the proposed scholarship program that would address the needs
of middle and senior level government officials across sectors. The programs would range from
3 to 12 months and would be done in various institutions around Asia. He said that he needed
participants views on whether the concept for the program was on the right track. He cited the
proposed areas for the courses, namely, planning, program and project implementation, and all
other aspects of development management. He conceded that there was limited time to do
systematic needs analysis. He asked the participants for their views on aspects of the program
such as the level and qualifications of scholars, length of training, etc. He added that there
would be phasing of the program to incorporate lessons from earlier phases.
The comments were as follows:
a. Thailand fully supported the idea of the scholarship program in the areas cited as consistent
with the HRD program for GMS. They requested however full details of the proposal for
consideration later.
b. AHRN proposed starting new programs/ courses within the region that would respond to
needs of GMS countries.
c. Mekong Institute (MI) offered its services to develop the content of some courses as well as
to undertake comprehensive training needs assessment. MI said two critical areas for the
success of the program are management and selection of participants, i.e., making sure
those who attend would benefit from the courses.
d. ADB cited the different institutions and networks that could be tapped for the program (MI,
GMS Academic and Research Network of AIT, Colombo Plan, SEAMEO, etc.)

e. ADB further cited the criteria for eligibility of participants, in terms of age, academic
preparation, government employment, position, potential for promotion, computer literacy,
English proficiency, etc.
f. PRC also supported the program but said the courses should not be too long. They added
that courses should be more practical, and the program should focus on finding the right
persons for the courses. Courses could address subregional cooperation needs.
g. ADB said that a Steering Committee would be formed to decide on the candidates for the
courses. ADB would have the final say on acceptance and would serve as executing agency
for the program. Communications could take place through email or video conferencing.
h. Myanmar asked whether the 12-month program would result to a masters degree, to which
ADB replied in the affirmative.
i. ADB stated it would continue refining the proposal and seek the countries views on the
revised proposal.
Plenary Presentation by Breakout Groups
Chairman- Mr. Nguyen Ba Can (Viet Nam)
Rapporteur- Mr. Chantarat Kotkam (Thailand)
The group presented 12 issues and challenges for the sector, as follows:
a. Uneven development leading to negative impact on educational access and quality of
education services;
b. Urbanization dynamics given: migration of students/ families to cities; inadequate school
physical facilities in city to cope with influx (overcrowding of classes); and draining of human
resources from provincial areas to urban areas (and to other countries), among others;
c. Poverty of students, families, teachers, and in remote communities and ethnic groups;
d. Transitional economies and the challenges posed by move from agriculture to industry/
services, and from planned to market economies;
e. Industrialization/ modernization promoted by foreign investment, which showed skills gaps
between graduates and industry requirements, and between local and international
f. Technological change
g. Poor internal efficiency/ productivity of education systems
h. High population growth rates;
i. Policy reforms impacting on education;
j. Language issues, within countries, language of instruction, ethnic minorities and between
countries, demand for foreign language skills given mobile/ global/ regional labor force;
k. Cultural challenges given impact of international values (from globalization), traditional
beliefs (girls reluctance to travel) and need for flexible/ culturally sensitive approaches; and
l. Need for portability of educational qualifications (standards, accreditation, and mutual
recognition of qualifications).
There were seven areas for institutional capacity building to cope with strategies, as
a. Improving educational access (particularly for ethnic minorities and women);
b. Upgrading of physical educational infrastructure (classrooms, learning materials, textbooks,
ICT, etc.;

c. Modernization of curriculum and learning materials to respond to challenges (particularly in

science and technology);
d. Capability building for teachers, educational administrators and education development
managers, which could focus on educational management, teaching/ learning process,
assessment and evaluation, etc.
e. Expanding flexibility of educational systems including reform of teacher incentive systems,
use of alternative learning/ delivery strategies, and strengthening local capacity for
decentralized educational management;
f. Strengthening of competency standards and accreditation mechanisms to facilitate
portability of qualifications; and
g. Facilitating opportunities for sharing of experiences, best practices, innovations, etc. across
GMS countries.
Chairman- Mr. Dai Xiaochu (PRC)
Rapporteur- Ms. Areeya Rojuithee (Thailand)
Globalization was presented as the major challenge/ issue for the subregions labor
market. The aspects of globalization affecting the labor force included integration of labor
markets, movement of workers, increased trade in goods and services and greater flow of
information and technology. As a result of globalization, it was necessary to increase knowledge
and skills base of the labor force. The group cited opportunities for greater regional integration
to take advantage of globalization and create synergies at the regional level. There was need
for more effective communications, such as learning new languages and cultures.
For capacity building, the group cited the need to build national and regional capacities
to respond to globalization. Private and public sectors needed to work together to strengthen
capacity of the work force and of institutions. At the national level, there was need to invest in
further training and upgrading of knowledge and skills leading to the development of a learning
society. The private sector was cited as the key to provide education and training. The public
sector was seen as playing an important role through incentives, subsidies and overall labor
policies. At the regional level, the opportunities for capacity building would be through:
a. Strengthened sharing of information on regional labor markets;
b. Building capacity to develop regional policy on labor accreditation and standards; and
c. Developing transparency and consistency in labor migration policy.
The group presented its regional vision, which was to transfer knowledge and
experience to improve skills and competence of the labor force in the subregion.
Chairman- Mr. Chroeng Sokhan (Cambodia)
Rapporteur- Dr. Anusson S. Sitdhirasdr (Thailand)
On the external environment that impacts on health, the group noted the following
a. Diseases- HIV/ AIDS, IDU/ drug abuse, tuberculosis, malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever,
traffic accident, and fake drugs;
b. Social situation- poverty, vulnerable and disadvantaged groups;

c. Political situation- policy making, policy in transition to market orientation, law enforcement
and transparency;
d. Globalization- cross-border movement, economic impacts, information access and donor
driven programs;
e. Biomedical advances- new vaccines/ drug development, inequity to access to new
f. Culture and beliefs- different countries and minority groups have different cultures, which
affect their access to health services.
On the areas of capacity building that need to be strengthened, the group listed the
a. Capacity building for all levels of health personnel, health institutes (medical schools and
centers), and in the areas of health policy and health financing and planning;
b. Capacity building on international health organizations and government-NGO-community
c. Capacity building on health research and evidence base, health information exchange, and
ICT development.
The groups vision and mission were presented as follows:
a. Mission 1- communicable disease control among GMS countries, especially in border areas;
b. Mission 2- improve the health status in the GMS countries;
c. Mission 3- improve access to quality services, especially in remote areas and vulnerable
Comments on Presentations
The following points were raised by participants:
a. For health capacity building, government policy commitment should come first, followed by
health financing to undertake capacity building of health personnel (Thailand);
b. Public awareness on fake drugs was needed to address the problem (Cambodia);
c. Differences in implementation of programs could affect regional cooperation; in dealing with
programs and projects, duplication must be avoided, especially among those funded by
external donors. On the framework, the duration should be from 3 to 5 years, since 10 years
would be too long. The framework should also have its own monitoring and evaluation
mechanisms to feed to the WGHRD (Thailand);
d. It was noted that the WGHRD is shifting from an ad hoc approach at programming HRD
projects, towards a comprehensive HRD framework. The latter however, is an evolving one
with a life span of only 3-5 years and possibly updated annually (ADB).
Presentation/ Adoption of the HRD Framework
Dr. Franco noted that that the outputs of the groups exceeded parameters set for their
sectors. From the three sector outputs, he presented the integrated output the HRD Strategic
Framework. First cited were the external forces for change as follows:
a. Globalization- uneven economic development, transitional economies, migration of labor
force, changing knowledge and skills needed, roles of public and private sectors, language
issues, cultural challenges, policy reforms, spread of infection/ communicable diseases,
trafficking, and biomedical advances;
b. Technological change- access issues and uneven development;

c. Poverty
Second area cited was capacity building, which would lead to building in-house capacity.
Infrastructure included physical and training institutions. Standards for accreditation and policies
and systems were also needed. The third area consisted of the various opportunities for
regional exchange. It was suggested to take all three areas to build the HRD program for GMS.
Among additional observations were:
a. Globalization should be accorded top priority since all countries must prepare for this to
survive (Thailand);
b. Whether education for all, non-formal education and open university concept should be
given more prominence (UNESCO); these elements were included in the proposed
framework (Dr. Franco).
Mr. Chang called for adoption of the framework, to be used as basis for the review of the
HRD development matrix in the next breakout session. He reminded the participants to adopt a
regional perspective and think in terms of cross-border needs in proposing changes in the HRD
matrix. He added that thinking on funding should not be limited to ADB; other donors could
come in to support some of the projects.

Breakout Session 2- Plenary Presentation (HRD Flagship Program)

Guidelines for Breakout Session 2

The participants were then provided with the guidelines for breakout session 2. In the
context of the adopted HRD framework, each sector (education, health, and labor) was
expected to review and prioritize the specific projects relevant to the sector under the GMS HRD
Flagship Program. In the review process, the sector groups were asked to expand, modify, or
delete some of the projects.
Presentor: Ms. Pornthip Jaisan (Thailand)
The group described the process for review of the priority projects, which included
brainstorming on key issues
High priority projects included:
a. Educational Development Management
b. Education for Ethnic Minorities
c. ICT in Education, including Distance Education
d. Decentralized Educational Management
Medium priority projects included:
a. Curriculum modernization
b. Development/ Strengthening of Competency Standards/ Accreditation
c. Knowledge Generation, Sharing/ Transfer, Networking in the GMS
Low priority projects included:
a. Poverty Monitoring

b. Educational Infrastructure upgrading

c. Gender inequalities in education
d. Role of privates sector in education
Presentor: Mr. Chroeng Sokhan (Cambodia)
The group presented the following projects (listed in order of priority):
a. Health and Education Needs of Ethnic Minorities in the GMS
b. Preventive Health Education Through ICT
c. Regional Communicable Diseases Surveillance System
d. Strengthening a Regional Network for Research in HIV/ AIDS
e. Cooperation in Alternative Development and Demand Reduction in Drug Abuse
f. Strengthening Regional Capacity for Drug Quality Control
Presentor: Mr. Dai Xiaochu (PRC)
The group discussed many activities to reach agreement on priorities. Discussions on
key regional issues were reviewed. The proposed project Capacity Building for Skills Exchange
and Accreditation for GMS Labor Markets was used as basis for the labor sector proposals.
Priority was given to those that promote greater regional integration
Highest priority was the Inventory study on labor markets, labor mobility, skills needed
for labor market, systems for labor mobility, gender and language issues, training institution /
standards/ accreditation mechanisms.
Along with the study, it was necessary to establish a permanent regional mechanism
(forum, working group, etc.) responsible for management of the study. This would also serve as
steering committee for future activities, particularly in addressing the issue of cross-border labor
migration in the subregion.
Next steps included:
a. Development of standards and mutual accreditation
b. Upgrading of selected training institutions
c. Training of workers to meet regional demand for labor
The group noted importance of not duplicating the work of others. There was need to
work with others in labor markets to ensure complementarity of work. Steering Committee would
work closely with ASEAN.
Presentation for Validation of DMCs of the Framework and Pipeline of Projects
Mr. Chang noted the need to develop the details of the project proposals, and matching
these with potential funding sources. He noted that some of the activities are being prepared by
ADB and could get off the ground quickly. He asked the participants to give feedback on the
project proposals after two weeks. For the next venue, he said consultation with the prospective
host would be made shortly. He proposed the creation of task forces and their TORs, which
would define their work for the next WGHRD meeting. Among the tasks mentioned was to

review the outputs of the WGHRD and provide the details in the priority proposals. The
countries would be asked to nominate members of the three task forces (health, education, and
a. There was question on the need for the task force, and its tasks, since there was no TOR
yet (Thailand);
b. It was explained that there would be need for another look at all the projects from the three
sectors to determine their timing (ADB);
c. It was proposed that cross border migration issues be considered top priority (PRC);
d. Given the limited resources, some of the priority projects could be funded by the ADB and
the others could be proposed for funding from various donors (Thailand);
e. Relevance to certain sectoral and regional objectives could be used as criteria to rank the
projects (Myanmar).

Wrap Up/ Concluding Session

Mr. Thapan thanked the group for their contributions during the workshop. He said that
the meeting has been an educational experience and noted that the extent of participation has
been encouraging. Three broad things emerged from the breakouts, which cut across all sectors
discussed. One was the need for GMS to prepare for globalization. He said GMS should be
prepared for the challenges while noting its strengths. Globalization and increased mobility
would have major impacts on health, such as the case for HIV/ AIDS. Second was the need to
maximize benefits from new advances in technologies. ICT needed to be more integrated in
education, as well as pursuit of biomedical advances. Finally, there was need to be more
sensitive to uneven development within and across GMS countries. He said the meeting
succeeded in coming up with the priorities for HRD, and noted the intense discussions on the
process. He cited the health and education needs of ethnic minorities as a top priority due to its
strong cross-border element. Next was the ICT project, and third was the scholarship program
in development management. He stressed that ADB would help in developing the projects with
guidance from the countries but that there was also the need to strengthen ownership of the
program by the countries. He also suggested the group to be open to creative new ideas. He
broached the idea of a mechanism for exchange of ideas, through say, a newsletter. He ended
by thanking everyone for their contributions and looked forward to future meetings with stronger
participation of the GMS representatives.


Appendix 1, Page 1
Greater Mekong Subregion
Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Human Resource Development (WGHRD-4)
Vientiane, Lao PDR
5 6 September 2002
List of Participants

Mr. Chroeng Sokhan, Vice Director of Department of Drugs and Food, Ministry of Health
Tel. No.: (855 23) 880 969 Fax No.: (855 23) 880 696 E-mail: sokhan@bigpond.com.kh
Mr. Mam Sam Oeurn, Deputy Director of the Information and ASEAN Affairs, Ministry of
Education Youth and Sports
Fax No.: (855 23) 207 250/212 512
Tel No.: (855 12) 825 185
E-mail: crsmeys@camnet.com.kh
Ms. Chan Phearith, Official, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor Vocation Training and Youth
Tel. No.: (855 12) 777 049/ 23 726 085
Fax No.:
Peoples Republic of China
Mr. Sun Xinhua, Director, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Health
Tel No.: (86-10) 6879 2360 Fax No.: (86-10) 6879 2514 E-mail: sunxh@aids.net.cn
Mr. Dai Xiaochu, Deputy Director, International Cooperation Department, Ministry of Labor and
Social Security, Beijing
Tel No.: (86-10) 8420 1119/ 8420 1117 Fax No.: (86-10) 84221624
E-mail: daixiaochu@mail.molss.gov.cn
Mr. Bounsom Phommavihane, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Tel. No.: (856 21) 414 040 Fax No.: (856 21) 415 932 E-mail:
Mr. Ouam Sengchandavong, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Education
Tel. No.: (856 21) 217 795 Fax No.: (856 21) 216 006 E-mail: s_ouam@hotmail.com
Mr. Ka Saleumsouk, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Education
Tel. No.:
Fax No.:
Mr. Heuan Chanphana, Director of Division of Official Development Assistance, Department of
Economic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Tel. No.: (856 21) 414040
Fax No.: (856 21) 415932

Appendix 1, Page 2
Mr. Meckham Sylikhoun, Deputy Director, Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Foreign
Tel. No.: (856 21) 414040
Fax No.: (856 21) 415932
Mr. Vaigna Souvannachak, Director of Division, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
Tel. No.: (856 21) 213001
Fax No.: (856 21) 213287
Dr. Somchanh Xaysida, Director of Health Manpower Development Division, Ministry of Health
Tel. No.: (856 21) 212221
Fax No.: (856 21) 218488
E-mail: somchanhx@hotmail.com
Mr. Miray Sengchanthavong, Officer, Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
Tel. No.: (856 21) 213001
Fax No.: (856 21) 213287

Dr. Maung Maung Win, Deputy Director General, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of
Tel. No.: (95 1) 251 368
Fax No.: (95 1) 242 460
E-mail: ddg_dms@dms-health.gov.mm
U Myint Swe, General Manager, Social Security Board, Ministry of Labour
Tel. No.: (95 1) 281 043
Fax No.: (95 1) 256 235
Daw Kyi Kyi Swe, Professor, Department of Economics, Mandalay University, Ministry of
Tel. No.: (95 2) 21211 loc. 129
Fax No.:
Mr. Apinan Phatarathiyanon, Senior Expert on Technical and Economic Cooperation,
Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation
Tel No.: (662) 282 9831
Fax No.: (662) 282 1969
Dr. Anussorn Sitdhirasdr, Senior Expert in Preventive Medicine, Department of Communicable
Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health
Tel No.: (66 2) 590 3221/ (66 1) 909 9266 Fax No.:
E-mail: anussorn @health.moph.go.th
Ms. Areeya Rojuithee, Senior Expert on Skill Development, Department of Skill Development,
Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare
Tel No.: (662) 248 3385
Fax No.: (662) 247 0300
E-mail: areeya@dsd.go.th
Mr. Chantarat Kotkam, Planning Officer, Office of the Permanent Secretary
Tel No.: (662) 628 5637-8 ext. 47
Fax No.: (662) 281 5413
E-mail: chankot@emisc.mae.go.th
Ms. Pornthip Jaisan, Programme Officer, Department of Technical and Economic Cooperation
Tel No.: (662) 282 9831
Fax No.: (662) 282 1969
E-mail: pjaisan@yahoo.com

Appendix 1, Page 3
Ms. Chompunuch Ramanvongse, Policy and Plan Analyst 4, Regional Economic Cooperation
Committee Office (REDCCO), Office of the National Economic and Social Development Board
Tel. No.: (662) 253 3584
Fax No.: (662) 253 3258
E-mail: chompunuch-r@nesdb.go.th
Viet Nam
Mr. Nguyen Ba Can, Senior Expert, Department of Planning and Finance, Ministry of Education
and Training
Tel. No.: (84 4) 869 485/868 1759 Fax No.: (84 4) 868 1759
E-mail: nguyenbacan@hn.vnn.vn
Mr. Doan Mau Diep, Deputy Director, Institute for Labor Sciences, Ministry of Labour, Invalids
and Social Affairs
Tel. No.: (84 4) 8269 699
Fax No.: (84 4) 8269 733
E-mail: illsaun@hn.vnn.vn
Mr. Phi Van Tham, Senior Expert, Department of Science and Training, Ministry of Health
Tel. No.: (84 4) 846 4416
Fax No.: (84 4) 843 50015 E-mail: tham@moh.gov.vn
Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN)
Mr. Ton Smits, Executive Director
Tel No. (66 53) 223 624/ 894 112

Fax No.: (66 53) 894 113 E-mail:

Asian Institute of Technology (AIT)

Dr. Mohammad Nazrul Islam, Associate Professor and Program Coordinator, School of
Management and Coordinator ADB-AIT Network
Tel. No. (662) 524 5663
Fax No.: (662) 524 5667
E-mail: nazrul@ait.ac.th
Dr. Hans Helmrich, Project Coordinator, GTZ-Office in Vientiane
Tel. No.:
Fax No.:
International Development Research Centre (IDRC)
Ms. Vivien Chiam, Partnership and Business Development Manager, Regional Office for
Southeast and East Asia
Tel. No.: (65) 6831 6828
Fax No.: (65) 6235 1344
E-mail: vchiam@idrc.org.sq
Mekong Institute (MI)
Mr. Yan Flint, Director
Tel. No.: (66 43) 246 851

Fax No.: (66 43) 343 131

E-mail: yan@kku.ac.th

Appendix 1, Page 4
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Center for Educational
Innovation and Technology (SEAMEO INNOTECH)
Mr. Philip Purnell, Education Specialist
Tel No. (632) 928 7348 loc.152 Fax No.: (632) 921 0224

E-mail: philip@seameo-innotech.org

Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Centre for Higher

Education and Development (SEAMEO RIHED)
Dr. Pensri Teravarapaug, Consultant
Tel No.: (662) 644 9856-63 Fax No.: (662) 644 5421

E-mail: pensri@rihed.seameo.org

Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Secretariat

Dr. Rujaya Abhakorn, Deputy Director for Administration and Communication
Tel. No: (662) 712 2201/391 0144 ext. 107 Fax No.: (662) 381 2587
E-mail: rujaya@seameo.org; rujaya2000@yahoo.com
Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization, Regional Tropical Medicine and
Public Health Network (SEAMEO TROPMED)
Ms. Vimolsri Panichyanon, Assistant Coordinator
Tel. No.: (662) 644 4331
Fax No.: (662) 247 7721 E-mail: fnvpn@daimond.mahidol.ac.th
Dr. Ma. Sandra B. Tempongko, Project Coordinator, SEAMEO TROPMED-GTZ Control of
HIV/AIDS/STD Partnership Project in Asia Region
Tel No.: (662) 247 8001
Fax No.: (662) 247 7721
E-mail: tmseanet@diamond.mahidol.ac.th
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Mr. Cedric Wachholz, Specialist, ICT Programming
Tel. No.: (662) 391 0577
Fax No.: (662) 391 0866

E-mail: c.wachholz@unescobkk.org

Asian Development Bank

Mr. Arjun Thapan, Director, Social Sectors Division, Mekong Department
Tel No.: (632) 632 6850
Fax No.: (632) 636 2305
E-mail: athapan@adb.org
Mr. Toru Tatara, Head, GMS Unit, Operations Coordination Division, Mekong Department
Tel No.: (632) 632 6217
Fax No.: (632) 636 2226
E-mail: ttatara@adb.org
Mr. Paul Turner, Country Director, Lao Resident Mission
Tel No.: (856 21) 250 444
Fax No.: (856 21) 250 333

E-mail: pturner@adb.org

Mr. Paul Chang, Principal Education Specialist, Social Sectors Division, Mekong Department
Tel No.: (632) 632 4196
Fax No.: (632) 636 2305
E-mail: pchang@adb.org
Mr. Indu Bhushan, Senior Project Specialist, Social Sectors Division, Mekong Department
Tel No.: (632) 632 6874
Fax No.: (632) 636 2305
E-mail: ibhushan@adb.org

Appendix 1, Page 5
Mr. Eric Bloom, Social Protection Specialist, Social Sectors Division, Mekong Department
Tel No.: (632) 632 6370
Fax No.: (632) 636 2305
E-mail: ebloom@adb.org
Ms. Khamtanh Chanthy, Project Implementation Officer, Lao Resident Mission
Tel No.: (856 21) 250 444
Fax No.: (856 21) 250 333 E-mail: kchanthy@adb.org
Mr. Souksavanh Vixathep, Assistant Economist, Lao Resident Mission
Tel No. (856 21) 250 444
Fax No. (856 21) 250 333
E-mail: soukadblrm@netscape.net
Ms. Marites Ortega, Senior Administrative Assistant, Social Sectors Division, Mekong
Tel No.: (632) 632 6850
Fax No.: (632) 636 2305
E-mail: mortega@adb.org
ADB Consultants/Secretariat
Mr. Ernesto Franco, Consultant, Social Sectors Division, Mekong Department
Center for Development Management and Productivity (CDMP)
Tel No.: (63 2) 816 3909
Fax No.: (63 2) 816 3909
E-mail: eaf-man1313@yahoo.com
Mr. Jesusito Tranquilino, Consultant, GMS Program
Tel. No.: (632) 632 5448
Fax No.: (632) 636 2226

E-mail: jtranquilino@adb.org

Ms. Ma. Cristina Pascual, Sr. Project Assistant, GMS Program

Tel. No.: (632) 632 4742
Fax No.: (632) 636 2226
E-mail: mcpascual@adb.org

Appendix 2, Page 1
Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS):
Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Human Resource Development (WGHRD-4)
WGHRD Preparatory Workshop for the GMS Summit

Meeting Objectives/ Annotated Program

The captioned meeting/ workshop aims to gather consensus on a proposed strategic
framework plan for HRD cooperation under the GMS Program, which will be used as the basis
for firming up the HRD program in the education, health and labor sectors, and for prioritizing
projects in support of the program.
The Meeting will discuss the latest version of the Development Matrix on the HRD
flagship program included in the GMS Strategic Framework (GMS-SF), entitled Developing
Human Resources and Skills Competencies. The GMS-SF was endorsed during the 10th GMS
Ministerial Conference held in Yangon in November 2002. The HRD Development Matrix
includes a short analysis of the projects, which comprise the HRD flagship program.
Participants will be requested to present recent policy/ program developments in the
health, education and labor market sectors of their respective countries, highlighting the gaps in
their development programs that could best be addressed by regional cooperation. The
presentations shall be 20-25 minutes per country covering the sectors mentioned.
After the presentations, there will be breakout sessions which will group the participants
according to sector focus. There will therefore be three groups, one each for the health,
education and labor sectors. The findings/ recommendations of these breakout sessions will be
presented in plenary, which will also lead to finalization/ adoption of the framework for HRD
cooperation under the GMS Program. The framework will guide in formulating the HRD pipeline
for at least the next three years.
Participants to the workshop are representatives of each of the six GMS countries, one
each in the fields of health, education, and labor, as well as representatives of other aid

Around 40-50 participants are expected to attend.

Appendix 2, Page 2
Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS):
Fourth Meeting of the Working Group on Human Resource Development (WGHRD-4)
WGHRD Preparatory Workshop for the GMS Summit
Lao Plaza Hotel, Vientiane, Lao PDR, 5-6 September 2002
Meeting Agenda/ Program
Day 1 (Thursday, 5 September 2002)
0930- 1000

Registration (Coffee will be served)

1000- 1020

Opening and Welcome Remarks

H.E. Mr. Somphong Mongkhonvilay, Minister to the Prime Ministers Office,

Mr. Arjun Thapan, Director, MKSS, ADB / Chair, WGHRD-4

1020- 1030

Introduction to WGHRD meeting/ workshop, Expected Outcomes

by Mr. Arjun Thapan
This will focus on the objectives of the meeting and what is expected of the
workshop in terms of endorsement of the HRD strategy and agreement on the
priority areas and projects for HRD cooperation.

1030- 1040

Background on GMS Program Strategic Framework (SF)/ Flagship Programs

by Mr. Toru Tatara, Head GMS Unit, MKOC, ADB
This will provide a brief on the GMS SF endorsed in the 10th GMS Ministerial
Meeting in Yangon in November 2002, and give highlights of strategic thrusts
and flagship programs/ priority activities and components.

1040- 1050

Accomplishments since the last WGHRD Meeting; Status of projects/programs

by Mr. Indu Bhushan, Senior Project Economist, MKSS, ADB

1050- 1120

Presentation of Draft Report on Framework for Cooperation in HRD

by Dr. Ernesto Franco, HRD Consultant


Country Presentations
This will provide 20-minute presentations by each country delegation (in country
alphabetical order) on the current country situation in health, education and labor
sectors, in terms of major policy and project developments, highlighting the gaps
that could be addressed by regional cooperation. The identified priority areas and
scope for HRD cooperation in the three sectors will be complemented by lessons
from completed/ ongoing HRD regional projects.

1120- 1140

Presentation by Cambodia

1140- 1200

Presentation by PRC

1200- 1330

Lunch Break

Appendix 2, Page 3
1330- 1450

Continuation of Country Presentations

1330- 1350

Presentation by Lao PDR

1350- 1410

Presentation by Myanmar

1410- 1430

Presentation by Thailand

1430- 1450

Presentation by Viet Nam

1450- 1510

Coffee Break


Breakout Session
This will group the participants according to sector focus- health, education and
labor sectors. The findings/ recommendations of these breakout sessions will
lead to finalization/ adoption of the framework for HRD cooperation under the
GMS Program and will be presented in plenary.

1610 1700 Plenary Session: Report of the Breakout Session I outputs

Day 2 (Friday, 6 September 2002)
0830 - 0845

Presentation of Adopted HRD Framework

0845 - 0945

Breakout Session
The adopted HRD framework will guide the groups in formulating the HRD
project pipeline for at least the next three years

0945 - 1015

Coffee Break and preparation of materials for plenary session

1015 1145 Plenary Session: Report of Breakout Session II on prioritized projects.


Lunch Break

1330- 1400

Presentation for validation of DMCs of the Framework and Pipeline of Projects.

- Discussions

1400 - 1430

Closing Session