Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 226

Volume 153

Uralic and Altaic Series


Denis Sinor, Editor

THE

SINO-JURCHEN
!
f

;1'

II

VOCABULARY
~ BUREAU OF
INTERPRETERS

I
t

by
Daniel Kane

INDIANA UNIVERSITY
Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies
Bloomington, Indiana
1989

CONTENTS

Copyright 1989 by Indiana University


Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 89-060480


ISBN 0-933070-23-3

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

CHAPTER ONE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
The Jurchen language. Invention of the
Jurchen script. Relationship with the
Khitan script.

CHAPTER TWO

THE KHITAN SCRIPTS


The Khitan large script. The Xigushan
inscription. The Khitan small script.
The Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue langjun
xingji inscription.

11

CHAPTER THREE

THE JURCHEN SCRIPT


Derivation of characters from Chinese
and Khitan. Monosyllabic, disyllabic and
trisyllabic ideographic characters.
Partial-ideographic characters. Syllabic
phonograms. Evolution of script. The
Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription.

21

CHAPTER FOUR

GLOSSES PRESERVED IN CHINESE HISTORICAL


38
SOURCES
The Jurchen vocabulary appended to the
History of the Jin Dynasty. The Jurchen
vocabulary appended to the Da Jin guo zhi.
Jurchen words in other historical sources.

CHAPTER FIVE

42
INSCRIPTIONS IN THE JURCHEN SCRIPT
(1) The Da Jin deshengtuo bei inscription.
(2) The Nuzhen Jinshi timing bei
inscription.
(3) The Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei
inscription.
(4) The Aotun Liangbi shi inscription.
(5) The Hailong Nlizhen guoshu moya
inscription.
(6) The Qingyuan (Kybngwbn) inscription.
(7) The Beiqing (Kwansan) inscription.
(8) The Nuergan Yongningsi bei inscription.
(9) The Zhao Yong da jiangjun inscription.

CHAPTER SIX

CHAPTER SEVEN

CHAPTER EIGHT

CHAPTER NINE

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS
70
(1) The Jurchen characters in the Yanzhou
shanren sibu gao and the Fangshi mopu.
(2) A travel pass with Jurchen characters
and the characters in the Azuma kagami.
(3) Manuscript material.
(4) Seals and mirrors with inscriptions
in Jurchen.
(5) Other inscriptions previously thought
to be in Jurchen.
(6) Dictionaries.
(7) The study of Jurchen in Korea.
THE HUA-YI YIYU
(1) The Bureau of Translators Vocabulary,
(2) The Bureau of Interpreters
Vocabulary.

90

THE LANGUAGE OF THE SINO-JURCHEN


VOCABULARY OF THE BUREAU OF INTERPRETERS
(1) General remarks.
(2) Transcription.
(3) Phonology.
(4) Grammar.
(5) Table of characters used in the
transcription.
(6) Conclusion.

99

THE SINO-JURCHEN VOCABULARY OF THE


BUREAU OF INTERPRETERS
(1) Astronomy.
(2) Geography.
(3) Time and Seasons.
(4) Flowers and Trees.
(5) Birds and Animals.
(6) Buildings.
(7) Tools and Utensils.
(8) People.
(9) Human Matters.
(10) Parts of the Body.
(ll) Clothing.
(12) Food and Drink.
(13) Jewels and Valuables.
(14) Writing.
(15) Colours.
(16) Numerals.
(17) Miscellaneous.

LIST OF TABLES

1.

2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
132

ll.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.

18.
19.

20.
21.
22.
23.

24.
APPENDIX

FACSIMILE OF THE SINO-JURCHEN


DICTIONARY WITHOUT JURCHEN SCRIPT
(AWAKUNI MS.)

437

25.

Dates in Khitan and Chinese in the Xigushan inscription.


Dates in Khitan only in the Xigushan inscription.
The last line in the Khitan and Chinese versions
of the Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue langjun
xingji inscription.
The first line of the Da Jin huangdi inscription.
The date in the Da Jin huangdi inscription.
The numerals in Chinese, the Khitan large script,
the Khitan small script, and the Jurchen script.
Jurchen characters derived from Chinese (perhaps
via Khitan).
Jurchen characters derived from distorted Chinese characters.
Jurchen characters derived from Chinese characters of similar sound (but not meaning)
Characters in the Xigushan inscription (in the
Khitan large script) which can be found in Jurchen.
Almost identical characters in the Khitan large
script and the Jurchen script.
Jurchen characters identical with those found in
the Khitan small script.
Monosyllabic ideographic characters.
Disyllabic ideographic characters.
Trisyllabic ideographic characters.
Partial-ideographic characters (used with
phonograms).
Ideographic characters always followed by
suffixes.
Partial list of syllabic phonograms.
Phonograms used with ideograms to indicate final
vowel + -no
Jurchen words written entirely in phonograms.
Jurchen words written with one symbol in the
Nuzhen zishu but two in the Hua-Yi yiyu.
Development of the Jurchen script.
Title of the Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription.
First line of the Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription.
Second line of the Nuzhen jinshi timing bei
inscription.

12
12
14
17
18
21
22
22
23

24
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
27
27
28
28
29
30

32
34

21.
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
22.
1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

19.

20.

The Gu taishi mingshi ji inscription.


(Yan
Wanzhang, 1957)
The Chinese text of the Xigushan inscription
(ibid.).
The Khitan text of the Xigushan inscription
(ibid.).
A page from the NUzhen zishu.
(Liu Zuichang and
Zhu Jieyan, 1979)
The Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue langjun xingji
inscription.
(Chinggeltei et al., 1985)
The title and first line of the Nuzhen jinshi
timing bei inscription in the transcription of
Luo Fucheng.
(Luo Fucheng, 1936)
A page from the Jurchen vocabulary appended to the
History of the Jin dynasty.
(Sibucongkan Baina ed.)
A page from the Jurchen vocabulary appended to the
Da Jin guo zhi.
(Sikuquanshu zhenben ed.)
The Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription.
(Jin
Guangping and Jin Qicong, 1980)
The site of the stele at Yantai. (Linqing, 1984
edition)
The Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscription.
(Shimada Yoshimi, 1934)
Enlarged detail from the Jurchen part of the Aotun
Liangbi jianyin bei inscription.
(Jin Guangping
and Jin Qicong, 1980)
The Aotun Liangbi shi inscription.
(Luo Fuyi et
aI., 1982)
The Yangshulinshan inscription at Hailong.
(Jin
Guangping and Jin Qicong, 1980)
A section of the Qingyuan inscription in the
transcription of Min Y~ng-gyu.
Two sides of the Qingyuan inscription.
(Jin
Guangping and Jin Qicong, 1980)
A section of the Beiqing inscription in the transcription of Inaba Iwakichi.
(Inaba, 1930)
The Yongningsi inscription [copied by Osada Natsuki
from a rubbing in the collection of Naitc Torajiroj.
(Osada Natsuki, 1958)
The mantra "~'!l malt! padme hUIJI" in Chinese, Mongol,
Tibetan, and Jurchen from the Yongningsi (Tyr)
inscription. (Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, 1980)
The Jurchen characters in the Yanzhou shanren
sibu gao and the Fangshi mopu. (L. Gilbert, 1934)

23.

24.
25.

8
26.
9
27.
14
28.
31

29.

39

30.

41

3I.

46
32.
48
51

52
54
56
60
61
62

66

68
71

The paizi (travel pass) discovered at Saigin, USSR.


(Akademija Nauk SSSR, 1977).
One of the sheets with Jurchen cursive script discovered in the Xixia holdings in Leningrad.
(G. Kara et al., 1969)
Another example of Jurchen cursive script discovered in Leningrad.
(ibid.)
The Yigaidage River mouke seal. (Luo Fucheng, 1933)
The seal of the mouk~Jiahun mountain.
(Luo
Fuyi, 1963)
The characters on the Xianping-fu mouke mirror.
(Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, 198~
A Jurchen seal character.
(Heilongjiang-sheng
wenwu gongzuodui, 1977)
A Jurchen cursive seal character (hua ya).
(Jin
Qicong, 1984)
A Khitan seal (previously thought to be in Jurchen).
(uo Fuyi, 1963)
The inscription on Bi~igtu qanan, at Kentei ayimay.
(Rinten Yongsiyebu, 1968)
A page from the Glossary (za zi) from the SinoJurchen vocabulary of the Bureau of Translators.
(Luo Fucheng, 1933)
One of the petitions (laiwen) from the Vocabulary
of the Bureau of Translators.
(ibid.)

74

75
76
78
79
80
81
81
83
85

91
93

xi

PREFACE

The Jurchens were a people of Tungusic origin who reached


the
apogee of their power in the twelfth century, when they
established the Jin Dynasty , and ruled North China for more than a
century. They originally had no script, but one was created on the
basis of Chinese and Khitan, in the year 1120. A recently discovered
manuscript may well have been written in that year or shortly
afterwards, but the earliest inscription in the Jurchen script is
dated 1185. Jurchen is thus the first Tungus language for which
written materials in a native script are available, and make it, along
with Old Turkish (in the Orkhon script) and probably Khitan (the
linguistic affinities of which are still uncertain) one of the
earliest written Altaic languages.
The Jin Dynasty succumbed to the Mongols, and by the time of
the Ming the Jurchens had been reduced to the status of a tributory
people. The script was still used, as evidenced by a stele dated 1413,
and the fact that both the language and script were studied in
specialist institutions, the Bureau of Interpreters and the Bureau of
Translators under the Ming. They were also studied in Korea. The
Jurchens formed part of the Manchu confederacy which was to conquer
China and establish the Qing Dynasty in 1644.
Several stages in the Jurchen language can be established.
The earliest is that recorded in the vocabulary attached to the
History of the Jin Dynasty and scattered throughout that work and
other contemporary documents.
The language of this period presents
many serious difficulties in interpretation, and the study of which
can be said to have barely begun. It is very important, however, as,
along with Chinese and Mongol loanwords, it is very likely that there
are a number of Khitan loanwords in the Jurchen of that time, and the
identification
of these will be of crucial importance in the
decipherment and reconstruction of Khitan. Some progress in this
direction has been made. The next stage would be that represented by
the Hua-Yi yiyu, the Sino-Jurchen vocabulary studied in the Bureau of
Translators, which contains some 900 vocabulary items in Jurchen
script and Chinese transcription. The third stage is that represented
in the vocabulary used in the Ming Dynasty Bureau of Interpreters,
which reflects the spoken language of the sixteenth century. This
stage is already very close to, but by no means identical with
Manchu. It may well be that this vocabulary also preserves words used
in early spoken Manchu which have not been recorded in the standard
dictionaries of written Manchu of the Qing.

The vocabulary of the Bureau of Translators, that with the


Jurchen script, has been studied by several scholars, notably Wilhelm
Grube, Gisaburo N. Kiyose, Jin Qicong and most recently by Dao Erji
(Dorji) and He Xige (Qosiyu). The vocabulary of the Bureau of
Interpreters has been pretty much neglected; it is the aim of this
book to present a transcription and interpretation of the thousand-odd
words and expressions in this text, as a contribution to the growing
number of studies on this language and script.
Wilhelm Grube's edition of the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu was
published in 1896, after which,
in the words of L. Ligeti, "les
recherches sur l'~criture et la langue joutchen ont connu une longue
periode d'eclipse ce qu'on ne saurait regretter assez". There have
been some studies on Jurchen in European languages, notably those by
L. Ligeti and G. N. Kiyose, but most of the research on Jurchen has
been published in Chinese, Japanese and occasionally Korean. The
publication of a number of works on Jurchen and Khitan in China over
the past ten years has revealed a number of exciting discoveries and
developments. For these reasons, this study of the Jurchen vocabulary
of the Ming Bureau of Interpreters is preceded by a rather long
introduction,
covering studies on Jurchen over the past eighty years,
and a general outline of the "state of the art" in Jurchen studies at
the moment.
This work was originally presented as a PhD thesis to the
Australian National University in 1975. Incorporation of studies
published over the last decade has meant the rewriting of the
Introduction, and the addition of a large number of items to the
Bibliography. The thesis was originally supervised by Dr Igor de
Rachewiltz
and
Professor T.Y. Liu of the Australian National
University; Professor Walter Simon read through the first draft, and
made many valuable suggestions. Professor Hok-lam Chan sent me a
detailed bibliography of works on Jurchen, from which the present
Bibliography has grown. Professor Shiro Hattori sent me a copy of
Yamamoto Kengo's work on the Sibe language. The staff at the Menzies
Library at the Australian National University were assiduous in
hunting down practically inaccessible items. Professor Nishida Tatsuo
read this work in thesis form, and made many useful comments. Later,
in China, I met specialists in the fields of Jurchen and Khitan, in
particular Liu Fengzhu, Yu Baolin and Jin Qicong, who provided me with
much material unavailable outside China. This new version has been
improved by the incorporation of the identification of many Jurchen
terms listed in a review article of my thesis by Professor Herbert
Franke,
"Etymologische Bermerkungen zu den Vokabularen der Jur~en
Sprache"
(1982). In more recent times, several people, in particular
Professor H.F. Simon and Dr I. de Rachewiltz, encouraged me to update
this study and publish it.
Much work is still to be done in Jurchen studies and related
areas. It will need the cooperation of Altaicists and Sinologists, in
China, Japan and Korea on the one hand, and in Europe, the United
States and Australia on the other,. complementing each other's area of
expertise. The present study hopes to be a contribution in this
ongoing scholarly dialogue.

I
j

CHAPTER ONE

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

A few years after the final dissolution of the Tang


Dynasty (618-907), the Khitans, a people apparently related
to the Mongols, established a state in the north of China
officially recognised in later Chinese historiography as the
Liao Dynasty (916-1125). The rest of China went through that
period of division known as the Five Dynasties in the north
and the Ten Kingdoms in the south, until eventually reunited
under the Song dynasty in 960. The Liao and the Song
coexisted until the Khitans were defeated by the Jurchens, a
people of Tungus origin, which established the Jin Dynasty in
1115. There was constant warfare between the Jin and the
Song; the Song were driven from their capital at Kaifeng in
1266 and reestablished themselves in Hangzhou. Eventually
both
dynasties
were
to succumb to the Mongols, who
established the Yuan Dynasty in 1271. During this period, the
Tanguts, a people of Tibeto-Burman affiliation, established
the state of Xixia in the area of northwest China, in what is
now Ningxia and Gansu.
All of these peoples, the Khitans (Liao), the
Jurchens (Jin), Tanguts (Xixia) and Mongols (Yuan) originally
had no script of their own. The Mongols developed a form of
writing
their
language
in
Chinese
characters, used
phonetically, which reached a high degree of sophistication
in such works as the current text of The Secret History of
the Mongols. Mongol was also written in a form of the Uighur
script; this script developed into that used in Classical
Mongolian. During the Yuan, another script derived from the
Tibetan script was used to write both Mongol and Chinese;
this
is known as the 'Phags-pa script. The Classical
Mongolian script was adapted for writing Manchu, a Tungusic
language closely related to Jurchen, which was the official
language of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). A form of Manchu,
known as Sibe,
is still spoken in a small area in the far
west of China.
The Tanguts devised a script of great beauty and
elegance, but of enormous complexity; great progress has been
made in the decipherment of this script in recent decades,
but it is still imperfectly understood. Of greater interest
and relevance to the study of the Jurchen script, however,
was the script, or rather the scripts, devised by the
Khitans.
According to the History of the Liao Dynasty, "on
the day yigiu of the first month of the fifth year (of the

shence period),
the larger Qidan script was formulated for
the first time ... On the day renyin (of the ninth month) the
larger script was completed. An imperial decree ordered it to
be circulated ... [Diela] was endowed with a quick mind. Taizu
said,
"As
to
Diela's cleverness
his quickness in
accomplishing
feats
is
beyond
my
powers.
But for
deliberateness in planning affairs I am his superior". Uighur
messengers came (to court), but there was no one who could
understand their language. The empress said to Taizu, "Diela
is clever. He may be sent to welcome them". By being in their
company for twenty days he was able to learn their spoken
language and script. Then he created (a script) of smaller
Khitan characters which, although few in number, covered
everything."
(Liaoshi juan 64).
What is important for us to note is that there were
two Khitan scripts: the "large characters" and the "small
characters". It is also important to known that many of the
Jurchen educated class were literate in Khitan, and that they
employed it even after the creation of their own script. More
than thirty Jurchen mentioned in the History of the Jin
Dynasty were familiar with the Khitan script. One of the most
important sources for the study of the Khitan script, the Da
Jin huangdi dutong jinglue langjun xingji inscription, was
for many years thought to be in Jurchen. It seems that a gold
travel pass with a Khitan inscription recently discovered may
d~te
from. the Jin Dynasty; a bronze mirror recently
d1scovered 1n 1971 at Da'an, in Jilin province, which can be
dat:d
1140-1189, is in a form of the Khitan script.
In~1dently,
the inscription on this mirror is badly written,
eV1dence perhaps that by this stage the script was no longer
regularly used and could no longer be written well. It was
not until the year 1191 that the Khitan script was finally
abolished.
After their defeat at the hands of the Jurchens,
most Khitans fell under their control, but a group of them
fled west,
to what is now Xinjiang, and established a state
known as the Qara-Khitay. They, too, eventually disappeared,
and knowledge of the language, and script, was lost. The
Jurchens, after the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty,
retrea~ed to the forests of Manchuria, and reemerged during
the M1ng Dynasty (1368-1644) as a tributory people. Their
language was still in use, as was their script, though
whatever literature may have existed in Jurchen (presumably
mainly translations from Chinese) may well have been lost.
Both language and script were studied in the Bureau of
Int:rpreters and the Bureau of Translators of the Ming, and
an 1mportant trilingual inscription, in Chinese, Mongol and
Jurchen, known as the Nuergan Yongningsi bei inscription, is
dated 1413. There are many mistakes in this inscription,
however, again showing that the script was presumably no

longer in regular use. The Jurchens later formed part of the


Manchu confederacy which conquered the Ming and established
the Qing Dynasty; by this stage, however, the script had been
lost, and the Manchus chose to write their language in a
modified form of the Mongol script.
As mentioned above, the Jurchens were literate in
Khitan, as well as in Chinese. When they set about devising a
script to record their own language, it was natural that they
would be influenced by both the form and the structure of
both Khitan and Chinese characters. According to the History
of the Jin Dynasty, "the Jurchen originally had no written
characters. When the state became flourishing and gradually
extended its boundaries, and it entered into relations with
neighbouring countries, the Khitan script was used by them.
Afterwards, Xiyin was commissioned by the Emperor Taizu to
make a national script, with rules for its composition.
Xiyin, thereupon, copying the strokes of the ordinary Chinese
characters, and following the rules of composition of the
Khitan large script, made the new Jurchen characters, adapted
to express the words of the national language. In the eighth
month of the third year of the tianfu period (1120), the
composition of the new script was finished. Taizu, greatly
pleased, ordered it to be distributed throughout the state,
and presented to Xiyin a caparisoned horse and a suit of
court robes. Afterwards, when the Emperor Xizong (1135-1148)
composed another set of Jurchen characters, they were used
together with the script made by Xiyin; the characters
composed by Xiyin were called the Jurchen large characters,
and those made by the Emperor Xizong were called the Jurchen
small characters". The small Jurchen script was circulated by
imperial edict in the year 1138. In the year 1145, in the
fifth month, on the day xuwu, it is recorded that the small
characters made by the emperor were first used officially.
(Jinshi juan 66).
It seems that the first works to use the Jurchen
script were introductions to the script, of which one has
been recently discovered in the base of a stele in Xi'an.
Later,
in the year 1164, the Emperor Shizong ordered Jurchen
translations of the Chinese classics and dynastic histories
to be made. In 1166, translations of the Historical Records
of Sima Qian and the History of the Western Han Dynasty were
completed. In the year 1183, one thousand copies of the
Classic of Filial Piety in Jurchen were distributed to the
Imperial guard, and later in the same year translations of
the following books were presented to the throne: the Book of
Changes,
the Book of Documents, the Analects of Confucius,
the Mencius, the Daodejing and others. The catalogues of
literary works in the Histories of the Liao, Jin, Yuan and
Ming Dynasties also list a fairly large number of books in
Jurchen, but they all seem to be lost. As for their survival

in the Qing Dynasty, neither the imperial catalogue Siku


guanshu zongmu nr its various supplements contains any
reference to them.

(for example, by Haneda Toru, "Kittan moji no shin shiryo"


[New material on the Khitan script] (1925 that this was the
same script as that on the Da Jin huangdi jinglue langjun
xingji inscription, although it was not possible at that
stage to determine whether this was the large or the small
Khitan script. This inscription is now generally recognised
as being in Khitan (although written during the Jin Dynasty).

There has been, and still remains, a good deal of


uncertainty about the precise meaning of the terms "large
script" and "small script" in both Khitan and Jurchen. The
founder
of modern Jurchen studies, Liu Shilu, in his
pioneering articles "Ntizhi zi bei kao" [A study of a stele in
Jurchen script] and "Ntizhi zi bei xu kao" [A further study of
a stele in Jurchen script] though that the script in the
NUzhen jinshi timing bei inscription was an example of the
Jurchen small script, and that on the Da Jin huangdi jinglue
langjun xingji inscription was the Jurchen large script. This
latter inscription was thought to be in Jurchen in various
early Chinese works, such as the Ming compilation Shi mo juan
hua by Zhao Han, and the Qing compilation Jin shi cui bian by
Wang Chang, the authors being misled by the characters Da Jin
[The Great Jin Dynasty] at the beginning. It was also
regarded as Jurchen by early western sinologues, such as
Alexander Wylie, "On an ancient inscription in the Neu-chih
language" (1860), who reproduced the text and studied the
Chinese
version,
and
Edouard
Chavannes,
"Note
sur
l'inscription joutchen de K'ien tcheou" (1908), who also
provided a photograph. In 1922, a Belgian missionary, L. Ker,
discovered the Liao Imperial Tombs at Qingling, in which
epitaphs for Emperor Xingzong and Empress Renyi were found,
in Chinese and a hitherto unknown script. This was, of
course, the Khitan script, and it was immediately recognised
lIn the Bu sanshi yiwenzhi, Jin Mengzhao has recorded the
following titles for the Jin Dynasty: Yijing, Shangshu,
Xiaojing, Zhenguan zhengyao and the Shiji, as well as two
works attributed to Wanyan Xiyin, Taizu Nuzhi da zi and
Xizong Nuzhi xiao zi. In the Bu Yuanshi yiwenzhi, Qian Daxin
had recorded the following books: Yijing, Shujing, Xiaojing,
Lunyu, Mengzi, Laozi, Yangzi, Wenzhongzi, Liuzi and the Xin
Tang Shu, and the following books preceded by the words
"Nuzhi-zi" (Jurchen script) Pangu shu, Jiayu, Taigong shu, Wu
Zixu, Sun Bin shu, Huangshi nu shu, Baijiaxing and the Nuzhi
zimu. In the Jin yiwenzhi bu lu, Gong Xianzeng, in addition
to the titles in the list above, also noted the Zhenguan
zhengyao in Jurchen script. In the Mingshi yiwenzhi, the
following books in the Jurchen script are recorded: Pangu
shu, Kongfuzi shu, Kongfuzi you guo zhang, Jiayu, Jiayu
xian-neng-yan-yu zhuan, Jiang Taigong shu, Wu Zixu shu, Shiba
guo dou bao zhuan, Sun Bin shu, Shanyu shu, Hai Qian Gong
shu, Huangshi nti shu, Baijiaxing, Ha-da-mie-er-yu and the
Nuzhi zimu. The Qing compendia Siku guanshu zongmu ji weishou
shumu yinde and the Siku caijin shumu do not contain any
references to any of these works.

Ill. 1. The Gu taishi mingshi ji inscription


(lines 36-40, containing the date)

"Kittan reiji ko - Joshin moji no genryo" [The large Khitan


script
the or1g1n of the Jurchen script] (1963) and "An
Analysis of the Major Ch'i-tan Characters"
(in English)
(1964),
in which he argues that the script in the Gu taishi
mingshi ji and the Xigushan inscriptions is the Khitan large
script, and that the Jurchen script is derived from it.

Some scholars, however, are not so sure. for


o
rasirovke
example,
E.V.
Savkunov,
"K
voprosu
kidan'-czurczen'skoj pis'mennosti"
[On the problem of the
decipherment of the Khitan-Jurchen small script]
(1963)
suggests values for various script-elements to be found in a
"Khitan-Jurchen"
character,
which, when applied to an
inscription in Khitan (such as those in the Liao Imperial
Mausoleum)
will yield Khitan, and when applied to an
inscription in Jurchen (of which the author believes the Da
Jin huangdi jinglue langjun xing11 inscription to be an
example) to yield Jurchen. The same caution is shown by G.N.
Kiyose, who writes of this inscription "inasmuch as the
Khitan script itself has not been deciphered, it is hard to
say whether this inscription is in the Khitan language
written in the Khitan script or the Jurchen language written
in the Khitan script". Recent research, however, is fairly

Many
articles treat the possible relationship
between the Khitan and Jurchen scripts in a general way.

conclusive that both language and script are Khitan, but the
question still remains as to whether this script is the large
or small script.
More information on the nature of the two Khitan
scripts came to light with the discovery of the Gu taishi
mingshi ji epitaph in 1935. This was described and discussed
for the first time by Inaba Iwakichi, "Rye Sheso Towa gen no
Bonnu Daishi no boshi" [Epitaph for the late Pennu Daishi of
the Tonghe era of Shengzong of the Liao Dynasty] (1939), who
noted that it seemed to be in a previously unknown script. It
was later studied by Li Wenxin,
"Qidan xiaozi Gu taishi
mingshi ji zhi yanjiu" [Research on the Gu taishi mingshi ji
inscription in the Khitan small script] (1942), who contended
that it must have been a forgery, since it was written in
what appeared to be a mixture of scripts: regular and
irregular Chinese characters, and an unknown script, parts of
which looked like the Jurchen script. It was not until after
the discovery of a similar inscription in 1951 that this
script attracted further attention. In that year, villagers
discovered an inscribed stone in a tomb at Jinxi, in Liaoning
province. This was studied by Yan Wan zhang , "Jinxi Xigushan
chutu Qidanwen muzhi yanjiu"
[Research on the epitaph in
Khitan script excavated at Xigushan, Jinxi] (1957) and by Jin
Guangping and Zeng Yigong,
"Jinxi Xigushan Qidanwen muzhi
shishi"
[An attempted explanation of the Khitan inscription
on an epitaph found at Xigushan, Jinxi] (1957). The writers
pointed out the similarities of the scripts in the Gu taishi
mingshi ji and the Xigushan epitaph, (which is also known as
the Xiao Xiaozhong muzhi inscription), and argued that they
were examples of the Khitan small script, as opposed to the
large script on the epitaphs in the Liao Imperial Mausoleum.

Ill. 2

The Chinese text of the Xigushan inscription.

Amongst these the following should be mentioned:


Watanabe Kuntaro,
"Manshugo Joshingo to Kanjion no kankei"
[The relationship between Manchu, Jurchen and the Chinese
characters used to transliterate those languages] (1925);
Saito Buichi, "Kittan moji to Joshin moji" [The Khitan script
and the Jurchen script]
(1941), Kodaira Suih6, "Ry6, Kin,
Seika, Gen, Shin goch6 no seiji"
[The structure of the
scripts of the Liao, Jin, Xixia, Yuan and Qing dynasties]
(1942); Ishida Mikinosuke,
"Joshin daiji to wa nanzo ya"
[What is the Jurchen large script?] (1942); Osada Natsuki,
"Joshin moji no k6zo to sono onka ni tsuite"
[On the
structure
of Jurchen characters and their phonological
values]
(1949); Min Y~ng-gyu,
"Yojin munja-ui kus6ng-e
taehayo"
[On the structure of Jurchen characters] (1952) and

Osada
Natsuki,
"Joshin mOJ~ no genson
materials on the Jurchen script] (1970).

Ill. 3

shiryo"

characters in this textbook represent complete words; in this


it differs fundamentally from the later Jurchen script used
on inscriptions, which is a mixture of ideographic and
phonetic symbols. Several of the characters in the Nuzhen
zishu are taken directly from Khitan, and there are a large
number of Jurchen characters not extant in later material.

[Extant

The Khitan text of the Xigushan inscription.

Not much further progress on this problem was made,


however, until the discovery of a manuscript copy of what
appears to be the Nuzhen zishu [Jurchen Character Book],
compiled originally by Wanyan Xiyin,
the inventor of the
Jurchen large script. This discovery was reported by Liu
Zuichang and Zhu Jieyuan, "Xi'an Beilin faxian Nuzhenwen shu,
Nan
Song
tuo
quanfuji Wang "Shengjiaoxu" ji banhua"
[Discovery of a book in the Jurchen script, a complete
rubbing of Wang Xizhi's calligraphy (the Shengjiaoxu) and
some woodblock prints]
(1979). They reported that eleven
sheets of paper, containing 237 lines of Jurchen script with
some 2300 characters, had been discovered in the base of a
stele in the "Forest of Stelae" at Xi'an. This article also
presented the preliminary findings of Jin Qicong on this
manuscript; Jin followed up his researches with a later
article,
"Xi'an Beilin faxian de Nuzhenwen shu" [A book in
the Jurchen script discovered in the "Forest of Stelae" in
Xi'an]
(1979). According to Jin,
the book is a type of
textbook, a basic character list, apparently for beginners
learning the Jurchen script. Almost all the individual

Ill. 4

A page from the Nlizhen zishu

The script is indubitably and recognisably Jurchen,


however, and Jin Qicong has deciphered most of it. He argues
that the script employed on the earliest of the extant
Jurchen inscriptions,
the Da Jin deshengtuo bei inscription
(dated 1185) is a mature form of the script; the script on
these sheets must be much earlier, and probably date from the
year 1119, the year of the creation of the large script. On
the basis of Jin's article, Dao Erji has written an important
study "Guanyu Nuzhen da, xiao zi de wenti" [On the problem of
the large and small Jurchen scripts] (1980).

A pattern seems to be emerging. It seems that the


script on the Gu taishi mingshi J~ inscription and the
Xigushan inscription is the Khitan large script. It seems to
have been based on deformed or modified forms of Chinese

11

10

characters, and was no doubt limited to perhaps a few hundred


symbols. Later, when the Khitans came to learn of the
alphabetic
Uighur
script,
the possibility of writing
phonetically arose. These phonetic symbols were known as the
small script; the script used on the Da Jin huangdi jinglUe
langjun
xing11 and the epitaphs in the Liao Imperial
Mausoleum is a sophisticated one, incorporating both phonetic
and ideographic symbols. The first form of the Jurchen script
was based on the Khitan large (ideographic) script - this is
the form of the script found in the Nuzhen zishu found in
Xi'an. This script could be used for enumerating items, but
could not express grammatical functions or record words for
which a special character had not been invented. In the
course of time, a number of graphs acquired a syllabophonetic
function,
in addition to their basic use as
ideograms; many of these symbols eventually became purely
phonetic ones, and were used for grammatical terminations.
This is the script we see in the Jin Dynasty inscriptions,
such as the Ntizhen jinshi bei inscription (1224) or the Ming
Dynasty Jurchen-Chinese glossary. By the time of the last
extant inscription in Jurchen, the Nuergan Yongningsi bei
inscription
(1413)
the
script had become practically
syllabo-phonetic, though many of the basic symbols (man,
year, month etc.) were still written as ideograms.
The
Qing in 1658.

Jurchen

script

was

CHAPTER TWO

THE KHITAN SCRIPT

As mentioned above, the script used on the Gu tai


shi ming shi bei inscription can be tentatively identified as
being the Khitan large script. Several other inscriptions in
this script have come to light; that discovered in Xigushan,
also known as the Xiao Xiaozhong muzhi inscription; the Yelfr
Yanning muzhi inscription; the Bei da wang muzhi inscription;
the Yingli bei inscription and several fragments excavated
from the area of the Liao capital. The Gu taishi mingshi bei
inscription has been lost, and the only rubbing of it is very
unclear. There is also a possibility that it might indeed
have been a forgery. There are more than 830 separate symbols
on the other inscriptions; if those on the Gu taishi mingshi
bei inscription are counted, there seem to be about 1000
characters in this script. There has been very little work,
or progress, on this script, owing to the paucity of the
material, the badly eroded state of the inscriptions and the
lack of bilinguals. One of the inscriptions, the Xiao
Xiaozhong muzhi inscription discovered at Jinxi, has a
Chinese inscription on the back, which seems to be a
translation. This has been studied by Yan Wanzhang, "Jinxi
Xigushan chutu Qidanwen muzhi yanjiu"
[Research on the
epitaph excavated at Xigushan, Jinxi]
(1957). Through a
comparison of the dates of the two inscriptions, Yan was able
to determine the meaning of several of the Khitan characters;
these
characters give us a good idea of the general
principles of the script.

finally abolished by the

There are four dates in the Khitan inscription, two


of
which
can
be aligned with dates in the Chinese
inscription, based on the similarity in the numerals; on the
basis of these, the general meaning of the dates in Khitan
alone can be ascertained. These are set out in the tables
below. It is to be noted that in the second of these dates,
the Chinese expression 11awu (one of the sexegenary terms
used to denote years) corresponds to a Khitan character
apparently derived from the Chinese character
_~
rna
'horse'. This led to the discovery that the Khitans used the
"twelve animals" and the "five metals" to designate years,
months and days .

13

12

corresponding to Chinese: wood-dragon year [7]-rabbit month,


twenty seventh fire-horse day.

TABLE 1: Dates in Khitan and Chinese


in the Xigushan inscription.

*'

10

3i

"~'

-t

f1 it 3-

~ ~-!if-

-t

f1

~ 1tJi tt

--

t.;..

IlG

t~

10

11

-~ ;FF, 1- A it

*'-

\3

*- n

".

'1f-[lf-]~

I "

TABLE 2: Dates in Khitan only in the Xigushan inscription

-f.,

::

1\.~ --

tfrl ;fF

:::

~-!if-

::

11

10

12

13

;t, .f1 it*- fc ~


t. ~l Fl ti\ ? 7
;K
;f,

*" ~. ~

14

E1
8

10

t~k..~_~ a

The first line in Table 2 is (literally): tai'an


(period),
third year,
the year of the rabbit, the third
month,
the wood-dragon month, the twenty sixth day, the [7]
[1] day, and the fourth Khitan date can be understood as

Such is the general nature of the large Khitan


script. The type of Khitan script used on the epitaphs in the
Liao
Imperial
Mausoleum,
and
in a number of other
inscriptions
discovered
in recent years,
can then be
tentatively identified as being the small Khitan script.
Since its discovery, it has fascinated a number of scholars,
and much progress has been made. The locus classicus for
basic information on the Khitan small script is in K.
Wittfogel and C.S. Feng, History of Chinese Society: Liao
(907-1125), pp. 240-253. Articles which review and summarise
the state of research until the late 1970s are by Gy. Kara,
"A propos de l'inscription Khitane de 1150" (1975) and Tamura
Jitsuzo,
"Kittan Joshin moji ko" [A study of the Khitan and
Jurchen scripts]
(1976). An important breakthrough in the
decipherment
of
this
script came in 1977, with the
publication of an article by the Khitan Script Research
Group, consisting of Chinggeltei, Chen Naixiong, Xing Fuli,
Liu Fengzhu and Yu Baolin, entitled "Guanyu Qidan xiao zi
yanjiu"
[Research on the Khitan small script]. This was
followed by "Qidan xiao zi jiedu xin tan" [New investigations
in the decipherment of the Khitan small script] (1978) and
several other articles by scholars working in this field. In
1985 the Khitan Script Research Group published a major work,
Qidan xiao zi yanjiu [Research on the Khitan Small Script],
which is a complete compendium of all inscriptions in the
Khitan small script discovered to date, frequency lists, a
summary of all research done by Chinese and non-Chinese
scholars,
and a complete bibliography. Nishida Tatsuo,
"Kittan moji kaidoku no shin tenkai" [New developments in the
decipherment of the Khitan script] (1982) is based on the two
articles mentioned above; Gy. Kara has written a brief
article "On the Khitan writing systems" (1987) summarising
the major findings of the Khitan Script Research group.
Research in China on the Khitan small script has been
prolific; the current state of research is summarised by Liu
Fengzhu and Yu Baolin, "Qidan zi yanjiu gaikuang" [A survey
on research on the Khitan script] (1984), and Jia Jingyan,
"Qidanwen"
[The Khitan script] (1982); a bibliography can be
found in Minzu yuwen, 1984, issue no. 6.
The only Khitan-Chinese bilingual is the Da Jin
huangdi dutong jinglUe langjun xingji inscription, and an
inspection of it will give some idea of the nature of the
Khitan small script. Through a process of deduction it is not
possible to reproduce here, the Khitan Script Research Group
compared the final lines of the Khitan and Chinese versions
of this inscription:

15

14
and were able to isolate certain phonetic elements used to
TABLE 3: The last line of the Da Jin huangdi
dutong jinglue langjun xingji inscription

transcribe Chinese words. The Chinese text above is read (in


Modern Standard Chinese) shang shu zhi fang lang zhong huang
ying gi; the Khitan can be shown to be read sh-ang sh-u zhi

~~
, ...

J~(

}~ {1::. t; ;..

~ 1~ 7J

i. rl1

,'"
,I"

f 1r ;,to AA

~~

fang l-ang zh-ung huang ying k-i, thus giving the phonetic
values ~

sh;

~
/,

~;

=i.

,1

the)

"
Shang shu

ang;
The Chinese text means "[written by

zhi fang lang zhong (an official title), Huang

Yingqi (a personal name). Further perusal of the text shows


that the Chinese expression

J! tt ~t

Tang Qian Ling (a

placename) corresponds to Khitan ~19l~

~~

rr!1

~R

.fu

dative suffix), giving us the equivalents f~

~~

*y

ang (as above);

~~

ffi~

= ing (as above). Similarly the Chinese term

)-(0

fR~

3;''1
~
;1~

,~
Ilf.

.J"}

r
JI"-

'"-t

-:..~

,;

;:I

11

J'.
"~

1.
"

'"

,...

"
~~ .-til.
;.,

.,",

.1.

j;.

0/

.'7
.}I;

"",

"

;t,

j'tr

(.

!~..:

.{~

,~

1j

J;

..1

(d-

",:]

.~

(,

~~J.

>,,!,

cl

r1t

"

y.
~

'-J

i;f: :(
If ~ji'"
..,.

~t,?_

C!,1lI

"~

r;~

A'l

<8
;!:.

4-M

-1'

1'1-

H.

{itt

{::.j

,i! .. "~.' f(
p

~
-(,

1!?

17.......

..

~,r..

ti
~,:~-

/,-

.;t...

1t
,tJ3.

./fl

~.:;j

~'~:'
J~

",

-.1,
J'

')'L.

)J~-

2-

tt

1'0%

""J
"-J

'I'"
)'i(;~

,)~

J!'i.:.
jil,

(,l~
IJ~

.,~.~

j:

lf~

5tJ

j,/;:""
,-

1A

ii1~}

"

h';

>

"

,l.

:l~";,

x'1
Y.
.1/.
';'"

J-)

1,1'(

~r~~

II,;'>

1'~
J'~

X.

)'Ii~

",19
~-'-

";.'~""'"
'......
j

}"J':'

.....

J.~

.,-;-

(f:

,J-::I: :Jj
X.
I'''-~

1:1,,'-

",J'')

1,1,

~}

7J';

J~t

1-* k.

J:J.,
;;:."'1

I .'

* - flJ.,

1 (as above); If]

Shan (also a p1acename) corresponds to Khitan

Liang

Jl ~

and

-k

it is possible to isolate the elements l-iang sh-an-an (-an


is a genitive suffix). In this way it is possible to
determine the readings of some 200 of the 378 phonetic

~n

*-

symbols employed in the Khitan small script. It is also


possible to reconstruct some native Khitan words written
phonetically; for example the tenth character in the first

i:,11
-":!j
;A

r~

;i~j

J.'::'

J?1..
\2

I;,k,
)J:

*-

-tV /..'
~d1

~1l
.4:-

ian;

f';:"
~)J

;Il~

;i(J

'/,
)AI...

?it
:l'~

,,\

\._:"'

-H
~1.-

M:
~ I')

1: - ki;

=!;

, J-

ji't..
.(,

[\1;.

-0~

t-ang-en (-en is a genitive suffix) ki-ian l-ing-te (-te is a

.:f;

tt~,

I'

i-

3.:-

.~J

II' ..

.':~L

,',:}

-'J

~ .~

J,.'

.1" ~

~i~1{

IJ-, 0:1.

"'1::
.., '~
:1- 7i'~

,;'r

!~11

-f.

J,..

.1-

!,~

.'-

4"'-

Jf-

1;

... ~.

.~-t.

,',-

.!,

11 ;.',' -t

~'';.

.HI...

}'(

,j,

"~Il i<.Iii

f;'~:

;}: J;..

I:f-

1'.

~,1'

\':.(

If:,

--

;6

,'-.t.

..,.

and it is

possible to isolate certain phonetic elements in the Khitan:

:1:...

line

can be read

*~a-a-li;

in the vocabulary of

Khitan words appended to the History of the Liao Dynasty it


is recorded "in Khitan, ~a-li means langjun (prince); sure
~a-a-1i

)j/~

enough,

3-

...,J)'(~ --

inscription. Other words recorded in the History of the Liao

Jti'-

fl-! .:

)t~j

",.t-

V[

I)f..

~:'-

7;::)

~.'-

~x

/,1

~~

R.

..t.. -x,if" ;lit 1,(,


.$- $':} ih ......
J,' ~ :~:,.

.. tJ\.ol

corresponds to langjun in the Chinese

Dynasty in Chinese transcription have been identified in


various inscriptions; for example nie-he, ;t~
been identified as
'hare' as

-+J:

~-X.

f.J

.t1b 'dog',

ne-hei in transcriptions; tao-li

tao-Ii-a. The History of the Liao Dynasty

records the Khitan word for "filial piety" as being


Ill. 5 The Da Jin huangdi dutong
jing1ue 1angjun xingji inscription

has

chi-shi-de-ben; this appears in Khitan as

-h~

iff, _1~ +

16
*~-i-is-t-pu.

It is possible to reconstruct some Khitan

ideograms in this way; for example 'five' ~ also appears

17

used phonetically in the word for 'hare' *tao-li-a;


suggesting that the Khitan word for five was read tao, as
indeed it is recorded in the vocabulary attached to the

TABLE 4: The first line of the Da Jin Huang Di inscription.

History of the Liao Dynasty. The similarity of several Khitan


words to Mongolian should be noted: Khitan *nehei, Mongol
2

nogai 'dog'; Kh. *taulia, Mo. taulai 'hare'; Kh.*tao, Mo.

10

tabun 'five'; Kh.*mor, Mo. mori 'horse', Kh.*u'ul Mo. ebiil


'winter'; Kh.*iama, Mo.

yama~

'sheep', Kh.*yis, Mo. yisii

'nine' .

)C

This can be tentatively deciphered as follows: (1)

There are many apparently phonetic elements which


do not appear in Chinese loan words; subsequently the

and (2) ~ (meaning: Great Jin State; ideographic characters;

readings of these have been difficult to determine. So far

possible readings: (1) dai (2) gin (if from Chinese);

378 phonetic elements have been distinguished; it has been

Murayama Shichiro suggests *yike for (1) and Liu Fengzhu

possible to give tentative phonetic values to 126 of them.

suggests *ru 1ugu f or (2); (3)

There are also cases where the meaning of an ideographic

(b)

character is known, but not the pronunciation; in some cases

from Chinese guo; -en is a genitive ending; (4)

it is possible to guess the reading of an ideogram, for

composed of (a)

example,

*xava-an 'of the Khan'; (5)

means 'year'; and the word for year in

,i-

[ue), (c)

/t- [en);

~~
-*-

composed of (a)

hILJ

(k),

so *kue-en; *kue is presumably

[xa), (b)

)9

[a], (c)

1. . .

[an], so

is an ideographic character,

the vocabulary appended to the History of the Liao Dynasty is

presumably derived from the Chinese character ~

transcribed by the Chinese character ~~

brother', to which it corresponds in the Chinese text of the

(Modern Standard

?r1ij

and

di 'younger

are read I':-i and ~

Chinese huan); on the basis of this the tentative reading

inscription; (6)

*hon has been given to this character.

respectively, so *I':igu, corresponding to the Chinese dutong,

(7)

an official title which can be translated 'military


To get a clearer idea of the way the Khitan script

director'; it might derive from the Chinese expression

functioned, and the degree to which it has been deciphered,

'banners and drums; i.e. war';

it will be helpful to look at the Da Jin huangdi dutong

and (b)

jinglue langjun xingji inscription in some detail. It is not

(9)

hR

(8)ruTl

is composed of (a)

It.

(g)

[ing), so *gigg (corresponding to Chinese jing;


composed of (a)

[I), (b)

[iau) and

possible to discuss the whole inscription here, but an

[u); so *liauu, corresponding to Chinese lUe; (10) ~

analysis of the first and last lines of the inscription will

composed of (a) ~. (~a), (b) ~

suffice for the present purpose. The first line of the

corresponding to langjun in Chinese (cf. the note on this

inscription contains ten characters:

word above).

(c)~

(a) and (c) Ii, so *~aali,

18

19

is *tien-uei; (5)

is an ideograph, the numeral ten (the


~

pronunciation is not known); (6)


The date, too, can be deciphered. The Chinese text

is an ideograph, the

numeral two; the vocabulary appended to the Qidan guozhi

gives the date as Tianhui shier nian suici jiayin zhong dong

gives the Khitan word for two as *xo, (cf. Mongol

~),

shi you si ri 'the twelfth year of the tianhui period, in the

perhaps this character is pronounced *xo;

is composed

"k

(7)

'M

so

year jiayin of the sexagenary cycle, in mid-winter, on the

of (a)

fourteenth day'. The Chinese and Khitan versions of the date

word corresponds to jia in the Chinese inscription; the

are given below:

Khitans apparently used the "five elements" and the "twelve

[s], (b)

iau and (c)

[e], so *siaue. This

animals" in their system of counting years, in which jia


would correspond to the element tin and the colour blue; tin
in Mongol is

torol~

; blue in

and in Manchu tolohon

Mongol is k6ke and in Manchu nowanggiyan, so it seems the


TABLE 5: The date on the Da Jin huangdi inscription.

Khitan term *siaue (if this reconstruction is correct) was


not related to the Mongol or Manchu terms; (8)
composed of (a)

10

11

12

13

14

15

l1D

so

*~ahui,

J:.

[qa]; (b)

..t.

[Xa] and (c)

is

[hui] ,

corresponding to Chinese yin; amongst the twelve

animals this corresponds to tiger (cf. Mongol bars and Manchu


tasha); (9)

is an ideogram meaning year, apparently

derived from Chinese

Jf . As

mentioned above, the

vocabulary appended to the History of the Liao Dynasty gives


the Khitan word for year as *hon, so some scholars give this
graph that reading. However, this symbol is also used as a
The Khitan version can be analysed as follows: (1) tJ
is an ideographic character; from a comparison with other
inscriptions it can be inferred to mean 'that'; (2)

.:II<

phonetic element, with the pronunciation [ail. The Khitan


large script form of this character was very different: from

is

which the Jurchen form;k

A'

(b) ,if,

[*anie] was derived. (10) ~ ,

:7-- ;

also ideographic and corresponds to the Chinese shi 'time';

composed of

as the vocabulary appended to the History of the Liao DynaGty

reconstructed this word as *duanda and determines the values

gives the Khitan word for "time" as QQ, this character may

of (a) as [du], (b) as [an] and (c) as [da] on this basis,

have been read *QQ. (3) ~

modifying values previous ly given to these symbols; (11) ~!f,

Chinese tian;

is ideographic and corresponds to

is obviously borrowed from

; some

(a)

composed of (a)

and (c)

[u] and (b)

!f

Liu Fengzhu has

[ul], so *u'ul, which

investigators surmise it to have been read *tengri (from

corresponds to the Chinese dong 'winter' (cf. Mongol ebul,

Mongol); (4) ~~
J};.

Middle Mongol ubtil/UgUl); (12) ~

and (c) ~

is composed of (a) /:;(,1>. [t], (b)

1)../

[iou]

[uei]; as this must be a transcription of the

Chinese term tianhui, (b) must have been read [ien], so (4)

is the ideogram for ten,

the same as character (5) above; (13)

is an ideogram

corresponding to Chinese si 'four', its pronunciation is not

21

20

known; (14)

is an ideogram corresponding to the Chinese

ri 'day'; its pronunciation is not known. The Khitan large


script character for day was
both of which the Jurchen form

,derived from Chinese from

So the first line of the inscription can be


tentatively read: [GREAT](dai? yike?) [JIN](gin? rulugu?)
kue-en

xa~a-an

[YOUNGER BROTHER] (Chinese di, Jurchen deu <

degu?) cigu ging liau aali ... , and the last line [THAT]
[TIME]

(QQ?)

blue?)

~ahui

CHAPTER THREE

8' [*inenggi] was derived.

[HEAVEN] tien-uei [TEN] [TWO] (xo? )" siaue (tin?


(tiger?) [YEAR] (hon? ai?) duanda (middle?)

u'ul (winter?) [TEN] [FOUR] [DAY]. Some of the body of the


inscription can also be deciphered, for example the place
names mentioned above. Nishida Tatsuo has studied the
characters in the Khitan inscription corresponding to the
Chinese tai shou yu han yin er gui (he drank together with
the governor and returned) and has reconstructed the Khitan
as *nait-ua chap (y)amse xi-i-is-kui ph-?-l-u. These few

THE JURCHEH SCRIPT

The
Jurchen
script, as it is found on the
inscriptions of the Jin Dynasty, the Nuzhen zishu and the
Sino-Jurchen vocabularies of the Ming period, is obviously
derived from the Chinese script and the Khitan large script,
with many innovations of its own. The idea of writing
grammatical terminations syllabically seems to have been
borrowed fr~m the Khitan small script, but the influence of
that script on the Jurchen script seems to have been slight.
The Jurchen script, in its mature form, contains ideograms of
one, two or three syllables; partial ideograms, which are
used in combination with phonetic symbols to write complete
words, and phonetic syllabic symbols, which were used to
write grammatical particles, Chinese loan words and words for
which a special ideogram did not exist.
The
following table compares the numerals in
Chinese, the Khitan large script, the ideographic characters
in the Khitan small script, and in the Jurchen script:

examples give some indication of the nature of the Khitan


small script, the progress made in deciphering it, and the
very limited extent of that progress so far.

TABLE 6: Numerals in Chinese, Khitan and Jurchen.


Chinese

Khitan
large

Khitan
small

Jurchen

yi

..t.

L-

*emu

one

er

&-

L--

*Jue

two

*ilan

three

*duin

four

11-

*sunJa

five

san

lID

si

..

;;
+-

::

11

.0.

,-'">
<.

wu

1-

/,

J.-

liu

-r

*ninggu

six

-\::.

qi

j;.

*nadan

seven

I,

If

ba

ifL

rL

*Jakun

eight

FL

'iL

*uyun

nine

*Jua

ten

~ jiu

shi

k:.

"

22

23

Many Jurchen characters are obviously derived from


the Chinese equivalents, perhaps via the Khitan large script
forms; others appear to derive from distorted forms of
Chinese characters:

TABLE 7: Jurchen characters derived from Chinese via Khitan.

Chinese

Khitan
large

tian

t.~

Jf

nian

;f*

ij

yue

F\

ri

Chinese
...l-

jing <

sky

)f..

*anie

year

Jt

*bie

month

J1 t. *abka

/'

*'

-t
+-

A~)
a

;1' *inenggi day

Jurchen

dong

'i~

*Jule-!li

east

xi

~~

*fuli-H

west

r$

nan

fJ#

*fan-ti

south

~t1:

*uli-ti

north

*deu-un

brother

:;I~ bei

~
JiL
~
~

di
feng

TABLE 9 : Jurchen characters derived from Chinese characters


(similar in sound but not similar in meaning).

Jurchen

Khitan
small

TABLE 8: Jurchen characters derived from


distorted Chinese characters.

Chinese

Some Jurchen characters appear to derive from


Chinese, but in these cases only the pronunciation of the
character, not its meaning, is involved:

;r.:t:

-L.:t: *edu-un

wind

.r

brother

*ahu-un

xiong

)t :

guo

liLt: *guru-un

country

(It should be noted that the characters in Table 8 above are


examples of "partial ideograms", i.e. they are combined with
phonetic elements to form full words.)

Jurchen

cp.

*ging

qi < ki

*ki

xi < hi

*hi

t\

tai

*tai

1::..

da (dai)

f-.'

*dai

cha

*sa

r.fu

yu

*i

yu

*i

l'

she

ging

i'

*~a

Several writers have attempted to go farther in


deriving each symbol in the Jurchen script from Chinese or
Khitan, but, apart from the fairly obvious examples listed
above, their explanations are not very convincing. The most
prolific writer in this field has been Yamaji Hiroaki. His
major work is Joshin mO]1 no Se1]1 ni kansuru kenkyu
[Research on the structure of Jurchen characters] (1958). The
publication of this book prompted a long review article by
Jin Guangping,
"Nuzhen zhi zi fangfa lun' [On the method of
creating Jurchen characters] (1958, published 1980). Yamaji
derives Jurchen characters from Chinese according to ten
different methods,
involving direct borrowing with some
distortion, phonetic similarity and so on. His method of
deriving Jurchen characters has been followed and developed
by Jin Qicong in his Nuzhenwen cidian [Jurchen Dictionary]
(1984),
in which suggested derivations are given for almost
every character. More examples of the Jurchen and Khitan
scripts (both large and small) have come to light in recent
years, and many of Jin Qicong's derivations appear quite

24

25

sound.
Putting proposed derivations to one side, one can
list a fair number of Jurchen characters which are unlike
Chinese, but which can be found in the Khitan large script.
For example, the following characters which can be found in
the Xigushan inscription can also be found in Jurchen (in
form, that is; it is not yet clear as to whether these
characters have the same meaning in both scripts):

TABLE 10: Characters found in both Jurchen


and the Khitan large script.

As mentioned above, the ideographic characters are


of twO types: one of which can be used to write a whole word,
another of which is used to write the first syllable or two
of a word, in conjunction with one or more phonetic symbols.
These ideographs mainly have disyllabic readings, but there
are some examples of monosyllabic or trisyllabic characters:
TABLE 13: Monosyllabic ideographic characters.

*mo

tree

*1f.

*na

earth

*da

root

*fi pi)

writing brush

JlJ

TABLE 14: Disyllabic ideographic characters.

both
dot:

The following characters are almost the same in


scripts; they differ by the addition or omission of a

TABLE 11: Almost identical characters in Jurchen


and the Khitan large script.

*-

4 j~ .
:.} -} .:it {t ~.

~ a' ~, 'q ~ if, ~

Some Jurchen characters are also to be found in the


Khitan small script, but these are relatively few:
TABLE 12: Jurchen characters identical with those
found in the Khitan small script

fFJ

*
*
*'

~ 1i. ~,fJ

15 t-a !f..

t)

~ ft.: ~ ~

*abka

sky

*lefu

bear

if

*loho

knife

1L

*amin

father

15
i:.

*tumen

ten thousand

*honi

sheep

*beye

body

A.

*tiho

chicken

*niru

arrow

...1-

*uJu

head

fA

TABLE 15: Trisyllabic ideographic characters.

*alawa

imperial edict

if,

*hefuli

stomach

27
26

~,
j. *meHlen

heart

.1

fifteen

*tobohon

TABLE 18: Partial list of simple syllabic phonograms.

All the characters listed above represent whole


words. There is another group of characters which are not
used independently, and which only represent part of a word.
Examples of this type are:
TABLE

16:

Partial-ideographic
characters
phonograms)

(used

/,f, 4-

~,

t
t-

m-

'7C

f"

f-

#.

1t

*1t

b-

with

L-

JL..

tu

mede

~\

mudu

!.
'li
~

neku

*tugi

tu-gi

>tlt

mede-ri

in

~\~

mudu-r

*mudur

dragon

in

t.

neku-r

*nekur

friend

grand*omolo
child
*indahun dog

in

*mederi

t-

rfl

cloud

[i..~

in

sea
n1-

omo

in

ti~

omo-lo

inda

in

~,!

inda-hun

Jj

ff.l

J-

"

~-

1; {
.~

~-

s-

~ J1Y-

g-

hk-

TABLE 17: Ideographic characters always followed by suffixes.

*17J-

*iSi-

to arrive

*dondi-

to listen

*ili-

to stand

4"-

*bandi-

to be born

*inJe-

to laugh

JJ

*tedu-

to sleep

'~

it t:0

A.

lr-

*-

*' h

iD

it

"
-ft
ft' ~

t- ty

-,
f,

*i

3J.

{'"

If A.

};

-I-

Ul

tL
IJ:.

1l

~
"

1i
ft #

if.
4

~e.

~ ~

.1

There are several verbs, in which the root form


should be considered an independent ideogram, even though
they are always followed by suffixes, written with phonetic
characters. Such are:

:tt

-L
ft:

Jf

v.
If)

...Jd-

if=J

it

fJ

:f

1L

*-'
7-..

f.-

IfJ
.J

~ itt'

The final category of characters are those which


are used phonetically. These are fairly numerous; a list of
the most CODmlon ones is given in Table 18 above.
Some of these phonograms
indicate a final -n after a vowel:
-

were

used

TABLE 19: Phonograms indicating final -no


-

;f,

-an

h-

.in

mainly

to

28

29

Many
phonograms:

Jurchen

.:t.:

-un

"l:

hehe

A-. " I
c.:.f::

1:i:

-en

;\t

eige

~f.

'"
:h

-on

sarigan

f.t;jt

sarigan-gan *sarigan

wife

omolo

1~

omolo-Io

*omolo

grandchild

iha(n)

tf-

iha(n)-an

*ihan

ox

mori(n)

1~ j'l

mori(n)-in

*morin

horse

indahu(n)

1ft

indahun-hun *indahun

afi

if.,t

afi-fi

*afi

lion

edu(n)

,fltt

edu(n)-un

*edun

wind

bono(n)

7Lg(.

bono(n)-on

*bonon

hail

words are written entirely with such

TABLE 20: Jurchen words written in phonograms.

3. 1\

u-fa

*ufa

flour

~~+

u-mie-ha

*umieha

insect

~~~

hu-da-~a

*huda~a-

to sell

lL

Some
Nuzhen
In some cases there is no clear distinction between
an ideograph and a phonogram; for example ~ *ali- 'to
accept' is an ideogram, but it is also used in the word
ali-in [*alin] 'mountain '" purely for its phonetic value; di'to come' is used in ~
hu-di-ra [*hudira-] 'to sing'
purely for its phonetic value.

Ill"

*engemer

words

hehe-e

*hehe

female

eige-ge

*eige

husband

J}

f,

are

written

with

one

dog

symbol in the

zishu, but with three in the Hua-Yi yiyu, for example


'saddle' is written

it}

1:

~~:

*funirhei 'hair (on the head) is written

in the Hua-Yi yiyu;

'it

4t,

in the

Hua-Yi yiyu. Jin Qicong has argued that these characters give
a

clue

to

the

evolution

of

the Jurchen script, in three

stages (of which the second is hypothetical at this stage):


The discovery of the Nuzhen zishu [Book of Jurchen
Characters] in Xi'an has shed some light on how this system
might have evolved. In these lists, there are many examples
of words written with one character, which in later Jurchen
(such as that on the inscriptions, or in the Hua-Yi yiyu)
were written with two, or even three symbols.

TABLE 22: Development of Jurchen script

..J-

TABLE 21: Jurchen words written with one symbol


in the Nlizhen zishu but two in the Hua-Yi yiyu.

Nlizhen zishu

hahai

Hua-Yi yiyu

'*

hahai-ai

*hahai

male

Ici) engemer

~t

enge (mer)mer

~~{K

en(ge) (mer)ge-mer

~~

funir(hei)hei

~ k-it.

fun(ir) (hei)ir-hei

funirhei

31

30

It

would

seem

that

the words in the table above

were originally written with one character, but in the course


of

time phonograms representing the last syllable came to be


to

attached

ideogram;

the

in

some

cases,

phonograms

representing the last two syllables of the word were attached


to

ideogram.

the

development

did

not

word for 'thunder'


in

both

with

two

In

the

many

other

cases,

however,

this

occur. In other cases, for example the

~
Nuzhen

[*akdien] is written with one symbol


zishu

and

the

Hua-Yi

yiyu

but

in the Jin Dynasty

inscriptions. This might indicate that the Nuzhen zishu might


been

used

certain
(if

in

forms

compilation of the Hua-Yi yiyu; in other

in

the Ming Dynasty Hua-Yi yiyu appear to be

one accepts the evolution of the Jurchen script outlined

above) than

the forms on the Jin Dynasty inscriptions.

To
was

the

used

get a better idea of the way the Jurchen script

in

practice, it will be useful to analyse in some

detail an actual inscription, namely the Nuzhen jinshi timing


bei inscription of 1224, which commemorates the conferring of
the

degree

year.

of

jinshi on successful Jurchen candidates that

More information on this inscription is given below. I

have reproduced Luo Fucheng's handwritten copy of part of the


inscription,

namely

the title, the introduction and several

lines within the text, in Illustration 6 below.

TABLE 23: Title of the Nuzhen jinshi


timing bei inscription
1

345

678

10

11

12

Ill. 6: The title and first line of the


Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription
(in the transcription of Luo Fucheng)

33

32

Characters (1),

tl; foJ

(2) and (3),

,are read us-in-H,

and transcribe the Chinese expression jinshi.


and is a genitive suffix.
~

(4) is read

(5) and (6), appear in the Hua-Yi


~

where they are transcribed

and bu respectively, but

as this word corresponds to Manchu gerbu 'name', this word


might be transcribed *ge[r)bu.

(7)

t~-

is unknown in later

texts. It is very similar to one in the Hua-Yi yiyu, -i*,' ,


which appears in the word

It..-

Jl

*merhe-,

'to reward', which

and

(1)

are to be found in the Hua-Yi

and are to be read amba-an [*amban) and mean 'big,

means

'gold'

Chinese
*anie

ft-

(3) and (4)

great':

be

$-~,

(2)

Da

(Chinese
Jin

and

~,

are read an~u-un [*an~unl;, an~un

jin);

*amban

ancun

correspond

(10) ~

'The Great Jin Dynasty'.

to

, is read

means 'year'; the characters preceeding this must

the reign title.

(7)

and

are the same as

(8)

(1)

and

(2),

has led some investigators to give it that meaning here.

so *amban, corresponding to Chinese da 'big, great'. The only

However,in another inscription, the Da Jin de sheng tuosong

reign period in the Jin Dynasty in which the second character

bei, the Chinese term shilu 'veritable records' is translated

is

, showing that

11::-

means 'to record'.

The pronunciation is unknown, unless it is indeed a variety

11;.-

of

(8)

, whereby one could give it the reading mer.

appears in the Hua-Yi yiyu with the reading hehe.

(9) and (10),

4-

are to be read he and

he'e would correspond to Manchu


inscribe'.

(11) and (12)

~ ~

~-

respectively:

'to carve, to

and are translated

'stone': *wehe corresponds to Manchu wehe 'stone'.


line then can be read

*usin~i-i

History

The first

ge[r]bu mer(?)hehe he'e wehe

of the Jin Dynasty, it is recorded that in the first

year of the zhengda period, one of the triennial metropolitan


examinations

for the degree of jinshi was held, and that the

emperor,

the

on

cyclical

day

jiachen

conferred degrees upon Jurchen graduates.


the

appear in the Hua-Yi yiyu

where they are given the reading we-he

da is the period zhengda (1224-1231). Sure enough, in the

Hua-Yi

'foal',

yiyu

so

in

perhaps

the

expression

(9)

is

to

be

of the fifth month


(9),

1~ ~IJ

read

appears in
*alir modn

*alir

here;

it

apparently means 'first', corresponding to Chinese yuan. That


leaves

with (5) ~

us

other

texts;

the

1; .

and (6)

second

(5) does not appear in

is in the Hua-Yi yiyu and is read

and means 'inscribed stone recording the names of the

har.

[successful candidates for the degree of) jinshi.

Manchu for the Qing reign period Yongzheng, Huwaliyasun Tob),

The

which
The next line contains twenty two characters:

Manchu equivalent of zheng would be tob (as in the

does not seem to be related to this word. Lue Fucheng,

considering

the

ft-

::t.:

f-

1;

17

18

12

13

14

15

16

19

10

20

21

of

vowel

for

this

harmony

expression.

1; Jf4;

appears

in the term

~ ~

""

inscription
3

requirements

transcription

expression
1

in a syllable

in

In

any

case,

whatever
and

(14)

the

the Deshengtuo songbei


'veritable records'; as

zheng means 'upright, correct' it seems certain that


22

che,

har suggests co for this character, and *~ohar as

preceeding
TABLE 24: First line of the Nuzhen jinshi
timing bei inscription

is similar to the Chinese _

reading this character ~e; Jin Qicong, taking into

suggested
account

that..f.

its reading, corresponds to zheng.

(11),

1t

(12),

(13)

go together; each is in the Hua-Yi

34

35

and

Hua-Yi

are

yiyu

meaning
root

read
in the

te-den(g)-ce-hei.

.:t.

(11)

Y..
expression/u~JQ

appears in the

te-de-buma, with the

'to offer, to present. *buma is a verbal suffix; the

is

*tede-.

(13),

~e

is a suffix indicating continuity

and (14) hei is a "modal converb suffix". As jinshi literally


means

'presented

scholars',

presumably

*teden(g)~ehei

must

Hall

that the jinshi degrees were presented.

genitive

-i,

suffix

correspond

to

the

so

(7),

Chinese

(8) and (9)

term

dian

(10)

is the

~ t)jL

must

'palace, hall [in a

palace)'. (7) and (8) can be found in the Hua-Yi yiyu and are
read

and

non

respectively.

(9)

is

unknown from other

Jin Qicong regards it is a variant of

sources.

f~

flL ~ ; the

mean 'those who were presented'. The rest of this line is the

third

same

title. The whole line can be read *amban ancun

suggests *nonogo as a reconstruction for the Jurchen word for

amban afire?) anie teden(g)cehei ge[r)bu mer(?)hehe

'hall, palace'. The Mongol (and Manchu) word corresponding to

as

cohar(?)
he'e

the

wehe 'an inscribed stone (stele) recording the names of

the

presented

[scholars)

in

the first year of the zhengda

period of the Great Jin Dynasty'.

form appears in the Hua-Yi yiyu and is read go, so Jin

Chinese
notes

dian,
that

Jurchen

ordo,

in

is

the

obviously

History

expression

of

*nagoli,

not related. Jin Qicong

the Jin Dynasty there is a

which is glossed in Chinese as

meaning 'a place of residence', and suggests that *nonogo and


The next line has twenty nine characters:

*nagoli
the

m.

12

is

so

faced

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Grube

24

23

25

26

27

28

29

so

In the Liao and Jin periods


'east' and 'in front of' were

and (14)

in Grube's edition
*mehr

iz.

are to be found in the


was transcribed

for this character; in other

r~~~

however, it is transcribed
'place';

would

seem

as
to

the

,ij~ ~ ,

e-r-ge and is

Manchu word for place is ergi,

be the correct transcription for this

./

word .

.fii

presumably here attached to

*]ule.

reconstructed

translated
*erge

22

or

(13)

~,

read

eastwards,

yiyu;

editions,

a
21

*lule-e

synonymous.

10

(11) appears in the Hua-Yi yiyu in

*]'uleSi 'east' and *]ule 'in front of'.

phonogram

*lule-,

Hua-Yi
13

palaces

so
11

t:Jt.

words

(12)
TABLE 25: The second line of the Nuzhen jinshi timing bei

might be related.

(15)

another

-1-

is

locative

a locative suffix, read du (there is

suffix,

do, used with back vowels,

;1".

whereas du is used with front vowels, so its pronunciation in


the
(1)

and

(2)

Jin

are transcriptions of the


(16)

Chinese

term

huangdi 'emperor'; the Jurchen term was *xa'an

period may have been du). The next four characters,


(17)

,(18).1., and (19)

are all

ideograms, read *duin bie tobohon inenggi, meaning 'fifteenth


but

huangdi

(4),

(5) and (6),

found
are
to

appears

often enough in the inscriptions.

~ ~~ fi;

(3),
day

of

the

fourth

month'.

phonograms,

read

ca

and

in the Hua-Yi yiyu, they can be read mi-ing-us-yen and


a

the

transcription of the Chinese term ming jun. According


History

of

(20)

are all phonograms and are to be

the Jin Dynasty, it was in the Ming Jun

expression

ce

'theme'.

and (21)

transcribe

Ai

are

ai,

and

~
X'

the Chinese

is usually read ce in Modern

Standard Chinese, but the reading chai is recorded in earlier

37

36

dictionaries). (22)

.i.

and (23)

are also ideograms, read

*darhon inenggi and mean 'seventeenth day'. (24)


are

and (25)

phonograms, read lu and un respectively; they transcribe

the Chinese expression lun 'dissertation'. (26)


~i

phonogram, read
'verses'.
final
Hua-Yi

is an instrumental suffix, read gi.

characters,

yiyu

is also a

and transcribes the Chinese expression shi

(27)

two

in

the

(28)

1........

expression

and (29)

jz.fi.;t

iL

The

appear in the

*~ente-mei, and is

glossed in Chinese kao 'to examine'; -mei is a "nonperfective


converb suffix".

So
the
whole sentence can be read *huangdi
ming-usien
nonogo(?)-i Jule-e erge-du duin bie tobohon
inenggi caai darhon inenggi lun ~i-ge cende, literally "the
emperor,
in the place to the east of (or: in front of) the
Ming Jun Hall, on the fifteenth day of the fourth month; the
theme; on the seventeenth day the dissertation and the verses
by-means-of-which he examined", in other words, "the emperor
examined [them] by means of a theme on the fifteenth day of
the fourth month, and by means of a dissertation and verses
on the seventeenth day, in the area to the east of (or: in
front of) the Ming Jin Hall:

It must be stressed that the above "reconstructions"


are only very approximate, based as they are on Chinese
transcriptions
of
Ming
Dynasty Jurchen (the task of
reconstructing the values of these characters in Jin Dynasty
Jurchen has barely begun), but at least they give some idea
as to how the language must have been pronounced, and how the
script was used in actual practice.
There are still many questions remaining on the
Jurchen
script. Possibly the ideograms were originally
conceived of as roots, to which phonograms could be added to
express grammatical suffixes. It seems that at least some of
the phonograms were originally ideograms, and were used in
both functions. Other ideograms, acqu~r~ng a function as
phonograms, lost their ideographic function and were used
merely as phonograms. In the NUzhen zishu there are many
ideograms which do not appear in the Hua-Yi yiyu; it may be
that some words originally written with ideograms came to be
written entirely with phonograms.
The

greatest

problem is that, up till now, almost

all researchers have -elied on the Chinese transcriptions of


Jurchen done during the Ming dynasty. Although most (but not
all) modern researchers at least take into account the
readings of the Chinese characters according to their Ming
pronunciation rather than their modern pronunciation when
determining their transcription values, the Jurchen language
which is being transcribed still reflects the way it must
have been pronounced in Ming times. The only systematic
attempt to truly reconstruct the readings of the characters
as they were actually pronounced during the Jin Dynasty, at
the time of their creation and use, was by L. Ligeti in his
"Note
preliminaire
sur
Ie dechiffrement des 'petites
caracteres' joutchen" (1953) and "Les inscriptions Djurtchen
de Tyr: la formule Q~ ma~i padme h~" (1961), in which,
however, only a few characters were treated. In his preface
to A Study of the Jurchen Language and Script: Reconstruction
and
Decipherment
(1977), G.N. Kiyose writes
the
reconstruction of Ming-Jurchen phonology makes possible the
reconstruction
of
Chin-Jurchen
phonology
through
historico-linguistic methods. This is the methodology I have
used
in my reconstructions presented in this volume".
However,
in the same preface, Kiyose writes "this work is a
study of the Jurchen language during the Ming period", and
there is practically no reference to the phonology of the Jin
period in this work, except for some isolated examples. Jin
Guangping and Jin Qicong in their Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yanjiu
[Research on the Jurchen Language and Script] and Jin Qicong
in
his Nuzhenwen zidian [Jurchen Dictionary] also use
reconstructions of Jurchen which may well be accurate for
Ming Jurchen (as they are based on Ming transcriptions), but
which are not strictly accurate to transcribe Jin Dynasty
inscriptions. The problem of why there are so many characters
apparently read the same (perhaps they represented different
values in the Jin Dynasty, which had fallen together by the
Ming, or perhaps originally homophonic ideographs (with
different meanings) came to be used as phonograms) remains
unsolved. The task of reconstructing the original readings of
the Jurchen characters remains to be done.

39

38

CHAPTER FOUR: GLOSSES PRESERVED IN CHINESE HISTORICAL SOURCES

There is some material for the study of the Jurchen


language preserved in glosses and vocabularies in historical
sources. These are:
(a) The Jurchen vocabulary appended to the History
of
the
Jin Dynasty.This is entitled "Jin Guoyu jie"
[Explanation of the National Language of the Jin), and is
appended to the last chapter of the Dynastic History. It
consists of 125 words divided into five sections: (a) names
of official posts;
(b) words describing people; (c) common
objects; (d) plants and animals and (e)surnames. This was the
first material on the Jurchen language to be investigated by
Western scholars. The first mention of it seems to be by C.
Visdelou,
in his Histoire abregee de la Tartarie (1779), who
quoted thirty four words from this vocabulary and compared
them with their Manchu cognates, thus seeking to prove the
identity of the two peoples. This list was reproduced by C.
Langles,
Alphabet
mandchou
(1787),
who provided the
transcribed words with a "Jurchen" garb. Later J. Klaproth,
in his Asia Polyglotta (1823) gave a somewhat longer list, as
did A. Wylie, in his translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung,
a Chinese Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language (1855). This
vocabulary was again examined by C. de Harlez, "Niu-tchis et
Mandchous,
rapports d'origine et de langage" (1888), who
reported that only five words on this list were identical in
the two languages, but in all seventy seven were very similar
and belonged to related, but not identical languages. The
words on Wylie's list were added, when appropriate, to W.
Grube's edition of the Sino-Jurchen vocabulary of the Ming
Dynasty. Three other studies have been devoted to this
vocabulary:
Watanabe
Kuntaro,
Shimpen kinshi meijikai
[Explanation of the names
(of people and places) in the
History of the Jin Dynasty] (1931); Mao Wen, "Jinshi Guoyu
mingwu bian: siyi biao"
[On the vocabulary of the Jurchen
language in the History of the Jin Dynasty) (1933) and Li
Xuezhi,
"Jin Guoyu j ie zhu-shi"
[The "Explanation of the
National Language of the Jin" annotated and explained)
(1970),
but
these
studies
are
little
more
than
identifications, where possible, of the Jurchen words with
their cognates in Manchu or Mongol. The only contributions of
a philological value seem to be the remarks by P. Pelliot in
his articles "Les mots Ii h initial, aujourd'hui amuie, dans
Ie mongol des XIIIe et XIVe siAcles", and "Sur quelques mots
d'Asie centrale attestes dans les textes chinois".

Ill. 7. A page from the Jurchen vocabulary


appended to the History of the Jin Dynasty

(b) The Jurchen words in the text of the History of the


Jin Dynasty. In M. Honda and E.B. Ceadel, A survey of
Japanese contributions to Manchurian studies, it is stated
that ... in the Chin Shih and other Chinese historical texts
there is a fairly large number of Jurcen words indicated by
Chinese characters used phonetically, but no systematic study
has been made of these. L. Ligeti writes in the same vein:
Dans Ie domaine de l'explication des noms et mots djurtchens
on n'a pas fait de progres dignes d'etre mentionnes. Sans
compter les quelques remarques d'une reelle valeur de P.
Pelliot et les tentatives fort problematiques de Watanabe
KUntar6,
l'on peut affirmer que ces recherches sont encore a
leurs debuts"
{"Les mots solons dans un ouvrage des Ts'ing"

41

40
p. 246). In a note he adds: "J'ai songe, avant tout, a
Shimpen kinshi meijikai (Osaka 1931) de M. Watanabe Kuntar6
ou il a examine les noms propres djurtchens du Kin-che." The
first comprehensive, if imperfect study of the Jurchen words
scattered thoughout the text of the History of the Jin
Dynasty was the Liao Jin Yuan sanshi guoyu jie [Explanations
of
the National Languages of the Liao, Jin and Yuan
Dynasties], compiled by a group of scholars under imperial
orders to explain the non-Chinese words in the Dynastic
Histories of the Liao, Jin and Yuan Dynasties. It was
published in 1772. L. Ligeti has some comments on this work
in his article "Les mots solons ... ", pp. 231ff. The book by
Watanabe Kuntaro mentioned above is essentially a revision of
the Jinshi yujie (the Jurchen section of the Chinese work
mentioned above). The words gathered together in the Jinshi
~
are rearranged according to stroke order; the main
entry is in the "unrevised" , i.e. original form (the forms of
many of the words in the History of the Jin Dynasty were
arbitrarily changed by Qing editors); its location in the
History and whether it refers to a name, tribe, place,
surname and so on; the language from which the word derives,
the word in Manchu, in the Manchu script (as provided in the
Jinshi yujie), the romanised form of the Manchu word and the
meaning, or suggested meaning of the word. Another work based
on the Jinshi yujie is by Li Xuezhi, "Jinshi yujie zheng-wu
chugao"[A preliminary draft of amendments to the Jinshi
yujie] (1970); a resume of this article has been made by D.
Holzman.
Indices to non-Chinese personal names, place names
and official titles in the History of the Jin Dynasty have
been prepared: the Jinshi fei Hanyu renming, diming, guanming
suoyin [Non-Chinese personal names, place names and official
titles in the History of the Jin Dynasty] contains only
non-Chinese names; Kinshi goi shusei by Onogawa Hidemi
contains also Chinese names. Chen Shu, Jinshi shibu wuzhong
[Five supplements to the History of the Jin Dynasty] contains
a study of the Chinese and Jurchen names in the History of
the Jin Dynasty.
(c) The Da Jin guo zhi. There is an earlier text,
the Da Jin guo zhi [Annals of the Jin Dynasty], written in
1234 by Yuwen Mouzhao, which contains a list of words in
Jurchen (in Chinese transcription) in an appendix. Many of
these
can
be
readily
identified
with their Manchu
equivalents, but as far as I am aware there has been so
systematic study of the Jurchen words in this text.

~~

it

ifi1

1...

~ ~pi;t

~Jf%'~Jt
~1I -<It: ~:t :~~ i {t ~~ 1tifr,

1... )l1
j'C
f-

~ill
.1'\

M,j;. 1),- 11i. -c


'ft .. f) 1 F "..:l "

w- ~ ~ :1+\
,~

-;f,
'-;.'-

;ill

n )l,\ ~'l

;~1 1:,tt\ I

,;;.1, ",

1...

{U.

,-,,0, ,1,,-"'0

~,~ 11= ~

~ 11' ~H\ iI\f ;t~\

:olJ

~n ~
1'fl
~
~..L
,;a

I11\"~

~ >t~ if ~I- ~ 1t ~t%- ~ If-- z,t \


;if, f" t~
Nl
~f\ I?~ itt ~!?- -t fA. 'fi
rlr ,~{- J:r"- ~ 18 ~ i.. lfr,
1 r~
..~'
1... fl ~ Jt j1f, 4'- fIT
~ <i:'... jf. ~
If
j~ if. Jo/, f!<.. 11:' ji ~
0 (r,

'r~ tt

*-

*-

1f ~ !'tVl:. <t..1
!if.

,6,
''C
r ,

if. t:.j

I
Ill. 8: A page of the Jurchen vocabulary
appended to the Da Jin guo zhi

42

43

CHAPTER FIVE

There are
script. These are:

INSCRIPTIONS IN THE JURCHEN SCRIPT

nine extant inscriptions in the Jurchen

(1) The Da Jin deshengtuo bei inscription (also


known as the Jin Victory Memorial Stele);
(2) The Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription (also
known as the Yantai stele);

(1) The Jurchen language - relationships with other


languages
(2) The creation and use of the Jurchen script
(3) Materials for the study of the Jurchen script
(4) The structure of Jurchen characters
(5) The pronunciation of Jurchen characters
(6) Jurchen grammar
(7) The value of Jurchen to historical studies
(8) Conclusion
The appendix contains studies of the Nuzhen jinshi
timing
bei inscription, the Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei
inscription, the Hailong Nuzhen guoshu moya inscription, the
Qingyuan
inscription
and
the
Nuergan Yongningsi bei
inscription.

(3) The Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscription;


(4) The Aotun Liangbi shi inscription;

(1) The Da Jin deshengtuo songbei inscription


(The Jin Victory Memorial Stele)

(5) The Hailong Nuzhen guoshu moya inscription;


(6) The Qingyuan inscription (also known as the
Ky~ngw~n inscription);
(7) The Beiging inscription (also known as the
Kwansan inscription);
(8) The Nuergan Yongningsi bei inscription (also
known as the Tyr inscription);
(9) The Zhao Yong da jiangjun inscription.
All of these, except the last which was discovered
in 1980 and remains unpublished, have been discussed in
detail
by
many
scholars. There have been two major
collections of Jurchen inscriptions, the first by Amma
Yaichiro, Joshimbun kinsekishi ko [A Study of Inscriptions in
the Jurchen Script] (1943); the other by Jin Guangping and
Jin Qicong, as part of their book Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yanjiu
[Research on the Jurchen Language and Script] (1964, 1980).
Amma's corpus of Jurchen inscriptions was a pioneering work
of great value in its day, but has been superceded by more
recent studies; his methodology, too (e.g. use of Chinese
characters to transcribe Jurchen, rather than a phonetic
representation) is not in accordance with current practice.
The study by Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong is much more than a
corpus of inscriptions, which in fact forms only an appendix
to this extremely valuable work. The book is divided into the
following sections:

This stele was set up in the year 1185 by the


Emperor Shizong, the fifth emperor of the Jin Dynasty, to
commemorate the victory achieved by his grandfather, Aguda,
the founding emperor of the Jin, over the Khitan Liao Dynasty
at the Lailiu River (now known as the Lalin River). It was
still on its original site, in Fuyu county in Jilin province
in 1978, but now seems to have been moved to the Jilin
Musuem. It is 168cm high and 83 em across. There are thirty
lines of Chinese script on the front of the stele, and
thirty-two lines in the Jurchen script on the back. This
inscription is the earliest still extant, and dates from the
dading period (1161-1189) when the Jurchen script was being
propagated most vigorously and presumably used most widely.
It is also the only bilingual inscription dating from the Jin
Dynasty (the other such inscription, the Nuergan Yongningsi
~ inscription, is from the Ming period).
This stele was rediscovered in modern times by a
Chinese emissary to the northeastern provinces of China, Cao
Tingjie, in the year 1185 (he also discovered the Nuergan
Yongningsi bei inscription). It was known earlier than that,
however. The Chinese text and part of the Jurchen text of
this inscription were recorded in a book called Jilin waiji
[A record of the areas beyond Jilin], in the section Guji
[Ancient relics], By Sa Ying'e, published during the daoguang
period.
Cao Tingjie wrote two introductory articles on this
inscription ("Deshengtuo bei shuo" [On the victory stele] and
"Deshengtuo yibei ji" [A record of the stele in memory of the
victory [of Aguda]], and made rubbings of the inscription.
These rubbings were later acquired by Naito Torajiro and

44

Haneda Toru, and are now in the library of the East Asian
History Research Centre of Kyoto University. In 1933, Susa
Kakitsu also discovered this inscription, and wrote a report
on this: "Tokushoda hi koki" [A record of a trip to find the
Victory Memorial Stele); he also published a collection of
photographs he made of the stele under the title Daikin
tokushoda sho shashin ch6 [A collection of photographs of the
Jin Victory Memorial Stele). In the same year (1933) Sonoda
Kazuki wrote an article ("Daikin tokushoda sh6hi ni tsuite"
[On the Jin Victory Memorial Stele) in which he pointed out
the inaccuracies in the Jurchen version in the Jilin waiji,
which contains only twelve lines of text, when there are in
fact twenty eight. In 1937, Tamura Jitsuzo, working from
photographs of the rubbings made by Cao Tingjie, published
the first attempt to decipher the Jurchen text ("Daikin
tokushoda shohi no kenkyu" [Research on the Jin Victory
Memorial Stele). In a review article published the next year
("'Daikin tokushoda sh6hi no kenkyu' 0 yomu" [On reading
"Research on the Jin Victory Memorial Stele), Amma Yaichiro
amended some characters in Tamura's version. In 1943 he
published his own study of this inscription, in his book
Joshimbun kinsekishi ko [A study of Jurchen inscriptions]
(pp. 1-30). Both Amma and Tamura also include the Chinese
text; Tamura, in the second part of his study of this
inscription, has also annotated the Chinese text.
In 1936, the Manshu kinseki k6 [A draft study of
the inscriptions of Manchuria], edited by Sonoda Kazuki,
included the Chinese text of this inscription, but not the
Jurchen version. In 1937, Luo Fuyi completed his study of the
inscriptions of Manchuria (Manzhou jinshi zhi), and included
the text in both Chinese and Jurchen, adding in supplements
relevant articles by previous scholars, including the text of
Cao Tingjie's account of his discoveries. Ishida Mikinosuke
also wrote an article ("Daikin tokushoda hi no saihatsugen"
[The rediscovery of the Jin Victory Memorial Stele]) (1934)
on the travels of Naito Torajiro, Yagi Shozabura, Wada
Kiyoshi and Sus a Kakitsu, all of whom visited the site of the
stele in Jilin and made rubbings of the text, on the basis of
which it was possible to amend the text in the Jilin waiji.
These scholars seem to have been unaware of Cao Tingjie's
discovery of the stele some fifty years earlier.
Not much progress seems to have been made on the
study of this stele until 1971, when Tamura Jitsuzo published
his Chugoku seifuku acho no kenkyu [Research on the "Conquest
Dynasties" of China], in which he presented a revised version
of his decipherment. Five years later, he published his third
version "Kittan Joshin mOJ1 ko - mitabi "Daikin tokushoda
shahin Joshimbun no kaidoku ni tsuite" [The Khitan and
Jurchen scripts - a third attempt to decipher the Jin Victory
Memorial Stele). However, because the stele is very eroded,

45

and many characters are difficult to distinguish, there are


still large sections of the stele which cannot be read. The
available rubbings are indistinct and blurred, and various
scholars interpret these unclear characters in different
ways. In 1978 Liu Fengzhu and Yu Baolin, with the help of the
Jilin Archeological Research Institute, went to the site of
the stele to make new rubbings, and to try to produce a
definitive text. The results are in their article "Nuzhen
wenzi "Da Jin deshengtuo song" jiao kan ji" [A comparative
annotated study of the Da Jin deshengtuo song inscription in
the Jurchen script] (1981), in which they make a detailed
comparison of their own rubbings of the original stone (which
is now in a more eroded condition than when Cao Tingjie made
his rubbings a century ago) with those provided by Luo Fuyi
(Manzhou jinshi ji), Amma Yaichiro (Joshin kinsekishi ko) and
the three versions by Tamura Jitsuzo, and offer a new version
of the Jurchen text. In 1984, Wan Renfu published a detailed
study of the Chinese version ("Da Jin deshengtuo song beiwen
zhengli sande" [Three contributions to the determination of
the original text of the Jin Victory Memorial Stele]. This is
a reexamination of the original stele, compared with various
rubbings made by earlier scholars, including those included
in the Jilin waiji (1823) and the Jilin tongzhi (1891), and
has been able to point out several mistakes in the standard
versions of the Chinese inscription, such as those published
by Luo Fuyi and Tamura Jitsuzo. Wang Renfu also consulted
other rubbings and copies made at various times, and has been
able to produce a fairly definitive version of the original
inscription.
The edition of the Jurchen text by Liu Fengzhu and
Yu Baolin, the edition of the Chinese text by Wang Renfu and
the detailed commentaries on both texts by Tamura Jitsuzo
will form the basis of a future detailed study of this
inscription.

47

46
(2) The Nuzhen jinshi timing bei inscription
(The Yantai Stele)

This stele commemorates the conferring of the degree of


jinshi (awarded to successful candidates in the highest
imperial examinations) in the year 1224. It probably owes its
preservation
to
the
fact
that the original Chinese
inscription was erased, and the stele reingraved during the
Xuande period of the Ming Dynasty (1426-1436) with an
inscription commemorating the restoration of the He Shen Miao
temple, on the steps of which it still stands. The original
stele was erected at Yantai, about five kilometres outside
the city of Kaifeng. During the Song Dynasty, this was the
site of a feast connected with the Spring rites. Under the
Jin, it was the site of an examination hall, so stelae
recording the names of successful candidates were erected
there.
As this stele is in Kaifeng, a busy metropolis, its
existence was recorded very early. It is mentioned in the Gui
xin za zhi, a miscellany published in the early part of the
fourteenth century, by the Song writer Zhou Mi. The text
reads: "the College of Bian (Kaifeng) has an inscription
recording the names of the Jurchen jinshi graduates, written
in characters resembling Chinese". It is also recorded in a
Ming compilation, the Bianjing yiji zhi [Historical Relics of
Kaifeng], by Li Lian, and in the Jin shi cui bian by the Qing
writer Wang Chang. During the daoguang period of the Qing
(1821-1851), Linqing, a descendent of the Jurchen imperial
family, mentioned this stele in his illustrated autobiography
and record of his travels, entitled Hong xue yan lu tu ji.
Linqing's disseratation on the subject was translated by G.
Deveria, "Examen de la Stele de Yen-t'al. Dissertation sur les
caracteres employees par les Tartares Jou-tchen. Extraite du
Houng-hue-in-yuan, traduite et annotee (1882), which he based
on the description of the stele and its location given by
Linqing, and the woodblock print in the Jin shi cui bian by
Wang Chang.

Ill. 9 The Nuzhen Jinshi timing bei inscription


(upper section)

48

49

A contemporary and friend of Linqing, Liu Shilu, a


famous writer on antiquities and numismatics, studied this
inscription in his articles "Nuzhizi bei kao" [A study of a
stele in Jurchen script) and "NUzhizi bei xu kao" [A further
study on the stele in Jurchen script) (1829), which might be
considered the beginning of Jurchen studies in the modern
period. These articles apparently caused quite a stir in
scholarly circles at the time. Liu confesses his inability to
read the script, but came to the conclusion that this
inscription must have been in the Jurchen "small script", as
he had mistakenly identified the Da Jin huangdi dutong
jinglue langjun xingji inscription as an example of the
Jurchen "large script". Liu was also able to provide clear
rubbings of the inscription, which, however, were not perfect
because of the way the stele was mounted.
This inscription also attracted the attention of
early European scholars, such as G. Deveria and T. de
Lacouperie
("The Djurtchen of Mandschuria: their name,
language and literature")(1889), but as they had at their
disposal only the woodblock print in the Jin shi cui bian
their conclusions were not based on reliable sources. In
1898, S.W. Bushell presented a remarkable paper to the XIe
Congres International des Orientalistes in Paris, entitled
"Inscriptions in the Jurchen and Allied Scripts". This
neglected paper (perhaps because it is published in the Actes
of the Congress and may not be readily available) in essence
deciphered the first and last sections of the Nuzhen jinshi
timing bei inscription, from which it was possible to infer
what much of the rest of the inscription was about. The
actual topic of the dissertation examined that year, a
quotation from the Book of Documents, has only recently been
identified (by Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong), and has not yet
been completely deciphered. Bushell accomplished this task on
the basis of the edition of the Sino-Jurchen vocabulary from
the Bureau of Translators, which had been published by W.
Grube in 1896. As mentioned above, this achievement has been
overlooked by most researchers until very recent times. In
1898,
Shiratori Kurakichi wrote an influential article
"Kittan, Joshin Seika moji ke"
[Research on the Khitan,
Jurchen and Xixia scripts). Shiratori also regarded the
~cript on the Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue langjun xingji
1nscription as being the Jurchen large script, and although
he mentioned the Nuzhen ;inshi timing bei inscription, he did
not give any opinion as to the nature of the script on it.

Ill. 10. The site of the stele at Yantai, as sketched by


Linqing on his visit to that area during the daoguang period.
I

II

In 1923, Luo Fucheng turned to this inscription in


"Yantai Jinyuan guo shu bei kao"
[A study of the Yantai
inscription in the Jurchen national script] and several
other articles on this inscription, culminating in his full
study of the stele published in 1936 "Yantai Jinyuan guo shu
bei shiwen" [An intepretation of the text of the Yantai stele

51

50

inscription in the Jurchen national script]; Luo (unaware of


Bushell's decipherment) was able to work out a few Jurchen
words, but could not decipher the inscription word by word.
In 1932, Mao Wen ("Jinyuan guo shu bei ban [A note on the
inscription in the Jurchen national script]) explained the
meaning of some of the Jurchen words deciphered by Luo on the
basis of their cognates in Manchu, but noted that he could
still only work out some forty to fifty Jurchen characters.
In 1937, Wang Jingru wrote "Yantai Nuzhen Jinshi timing bei
chu shin
[A preliminary interpretation of the Nuzhen Jinshi
timing bei inscription], which, compared to the studies of
Luo and Mao,
represented great progress. By this stage the
general gist of the inscription could be worked out, with
only a few difficult areas left to fill in. Aroma Yaichir6
also included this inscription in his corpus of Jurchen
inscriptions (Joshimbun kinsekishi k6 pp. 57-76); in his
study he identified a large number of the Jurchen characters,
giving his transcription in Chinese script.

(3) The Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscription.

There does not seem to have been any other major


study of this inscription until the publication of Jin
Guangping and Jin Qicong, Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yanjiu [Research
on the Jurchen Language and Script] (1980), who included
their study of this inscription in their appendices. A
remarkable achievement was their identification of the topic
of the dissertation for examination, a quotation from the
Book of History. Jin and Jin also decipher the rest of the
inscription, including the identification (by name and rank)
of the successful candidates, references to them in the
History of the Jin Dynasty and other philological and
historical commentaries on the text. Some areas of the
inscription
are
still
obscure,
and
await
further
investigation.

Ill. 11. The Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscription.

This inscription is also known as the [Jin] Taihe


timing canshi [Fragmentary tablet inscribed in the taihe
period (of the Jin Dynasty)]. It was formerly in the
collection of Luo Zhenyu, and is now in the Museum of Chinese
History in Beijing. Its origin is unknown. The main part of
this inscription was written by Aotun Liangbi, in Chinese.
The text reads: "Aotun Liangbi, on returning from the capital
from Sizhou, ate and drank at this brook with some close
friends. The eleventh day of the second month of the sixth
year of the taihe period". To the right there is an
inscription of some sixty characters in Jurchen; it is not a
translation of the Chinese, but a "postface" written by Aotun

52

Liangbi's close friend, Zhubu Buxiuhong, four years after the


Chinese inscription. Aotun Liangbi was sent as an ambassador
to negotiate peace with the Song; Sizhou was the site of
negotiations between the two enemy states of Jin and Song.
The text is dated 1206; in 1208 peace was negotiated, and
lasted until 1217.

Ill. 12. Enlarged detail of the Jurchen section of the


Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscription.

53

This inscription was first studied by Luo Fucheng,


"Jin taihe timing canshi" [A stone fragment inscribed in the
taihe period of the Jin Dynasty] (1931) and by Luo Fuyi, "Liao
Jin san shike: Jin Aotun Liangbi timing" [Three inscriptions
from the Liao and Jin periods: the tablet of Aotun Liangbi]
(1940),
but
neither
of
those
articles attempted a
decipherment.
A
photograph and some comments on this
inscription were also published by Shimada Yoshimi, "Joshin
moji 6ton Ry6hitsu sen'in hi" [The Aotun Liangbi tablet in
the
Jurchen
script]
(1943). The main study of this
inscription is again in Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, QQ.
cit. p. 321. According to their decipherment, the text reads:
"After the victory at the battle of ---, I saw some
calligraphy of myoId friend, Aotun Liangbi, the zhizhong
[official title] of Zhangde. It was exquisite and worthy of
emulation, so I had it inscribed on rock. The twentieth day
of the seventh month of the second year of the da'an period
[i.e. 1210] by the wenlinlang [official title] of Mingshui,
Zhubu Buxiuhong".

55

54

(4).

The Aotun Liangbi shi inscription

portrait of "Shuazu" , an "immortal" of the Ming period; this


was obviously inscribed later and has nothing to do with the
Jurchen. The kuan [the name of the sender or recipient on a
painting or a piece of calligraphy] on the top and the bottom
of the Jurchen inscription are in the Jurchen "formal script"
(kaishu); the poem itself is in a cursive form of the script
(xingshu). This was the first example of Jurchen cursive
script to have been discovered, though other examples on
manuscripts have come to light since. The upper kuan shows
that the author of the poem was Aotun Liangbi; the lower kuan
gives us the information that the stone was inscribed on the
orders of Zhubu of Penglai
presumably the same Zhubu
Buxiuhong who had the Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei inscribed.
In their study of this inscription, Luo Fuyi, Jin
Qicong, Jia Jingyan and Huang Zhenhua give a very full
commentary on the poem, the Chinese literary allusions and so
on, and decipher a very large proportion of the text.
Although there are still a few unclear passages, the general
meaning of the poem is clear. It is Confucian in content and
in a style of "regulated verse". It was written by Aotun
Liangbi for his friend Zhang Hui, who had been demoted to
Penglai,
and
contains
typical
Confucian
praise
of
achievements and virtues, and sentiments of comfort and
encouragement. The poem seems to have been preserved through
the excellence of Aotun Liangbi's calligraphy, and Zhubu
Buxiuhong's admiration for it.

Ill. 13 The Aotun Liangbi shi inscription


This was the ninth inscription in Jurchen to be
discovered. It was discovered during the 1960s in Penglai,
Shandong. It had been in the Youdeguan Temple in Penglai (now
called the Wanshougong), and was later removed to the
Get ianhougong , also in Penglai. A rubbing of this inscription
was made by Qu Peimo and sent to the editors of Wenwu, on the
basis of which a group of specialists in Jurchen (Luo Fuyi,
Jin Qicong, Jia Jingyan and Huang Zhenhua) made a study
"Nuzhenzi Aotun Liangbi shi ke shi chu shin [A preliminary
explanation of the poem of Aotun Liangbi in the Jurchen
script] (1982).
side

of

The
the

rubbing is 60 cm high and 70 cm across. One


stone on which this poem is inscribed has a

56

57
(4) The Hailong Nuzhen guo shu moya inscription.
Inscribed on the rock face at Jiugang shibaguo shan
(formerly known as Yangshulinshan), a mountain in Hailong
county, Jilin province, there are two inscriptions a few
metres from each other. The one on the left, facing south, is
in
Jurchen; there is no Chinese translation. This is
generally
referred
to
as
the Hailong Yangshulinshan
inscription,
or
in
Chinese
the
Nilzhen guo shu moya
[Inscription
on the rock-face in the Jurchen national
script].
The one on the right, facing north, has an
inscription in both Chinese and Jurchen, one apparently a
translation of the other. This latter stone was formerly
referred to as the Hailong Banjieshan ~uzhen guoshu moya
inscription, as it was formerly thought to be located at
Banjieshan, some fifteen kilometres from its actual location.
The Chinese text records Aguda's victory over the Liao at
Banjieshan. It is not dated.
The first of these inscriptions was first mentioned
by
Yang Boxing in his book Shengu [Ancient sites of
Shenyang], published during the guangxu period (1875-1908) of
the Qing Dynasty. It was also recorded in various local
gazettes of the Hailong district, such as the Hailong-fu
xiangtu zhi and the Hailong-xian zhi. It was also noticed by
the Japanese anthropologist and explorer, Torii Ryuz6. All
these sources, however, mention only one Jurchen inscription;
there is no mention of two, or of a Chinese inscription in
that area.
In 1934, the Japanese scholar Yamashita Taizo
published an article "Shin Jochoku kokusho hi ni tsuite" [On
a new inscription in the Jurchen national script] in which he
announced a new discovery, a bilingual inscription. He
claimed that it had been discovered at Banjieshan, some 15
kilometres from Yangshulinshan, and included photographs of a
rubbing. An article by Meng Zong,
"Nuzhenwen keshi xin
faxian"[A new discovery of an inscription in the Jurchen
language]
(1935) is essentially a translation of Yamashita's
article, but it introduced the find to a Chinese audience. It
was subsequently included in several catalogues of Jurchen
inscriptions, such as Luo Fuyi's Manzhou jinshi zhi [A
compendium of inscriptions of Manchuria]
(1937),
Sonoda
Kazuki's
Manshu
kinsekishi k6 [A draft compendium of
inscriptions of Manchuria] (1936), Amma Yaichir6's Joshimbun
kinsekishi ko [A study of inscriptions in the Jurchen script]
(1943).
No one seemed to think it strange that such
investigators as Yang Boxing and Torii RyUz6 had failed to
notice it, as it was said to be located at Banjieshan, not
Yangshulinshan.
Ill. 14.

The Yangshulinshan inscription at Hailong.

In 1979, Sun Jinji published an article on these


inscriptions,
"Hailong Nuzhen moya shike" [Rock inscriptions

59

58
in the Jurchen script at Hailong], in which he pointed out
that the two inscriptions are, in fact, very close to each
other, not fifteen kilometres apart. He also tried to explain
the fact that explorers prior to Yamashita Taizo had not
noticed it by suggesting that it would not have been easy to
see, as that in the past, before a shelter was built for it,
there would have been bushes and undergrowth around it. In
1980, Feng Yongqian ("Hailong Jin, Han wen shi jindai wei ken
[The Chinese-Jurchen inscription at Hailong is a modern
forgery]) argued that the "discovery" of the inscription had
actually been made by one Xing Yuren, and that it was he who
had led Yamashita Taizo to it. What is more, Xing Yuren was
an antique dealer, who was an accomplished engraver, having
served an apprenticeship in that trade, and he often made
rubbings of inscriptions to sell in his antique shop in
Shenyang. Feng asserted that the Chinese-Jurchen inscription
was in fact a forgery. This argument was taken up by Dao Erji
and He Xige ("Hailong Hanwen, Nuzhenwen duiyi moya zhen-wei
bian"[A discussion on the authenticity of the Chinese-Jurchen
bilingual inscription at Hailong](1984, who visited the
area themselves. They noted that both inscriptions were
clearly visible, and it would have been impossible for Yang
Boxing and Torii Ryuz5 not to have noticed both of them. In
any case, Yamashita Taizo had been misled as to the actual
location of the inscription
Xing Yuren would have lied
about this because he would have known that Yamashita would
have been aware that only one inscription had been reported
at Yangshulinshan. The authors also noted that the characters
in the Chinese-Jurchen bilingual have been carved very deeply
into the rock; this contrasts with the eroded nature of the
Jurchen monolingual inscription, suggested it was carved much
later. They also compared the Chinese and Jurchen versions,
and discovered that the "Jurchen" is very ungrammatical,
being merely a character-by-character "copy" of the Chinese;
in fact, many of the "Jurchen" characters were made-up by the
forger.
In any case, the inscription refers to Aguda
defeating the Liao at this site, but historical records show
that Aguda could not have been in that area at that time. It
seems to be definite now that the so-called Banjieshan
inscription is, in fact, a modern forgery.
As for the other, it was first recorded by Yang
Boxing, also known as Yang Tonggui, who was the son of the
first
tongban
(assistant
sub-prefect) in the Hailong
district, during the years 1880-1884 when he accompanied his
father to Hailong. In retrospect, his transcription can be
seen to be not very correct; there are many mistakes, and in
fact only eighteen characters are correct. It was apparently
independently "discovered" by Torii Ryuzo in 1912. In 1930,
the Hailong-xian zhi [Gazette of Hailong county] published
the text of the inscription, together with an article by Jin
Liang, "Hailong Nuzhenzi bei tuowen ban [A note on the

rubbing of the text of the Jurchen inscription in Hailong].


The first scholar who was actually a specialist in Jurchen to
study this inscription was Luo Fucheng, who in 1929 published
"Nuzhen guoshu bei kaoshi" [A study of an inscription in
Jurchen script]. He was able to identify twenty-five more
characters (in addition to those correctly identified by Yang
Boxing), but because he was not able to see the original
inscription and the rubbings were unclear, there were still
many characters which could not be identified. Luo Fuyi also
included it in his Manzhou jinshi zhi (1937) as did Amma
Yaichiro in his Joshimbin kinsekishi k5 (1943). Luo Fuyi's
copy of the inscription is very accurate, and forms the basis
of the decipherment of this inscription in Jin Guangping and
Jin Qicong, Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yan11u [Research on the
Jurchen Language and Script], pp. 326-331. Although the
inscription has been eroded and damaged, and is unclear in
many
places,
the
general gist is fairly clear: the
inscription
records
the establishment of a mouke (an
administrative district) in the second year of the shouguo
period of the Emperor Taizu (i.e. 1117); the inscription
itself was engraved in the seventh year of the dading period
of the Emperor Shizong, under whose reign the Jurchen script
was vigorously promoted.

(6) The Qingyuan inscription.

This inscription is also known as the Ky~ngwon


inscription, as it was originally on the site of a Buddhist
temple at Ky~ngw~n, Korea. It was discovered by the Japanese
in 1918 and moved to the Seoul Museum. The stele is a square
column with a Jurchen inscription on all four sides; the top
part of the stele is missing, and there are only about five
hundred characters of the inscription remaining. The date is
missing, but Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong deduce it to date
from between 1138 to 1153. There is a photograph of this
stele in the Chosen kinseki seran [Corpus of Inscriptions in
Korea] (Vol. I, pp. 551-552), and it was included in Amma
Yaichiro's Joshimbun kinsekishi ke [A Study of Inscriptions
in the Jurchen Script] (pp. 45-53). The ChOsen kinseki seran
presents the sides of the pillar in the order [1], [2], [3],
[4]; but Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong have demonstrated that
side [3] is the actual beginning of the inscription. This
misunderstanding seems to have arisen because the lower part
of side [4] has been obliterated, and thus was thought to be
the end of the inscription; it should now be considered the
second panel of the inscription.

61

60

There is an important, but strangely neglected


on this inscription by Min Y~ng-gyu,
"Ky~ngw6n
Y~jinja
pi gosOk"
[Notes on the inscription in Jurchen
characters on the KyOngw6n stele], in which he suggests a
normalisation of the characters, a transcription (in Chinese
characters) and a translation (in Korean). It must be said
that Min's article could not be considered to present a
complete decipherment; on the other hand, the translation
suggested by Jin and Jin (Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yan]1U pp.
353-343) does not make much sense either. The text seems to
be a long list of names and titles of those who contributed
to the construction of the temple.
article

Bll-l
) I.

ili3..

311-2-

)~

"A"'tiL,

) J:- )(

!f-:R~
)ft JL

---PJ iJ

~~

,-to It
;, 1-,

T' t

-&l

,,1&

1:::
Ill. 16. Two sides of the Qingyuan (Ky6ngwon) inscription.
Ill. 15. A section of the Qingyuan (Ky~ngw6n) inscription
in the transcription of Min Y~ng-gyu.

62

63

The discovery of this inscription led the Japanese


linguist 6gura Shimpei to research the study of Jurchen in
Korea; the results of his research are contained in his
article "Chosen ni okeru Kittan oyobi Joshin gogaku" [A study
of the Khitan and Jurchen languages in Korea] (1917). In 1972
Hiu Lie published his study of the study of Manchu in Korea
(Die Mandschu-Sprachkunde in Korea); the section on Jurchen
heavily relies on Ogura's article.
(7) The Beiging inscription.

This inscription is also known as the Kwansan


inscription, as it is carved on the rockface of Mount
Kwansan, Pukch'~ng county, South Hamky~ng province, Korea. It
was disovered in 1911 by Torii Ryuzo, and was included in the
Chosen kinseki soran [General Inventory of Inscriptions of
Korea]
(Vol. I, p. 553), which also includes a photograph. A
photograph of this inscription may also be seen in the
frontispiece to Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, Nuzhen yuyan
wenzi yanl~u [Research on the Jurchen Language and Script].
This
inscription was first studied by Inaba Iwakichi,
"Hokuseijo Kanzan JO Joshinji magai koshaku" [Notes on the
Jurchen inscription cut in the rock face at the summit of
Mount Kwansan near Pukch'ongsong] (1930), in which he suggests
a normalisation of the characters (they are written very
irregularly) and a translation. Inaba interprets the date
(the year wuyin) as 1338, but Jin and Jin read this date as
1218. It was included in Amma Yaichiro, Joshimbun kinsekishi
ko [Corpus of Inscriptions in Jurchen] (1943), who records
the Jurchen inscription but does not attempt a translation;
reference is given to the article by Inaba. According to
Inaba's
decipherment,
the
inscription
refers to the
presentation of a statue of Maitreya Buddha.
(8). The Nuergan Yongningsi bei inscription.

",

-f.-

J~
~

--f1
Ill. 17. A section of the Beiging inscription in
the transcription of Inaba Iwakichi.

This inscription is found on a stele erected in the


year 1413 to mark the foundation of the Yongningsi Temple in
the Nuergan Commandery at Telin (Tyr), near the mouth of the
Amur River. The main inscription is in Chinese, inscriptions
in Jurchen and Mongolian are on the reverse. They are not an
exact translation of the Chinese, but are shorter and
simpler. On the side of the stele are Chinese, Mongol,
Tibetan and Jurchen versions of the Sanskrit mantra Q~ ma~i
padme hUm. The stele is 179cm high, 83 cm wide and 42 cm
thick.
.
The existence of these inscriptions was known to
European travellers since the seventeenth century. Chinese
SOurces credit Yang Bin with being the first Chinese in
modern times to have seen these inscriptions. In his Liu bian
ji lue (published in 1639), Yang mentions several stelae with
Chinese and "Manchu" inscriptions. Wada Kiyoshi ("Minsho no
Manshu keiryaku" [The administration of Manchuria in the early
Ming] suggested that the stelae mentioned in Yang's book may
have been those at Nuergan; this possibility was also
considered by Torii Ryuz5. This suggestion was accepted as
fact by Zhong Minyan, Na Senbo and Jin Qicong ("Mingdai
Nuergan
Yongningsi
bei ji J~ao shin
[Emendations and
annotations on the Ming Dynasty Stone Inscriptions of the
Yongning Monastery at Nuergan] (1975); this conclusion was
accepted by Qu Deyuan in his article "Guanyu Mingdai Nuergan

64

Yongningsi beiji de kaocha yu yanjiu" [Investigations and


research on the Ming Dynasty Yongningsi Temple Stele at
Nuergan]
(1980). Huang Zhenhua, "Mingdai Nuzhenwen Nuergan
Yongningsi beiji xin shin
[A new interpretation of the
Jurchen inscription at the Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan]
(1982), however, argues against this case, stating that it is
impossible that the stelae mentioned by Yang Bin could have
been those at Nuergan.
In
1808,
Mamiya Rinz6 was sent by the Bakufu to
investigate the situation along the lower reaches of the
Amur; he passed by the cliff face at Tyr and noticed the
stelae there. However, the honour of being the first modern
scholar to actually investigate these stelae, and make
rubbings of the inscriptions, must go to the Qing envoy Cao
Tingjie,
who in 1885 was sent by the Qing court to
investigate the situation in the Amur and Ussuri River
region. On this trip he discovered both the Da Jin deshengtuo
song bei inscription (the Jin Victory Memorial Stele) and the
Nuergan Yongningsi bei inscription. Cao Tingjie wrote an
article on these inscriptions ("Dong sansheng ditu shuo:
Telin bei shuo"
[On the map of the three [north]eastern
provinces: on the stele at Tyr](1887). In 1904, the stele was
shifted to the Vladivostok Museum, where it was seen by Torii
Ryuz6 in 1919 and 1921. It is now housed in the Khabarovsk
Museum, and no Chinese or Japanese researchers, as far as I
am aware, have had access to it. (L. Ligeti, in his article
"Les inscriptions Djurtchen de Tyr: la formule Q~ ma~i padme
hUm"
(1961) mentions that a rubbing of this mantra had been
given to him by G.D. Sanzeev). Rubbings of this inscription
were included in the Jilin tongzhi [Comprehensive Gazette of
Jilin]
(1891), in the section on inscriptions (juan 120:
Jinshi zhi), and the article by Cao Tingjie mentioned above
appended. This material was reproduced in several later local
gazettes of the area.
The first European scholars to study the Chinese
inscription seem to be V. Vasil'ev, "Zapiska 0 nadpisjax
otkrytyx na pamjatnikax, stojas~ix na skale Tyr, bliz ust'ja
Amur"
[A note on the inscriptions inscribed on stelae on the
cliff face at Tyr, near the mouth of the Amur] (1896) and P.
Popov,
"0 Tyrskix pamjatnikax" [On the stelae at Tyr], 1904.
The Mongol version was first studied by A.M. Pozdneev in
Lekcii po Istorii Mongol'skoj Literatury [Lectures on the
History of Mongolian Literature] (1908). These studies were
not conclusive because of the unclarity or illegibility of
large sections of the inscription. The first attempt to deal
with the Jurchen version seems to have been made by W. Grube,
"Vorlaufige Mittheilung uber die bei Nikolajewski am Amur
aufgefundenen Jucen-Inschriften"
(1896), who relied on a
photograph of the inscription made by one Mr. Schewelew.
Grube was able to recognise the mantra ~ ma~i padme h~ with

65

the aid of the Sino-Jurchen vocabulary he had edited and


studied
(Die Sprache und Schrift der Ju~en)(1896). G.
Schlegel published a review of this article in T'oung Pao in
1897.
In
1900 the Japanese sinologist Naito Torajiro
published a book Min t6hokkyo bengo [Rectifying mistakes
concerning the northeastern border areas during the Ming] , in
which he cited the location of these inscriptions as evidence
that that area had, at least during Ming times, been
administered by China. He returned to his study of this stele
in 1929,
in an article "Nurukan Eineiji ni-hi hok5" [A
supplementary study of the two stelae at the Yongningsi
Temple at Nuergan], in which he studied several photographs
and rubbings of the inscription, and, based on the original
rubbing by Cao Tingjie (made when the inscription was less
eroded) was able to restore much of the text, including
sections which had been omitted from other editions (such as
in the Jilin tongzhi) because of unclarity or illegibility.
Both Chinese and Jurchen inscriptions were included in Sonoda
Kazuki's compilation Manshu kinsekishi k5 [An inventory of
inscriptions in Manchuria] (1936) and in Luo Fuyi, Manzhou
jinshi zhi (1937).
The first scholar to attempt to decipher the
Jurchen inscription was Luo Fucheng, "Ming Nuergan Yongningsi
bei Nuzhen guo shu tu shi"
[An explanation of the Jurchen
national script on the stele of the Yongningsi Temple at
Nuergan]
(1937). He was able to read and explain about half
the characters in the text. In 1941, Luo Fuyi included this
inscription in his article "Liao Jin wenzi jincun lu" [A
catalogue of extant examples of the scripts of the Liao and
Jin Dynasties]
(1941),
and in 1943 Amma Yaichiro published
the text of the inscription, on the basis of rubbings brought
to Japan by Naito Torajiro (presumably those made by Cao
Tingjie),
in
his
Joshimbun kinsekishi k6 [Corpus of
inscriptions in the Jurchen script].
In the postwar period, Jurchen studies were revived
in Japan by Osada Natsuki, who published "Joshin moji no kozo
to sono onka ni tsuite"
[On the structure of Jurchen
characters and their values] (1949), "Manshugo to Joshingo"
[Manchu and Jurchen] (1949), "Joshin moji kinseki shiryo to
sono kaidoku ni tsuite" [On the decipherment of epigraphical
material in the Jurchen script] (1950) and "Joshingo shiryo
no gengogaku teki kenkyu
Arutai shogoshi teki hikaku
gengogaku no ikkan to shite ichi' [Linguistic research on
Jurchen
a link in the comparative linguistic study of the
Altaic languages] (1951). In 1958 he became the first scholar
to publish a more-or-less complete study of the Jurchen and
Mongolian
versions of this inscription in his article
"Nurukan Eineiji hi Moko Joshimbun shakko" [An explanation of
the Mongol and Jurchen versions of the Yongningsi Temple
stele at Nuergan]. He analysed the Mongol and Jurchen

66

67

versions in great detail, and suggested readings and meanings


wherever possible. Osada was able to decipher practically the
whole text; he mentioned in his article that he planned to
publish a study of the Chinese version, but as far as I have
been able to ascertain, this has not appeared.

.,,
"'

.,"

"
t

";;

Ill. 18. The Yongningsi inscription (from a rubbing


in the collection of Naito Torajiro,
copied by Osada Natsuki)

In the meantime, L. Ligeti revived Jurchen studies


in the West with his "Note preliminaire sur Ie dechiffrement
des "petites caracteres" joutchen" (1953). In his later
study, "Les inscriptions Djurtchen de Tyr: la formule ~ ma~i
padme h~" (1961) he turned his attention to the inscription
we
are discussing, or, rather, to the six characters
inscribed on the side of the stele. In this article he
analysed in great detail each of the six characters that make
up that mantra, and every occurance of those characters in W.
Grube's Die Sprache und Schrift der Jucen and other sources,
and investigates every recorded cognate of the Jurchen words
in which these characters appear in order to determine their
correct readings. In China, a study of the Jurchen version of
this inscription, by Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, appeared
in
mimeograph form in 1964, but this was limited in
availability and was not formally published until it appeared
in the appendix of their Nuzhen yuyan wenzi yanjiu [Research
on the Jurchen Language and Script] (1980). In 1974, Zhong
Mingdai Nuergan
Minyan published "Lishi de zhengjian
Yongningsi beiwen kaoshi" [Historical proof - a study of the
text of the Ming Dynasty inscription in the Yongningsi Temple
at Nuergan], in which he presented a new and revised version
of the Chinese text. This was followed in 1975 by an article
by Zhong Minyan, Na Senbo and Jin Qicong, "Mingdai Nuergan
Yongningsi beiji J1ao shi" [Emendations and annotations on
the Ming Dynasty inscriptions of the Yongning Monastery at
Nuergan], which is a complete study of the Chinese, Mongol
and Jurchen versions of the inscription, drawing on many
previous sources and making many new contributions. In 1983,
Yang
Yang published a revised version of the Chinese
inscription ("Mingdai Nuergan Yongningsi beiji zai kaoshi" [A
reexamination of the text on the stele at the Yongningsi
Temple
at Nuergan during the Ming Dynasty]) based on
photographs of the original rubbings in the possession of Jin
Yufu, photographs and transcriptions published by Naito
Torajiro and Sonoda Kazuki, the studies by Luo Fuyi and the
more recent studies by Zhong Mingyan, Na Senbo and Jin
Qicong.
The most recent study of this inscription is by
Huang Zhenhua, "Mingdai Nuzhenwen Yongningsi beiji xin shi"
[A new explanation of the Jurchen language text on the stele
of the Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan during the Ming] (1982),
in which he provides a historical background to the discovery
and decipherment of this stele, and gives a new and detailed
study on 362 words in the text. His study is based on the
editions of Amma Yaichiro, Osada Natsuki, Luo Fuyi and Zhong
Minyan, Na Senbo and Jin Qicong. Unfortunately, the printing
of this article leaves much to be desired: four pages of
handwritten notes have been photographically reproduced to
fit on one page, and the result is practically illegible.

68

69

(9). The Zhao Yong da jiangjun inscription

According
to Jin Qicong,
"Nuzhen wenzi yanjiu
gaikuang"
[An outline of research on the Jurchen script]
(1984), an inscription of twenty one characters in Jurchen
was discovered by the Archeological Work Team of Jilin
province in 1980. This has been called the Zhao Yong da
jiangjun tongzhi Xiongzhou dushi muke inscription [Tomb
inscription of Zhao Yong, General, Sub-Prefect and Director
of the Board of Revenue and Finance of Xiongzhou]. Jin
Qicong, in his Nuzhenwen cidian [Jurchen Dictionary], gives
the following references: "Jindai Zuochengxiang Wanyan Xiyin
jiazu mu diaocha shijue baogao"
[Report on preliminary
investigations of the family cemetery of the Prime Minister
of the Left of the Jin Dynasty, Wanyan Xiyin], by the
Jilinsheng Wenwu Gongzuodui [Cultural Relics Work Team of
Jilin Province], and "Jindai Zhao Yong da jiangjun tongzhi
Xiongzhou
dushi muM
[The tomb of Zhao Yong, General,
Sub-Prefect and Director of the Board of Revenue and Finance
of Xiongzhou] by Mu Hongli, but no publication details are
given.

Appendix: The Tsagan Obo inscription.

In 1949, Osada Natsuki, in an article "Manshugo to


Joshingo"
[Manchu and Jurchen] reported that a Jurchen
inscription, the Tsagan Obo inscription, was discovered in
1945 in West Khuchit, Silingol, Inner Mongolia. However, in
his later catalogue of materials in Jurchen, "Joshin moji to
genson shiry5" [Extant historical materials on the Jurchen
script], he does not mention this inscription, nor is it
included in any of the standard catalogues.

Ill. 19. The mantra Q~ ma~i padme h~ in Chinese,


Mongol, Tibetan and Jurchen (Tyr stele)

70

71

CHAPTER SIX

MISCELLANEOUS MATERIAL

(1)

The Jurchen characters in the Yanzhou shanren sibu gao


and the Fangshi mopu.

(2)

A travel-pass (paizi) in the Jurchen script and the


Jurchen characters in the Azuma kagami.

(3)

Manuscript material.

(4)

Jurchen seals and mirrors with inscriptions in Jurchen.

(5)

Other inscriptions previously thought to be in Jurchen.

(6)

Dictionaries

(7)

The study of Jurchen in Korea

(1)

Ill. 20. The Jurchen characters in the Yanzhou shanren


sibu gao and the Fangshi mopu.

The Jurchen characters in the Yanzhou shanren


sibu gao and the Fangshi mopu.

These characters are reproduced below (from L. Gilbert,


Dictionnaire historigue et geographigue de la Mandchourie
(facing p. 71:

The Jurchen is a translation of the famous couplet


"ming wang shen de, si yi xian bin" [when a wise king is
heedful of virtue, foreigners from all quarters come as
guests]. The Jurchen version was preserved in a collection of
writings by the Ming scholar Wang Shizhen (1526-1590), on
whom
there
is
information in H.A. Giles, A Chinese
Biographical Dictionary, No. 2220). His book is called
Yanzhou shanren sibu gao [A draft catalogue of the books in
the collection of Yanzhou Sha~ren (Wang's honorific name)].
The Jurchen characters are in the Ming edition of Wang's
works, but in the Sikuguanshu edition (compiled during the
Qing, between 1773 and 1782), they have been omitted. They
were also preserved in the Fangshi mopu, an illustrated
Collection of designs for moulding cakes of ink by Fang Yulu,
published in 1588. (More information on the Fangshi mopu can

72

73

be found in A. Wylie, Notes on Chinese Literature, p. 117).


This
inscription was apparently first studied by S.W.
Bushell,
in
his
paper presented to the XIe Congres
International des Orientalistes in 1898 under the title
"Inscriptions in the Jurchen and other scripts". Bushell
compared the characters to those in W. Grube's Die Sprache
und Schrift der Juten and was able to decipher most of them.
These characters were also independently studied by Ishida
Mikinosuke,
"Hoshi bokufu ni mieru Joshinji meimon koshaku"
[An investigation of the inscription in Jurchen characters
recorded in the Fangshi mopu] (1940). When this article was
reprinted in Ishida's Collected Works (entitled Toa bunkashi
sake [Studies in the Cultural History of East Asia](1973,
Ishida added in a footnote Bushell's contibution.
This medallion has also attracted some attention
because of the way the characters are juxtaposed, rather in
the manner of Khitan rather than Jurchen. It is also rather
similar to the characters on a travel pass discussed below,
but different from the usual character-by-character style
(like Chinese) of the Jurchen script of the inscriptions or
the Ming Dynasty vocabularies.

(2) A travel pass (paizi) in the Jurchen script


and the Jurchen characters in the Azuma kagami.

In a historical record of the early years of the


Kamakura Shogunate in Japan, the Azuma kagami, there is an
entry concerning a number of Koreans who arrived by boat in
the year 1224. Their possessions were presented to the Court;
amongst which there was a silver tablet, measuring seven cun
by three cun; there were four characters inscribed on them,
but none of the scholars could read them. They copied the
characters, but in the course of time they became deformed
and miswritten, and although they were recognised as most
likely being in Jurchen as early as 1898 (by Shiratori
Kurakichi in his article "Kittan Joshin Seika moji ko" [A
study of the Khitan, Jurchen and Xixia scripts]), it was not
possible for modern scholars to decipher them. Naito Torajiro
thought he could see a character similar to the Chinese
simplied form of the character wan 'ten thousand'; Inaba
Iwakichi also discussed these characters in "Azuma kagami
Jojikiji no shin kenkyu"
[New research on the Jurchen
characters in the Azuma kagami]
(1932). In 1952 Murayama
Shichiro published "Azuma kagami ni mieru Joshingo ni tsuite"
[On the Jurchen language in the Azuma kagami], in which he
deciphers the inscription as reading "jur~i gurun ni tumun

sen,
"may the Jurchen state live ten thousand years".
However, because the characters in present editions of the
Azuma kagami are deformed, such attempts to identify them are
unreliable.
In 1976, at excavations carried out on a site
inhabited from the second half of the twelfth to the
beginning
of
the thirteenth centuries at the present
settlement of ~aigin in the Soviet Union, a silver paizi
(travel pass) was excavated, with an inscription in Jurchen.
It measured 22.2 cm by 6.5 cm. This find was reported in the
Arxeologi~eskie
Otkrytija
1976
goda
[Archeological
Discoveries
of
1976]
(1977), under the title Rabota
~aiginskogo Otrjada [Work of the ~aigin section], which also
gives
a
photograph
of the travel pass. The Jurchen
inscription was studied by Liu Fengzhu, "Nuzhenzi 'Guocheng'
pai kaoshi"
[A study of the 'National Trust' travel pass in
the Jurchen script]
(1980), who reads the characters as
*guo-lun-ni ha-da-un (Liu uses Chinese characters, not a
romanised form), or, as the characters would be reconstructed
according to G.N. Kiyose, *gurun-ni kadagun, meaning "trust
of the country", that is to say, that the bearer enjoys the
trust, or the confidence, of the country. Liu Fengzhu notes
that these travel passes had been mentioned in Song sources;
by Yuan times, they were quite common. A similar type of
paizi with an inscription in Khitan has also been discovered
(cf. He Xige, "Cong Jindai de jin yin pai tantao Nuzhen da,
xiao zi" [A discussion on the Jurchen large and small scripts
on the basis of gold and silver travel passes of the Jin
Dynasty] (1980.

75

74

undiscovered) difference
"large" characters.

between

the

Jurchen

"small" and

(3). Manuscript material.


In recent years, two important discoveries of
manuscripts with Jurchen cursive writing on them have been
made, one set amongst the holdings in the Xixia script in the
Institute of Oriental Studies in Leningrad, the other in the
base of a stele in the "Forest of Stelae" (Beilin) in Xi'an.

fli
~~'

, '

Ill. 21. The paizi (travel pass) discovered at ~aigin. USSR


As
mentioned
above
in
connection with the
characters in the Fangshi mopu, the arrangement of the
characters on this paizi is interesting, as they are similar
to the way Khitan characters are composed. Liu Fengzhu
wonders if this arrangement of the characters was the (yet

Ill. 22. One of the sheets with Jurchen cursive script


discovered in the Xixia holdings in Leningrad.

76

77

The discovery in Leningrad was made in 1968 by E.I.


He discovered two sheets in a non-Chinese, non-Xixia
script,
15.3 cm by 16.5 cm and 14.2 cm by 16.5 cm
respectively. They are written vertically, and there is a
text in Chinese on the other side of the paper. On one of the
fragments there is a date in Chinese: the sixteenth day of
the seventh month of the seventh year of the dading period,
that is, 1217. This discovery was announced in an article by
D. Kara [- Gy. Kara) , E.I. Ky~anov and V.S. Starikov,
"Pervaja naxodka czurczen'skix rukopisnyx tekstov na bumage"
[The first discovery of Jurchen cursive writing on paper)
(1969). Although it has proven impossible to decipher these
sheets, the authors have been able to identify 34 out of the
113 characters in the text as being Jurchen.

There are many examples of Jurchen handwritten


characters preserved on the walls of the Bai Ta Pagoda (also
known as the Wanbu Huayanjing Pagoda) in Huhehot, Inner
Mongolia. They seem to be the comments, notes and autographs
of various Jurchen travellers. The script is very cursive and
almost illegible, and not many of the characters can be
deciphered; they are, however, demonstrably Jurchen. Examples
can be found in the frontispiece to Jin and Jin, Nuzhen yuyan
wenzi yan11u [Research on the Jurchen Language and Script).
There are also several references in Chinese sources (Liu
Fengzhu, "Qidan, Nuzhen wenzi jianjie" [A brief introduction
to the Khitan and Jurchen scripts) (1980), Jin Qicong,
NUzhenwen cidian [Jurchen Dictionary), Appendix, p. 16) to
handwritten
materials discovered in the Ke-you-zhong-qi
(Khorchin West Central Banner) Du-er-ji Commune and the
Ke-you-qian-qi (Khorchin West Forward Banner), Wu-lan-mao-du
Commune in Jilin; research is said to be in progress, but as
far as I have been able to discover, no articles on these
materials have been published yet.

Ky~anov.

The material discovered in Xi'an, the Nuzhen zishu,


has been discussed above.

~.

1)

"

-1:

t1

f.~

,~

~j>

)~
~

~,

~
~~

{J f

~.

%.

t
%
~

t
~

~.
~

~
<

.~

There have been five seals (and one seal character)


with Jurchen script discovered so far; there have also been
three bronze mirrors discovered with a few Jurchen characters
written
on
them.
These,
together with a couple of
miscellaneous items, are listed below.

~
r

'-

(4). Jurchen seals and mirrors with inscriptions in Jurchen.

'r~

~~

~
~

*
,/

*
!
~

II

~
~

%~
~.

II
Ill. 23. Another example of Jurchen cursive script
discovered in Leningrad.

(1) The Kechenshan mouke seal: this was discovered


in 1916, in Helong county, Jilin. It has six Chinese
characters (Ke-chen-shan mou-ke yin), meaning "the seal of
the mou-ke of Kechenshan". (A mouke was an official in charge
of one hundred households; ~ L. Gilbert, Dictionnaire
historigue et geographigue de la Mandchourie, p. 649). On the
back of the seal is written in Chinese "manufactured by the
Board of Rites (Li bu) in the tenth month of the eighteenth
year of the dading period" (1178). On the side there are
thirteen Jurchen characters, part of which seems to be a
transcription of the Chinese. The only mention of this seal
seems to be in Toriyama Ki'ichi, Mansen bunka shikan [The
Cultural History of Manchuria and Korea), pp. 166-168 note 6,
who records the Jurchen characters. This information was
repeated in Amma Yaichiro, Joshimbun kinsekishi k5 [A Study
of Inscriptions in the Jurchen script), who says that this
seal was discovered by a farmer, but is now lost. Japanese
Sources say it was discovered in Kando, Korea; recent Chinese
catalogues say it was discovered in Helong county, Jilin, now
part of the Korean Nationality Autonomous Region.

79

78

(2) The Yigaidagehe mouke seal: it is not known


where or when this seal was discovered; it is reproduced in
Luo Fucheng, Nuzhi yiyu [The Chinese-Jurchen Vocabulary of
the Bureau of Translators). On one side of the seal there are
eight Chinese characters: Yi-gai-da-ge he mou-ke yin [Seal of
the mouke of Yigaidage River); on the back there is a date in
Chinese:
"manufactured by the Board of Rites in the eighth
month of the dading period" (1179). The inscription is also
reproduced in Amma Yaichiro, op. cit. p. 76. It is also
reproduced
in
Luo
Fuyi,
Yin zhang gaishu [A general
introduction to the study of seals) (1963), p. 103, and in
Luo Fuyi, Nuzhenwen yin )1 [A collection of seals in the
Jurchen script) (unpublished manuscript dated 1965; mentioned
in Jin and Jin QQ. cit. p. 49).

(3) The Hetouhulunhe mouke seal: this is now in the


Tianjin Museum. It was also made by the Board of Rites in
1179. On the seal there are nine Chinese characters and six
Jurchen characters. It is said to be recorded in the
unpublished manuscript by Luo Fuyi mentioned above.
(4) The Hezhouhaiman mouke seal: this is also in the
Tianjin Museum, with the same inscription indicating that it
was manufactured in 1179 by the Board of Rites. There are
eight Jurchen characters on it; these are also said to be
recorded in Luo Fuyi, QQ. cit.
(5) The Jiahunshan mouke seal: this is held in the
National Palace Musuem, Beijing. Also issued in 1179 by the
Board of Rites. One one side are the Chinese characters
Jia-hun-shan
mou-ke yin [Seal of the mouke of Jiahun
Mountain) and seven characters in Jurchen. Also said to be
recorded in Luo Fuyi, QQ. cit.

C\\\~t"\\\,
~ ~~fA-~
~~~~
14

, " 11,-

"--.

*B r-q-

[Ji;

Ill. 24.

jf~

Sl-r
a ,~
-0;-

~
I~

\-,

-;t\
-t-

I~

-fu

~ +
)-

.t
fp

{.Ii

f1
It

It
13
~

J!:.
18

J'-

The Yigaidage river mouke seal.


Ill. 25. The seal of the mouke of Jiahun mountain.

81

80

(6) The Xianping-fu mouke guan ZaO-]1ng [Mirror of the mouke


of Xianping district]. This is a bronze mirror. On one side
it has six Chinese characters and another symbol, which is
believed to be the Jurchen seal-character of the official. It
is reproduced in Jin and Jin QQ. cit. p. 39.

(9)
In
an
article "Heilongjiang pan Suibin
Zhongxing gu cheng he Jindai mu-qun" [The ancient city near
Zhongxing Commune, Suibin County, on the banks of the
Heilongjiang River, and a group of graves from the Jin
Dynasty"
(1977), by the Cultural Relics and Archeological
Work Team of Heilongjiang Province, there is a reproduction
of a bronze seal. There is no mention of this seal in the
article, but Jin and Jin QQ. cit. p. 40 have included it as
being an example of a Jurchen "seal character". It is
basically the same as the seal character on the mirror (No.
6) above.

Ill. 27. A Jurchen seal character.

(10) On the title page of Jin Qicong's Nuzhenwen


cidian [Jurchen Dictionary] there is a handwritten seal
character (hua-ya), which Jin said was written by a Jurchen.
He does not give a source for it.

Ill. 26. The characters on the Xianping-fu mouke mirror.

(7) The Kewei meng'an tong-jing [Mirror of the


meng'an of Kewei].
(A meng'an was an official in charge of
one thousand households). The only reference to this seems to
be in Jin and Jin, QQ. cit. pp. 39-40. There is a line of
Jurchen characters along the side, only four of which are
still legible; they seem to mean "the meng'an of Kewei".
(8) The Shou-dai wen tong-jing [Engraved bronze
mirror with ribbon attached]. This was discovered in Mishan
county, Heilongjiang,
in 1974, and is now held by the
Heilongjiang Cultural Relics Archeological Work Team. On the
side of the mirror there are nine Jurchen and four Chinese
characters; the Chinese shows that the mirror had come from
Changchun. The characters seem to have been added afterwards,
not at the time of the making of the mirror; this is also the
case with (7) above.

Ill. 28. A Jurchen cursive seal character (hua ya)

83

82

(5)

Other inscriptions previously thought to be in

Jurchen.
There
are
several inscriptions identified in
various sources as being in Jurchen, which are now known to
be in Xixia, Khitan, or at least of doubtful provenance. The
first of these was the Xixia inscription on the Wall of the
Juyongguan, one of the passes in the Great Wall not far from
Beijing. A. Wylie,
"On an ancient Buddhist inscription at
Keu-yung Kwan in North China" (1860) thought that a script
unknown to him in this multilingual inscription was Jurchen;
he was corrected by G. Deveria, "L'ecriture du Royaume de
Si-hia ou Tangout"
(1901). Another example of mistaken
identity was that of the Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue
langjun xing ji inscription, which has been discussed above.
The characters on two bronze mirrors held in Korea,
which are identified in the Chosen kinseki soran [General
Inventory of Inscriptions in Korea] as being Jurchen, have
now been identified as being Khitan (cf. K. Wittfogel and
C.S. F~ng, QQ. cit. p. 245 and Tamura and Kobayashi, Keiryo
pp. 267-268). The bronze seal, reproduced in Imanishi Shunju,
"Joshinji doin"
[A bronze seal in the Jurchen script] and
included in Amma Yaichiro's corpus of Jurchen inscriptions,
is regarded by Yan Wanzhang "Jinxi Xigushan chutu Qidanwen
muzhi yanjiu"
[Research on the epitaph in Khitan script
excavated at Xigushan, Jinxi](1957) as being an example of
the Khitan small script, and by Toyoda Goro, "Kittan reiji
ko: Joshin mOJ~ no genryu" [The Khitan large script - the
origin of the Jurchen script] (1963) and "An analysis of the
Major Ch'i-tan characters" (1964) as being an example of the
Khitan large script. Yan Wan zhang also refers to a seal held
in the Dongbei bowuguan (Northeastern China Museum), the
inscription on which was previously thought to be in Jurchen,
but which is similar to those on the mirror published by
Imanishi Shunju. For other seals in this script, cf. Li
Yuchun,
"Liangke Qidanwen tongyin"
[Two new official seals
with Khitan script] (1959) and Li Yiyou, "Nei-Menggu chutu
gudai guanyin de xin ziliao" [New material on official seals
from ancient times excavated in Inner Mongolia] (1961).
Similarly, Luo Fuyi, Yin zhang gaishu [A general introduction
to the study of seals)
(1963) reproduces a seal which he
gives as an example of the Jurchen seal script; later he
gives an almost identical seal which he says is an example of
the Khitan seal script; it would seem that both are Khitan.

~ J:- ei' ~~ t
ii) rt 1; .:p' !.

'if!

:t

* *
~ ~

~ *

~~

J1

~ ..

.;r

?:
~

-Fl-

1:~I"

-ft

.t
,..::.,.. ~"

1l.. 'l- ~
~

j!

p~
>'; ,

-t..a

!' 4-l

Jft,

fp
fp
j:

:f
'0
11,

A.

y'u ~

-g

A seal in Khitan script;


the two characters on
the left appear to be
identical to those on
the seal thought to be
in the Jurchen script

An example of a seal
thought to be in
Jurchen script, but
more likely an example
of Khitan script

Ill. 29. A Khitan seal (previously thought to be in Jurchen)

84

85
Of far greater interest is an inscription presented
in an article by Y. Rin~en, "M~langes arch~ologiques: les
inscriptions sur pierre et les plaques d'or ornamentees du
Harnais de Tonyoucouc" ,
(1958-59) in which he gives a
photograph of an inscription and the following note: "Dans le
territoire du Moner sumun, Kentei ayimay, sur la roche
Bitigtu
qanan
en montagne Salbar ayula,
il y a une
inscription hieroglyphique inconnue. Elle contient quatre
lignes verticales du texte, dont la derniere est la date:
jour du cinquieme mois de la dixieme annee du regne de ... Les
caracteres "jour",
"cinquieme".
"mois" et "dixieme" sont
similaires aux caracteres chinois. L'hieroglyphe significant
"an" est similaire au meme caractere de l'ecriture Jurcen.
Les deux caracteres au commencement de la derniere ligne
donnent la devise du regne d'un empereur Jur~en ou kitan. Sur
le roche Bieigtu qanan au cote droit de cette inscription il
y a quelques emblemes vieux-turcs et trois caracteres en
ecriture inconnue. M. Batuvcir, le mandghouriste excellent et
membre du Comite des Sciences, supposa que l'inscription eut
et~
ecrite en caracteres kitan. 11 est interessant de
mentionner qu'a l'Est, non tres loin de cet endroit, il y a
les ruines de deux villes des Kitans".

Ill. 30. The inscription on B'~'


t
~ ~g u qanan, at Kentei ayimay.

87

86

In a later article, "Les dessigns pictographiques


et les inscriptions sur les rochers et sur les steles en
Mongolie"
(1968),
he
reproduced
the script of that
inscription,
with
the
note
"The
rock with Jurchid
inscriptions at Bichigtu Khanan in Muren Sumun, Khentei
Aimak". It seems, however, that it is more likely that this
is another example of the Khitan "large script". If we
examine the date, it is striking that the first two
characters ~ ~~ are very similar to the first two characters
of the Xigushan inscription; these are written ~~ by Yan
Wan zhang and ~~ by Toyoda Goro, and corresponds to Chinese
da'an. The character after this is the Chinese for 'ten', and
also occurs in this form in the Xugushan and the Gu taishi
mingshi bei inscription. The character following this also
occurs in that form in both inscriptions, and has been shown
to
correspond to Chinese nian 'year'. The last three
characters are the same as Chinese, and are also found in the
Khitan inscriptions mentioned above. Seeing the da'an reign
period of the Jin Dynasty lasted only five years, this must
correspond to the da'an reign period of the Liao (1085-1094).
The date on this inscription can then be determined as the
fifth month of the tenth year of the da'an period (1094), and
the
script
provisionally
script".

(if
the
classified

inscription is genuine) can be


as an example of the Khitan "large

(6). Dictionaries.
There is only one dictionary of Jurchen characters
available, the Nuzhenwen cidian of Jin Qicong (1984). This is
a major work, an essential tool for further research in
Jurchen. Jin has collected over 700 Jurchen characters, from
all the inscriptions mentioned above as well as the Hua-Yi
~ and
the laiwen (petitions). Under each entry he gives
the number of the character in Grube's Die Sprache und
Schrift der Jucen and Kiyose's A Study of the Jurchen
Language and Script; the inscriptions in which the character
occurs, including variants; the origin of the character,
together with its source (if it is a Khitan character); the
reconstruction
of
the pronunciation of the character,
according to the Chinese transcription in the Hua-Yi yiyu;
the reconstruction in Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong, NUzhen
yuyan wenzi yanjiu [Research on the Jurchen Language and

Script]; the reconstruction in Yamaji Hiroaki's various


works; Kiyose's reconstruction; Grube's reconstruction and
the reconstructions proposed in various articles by L.
Ligeti. This is followed by the meaning or meanings of the
character, then by a complete listing of where the character
occurs in inscriptions (with sources clearly indicated), and
in which compound words or expressions it occurs in the
Hua-Yi yiyu, all with romanised reconstructions according to
the
system
proposed
in Jin and Jin, QQ. cit., and
translations
in
Chinese.
The characters are arranged
according to a type of stroke direction and number of strokes
system,
common
in
dictionaries of Chinese simplified
characters, but adapted to Jurchen. There is an index of the
romanised forms; an appendix listing various grammatical
suffixes and a bibliography.
In
this
bibliography,
Jin
mentions another
dictionary, by Sun Jinji, entitled Nuzhenwen zidian, which
was published by the Academy of Social Sciences of Liaoning
in 1980 in mimeograph form. The etymological study of Jurchen
characters by Yamaji Hiroaki, Joshin mOl~ se~l~ kenkyu
[Research on the Structure of Jurchen Characters], (1958,
reprinted 1980) could also be considered a dictionary of
sorts. L. Ligeti finished his article "Note preliminaire sur
le dechiffrement des "petits caracteres" joutchen" (1950) on
a hopeful note: "J'envisage de publier, entre autres, un
vocabulaire des 'petits caracteres' joutchen actuellement
connues, accompagnes de leurs vraies le~ons, ainsi que tous
les mots ou ces caracteres sont attestes". In 1986, Professor
Ligeti wrote "Recemment, grace a 1 'encouragement de M.
Herbert Franke, j'ai repris mon ancien travail, je l'ai mis
au point et je compte le publier sous peu". (Private
communication). Professor Ligeti died in 1987, but it is to
be hoped that his work on Jurchen may yet be published. It
should also be mentioned that Professor Nishida Tatsuo has
announced a study of the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu in his series of
studies on those vocabularies, of which the Tibetan and
BUrmese studies have already appeared. This work has found
its way into some bibliographies, but as far as I am aware,
has not yet been formally published.

(7). The study of the Jurchen language in Korea.

The study of Jurchen in Korea is the subject of an


article by Ogura Shimpei, "Chosen ni okeru Kittan oyobi
Joshin gogaku" [The study of the Khitan and Jurchen languages
in Korea", (1917) which was later incorporated in his book
Chosen gogaku shi [A history of Korean linguistics] (1964).

88

Hiu Lie, in his book Die Mandschu-Sprachkunde in Korea (1972)


draws
heavily on this material, and adds some useful
explanatory notes.
The first mention of the Jurchen language and
script in Korean records is in the Kory~-sa, which records
that in the year 1225 a deserter from the Eastern Jurchens
arrived in Korea, and as he knew both Chinese and the "small
characters", he was sent to the capital to teach there. In
1276
a
State Interpreters and Translators Bureau was
established, mainly for the study of Chinese. There seems to
be some confusion as to whether Jurchen was taught in this
institution or not. Hiu Lie, op.cit. p.17 says: "In der
Ko-ry~
Zeit gab es im Jahre 1276 staatliche Ubersetzung- und
Dolmetscherburos T'ong-mun-guan,
in denen Fremdsprachen wie
die chinesische Sprache, die Sprache der Kitan, der Sprache
der Jur~en, die mongolische Sprache und die japanische
Sprache unterrichtet wurden ... Aber in Wirklichkeit scheint
hauptsachlich
die chinesische Sprache in T'ong-mu~-guan
unterrichtet worden zu sein". He gives as a reference Ogura,
QQ. cit. p. 664, who says: " ... sore wa moppara Kango nomi 0
gakushu shita mono rashiku, Joshingo sono ta no gengo ni
kanshite wa sukoshi mo genkyu shite inai" [it seems that
Chinese only was studied there, there does not seem to be the
slightest mention of Jurchen or other languages]. Hiu Lie
also gives a reference to Yi Py~ng-do, Kuksa taegwan [An
outline of National History] (1957) p. 309, but here Yi gives
only a passing reference to such organisations as the
T'ong-mun-gwan and the Sa-y~k-w~n, in which the languages of
the countries around Korea, such as Chinese, Khitan, Jurchen,
Mongol
and
Japanese were studied. The Sa-y~k-w~n was
established in 1393, initially only for the study of Chinese,
but records in the Ky~ng-guk-tae-chon indicate that four
languages were studied there. Various items in another
historical record, the Yi-cho shil-Iok show that during the
reign of King Se-chong (1419-1450), Jurchen was studied as a
regular foreign language in the Sa-y~k-w~n.
According to the T'ong-mun-guan-chi, there were
fourteen textbooks in use for teaching Jurchen, of which nine
were lost and the remaining five translated into Manchu in
1639; the versions in the Jurchen script have all been lost.
The titles of the textbooks used were (1) Qian zi wen; (2)
Bing shu;
(3) Xiao er lun; (4) San sui er; (5) Zi-shi-wei;
(6) Ba sui er; (7) Juhua; (8) Qi sui er; (9) Chounan; (10)
Shi er zhu guo; (11) Guichou; (12) Wuzi; (13) Sunzi and (14)
Taigong shang shu. These are all well-known Chinese books,
except for (7) Juhua (or Quhua),
(9) Chounan and (11)
Guichou. Ogura suggests that Juhua/Quhua is from Manchu gekhu
'bird' and that Chounan is from Manchu gunan 'a three year
old ox'. M. Courant, Bibliographie coreenne Vol. I p. 84
suggests
for
Guichou "titre probablement transcrit du

89

mantchou gudju 'corde, etai' ou kutchu 'ami, camarade' (1)".


In his article "Deux tablettes de T'ai-tsong des
Ts'ing", L. Ligeti has the following remarks on the study of
Jurchen in Korea:
"Bien plus, avec la chute des Kin, la
litterature jou-tchen a simplement cesse d'exister et, sous
les Ming,
les Chinois eurent beau faire revivre les petits
caracteres jou-tchen, une nouvelle litterature jou-tchen,
pour modeste qu'elle fut, n'arriva pas a se former. En Coree,
it en fut tout autrement. Dans ce pays on avait en 1469,
reorganise Ie Bureau des Traducteurs pour y enseigner les
langues chinoise, mongole, japonaise et jou-tchen; ... Or, en
Coree, on enseignait Ie jou-tchen au moins depuis Ie XVe
siecle, en m~me temps, on avait traduit certains ouvrages
chinois
en jou-tchen. Avec l'evenement de la dynastie
mandchoue et avec l'introduction de la langue mandchoue
ecrite, on n'a pas mis de cote les anciennes traductions
jou-tchen, mais en 1es corrigeant, on les a transformees en
bons
textes
mandchous.
Malheureusement aucune de ces
anciennes traductions jou-tchen ne nous est parvenue ... "
Lee Ki-moon,
"Mongolian loan-words in Middle Korean"
notes that there are many personal and place names of Jurchen
origin in the Yong-bi-~-ch'~n-ga, on which he was planning an
article.

91

90

CHAPTER SEVEN

THE HUA-YI YIYU

(1) The Bureau of Translators vocabulary


(2) The Bureau of Interpreters vocabulary

(1) The Bureau of Translators Vocabulary

The Jurchen language was studied in China during


the Ming Dynasty, both in the Bureau of Translators (Si yi
guan) and the Bureau of Interpreters (Hui tong guan). These
institutions have been studied by F. Hirth, "The Chinese
Oriental College" (1887); by G. Deveria, "Histoire du College
des Interpretes a Pekin" (1896); by E. Denison Ross, "New
Light on the History of the Chinese Oriental College" (1910)
(cf. the revue by P. Pe11iot (1909, by Haneda Toru, "Si Yi
Guan Zen [On the Si yi guan] (1928) (cf. the revue by
Pelliot, "Bibliographie: "Sseu-yi-kouan tso" (1929); again by
P. Pelliot in Appendix III of his work on "Le tl6Ja et Ie
Sayyid ?ussein de l'Histoire des Ming" (1929), by Kanda
Kiichir6, "Min no Shiyakkan ni tsuite" [On the Bureau of
Translators of the Ming] (1932), and by N. Wild, "Materials
for the Study of the Ssu I Kuan (Bureau of Translators)"
(1945). The Bureau of Translators was concerned with the
written languages, and the Bureau of Interpreters with the
spoken languages. Several manuscripts of the Jurchen texts
used in both institutions are extant.

~,

~~
.Jk t'l

-~

1-'

~-

-----

)!-

ti
-\3

~J1l2-

:!"

L;
-f10 i~ ~
,

:t ~ -1(iJ
/'-

'f

-ff-~ ~ ~ 11 'ti
!ft-'l
..:h :?ii
',,- it
,<!",

-lJ

j~

,-

Ill. 31. A page from the "glossary" (za zi)


from the Hua-Yi yiyu of the Bureau of Translators

93

92

The vocabularies of the Bureau of Translators were


the first to be brought to the attention of European scholars
by J.M. Amiot in 1789. A set acquired by J. Edkins and now in
the British Museum (according to R.K. Douglas, Supplementary
Catalogue of Chinese Books in the British Museum (1904)) did
not contain a Jurchen section. In 1887, F. Hirth announced
the discovery of a complete set of the vocabularies of the
Bureau of Translators, which was acquired by the Konigliche
Bibliothek in Berlin. The Jurchen vocabulary and documents in
this manuscript (which was in Jurchen script, with a Chinese
transcription of the script and a Chinese translation) were
studied by W. Grube, Die Sprache und Schrift der Ju~en
(1896) .
Although some progress had been made by some
scholars, serious study of the language and script was not
possible until the discovery of this bilingual glossary and
its publication by Grube. Grube's edition is divided into
four parts:
(1) the Jurchen-Chinese vocabulary, copied by
Grube from the manuscript. This is divided into three
columns: the word or expression in Jurchen script, the
pronunciation of these characters in Chinese transcription
and the meaning. Each item is numbered, from 1 to 871; (2) an
index to the characters in the Jurchen script, arranged
according to the number of strokes in the character; (3) an
alphabetical index of the Jurchen characters, according to
Grube's
"reconstruction"
(which
is
no
more than a
transcription of the Ming Dynasty Chinese according to a
non-identified
non-standard
late
Qing
dialect in an
idiosyncratic
romanisation)
and
(4)
a Jurchen-German
glossary,
in which each word is transliterated, translated
(according to the Chinese version) and, in as many cases as
possible, the Manchu equivalent given. Where appropriate,
reference is made to the Jurchen vocabulary appended to the
History of the Jin Dynasty, as listed in the preface to A.
Wylie, Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e-mung, a Chinese
Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language
(1855). Sometimes
Mongol or Chinese equivalents are suggested. As an appendix,
Grube added twenty laiwen ("petitions"), with transcriptions,
translations
and notes. These "petitions" were usually
addressed to the Emperor, asking for a rise in salary,
promotion and so on. They are of unknown provenance and
little linguistic value,
as they are purely word for word
translations of the Chinese, with no regard for Jurchen word
order or grammar. Cf. W. Grube, op. cit. " Die dem Glossar
beigefugten Ju~en-Texte beweisen, wie ich bereits in meiner
"Note preliminaire" hervorhob, dass ihr Verfasser der Sprache
vollig fremd gegenuberstand und sich darauf beschrankt hat,
die ihm vorliegenden zwanzig chinesischen Texte mit Hulfe des
Glossars
Wort
fur
Wort
und
unter Beibehaltung der
chinesischen Wortstellung zu ubersetzen ... Auch werden die
Worte in Texte ohne Beruchsichtigung ihrer grammatischen
Function, stets nur in derjenigen Form verwendet, in welcher
sie zufa11ig im Glossar citirt sind. Es kann daher dreist

behauptet werden, dass ein des Chinesischen unkundiger Ju~en


jene Texte uberhaupt nicht verstanden hatte. N. Wild, in his
"Materials for the Study of the ssa I Kuan (Bureau of
Translators)"
(1945) has similar comments. On the nature of
these documents, P. Pe11iot,
in his "Le H6Ja et Ie Sayyid
~ussein de l'Histoire des Ming" (1929), comm~nts ... ceci ne
veut
pas dire d'ailleurs que les textes en ecritures
etrangeres soient des documents originaux; on a vu plus haut
qu'ils etaient Ie plus souvant refaits mecaniquement d'apres
les vocabu1aires par les gens ignorant en realite les regles
essentielles des langues dont il etaient censes s'occuper.
Ces pseudo-versions peuvent avoir ete preparees au moment
meme
pour ~tre presentees a l'Empereur; il est moins
probable, mais non exclu, que, dans certains cas, nous ayons
affaire a des exercises d'ecole de dates indeterminees.

1-

t.., .,

~J....

x.. it-

J.

'/V

it

i}.

Jtkkt

A.-

1.:. " .:{ f::. IL


fs
1.:.
!~ A it. f-~

f- y.. t'J f- t b
~, t 1j- It 1:.. !,
.f. t t.- d. {;-

it
.

L0

,t.
..

t :J...' F..... 'I'-..


If

~F...fttf--l
kft.Jl...~t
;;~I>j
.)
1.JS2. it'J;

?'j.Lt-if.i...

1- f,-

It

k!o k

1;

I).
~

1i

'J -K:

+- la

,t k. 'J..
~ if.

it-;-

!ff

~<

A::-- ~. k
I .1

-K..i1.

-!' k

t
;L

if

l!t

{j

l,dr ii .V~
~~~~"-"
i_
~ ."
.f

I-~Ai'f
~

fg 1. {/j

H~

JJ-.
f ;;;- . JJI
1 'f/J 1;
III lA l!) i

-*r

J'u,rL
0 1~

k-H1
{} U tJ
f; J1.
f~ ~

f t

Jt.

.b:

'*~

If:

,'n
t

7~ l~

.Ift t 1:

It,e.-

:t

<b

Ill. 32. One of the "petitions (laiwen) from the


Bureau of Translators (copied by Luo Fucheng)

95

94

The
publication of Grube's book prompted two
articles suggesting further Manchu or Mongol cognates of
words which Grube had left unidentified: a review by W. Bang
(1896), who suggested five, and an article by E.R. von Zach,
"Einige weitere Nachtrage zum Ju~en-Deutschen Glossar Prof.
Grube's"
(1897), who suggested some forty other possible
cognates.
Apart from the "Berlin manuscript" from which Grube
worked, there were three other manuscript copies of the
Bureau of Translators Jurchen vocabulary extant: (1) the TOYo
bunko manuscript,
(2) the Naikaku bunko manuscript (which
contains only petitions and no glossary); and (3) the
manuscript in the personal collection of Ke Shaomin (which
closely resembles the TOYo bunko manuscript). In 1933, Luo
Fucheng published a handwritten copy of the Hua-Yi yiyu with
a much larger collection of petitions than those presented by
Grube, culled from the other manuscripts, and in 1940 Ishida
Mikinosuke
published
"Gurube-bon Ka-I yakugo ho-i"
[A
supplement to Grube's Hua-Yi yiyu] , in which he was able to
add forty-six more vocabulary items to Grube's glossary,
which had been preserved in the manuscripts in Japan but were
missing from the Berlin text. Nevertheless, Grube's work
remained until very recently the principal source of our
knowledge of Jurchen, and was widely used in attempts to
decipher various inscriptions in Jurchen, as well as in
comparative studies between Jurchen and Manchu or other
Tungus languages. After its publication, as L. Ligeti has
noted,
"les recherches sur l'ecriture et la langue joutchen
ont connu une longue periode d'eclipse ce qu'on ne saurait
regretter assez", a statement which is generally true of
Jurchen studies in the West, but not in China, Japan or
Korea. It was not until the publication of G.N. Kiyose's "A
Study of the Jurchen Language and Script - Reconstruction and
Decipherment"
(1977) that a full scale revision of Grube's
work was possible. Consulting the various other manuscripts
mentioned above, and taking into account the many revisions
and additions to Grube's work, Kiyose has produced the
definitive edition of the Bureau of Translators vocabulary.
Most importantly, he has reconstructed the Jurchen words in
the vocabulary, not only on the basis of the Chinese
transcription, as Grube had done, but has attempted to
provide credible readings for the Jurchen characters in terms
of Jurchen phonology, at least as far as their probable
readings in the Ming Dynasty were. Kiyose has not attempted
the task of reconstructing the original readings of the
characters, those in use during the Jin Dynasty when the
script was created, but his Ming Dynasty reconstructions will
form an essential basis for this important task. Kiyose's
work also includes an annotated edition of all the laiwen
available, collected from all the manuscripts mentioned
above, as well as important bibliographies and indices.

Another important recent work on the Bureau of


Translators Jurchen vocabulary and the laiwen is by He Xige,
"Nuzhenguan za-zi, laiwen yanjiu" [Research on the vocabulary
and the petitions of the Jurchen Bureau of Translators]
(1983). He Xige's study differs from Kiyose's in several
ways: he compares the various editions of the vocabulary in
great detail, and notes discrepancies; he lists and studies
every word in the vocabulary individually, given the Jurchen
script form, the transcription in Chinese, a romanised form
of the Chinese characters (representing Ming pronunciation),
the Manchu equivalent (when available) (which Kiyose does not
provide), various philological notes and supplementary notes,
which refer to variants in the form of the character as
recorded
in
various
inscriptions,
or
other Chinese
transcriptions of the Jurchen word in question in various
Chinese historical works. In his study of the laiwen, too, He
Xige has annotated them thoroughly, pointing out errors in
word order, miswritten characters and grammatical mistakes
(which abound), and gives interlinear transcriptions and
Chinese translations of the texts. Kiyose gives the Jurchen
and Chinese texts and an interlinear transcription and
translation , and translates the texts into English, but does
not provide the grammatical and philological commentary. He
Xige does not study the pronunciation of the individual
Jurchen characters; that task has been left to his colleague
Dao Erji, in his "Nlizhen yuyin chutan" [Preliminary study of
the phonology of Jurchen]
(1983). This is a study of each
individual character; the reconstructions of Grube, Kiyose
and Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong are noted and compared, and
suggested readings given for each Jurchen character. Again,
however, Dao Erji confines himself to the readings of these
characters in Ming Dynasty Jurchen. These two studies (both
originally theses written under the superv~s~on of Jin
Qicong) have been published in book form, under the title
Nuzhen yiyu yanjiu [Research on the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu]
(1983).
The studies on the Bureau of Translators' Hua-Yi
by Kiyose, Dao Erji and He Xige may be said to be the
culmination of studies on this text, and will form the basis
for any further study. Professor Nishida Tatsuo has announced
a study on the Jurchen section of the Hua-Yi yiyu in his
series of studies on this set of vocabularies, of which the
Tibetan (Xifan), Burmese, Toso and Lolo (Yi) vocabularies
have already appeared. As far as I know the study on Jurchen
has not yet been formally published.

96

97

(2) The Bureau of Interpreters' vocabulary


The vocabularies of the Bureau of Interpreters
(the Hui tong guan) were first brought to the attention of
European scholars by E. Denison Ross, in his article "New
Light on the History of the Chinese Oriental College, and a
16th Century Vocabulary of the Luchuan Language" (1910),
though Denison Ross thought that the vocabularies he had
discovered in the Morrison Collection of the University
College, London, were from the Bureau of Translators. He was
corrected by H. Maspero, in his article "Etudes sur la
phonetique historique de la langue annamite" (1912). This
collection does not contain a Jurchen vocabulary. In 1912 L.
Aurousseau
announced that he had acquired a complete set of
these vocabularies, including one in Jurchen. This set came
from the collection of Yang Shoujing, who had obtained it,
handcopied by a Japanese, in Japan. When P. Pelliot saw it
before 1929, it still contained a Jurchen version (cf. Le
ijo]a ... p. 284 n. 367). According to Fukushima Kunimichi,
Nihon
yakugo [The Japanese Hua-Yi yiyu]
(1968), these
manuscripts are still in Hanoi, but lack the Jurchen and
Korean sections.
There are several other sets of these vocabularies,
some of which, such as the ShOkokan text (destroyed in Japan
during World War II) and the text in the personal collection
of Inaba Iwakichi, also do not contain a Jurchen vocabulary.
There are two other sets, however, which do contain such
vocabularies:
(1)
The Awanokuni bunko text: this was
destroyed by fire in 1950, but photographs of it are
preserved
in
the
Department of Linguistics at Kyoto
University and (2) the Seikado bunko text. In several
catalogues of materials in Jurchen, two other manuscripts are
said to exist:
(1) that in the Seisai shojaku ko (1823) by
Kondo Morishige, and (2) that in the Ikoku shomoku gaishu
(1820) by Matsuzawa Rosen. Both these books, however, are
annotated catalogues and comment on books, but do not
reproduce them. According to Fukushima Kunimichi, 2. cit. p.
228, the manuscript referred to in the Seisai shojaku k6
refers to the Seikado bunko copy, and that in the Ikoku
shomoku gaishu refers to the Awanokuni bunko copy. Ishida
Mikinosuke,
"Joshingo kenkyu no shin shiryo" [New material
for research on the Jurchen language] (1931), also refers to
a copy held in the private library of Inaba Iwakichi, which
he thought also contained a Jurchen section. However, in a
note to a later article "Iwayuru heishubon Ka-I yakugo no
Dattankan yakugo" [On the so-called C-type Hua-Yi yiyu of the
Mongol section of the Bureau of Interpreters] (1973) he
corrected this.
The Seikado text was published by Ishida Mikinosuke in
the article mentioned above, "Joshingo kenkyu no shin shiry6"

[New material for research on the Jurchen language]; Ishida


prefaced the text with a long study listed all available
inscriptions in Jurchen and other Hua-Yi yiyu manuscripts
(with
and
without
Jurchen
sections),
with
long
bibliographical references. The publication of this article
prompted a study by Watanabe KuntarO,
"Joshingo no shin
kenkyu" ,
[New Research on the Jurchen Language] (1935), in
which he identified a large number of words in this text with
their Manchu equivalents.
In 1929, Yamamoto Mamoru discovered a Jurchen manuscript
in the Awanokuni bunko, but did not publish it until 1944
under the auspices of the Jianguo University in the Japanese
supported state of Manchukuo. This was apparently pUb:ish:d
in mimeograph form and must be very rare, as no ment10n 1S
made of it in most bibliographical articles on Jurchen. It is
mentioned, however, in the bibliography of Jin Qicong's
NUzhenwen cidian [Jurchen Dictionary]. In 1943, Yamamoto
Mamoru published an article "Seikado-bon Joshin yakugo koi"
[A study of varients in the Seikado copy of th: Jurchen
Hua-Yi yiyu] , in which he compared the two manuscr1pts, and
was able to add several items to the list published by
Ishida. Much later, in 1951, he also published a study
comparing
the
Bureau
of Interpreters' vocabulary, as
preserved in the Seikado and Awanokuni copies, and Grube's
edition of the Bureau of Translators' vocabulary. ("Joshin
yakugo no kenkyu" [Research on the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu]). In
this study, however, he only compares those items held in
common by both vocabularies. An important article which
compares the two sets of vocabularies is by Yi Ki-mun (Lee
Ki-moon),
"Chung-se Y~chin-~ Umunron y~ngu" [A Study of the
Phonology of Middle Jurchen]
(1958). In this he compares
Jurchen words common to both vocabularies with a large number
of cognates in the other Tungus languages, mainly culled from
J.
Benzing,
Die
tungusischen Sprachen: Versuch einer
vergleichenden Grammatik (1956). The author also points out a
few cognates of words in Grube's Die Sprache und Schrift der
Ju~en which do not appear in Manchu, but which are extant in
related Tungus languages. This article unfortunately teems
with misprints, which diminishes its value considerably.
In 1973, Ishida republished his article on this
manuscript in his collected works, Toa bunkashi soko [Studies
on the Cultural History of East Asia]. In this he corrected
many misprints and misreadings of characters in the first
version, mainly based on Yamamoto's published comparative
studies on the Seikado and Awanokuni manuscripts, as well as,
of course, consulting the original manuscripts available to
him. In 1940, L. Ligeti visited Tokyo and received a copy of
the Awanokuni manuscript from Ishida. On his return to
Europe, he prepared a transcription and translation of this
text, to add to his study of the Bureau of Translators'

99

98

vocabulary (as published by Grube) which he had already


prepared. World War II and other tasks made it impossible for
him to continue that work at the time, but he began work on
it again during the 1970s and 1980s. Professor Ligeti passed
away before his work on this manuscript could be published,
but it may yet see the light of day in his posthumous
publications.

CHAPTER

EIGHT

THE LANGUAGE OF THE SINO-JURCHEN


VOCABULARY OF THE BUREAU OF INTERPRETERS

The first version of this study, prepared as a PhD


thesis in 1974, was based on the edition in Ishida's
Collected Works. In 1975, Professor Nishida Tatsuo kindly
sent me a photocopy of the photographs of the Awanokuni
manuscript mentioned above. The order of entries in Ishida's
edition differs considerably from that in the Awanokuni
manuscript,
and
is
presumably
based on the Seikado
manuscript. It has also been possible to make several
corrections to the printed version published by Ishida, but,
needless to say, that edition has been invaluable in trying
to decipher some of the characters and transcriptions, some
of which are very unclear. The edition presented here follows
the order of the Awanokuni manuscript, which has been
reproduced in the appendix.

1. General Remarks
2. Transcription
3. Phonology
4. Grammar
5. Table of transcription
characters
6. Conclusion

1. General remarks

I
I

The language of this vocabulary is very close to


Manchu, and to the variety of Jurchen recorded in the
vocabulary of the Bureau of Translators studied by Grube. It
could be regarded both as a late form of Jurchen or as a form
of early Manchu - in either case it is a record of a stage of
the language which is very valuable for the study of the
history of Manchu, representing a form of Manchu dating long
before that language was first written in Mongol script in
1599 or in the reformed Manchu script (with added diacritics)
in 1632. It has not been possible to date this manuscript
accurately. The traditional attribution of the Hui ~ong guan
vocabularies to Mao Ruicheng, who is said to have composed
them circa 1601, is no longer generally accepted. On this
problem Pelliot wrote: "Mais il est certain que plusieurs, et
peut-etre
tous [of the vocabularies of the Bureau of
Interpreters] sont plus anciens que la date que l'attribution
Mao Jouei-tcheng (circa 1601) aurait permis de supposer ...
toutefois Ie type des transcriptions chinoises ne permit
guere de songer a une date anterieur a environ 1500". (Le
tl0ja ... p. 284). On the vocabularies of the Bureau of
Translators, he wrote:
"Provisoirement, je conclus que les
vocabulaires du Sseu-yi-kouan des Ming, sauf Ie Siamois qui

101

100
est de la fin du XVIeme siecle, ont ete compiles entre 1450
et 1500, et imprimes au plus tard dans la premiere moitie du
XVIeme siecle" (ibid. p. 278).
Chinese
transcriptions
of
words
from other
languages
are
often
not
accurate,
and
a
correct
reconstruction of the original form of a word in Chinese
transcription must rest on a good knowledge of the language
represented. In the case of Jurchen, we must use earlier and
later forms of what is essentially the same language to
reconstruct
the
form
of
the
word
underlying
the
transcription. It is not permissable, however, to distort the
evidence of the transcription in order to make a word look
more like its Manchu cognate. The phonology of Jurchen is
similar to that of Manchu, the chief differences being that
the palatalisation of ti- > ci- and di- > ii- had not yet
taken place; the Manchu si- is represented as ~i- in Jurchen;
there is frequent contraction in Jurchen forms; the vowels in
words which are obviously identical often do not correspond
in the two languages; final -g is far less frequent in
Jurchen than in Manchu, and many medial consonants, following
or preceding another consonant, are dropped - or rather, are
not represented in the transcription. In this study I have
used the device of indicating such consonants by enclosing
them
in
square
brackets:
(transcription)
wu-i;
(reconstruction) *u[kl~i, cf. Manchu uksin 'armour'. Of
course, the consonants indicated in square brackets were not
necessarily pronounced. When the transcription was capable of
indicating a consonant or consonant combination but did not,
it is very difficult to decide whether the transcription is
faulty or or it accurately reflects the pronunciation of that
word in spoken Jurchen of the time, compared with the written
Manchu of a later period. I have tried to be consistent, but
have
probably erred on the side of closeness to the
transcription rather than closeness to the Manchu form.
The grammar of the language of the vocabulary is
extremely
simple, and presumably does not reflect the
grammatical
structure of the language accurately. Case
endings are omitted more often than not (the accusative
suffix,
in
Manchu be, which often occurs in Grube's
vocabulary, does not appear at all in the vocabulary under
discussion). Many features of the syntax are closer to
Chinese
than
Manchu.
The scholars of the Bureau of
Interpreters, like those of the Bureau of Translators, were
not well known for their competence in the languages they
studied, or for their care in transcription. After all, these
vocabularies had a limited aim: to be able to communicate, on
a basic level, with "barbarians" on the rare occasions when
this was absolutely inevitable, as when they brought tribute
to the Court. Many of the expressions in the vocabulary
express
this
use and sentiment. It is debatable how

accurately the langua~e recorded in this vocabulary reflects


the actual language of the Jurchens. However, it is our main
evidence, and must be respected as such.
2. Transcription

The transcription of the Jurchen words in this


vocabulary reflects a variety of late Ming Northern Chinese,
and in this can be compared to the language of the Dengyun
tujing (DYTJ), a rhyme book of the early seventeenth century.
The language represented in this rhyme book was studied by Lu
Zhiwei ("Ji Xu Xiao chongding Sima Wen Gong Dengyun tujing"
[On the Dengyun tujing of Sima Wen, revised by Xu Xiao])
(1947), and, on the basis of Lu's reconstructions, Nishida
Tatsuo determined the transcription values for the characters
employed in the Tibetan and Burmese vocabularies of the
Bureau of Translators ("Minmatsu kango no onin taikei" [The
phonological structure of the Chinese Language at the end of
the Ming Dynasty] (1970. G.N. Kiyose also used Nishida's
readings of the transcription characters in his A Study of
the Jurchen Language and Script (1977). The transcription of
Jurchen in this vocabulary, however, seems to be older than
the Dengyun tujing, and in many important features seems to
be closer to the Zhongyuan yinyun (ZYYY) , a rhyme book of the
early fourteenth century. In this study, the reconstruction
of the ZYYY is based on that given by Dong Tonghe in his
Hanyu yinyunxue [Chinese Historical Phonology] (1970), which
is used as the basis of the edition of the ZYYY by Xu Shiying
and Liu Dezhi, Yin zhu zhongyuan yinyun [The ZYYY with
phonological annotations] (1969).
The
main
transcription are:

characteristics

of

the

Chinese

(1) In the ZYYY, the characters ~ ,fit ' )jl , Itt~


are reconstructed [xon, xon, ton, don], i.e. for the purposes
of our transcription, hon, hon, ton, don. In the DYTJ they
are reconstructed with the final -uan, as in Modern Mandarin.
In the Jurchen vocabulary, however, the first readings are
preferable:

j<~ ~ ~

hon-do-mo

*holdo mo 'pine tree'

~ ~t~

lIJ,

]ue-r-hon

*]'uerhon

'twelve'

ton-do

*tondo

'loyal'

lMa~

don-di

*dondi-

'to hear'

(2) In the DYTJ, the characters jl and R~ are not


distinguished in pronunciation, both being sang. In the ZYYY

102

103

Jt

palatalised. The characters


ii ~ ElfL ~
pronounced ki, gi, hi, hia, gia and not gi, .i.!, xi, xia,
as in Modern Mandarin.

they are distinguished, by Dong Tonghe as ~ and ~; by


T6d6 Akiyasu ("Development of Mandarin from l4c. to 19c.") as
sang and ~, but by Nishida Tatsuo as sang and ligg. In
the language of the Sino-Jurchen vocabulary, the distinction
is observed:

lleng-gi

*senggi

lling-ge-li *llingeri

(7)
In Modern Mandarin -0 occurs only after
bilabials;
in front of velars it is in complementary
distribution with -~ and in front of dentals and retroflexes
with -uo.
In the transcription syllables with end in -uo in
Modern Mandarin are used to transcribe Jurchen syllables in
-0:
do

'blood'
'rat'

This also applies to characters which now end in


-an, but at an earlier stage (as late as Nicolas Trigault's
Xi Ru Er Mu Zi (1626 had the ending -in, e.g. ~:* in
do-~in-nu, J. *dosinu 'go inl".

{f-

~
.--'l).

10

(3) In the DYTJ, characters such as JfL ~ ~


have the final -ung, but Lu Zhiwei and Nishida argue that the
development after labials -ung > Wang > ang had already
occured by that time. In the case of this vocabulary, it
seems that such characters still were pronounced with a final
-ung:

1t-.:~
I",,'

~::t.

fu-fung
ung-pu

~~..J

fi

;f..

A IZ.
TL 1. . . .
C1
''''

hau-li

*heuli

'stomach'

~71

nau-u

*neu'u

'younger
sister'

t:7

dau

*deu

'younger
brother'

.:J...

IJ

(6) The Chinese dialect used in the transcription


of Jurchen differs from Modern Mandarin (as do the DYTJ and
the
ZYY)
in that velars preceding had not yet been

-0

ti-ko

to

-e

after velars had

*tiko

'cock'

(9) At the time of the ZYYY, the characters ~ , ) l


,were pronounced lli ~i Ii. By the time of the DYTJ,
the -i had already retracted to -i. In the transcriptions the
value found in the ZYYY is still valid:

(5)
Characters such as
~
which in
Modern Mandarin end in -ou, are reconstructed by Lu Zhiwei as
ending in -au. This value corresponds to the Chinese of this
vocabulary:

1~

ho

p,

'hill-haw'

;1':1 /HI
(4) Characters used to transcribe Jurchen syllables
in -~, such as q~ de, ~ he,
ge,
ke,
me, ~ Ie,
(and ~ gue, ~ hue) are reconstructed by Lu Zhiwei with
the main vowel -
In this regard the language of the
Jurchen vocabulary is closer to the DYTJ than to the ZYY, in
which such syllables are reconstructed with final diphthongs.

t.

10 (ro)

(8) The change from


apparently not taken place:

'saw'

*fufun
*umpu

are
jia

han-~i

*hanci

'near'

u-H

*u[k]iH

' armour'

*jiha

'unit of
money'

ak-a ri-ha

(10) The character


~
, now read rong, in the
transcription had the value yun(g). According to Wang Li
(Hanyu shigao [Outline History of the Chinese Language]
p. 129,
the change from [j-] to [~-l in words such as
these is a very late one."

7G

u-yun(g)

'nine'

(11) Characters in Modern Mandarin which begin with


.!:- ( [~] ) from nz- are used occasionally. Presumably they
transcribe

z-

*mu~ile

fu-H

'heart'
'to shave'

105

104
suggested reconstructed
standard written Manchu.

17Q.~

:t~

M. e-ze

It is convenient to discuss the phonemes of Jurchen


according to the following groups:

*eze
'head of
household'

Position of articulation:

(1)

velar

(2)

dental

(3)

labial

(p)

(ng)

(z)

(')

Manner of articulation:

(12) The character


~
occurs occasionally. It
seems to have had the value niu. The change -iu > -Q
appears not to have occurred until the beginning of the
seventeenth century.
~F

system is compared to

'to bow'

hu-zu

In Manchu these words are mujilen, fusi-, huju- and


ejen. J. mu~ile and eze appear in Grube's vocabulary as
mehfmail-zih-lan (-poh) = *mezilan and oh-zan *ezan. Kiyose
reconstructs *me]ilen and *e]en, Jin Qicong reconstructs
*med3ilan and *ed3en. On these words K. Menges, "Die Sprache
der ~ur~en", p. 250 says "in beiden Fallen durfte es sich urn
altes ~ (i.e. [d3]) handeln, das vorhanden war, ehe im Man3u
und Nanaj die sekundare Palatalisation eingetreten ist".

(13) The characters

phonological

(4)

nasals

(5)

sibilants s

(6)

affricates(ts)

(7)

liquids

(z)
J'"

(dz)

are apparently

and

read fi:
Vowels, semivowels and diphthongs:

~F ~j fi-la

*frR

(14)
glottal stop.

There

is

no

fi-sa

'plate'

*fila

semi vowels

(9)

vowels

(10)

diphthong

au

'back'

*fisa

trace of a final

(8)

-~,

nor of any

(00)

The phonemes in brackets are uncommon, but must be


provisionally
set
up
to
account
for
some of the
transcriptions.

3. Phonology

(1)
From a study of the transcription of each word,
after comparing it to cognate words in the Vocabulary of the
Bureau of Translators, Manchu and Sibe,
it is generally
possible to suggest a reconstruction of the original form of
each word, with varying degrees of accuracy and probability.
The reconsructions suggested in many cases seem to be fairly
reliable, but those in other cases, especially where there do
not seem to be any cognates in Manchu, or where the text is
corrupt
or
incorrect,
are
possibly
not. A general
phonological system runs through the text, however, and from
this it is possible to reconstruct the phonological system of
the variety of Jurchen in this text. In this section, the

Initially
to M.

and intervocalically, J.

{~{

(')

corresponds

{~{:

kubu
duka
buraki

Velars {k{, {g{, {hI,

kubun
duka
buraki

'cotton'
'door'
'dust'

In syllable-final position, when it occurs before


t
d s S ~ it is not shown in the transcription, and must be
provided on the basis of comparison with Manchu:

106

107

akta morin
fokto
sukdun
dekdeokdosikse
uksin
faksi
maksifekce-

a[klta muri
fu[klto
su[kldun
de[kldeo[kldo!H[klse
u[kl Si
fa[klH
ma[kl!HfU[klcuIn
others J.

l'!sl

some words, J.
corresponds to M.

sugu
ergu
halagu
tirgu
aligu
serkun
boloko

Igl corresponds
Ig/:

suku
eriku
halaku
cirku
alikil
serguwen
bolgo

'gelding'
'shirt'
'breath'
'rise'
'meet'
'yesterday'
'armour'
'artisan'
'dance'
' jump'
to M.

l'!sl;

but:

gasan
gecegida
gasin
aga
tugi

in

'skin'
'broom'
'trousers'
'pillow'
'dish'
'cool'
'clean'

but: harhi
In some words,
of the Manchu form:

Ihl

'mustard'

sargan
~

'wife'
'leopard'

This contrasts with other words, in which both the


and
the
Igl or Ihl are clearly shown in the
transcription:
Sirg~

turha
derhi
farhun
tirgu
merhe
narhun
derhue

sirga
turga
derhi
farhun
cirku
merhe
narhfin
derhuwe

'roebuck'
'thin'
'mat'
'dark'
'pillow'
'bamboo comb'
'fine'
'fly'

In the word u[llgia 'pig' , the III has to be


inferred;
this
contrasts
with
a
word like *talkia
'lightning' ,
in
which
the
is denoted in the
-lktranscription by -rk- .

'sell'

has to be provided on the basis

'foot'

lEI

'eggplant'

hargi

bethe

fulgiyan 'red'
(cf. G. fuh-lah-kiang)
ila (il[hla?)
ilha
'flower'
(cf. G. yih-leh-lah)
horo (hor[h]o?
horho
'pigpen'
halan (hal[hlan?)
halhan
'plough'
hudara
(hudar[gla?)
kfidargan
'crupper'
(cf.G.huh-tih-lah)

J. Ihl appears initially and intervocalically, and


corresponds, generally, to M. Ih/:
'ice'

betie(bet[hlie?)

fulian (ful[glian?)

'village'
'freeze'
'spear'
'thirty'
'rain'
'cloud'

hasi
juhe
hudasa-

'writing'

sara (sar[gla?)
yara (yar[hla?)

It does not appear in syllable final position,


except
perhaps
as an allophone of l'!sl before voiced
consonants.

ha!H
]uhe
hudaia-

bithe

1&1 and Ihl occur in Manchu after lEI and III in


many words, the Jurchen form of which seems to have dropped
the Igl or Ihl - at least in so far as the transcription is
concerned: in such words the Igl or Ihl can be supplied in
square brackets; it is quite possible, however, in the spoken
Jurchen of the time, that they were not pronounced.

J. 1&1 occurs initially and intervocalically, where


it corresponds to M. 1&1:
galla
getigida
guSi
agu
tugi

bit[hle

In quite a few words there is a vowel noted in the


transcription between lEI or III and l'!sl, Igl or Ihl in the
Jurchen form which does not exist in the Manchu form:
guluha

'boot'

108

109

silihi
foroku

'liver'
'spinning wheel'

silhi
forko

necessarily
Examples:

This is presumably an accurate transcription, the


Manchu forms being contracted. In this regard compare also:

Note however:
'broom'
'lazy'

In several words the Igl or Ihl of Manchu is shown


in the transcription as an intervocalic hiatus:
halu'u

halhun

dilu'a
tu1u'u

j ilgan
tulhun
Solho
buhu

5010'0

bu'u

case:

Jurchen

talkia
tanggu
tugi
tondo
tifa
tirgu
tiko
tihe
huti
nietiehuetie
da
de
deli
dehi
dirami
diha
dibehun
fadira
dondi-

amha
'father-in-law'
namuki
namki
'drawer'
umuha
umgan
'marrow'
nomoho
nomhon
'good, kind'
(cf. G. nen[nunJ-muh-huo, Kiyose nonmuho, Jin
non-mu-xo, Mongol nomugan)

eriku
banuhun

the

'hot'
(cL Mongol ga1ayun)
'voice'
'dark'
'Korea'
'deer'
(cL Mongol buV&

also possessed

talkiyan
tanggfi
tugi
tondo
cifa
cirku
coko
cihe
hucin
niyecekuwecihe
da
den
delun
dehi
jiramin
jaha
jibehun
fajiran
donji-

Sometimes J.

III

undehen
hadu-

and

III.

'lightning'
'hundred'
'cloud'
'loyal'
'mud'
'pillow'
'cock'
'louse'
'well'
'patch'
'pigeon'
'root'
'high'
'mane'
'forty'
'thick'
'boat'
'blanket'
'wall'
'hear'

corresponds to M.

ute (u[n]te)
hatu

I~I

I!!I:

'board'
'sickle'

Particularly interesting are the words:


~eu'un

neu'u
(cf. G.
'younger sister')

~un

non
nieh-hun-wen,

*siun < *sigun) 'sun'

Kiyose

niyohun, Jin naxun

In a few words, the Igl preserved in the Manchu


form is missing from the Jurchen form:

.,.

There

ulu

do

2. Dentals

III I!!I

It I and Idl occur initially and intervocalically. A


very import~nt cont~ast with Manchu is the occurance of these
initials before IiI. Jurchen Itil usually corresponds to M.
ci and Jurchen Idil to Manchu ii. The reverse is not

one case of J.

dida-

Idi-I

corresponding to M.

uju gida- 'to


hang'

and one case of J.

Ida-I

danC'u

'road, way'
'blind man'

is

&1:.-:
the

corresponding to M.

jancuhun
3. Labials

let

I'QI, Iif

head

~-

'sweet'

(Q)

I'QI occurs initially, intervocalically and between


other consonants. Initially and intervocalically it generally
corresponds to Manchu 'Q:
bahabanhu
beri

bahabanuhun
bed

'get'
'lazy'
'bow' (n)

111

110

bila{bil[h]a)
bosu
dobi
kubu

bilha
boso
dobi
kubun

upu
apuha
tipa/tiba
sapa/saba

'throat'
'cloth'
'fox'
'cotton'

Before other consonants, however, and sometimes


intervocalically, the b in the Manchu form is represented by
an "intervocalic hiatus" followed by I~I or IQI, or a
diphthong in -au in the Jurchen form:
he'udee'u~i

heuli
sulaufi'u
sau
he'ute

hebdeebci
hefeli
kabeli)
sulabusabu
habta

'discuss'
'rib'
'stomach'

tuyuhe

tubihe

It may be that the


'a-puh-hah[ka]
Kiyose *abka;
*abuha > *auha > *agua.

'let free'
(cf. G. fei-pun
'lamp'
'shoes'
'saddle-flap"; cf. G.
hei-puh-t'eh

'to be full (after


food)
'vegetable'

form *agua for 'sky' (G.


Jin *abxa) can be explained

In
two
words,
-bsu in
transcribed in Jurchen as [-tsu]:
datsu {dabsu?)
dabsun
hitsu {hibsu?)
hibsu

the

Manchu

form

is

'salt'
'honey'

Iii in Jurchen corresponds to f in Manchu:


fa
fahun
fisa
fumo
funH

fa
fehun
fisa
femen
fulcin

'window'
'liver'
'back'
'lips'
'cheek'

11 appears in a few words; if the transcription is


accurate, these might represent a few survivors of the time
before the change from - (which is well documented for Jin
Dynasty Jurchen) took place:
'hill-haw'
'lungs'

'plough'
'leaf'
'mud'
'chopsticks'

upu 'lungs', upu 'plough' and apuha 'leaf' are all


written in transcription with the character ~~. , which
seems to have only one reading, ~; it is also used in the
word umpu 'hill-haw'. Both tipa/tiba 'mud' and sapa/saba
'chopsticks' are written with the characters {I'
, which
is given the readings ba or !.

(cf. Mong.

Note too:
ebi-

ofoho
abdaha
cifa
sabka

4. Nasals

I~/,

I"QI

("Qg)

I~I
occurs initially, intervocalically
syllable-final position before labials:

rna
mafa
meire
meihe
miho
muke
In
Translators,
and Manchu:

muwa
mafa
meiren
meihe
mihan
muke

and

in

'coarse'
'grandfather'
'shoulder'
'snake'
' small pig'
'water'

some words in the Vocabulary of the Bureau of


initial I~I corresponds to "Q- in both Jurchen

niehe
niyehe
'duck'
(cf. G. mieh-heij Kiyose miyehe, Jin mie-xa);
niekuruniyakara~ 'kneel'
(cf. G. mieh-k'u-luj Kiyose miyaku;Jin mie-xa-ly)
I~I
in syllable final position is represented in
the transcription by -"Q or -"Qg:

ang-ba

*amba

amba

'big, great'

The word transcribed yang-di and glossed 'evening'


corresponds to Manchu yamji, and can be reconstructed *yamdij
this is a case of ~ preceding a dental and being transcribed
by -"Qg.
In Manchu, the consonant clusters -mh- and -mkoccur. In Jurchen, such words are shown in the transcription
as ~ and -muk-:
amuha

'father-in-law'

113

112

namuki
nomuho
Presumably
uncontracted ones.

namki
nomhon
the

Jurchen

position
words.

'drawer'
'good, kind'
forms

are

earlier,

I~I
occurs
initially, intervocalically and in
syllable-final position. It is the only consonant that
appears at the end of a word. Compared to Manchu, however,
the occurance of -~ in this position is not so frequent:

neinimuha
honi
indahu
.,
inlenarhun
su[k]dun

na
neinimaha
honin
indahun
injenarhun
sukdun

In
Manchu form
*ima-ngL

undehen
unce
huntahan
onco
nincuhun

'board'
'tail'
'cup'
'wide'
'smelly'

the word *imanggi 'snow', the initial n- of the


nimanggi is missing (Cf. Kiyose *imagi, Jin

Iggl does not appear as a phoneme in Jurchen, but


as an allophone of I~I before velars:
an-ge-mu
hen-ke

*anggemu
*hengke

'saddle'
'melon'

Iggl

is usually (but not consistently) indicated by


the use Chinese transcription syllables in ~ The reverse
is not necessarily the case: Chinese syllables in ~ or -ng
are used to transcribe Jurchen -m, -n or -gg, the allophonic
variety of Inl (in syllable-final po;ition) being determined
by the position of articulation of the consonant following.
The only exception to this seems to be the word yamdi- 'to
become evening' and its derivatives.
There are several Chinese words used in Jurchen.
Those
which
ended in -ng in Chinese were presumably
pronounced that way in Jurchen, but -ng in word final

to

have

occured

only

5. Sibilants 12-.1, 12-.1,

in such non-Jurchen

(~),

(~).

12-.1 occurs initially and intervocalically,


generally corresponds to Manchu 12-.1, except before -i.

serkun
sufa
sugi
vasa

sasaca
serguwen
sufan
sogi
vasa

'to know'
'helmet'
'cool'
'elephant'
'vegetable'
'eye'

Not, however:
hinda-

sinda-

'put'

'earth'
'open'
'fish'
'sheep'
'dog'
'laugh'
'fine'
'breath'

In several words, I~I appears internally in a word


in Manchu, but is not indicated in the transcription for
Jurchen:
ute (u[n]te1}
u~e (u[n]C'e1l
huta (hu[n]ta1}
otso (0[n]ts01}
nisu (ni[n]su1l

seems

sa~a

and

Before -i, according to the transcription, M. 12-.1


pronounced in-Jurchen I!/. This may be a peculiarity of
transcription, of course. K. Menges ("Die Sprache der
~ur~en",
p. 250,) notes "Die Lautgruppe -si- im ~ur~en
durchweg zu -~i- palatalisiert zu sein; das Man~u hat keine
Palatalisation."

was
the

~Hi

sisi
sirin
gasin
usiha
asiha

Hri
guSi
uHha
d[h]a

'hazelnut'
'bronze'
'thirty'
'star'
'small'

I!I also occurs before other vowels:


~an

!Ian
!\ahurun

sahuru
lie
lIomi

~eri
~umin

'ear'
'cold'
'spring' (water)
'deep'

In some cases, Jurchen 12..1 corresponds to Manchu


12-.1; in others Manchu 12..1 corresponds to Jurchen /2../:
!\unj'a

sunja
senggi

~enggi
an(g}~a

san~a

lIa
~Siha

suwan
susiha

When

follows

'five'
'blood'
'wood-fungus'
'egret'
'whip'

consonant, the transcription

115

114

deals with the situation in one of two ways:


(1)

the consonant preceding the -s- is

not indicated:
u[k]1H

uksin
maksi-

rna [kJH-

ecike
necin

'uncle'
'harmony'

armour'

'dance'

(2)
sometimes a transcription character
with an affricate initial is used to represent -ks-, -bs-:

datsu (dabsu?)
hitsu (hibsu?)
satseha (sakseha?)
y
la]a-

Note however:
e!lehe
nu!H

dabsun
hibsu
saksaha
laksa-

'salt'
'honey'
'small bird'
'break'

I~I
(pronounced [dz]) may have occured in the
pronunciation of certain Chinese loanwords, such as *waze
'tile',*lingze 'damask'.
The status of I!I is much more
problematical:
there seems to be no way to account for the
transcription of certain words than to presume the value of
I!I for consonants corresponding to IiI and I~I in Manchu.
This is even more the case when those same words are
transcribed in the Bureau of Translators' vocabulary with

I!/:

hu~u-

huju-

canturamuhle

canjuramuj ilen

fuH-

fusiejen

'bow' ,
cf. Grube huh-zu-lah
'salute'
'heart' cf. Grube

It is hard to determine whether the affricates Itsl


and Idzl which appear in the transcriptions reflect the
pronunciation
of
Jurchen,
or the inadequacies of the
transcription. I~I appears in a few words, e.g. otso M. onco
'wide',
and in words which have,
in Manchu, consonant
combinations such as -bs- and -ks-, which have been discussed
above.
Idzl occurs only in the word hadza, Manchu hasaha
'scissors',
cf.
Grube hah-tsi-hah, Kiyose hajiha, Jin
xa-si-xa.

7. Liquids

III 11.

III occurs initially,


syllable-final position:

intervocalically

lefu
loho
alin

lefu
loho
ali

In
syllable-final
position,
represented by -- in the transcription:

and

in

'bear'
'dagger'
'mountain'
sometimes

it

is

meh[mei]-~ih-lan

a~a

aze

6. Affricates

Generally
correspond to
versa:

III

uci
ice
ca~ari

)iha
lalu
v
U]U
bUlan
jakun

ID, I II

'shave'
'head of the
household' ,
cf.
Grube
oh-~an
'sister in law'
(~),

(dz)

speaking, the Jurchen affricates I~I and


Manchu ~ and i, but not necessarily vice

uce
ice
cacari
j iha
jalu
uju
bujan
jakun

'door'
'new'
'tent'
'unit of money'
'full'
'head'
'forest'
'eight'

herme (helme?)
garma (galma?)
tarmagi (talmagi?)
tarkia (talkia?)
Sometimes -1the Manchu equivalent:
go[l]mi
u[l]gia
gu[l]mahun

has

helmen
galman
talman
talkiyan

'shadow'
'mosquito'
'frost'
'lightning'

to be supplied on the basis of


golmin
ulgiyan
gillmahun

'long'
'pig'
'hare'

Sometimes it is represented by a transcription


syllable ending in -no
In such cases it is difficult to
decide between III and Igl as representing the original form:
fun~i/ful~i

hondo/holdo

fulcin
holdon

'cheek'
'pine tree'

11 occurs intervocalically and in syllable-final


position before velars. It does not occur initially:
'horse'

116

117
ori
beri
llirga
tirgu
narhun

orin
beri
sirga
cirku
narhQn

'twenty'
'bow'
'roebuck'
'pillow'
'fine'

9.

-ri

of

some Manchu words is missing in the

lie

~eri

rule
mede

juleri
mederi

8. Semivowels Iyl,

Both
Iyl
intervocalically:
yafa
yadahun
Vasa
yaha
wah un
--.-vwe1.1U
weihe
baya
beye

and

I~I

'spring' (water)
'in front of'
'sea'

I~I

occur

yafan
yadahun
Vasa
yaha
wahun
weijun
weihe
bayan
beye

initially

and

'garden'
'poor'
'eye'
'poor'
'smelly'
'stork'
'horn'
'rich'
'body'

imiha
fulifucatama
suyan
husigu
funhe

huwe~eku

funiyehe

IiI IQI

I~I

(au)

ara
fa

ara
fa

'chaff'
'window'

J. a I M. a

agu
anggemu
falangga

aga
enggemu
falanggil
fehun

'rain'
'saddle'
'palm' (of
the hand)
'liver'

edun
elu

'wind'
'leek'

M. e

J. elM. e

ehe
Jure
hendu
elenggu
mete-

eihen
juru
hundu
ulenggu
mute-

'ass'
'pair'
'hunchback'
'navel'
'complete'

J. i

ice
indahu
ilan

ice
indahiln
ilan

'new'
'dog'
'three'

ilenggi
getideli
guifi

ilenggu
gecedelun
guifun

'tongue'
'freeze'
'mane'
'finger-ring'

M. i

The Manchu diphthongs -iya-, -iye-, -uwa-, -uweare often contracted in the Jurchen forms:
yacihiyaimiyaha
feliyefucihiyatuwamuwa
suwayan

I~-'

J. a = M. a

J. e

In the transcription, characters ending in -ai, -ei


diphthongs
are generally used before Iyl in the next
syllable: bai-ya, bei-ye, sai-yin and so on.

ya~i

I~I

The vowels in Jurchen words, generally speaking,


correspond to the same vowels in Manchu; there are, however,
many
exceptions
for
every
vowel. Jurchen I~I often
corresponds to Manchu 101, but there is no definite rule.
Long vowels are not indicated in the transcription, except
for
M.
1001, which is occasionally denoted in the
transcriptio~by means of a Chinese syllable ending in -ao; I
have transcribed this as au, and it may well represent an
intermediary stage between *agu > *a'u > *au >~. The
transcription is inconsistent, however: hao-sa
*hau~a
'paper' (Manchu hoo~an) but bo *bo 'house' (M. boo),
mo *mo, (M. moo) 'tree'. There is no distinction made between
Manchu I~I and IQI.

Other combinations of lEI with lSI and Igl have


been dealt with above, in connection with velars.
Final
Jurchen form:

Vowels

J. i I M. i

'sneeze'
'insect'
'walk, go'
'cough'
'look at'
'course'
'yellow'
'flat iron'
'hair'

J.

M.

J.

I M.

v--

fo
moda

orin
orho

'twenty'
'grass'

fe
mudan

'old'
'bend' (of
a river)
'lip (s) ,

118

119

J. u

M. u

J. u

M.

J. U # M. u

ureuia
usiha

ureusin
usiha

'ripe'
'field'
'star'

ahun

ahem

indahu

indahun

'elder
brother'
'dog'

agu
fu[kl1Hnimuha
ullamurisungudiu
fumo
umimuri

aga
feksinimaha
wa~a-

marisonggoj io
femen
omimorin

'rain'
'run'
'fish'
'scratch'
'return'
'weep'
'comel'
lip (s)
'drink'
'horse'

4. Grammar

l'equivalent d'un infinitif et d'autres


present. Or. en fait. cette forme ne situe
Ie proces exprime par Ie verbe ... On peut
en -mbi enonce un proces. en general. sans
precision" .

comme un signe du
pas dans Ie temps
dire que la forme
y apporter aucune

The form in -ra/-re (depending on original vowel


harmony) is usually regarded as the "imperfective aspect" (or
the "imperfective participle") of the verb. and the form in
-ha/-he/-ho as the "perfective aspect" (or the "perfective
participle").
On
these
forms Sinor writes:
"l'aspect
inaccompli du verbe mandjou est forme moyennant Ie suffixe
-ra (-re. -ro). Dans les grammaires europeenes cette forme
est. en general. designee comme celIe du futuro En realite.
la encore. nous sommes en presence d'une adjective qui. a
l'instar de la forme en -ha. determine un concept en lui
attribuant une action. Seulement cette action determinante
est encore en cours au moment de son enonce: taire ihan 'un
boeuf labourant ... yabure niyalma 'un homme "allant". un
voyageur' .
The form in -me is a gerund. used after the first
verb when two actions are performed simulaneously. and the
form in -~i is used to denote the conditional. Some examples:

-bi

rna

[kl Si-bi
efi-bi
inJe-bi
gele-bi
fuca-bi

'to
'to
'to
'to
'to

dance'
play'
laugh'
fear'
cough'

-mbi

beyi-mbi
fu[klcu-mbi
nime-mbi
ara-mbi
tari-mbi

'to
'to
'to
'to
'to

love'
jump'
ache'
to
do.
cultivate'

ui tari-re iha

'a

'flying dust'

Since this vocabulary is composed of individuals


and short phrases. with no connected text.
it does not
contain suitable material for a full study of the grammar of
Jurchen. However. parallels to most of the simple grammatical
features of Manchu can be found.

Verbal endings:

(1)

-bi (-mbi}

(2)

-ral-re

(3)

-hal-hel-ho

de-re buraki

(4)

-me

u[kllli bu-re

(5)

-~i

adu au-re fa[kli

. launderer'

muke goti-ha

'the water has


receded'
'the moon has
become full'

The form in -bi (-mbi from the assimilation of a


base form in -n + -bi) corresponds to the "dictionary form"
of
the
verb. On this form Denis Sinor writes:
"les
dictionnaires et grammaires mandjoues indigenes enregistrent
les verbes sous une form en -mbi. qU'aucuns considerent comme

-ra/-re

bie lalu-ha

fa[kl~i

ploughing

'armourer'

make'

ox'

120

121

tugi nei-he

'the clouds have


dispersed'

sokto-ho

'become drunk
(intoxicated)

golo-ho

'frighteneq'

1!e'un tuhe-he

'the

edu de[k]de-he

'the

~i[k]se

sun

has

agua imangi-resembi 'it's going to snow'; tugi uJe agu-resebi


'the clouds are dense, it's going to rain'. An optative form
in -ki, meaning 'I would like', appears in the expression
nure gaiki 'ask for wine', i.e. 'I would like to ask for
wine' .

set'

The imperative is generally expressed by the base


form of the verb:
'open the eyes I'
vasa nei
'wash the face I'
dere au
'close the eyesl'
vasa nicu

wind has risen'


Several verbs, however, have imperatives in -su:

dobori agu-ha

'last night it
rained'

gaisu
alisu
fulisu

There are also some irregular forms in -ka/-ke, e.g.:


bie

re-ke

'the moon has been


eclipsed'

Some have imperative forms in -nu:

do1'linu

'go upl'
'go down I
'go inl'

j'efu
diu

'eatl' (M. jefu)


'cornel' (M. j io)

u~inu
wa~inu

-me

'want I ,
'waitl'
'walk I ,

muke amba, sere fuli-me baharakua


Note also:
'the water is high, the carts cannot
get through' (lit. going, are not able
to get through)
e[r]gi amu1!i sai muri tede-me diu
'from now on you must bring in good
horses as tribute' (lit. bringing in
(as tribute) come (imp.

agu
'if

akua-~i,

there

ordo
is

do~inu

The negative imperative is formed with the word ume


followed by the verb in the imperfective aspect:
ume nie[l]ma uli duri-re
'do not steal other
people's propertyl'
ume fuca- ra
'do not cough I '
ume u!'l[h]un to-ra
'to not look upwards'
muri ume ehe lafa-ra'when you return you
must not do anything
badl'

no rain, go to the court'


Negation of a declarative sentence is expressed by
using the word akua (M. aku) following the word it negates:

hufurun de, dule-ci manga


agu akua
'the bridge is high, if you want to
cross it, it will be difficult'
There is also a form in -resebi, which is probably
the imperfective participle followed by -sebi, corresponding
to Manchu -sembi. It seems to mean 'it is about to', e.g.

'there is no rain'

After verbs, it follows the imperfect participle,


and is contracted to -kua:
'doesn't want'
gairakua
'doesn't come'
direkua
'doesn't know'
sarakua

123

122

5. TABLE OF CHARACTERS USED

There are very few examples of nominal declensional


suffixes in this vocabulary. There are some in -i, the
genitive form corresponding to Manchu -i:
'local products'
'member of a family'

ba-i uli
bo-i nie[l]ma
There
are
also some
corresponding to Manchu -de:
lu-de fuli-mbi
he~e

wa[r]ge-de

IN THE TRANSCRIPTION

in

-de,

locative

)(

an
an (g)
ao
ba

is interesting to note that there are no


accusative forms, corresponding to Manchu -be. There are
innumerable occasions when this suffix would be used in
Manchu, but in this vocabulary they are simply omitted.
It

bie ~'J
bing I

ai

forms

'to walk along the


road'
'under the city
walls'

r.:-,

*
Mz

bu

1P 4-(~$')

~a

~;jm

ao

tJ

lP

/\(:t/\)

bai

n-

ban

if

be

i~

bo

~e

n:x.

~i :fF~(il-)6

1a

:>/:.

There
are
occasional examples of subordinate
clauses introduced with the particle de ('as, when'):
'he who opposes
Heaven perishes'
agua da-ha de go[l]mi
'he who obeys
Heaven prospers'
bie de[k]de-he de doinu 'when the moon
rises, go to court'

~DJ

C'ie

tJJ

bei

co

bi

/~,

C'u

l~
,

C'un

agua fudasu-he de bude

***

Jurchen

1. Used to transcribe au, e.g. au- 'to wash'. The


form corresponds to the long Manchu vowel 00.

has two readings in


The character 1/~
2.
Mandarin, ba and ~. In the vocabulary it is used
following words:
*sab[k]a? 'chopsticks'
:tt<:J/\ sa-ba
(cf. Manchu sabka, Mongol
Grube sah-pen-hah,
sabunha, Jin sa-bun-xa)
1{;f;-'- ti-ba!ti-pa *tiba!tipa 'mud'
(cf. Manchu cifa)

Modern
in the
sabgaj
Kiyose

3. Used only to transcribe the Chinese expression


bingbu yamen 'Board of War'.
4. The character ;$'
is used in the following
~~}m'~
a-bu-ha!a-pu-ha *abuhaj 'leaf', Manchu
words:
abdaha, Grube a-puh-hah; Kiyose abuha, Jin abuxa.
7LUfJ' u-bu!u-pu *upu? 'lungs' Manchu ufuhu
5.
'army' .

Used

to

transcribe

ill

cau,

as in Jurchen

~auha

6. The character
is only used in the word
*yaC<i7 'be careful', for which there appears to be no Manchu
cognate.

125

124
da

dai

dan (g)

't

de

{~

}L

fan

fan(g) j"5z

fo

1)J

den(g)-"i

fu

fRo
lk 'J; (i,fi) (Cf .4)

fun

fun (g)J!\,

dien

fr'J
1ii]

diu

-t;;

deu
di

do

;.(

ga
gai

J~~

ge

)1

10

01..mt

"krit

gi

du

~ft

gia

110 tp

dui

f1

gian(g)

dun

:r~

gin

~!

en

giu

IGO

eu

r;:z

fa

[]

ha

tr?;-

hai

in

han

;t

}a

hao

tt.r

he

.rw. ,

Jan(g)

hen

i5%.

Je

1:

13

15

;tt

hun(g) ~*

Jen

~lh

Ji

hia

aFi.1

JO

hin

~J

Jan

hi

hian(g)

gin(g}~f
9

hui

gun

~t
)fl ;f"tt

hen(g)

don

dun(g)Jz

11

-+
c:2

dza

~.

gui

HI'

fi

hue

gue

16

M:

hin(g) ~

12

ho

~i;

go

@.X

hon

n~

gu

t.~

hu

11

ke

gua

;ft~ ji.~

7.
This character is used only in transcribing the
Chinese word
~~
which has two pronunciations, dafu and
daifu 'high official'I'doctor'.
It occurs also in the word
da-na-ra/dai-na-ra *da(i)nara'to argue';
for which no

IL:.l

0/

17

t&

18

]un(g)
ka

13. This character only appears in the word


*kungueri muri
(or:
*kungg(u)ori muri)
'buff-coloured
horse';
cf. Manchu konggoro morin. On the basis of
~ =
hue,
and
~
appearing in the same rhyme in the Dengyun
tujing and elsewhere, one would expect the reading gue forrn9.
On comparison with the Manchu form, however, perhaps gQ is
preferable.
14. Cf. the comments for note 11 above.

cognate appears to be in Manchu.


15. Used to transcribe hau, e.g. *hau~a 'paper'

8.
'lightning' .

Used

to

transcribe

dien,

e.g.

a[k]dien

9. Used only to transcribe


0,*
ha-dza,
*hadza 'scissors', cf. Manchu hasaha and Grube hah-tsi-hah.

*hoo~an)

16. Only used to transcribe the Chinese word


xiang 'incense'.
17. Only used to transcribe the Chinese word
*Jung 'bell'.

10. NB fun, not fen.


18. Cf. comments in notes 11 and 14 above.
11.

One

must rely on Manchu to distinguish

~,

and ka.
12. Used only to transcribe the Chinese word
'period of time'.

ha

(M.

l'

127

126

lZi

ki

mei

kia

t5'

men (? ){~~ 20

ko

~!

men(g)1~ 1)

ku

1;

mi

kun(g)tHLJ19
-Ila

t
%'....1

te

-:\:,'

ti

~:t~~r

tiao

JYI:... 28

sen(g) 1~

1* iii. iti-ti')22

lin

;j-;J-

niu

1t:

lun

1~

niu

23

no

JJ~

24

nu

t/.x.

Used

IJI~

se

j,
?t

19.

'~'
t.::e

tan (g) ;~

nio

'x.'

~u

:J'~

lian(g) ~

me

j.l&

sao

rtl

1~

it

sa

tai

nie

man(g)

~~

*-

22

so

nia (? ).:t~ 22

J4

su
suan

'JI

t# ~t.
Ii t
t

in

the

word discussed in note 13

above.
20. Possibly mun? It only occurs in the word
da,
'a type of plant', for which I have not been
able to find a plausible cognate in Manchu.
*lli~irnen

21. Possibly mun(g)? Perhaps men(g) is preferable;


it is used in the word *menggu 'silver', cf. M. menggun. Note
however that Sibe has two forms, me~ and mUBuN.
22. This character is also used to transcribe nia,
nie and ni. It occurs in the word nie-~e *n(i)ece 'level',
cf. M, ne~en. Whether this character is to be interpreted as
nia, nie, ni or ne must to a large degree depend on the
Manchu form. I have tended to use nie when in doubt, as this
most accurately reflects the transcription.
23. Used only in the
'goose', cf. Manchu niongniyaha.
24.

NB:

not na.

word niu-nie-ha *niunieha

tie
to

tflt/!..)

'a..:..

'Ni
t j-f.I1e)29

ton

lIJ

tsai

Ii

llan(g) ,'t;J

tse

>~~

tso

:ti

!Ie

/t

~t

27

1-..

sun(g) ~
,ivy
sa

30

25. Used only in the word suan-ko *suanko(7) 'key' .


There does not seem to be a cognate in Manchu for this word.
26. NB. not

only

26

san(g)

~
1't

nian

rna

-s-

fB
IL!...'

:fR

ta

ni

fJ ~ :iz.~'J

/;j,

tx

A\.
,(:,.>

li

~in

san

neu

len(g)/~

k.,

~un

ne

-r-

lan(g)tt~

lei

sai

mo

l!J

min(g)ip

nei

Ie

#t-1};~

t!

Ian

21

~en.

27. This character has the "reading pronunciation"


to. It is only used in the word for fire, *ta, cf. Manchu
tuwa. However, the word 'to look at' is written with 1~
which could only be interpreted as *to, cf. however Manchu
tuwa-. The word for 'rough' is written with
~
,so *ma,
M. muwa.

28. Used in the word transcribed tiao-lu-neng-gi,


so *tiaoru-nengi 'the day after tomorrow'. Manchu, however,
has a short vowel: coro.
29. Cf the comments in note 27 above.
tailor,

30. Used only


*tsaifung.

to transcribe the Chinese word for

128

129

tsu

11i

tu

-it.

tui

i!

ya

-4 (il)33

yan(g)
31

f 1J

ye

tun (g),Faj @~

yo

.f:7

yu

yun(g)

un

7L
}~);.

32

4<-

:w.

un(g) ~i
33
wa
,*~. h,

ze

tR:.,

wan(g) ;1-

ZU

l\. ito

wei

;t

ze

CONCLUSION

The Dengyun tU11ng is dated 1606. The transcription


used in this vocabulary seems to be considerably earlier than
this. The nature of the Chinese transcription lends weight to
the supposition that this vocabulary dates from the first
half of the sixteenth century.

-f :}l 34

The general phonological structure of the variety


of Chinese used for transcribing this text is fairly clear.
Its inadequacy for transcribing accurately gives rise to a
number
of
uncertainties
in
regard
to
the correct
reconstruction of many words, for example:

31.
Perhaps tei? Used in the word tui-fu *tuifu
'crutch, walking stick',~. M. teifun.

32. NB. not wen, weng.


6 above.

33. Used only in the word *yaci 'careful'. Cf. note

34. Used to transcribe Chinese


*****

-zi.

(1)
The character
~
is used to transcribe words, of
~
.
which the Manchu cognates have n1ya-, niye-, ni- or ne:

nie-ma

*nie[l]ma

cf. M. niyalma 'man'

nie-he

*niehe

cf. M. niyehe 'duck'

nie-Iu

*nieru

cf. M. niru 'arrow'

nie-ce

*niece

cf. M. necin 'level'

(2)
There are syllables available in -an, -ien, -ang or
-iang, but none in -ian. To transcribe Jurchen syllables in
-ian (M. -iyan) it was necessary to use Chinese syllables
ending in -ien or -iang:
a-dien

*a[k]dien

sa-ha-liang *sahalian

cf. M. akjan 'lighting'


cf. M.sahaliyan'black'

(3)
Jurchen words ending in a vowel or -g. To transcribe
syllables in -n, Chinese syllables in -g or -gg were used
more or less indiscriminately. Internally, the -g or -gg was
assimilated to the initial consonant of the next syllable,
becoming -n- before dentals and finally, -m- before labials
and -gg- before velars:
i-Ian(g)

*ilan 'three'

den(g)-de

*dende- 'to divide'

an(g)-ba

*amba

an(g)-ha

*angga 'mouth'

'big, great'

131

130

Note in the case of *dende- there was no syllable den in


Chinese which could have been used.
(4)
ha,

The character
or ka:

o~

sa-ha-lian(g)

ha was used to transcribe Jurchen

*sahalian 'black'

(7)
Long vowels were not noted. Words which have a long 00
in Manchu are transcribed by using Chinese syllables in -ao;
I
have transcribed these as diphthongs rather than long
vowels:

Manchu words
such a way, however:

*duka 'door'
*gala- 'to become clear'
(5)
Chinese syllables such as la, ~,lo were used to
transcribe Jurchen syllables la or ra, Ie or re, 10 or ro
etc:

ge-le-bi

*gele- 'to fear'

mu-li

*muri 'horse'

di-li

*dili 'anger'

de-Ie

*dere 'face'

*hau~a

hao-~a

in

00

bo

*bo 'house'

(M. boo)

mo

*mo 'tree'

(M. moo)

Other
ambiguities
and
various
possible
interpretations
of a particular transcription are more
conveniently discussed in the section on the phonology of
Jurchen, or as part of the main text.
*****

o-r-ho

*orho 'grass'

ta-r-kia

*talkia 'lightning'
*u[l]gia 'pig'

(M. ulgiyan)

Sometimes syllables in -g seem to have been used for


the purpose of transcribing Jurchen -1 at the end of a
syllable:
hon-do-mo
fun-~i

*hondo/holdo mo 'pine tree'


(cf. Manchu holdon)
*funci/ful~i 'cheek'
(cf. Manchu fulci)
*an~u/al~u

'gold'

(6) -s- at the end of a syllable was noted by the character


ta-s-ha

*tasha 'tiger'

su-s-ha

*susha 'leg', cf. M. suksaha


'thigh'

(M. tasha)

note however:

(M. hoosan)

were not always transcribed in

(M. j ili)

Liquids at the end of a syllable were either noted by


transcribing -r- or -1-, or were simply omitted:

'paper'

132

133

[S]

the cognate word in modern spoken


Manchu (Sibe) according to Yamamoto
Kengo, A Classified Dictionary of
Spoken Manchu. Where two forms are
recorded, they are dialectal
varieties; cf. the Introduction
of Yamamoto's book for details.
In the present work, ~ has been
used for the inverted ~ (a) of
the original book.

[N]

notes on the ent-y, including


references to other entries in
which basic information on the
words constituting that entry
may be found

CHAPTER NINE
THE SINO-JURCHEN VOCABULARY
OF THE
BUREAU OF INTERPRETERS

Explanation of symbols
[A]

the text according to the


Awanokuni manuscript

[C]

transcription of the Chinese


entry and translation into
English

[T]

transcription of the Jurchen


entry according to the Chinese
characters

[*]

reconstruction of the Jurchen


word or expression

[G]

the cognate word in the Bureau


of Translators' vocabulary,
according to W. Grube, Die Sprache
und Schrift der Ju~en (and the
number given in Grube's book)

[K]

the cognate word in the Bureau


of Translators' vocabulary,
according to G.N. Kiyose, A Study
of the Jurchen Language and Script
(the numbers in Kiyose are the same
as those of Grube)

[M]

the cognate word in standard


written Manchu, according to E.
Hauer, HandwBrterbuch der
Mandschusprache. J. Norman, ~
Concise Manchu-English Lexicon
has also been consulted

*****

134

135

[A]
[C)

[T]

SECTION ONE - THE SKY

[G)
[K]
[M]

7:::. frO] A:',

[S]

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

tian 'sky, heaven'


a-gua
'a-puh-hah[ka]-i (1)
abkai
abka

[N]

[S]

'af~qaa

[N]

-i in Grube and Kiyose


is a genitive suffix

*agua

5
2

[A]

rifD

z. .~ 1;

[A]
[C)

[T]

[C]
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[S]

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[S]

yun 'cloud'
tu-gi
t'uh-kih (6)
tugi
tugi
tiuxi

rn

[G)
[K]
[M]
[S]
[N]

jJa]"6

yu 'rain'
a-gu
'a-hah[ka]
aga
aga
'ahaa

lei 'thunder'
*a[k]dien
a-dien
'a-tien (7)
akdiyan
akjan
'ah~jaN, 'a'ujaN,
'aMjuN
The transcription *arkldien
could equally be *a[k]dian, as
there was presumably no
phonemic distinction between
-ian and -ien. The Manchu
form akjan obviously derives
from an earlier form *a[k]dian.

B
ri 'sun'
seu-un
!leu-wen (20)
!lun
sun
?Jun, suN
in Grube, ri is transcribed
yih-neng-gi, i.e. *inenggi,
which means 'day'. [G) 20 is
yin, a mistake for ~ .

[A]

*agu
(8)

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[S]
[N]

yue 'moon'
bie-a
*bie'a
pih-'a (4)
biya
biya
biaa
the word for 'moon' is
generally given in this
text as *bie; this word
could also be transcribed
*bia, but this is departing
from the transcription

137

136

[AJ
[CJ
[TJ
[GJ
[KJ
[M]

[5 ]

7L!f::.r%

xing 'star'
u-H-ha
woh- !Hh-hah (12)
o!liha
usiha
'usihaa

11

[AJ
[C)

*uiHha

[T]
[G)

[K]
[M]
[N]

~tt~

[AJ

[CJ
[TJ
[GJ
[KJ
[MJ

shuang 'frost'
se-mang-gi
seh-ma-kih (9)
saimagi
no cognate. cf.
silenggi 'dew'

*semanggi

12

).\

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[MJ
[5 ]
[N]

feng 'wind'
e-du
'oh-tu-wen (5 )
edun
edun
'uduN
the text has r!JJ
not

10

rif;I

.h;:

[C)

qi 'breath'
su-dung
sukdun
suv~duN, suvuduN

AR

*edu

[A]

*!Hlei

1!1

~.

[T]
[M]

13

El7

lu 'dew'
H-Iei
Hh-Ieh-wen (10)
Hleun
no cognate. cf.
silenggi 'dew'
G. 10 has ~ih-Ieh-hoh
[hah] , but hoh is a
mistake for wen

~~

[AJ

Iif=?

[A]

[5]
9

fEtr- ~

Jrt

*su[k]dun

t's'/L

[K]
[M]

yin 'dark'
tu-Iu-u
t'uh-Iu-wen (27)
tulhun
tulhun

[A]

~ ~ t.f . {raJfil "# {t- ,;;f czE--

[C]

he tianli 'in accordance


with the principles of
heaven'
a-gua-i-do-Io-da-ha
*agua-i dora
daha
dora 'way'
1-gen-14-48
cf. 110

[C]

[T]
[G]

*tulu'u

Cf. 26.

r~'~ (;J

[A]

11,.

[C]
[T]
[G]
[KJ
[M]
[5 ]
[N]

bao 'hail'
*bonio
bo-nio
puh-nen[nun] (16)
bonon
bono
boni
The Awanokuni text has
bo-nio-gi (t: ) ; but in
entry (99) bao is translated
as bonio; in the 5eikad6
manuscript (as edited by
Ishida) this entry is given
as bo-nio.

14

[T]
[M]
[N]

139

138

15

20

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5 ]
[N]

qing 'clear'
ha-1a-ha
hah-1eh-hah (28)
[abka] garha
ga1a-

[A]
[C]

*gala-ha

[T]
[M]
[5]

the -ha suffix is the


perfective participle
form.

21

[A]

[C]

22

[K]
[M]
[5]

wu 'fog'
ta-r-ma-gi
t'ah-ma-kih (18)
tamagi
talman

*agua dele

1-158

*talmagi

tal~m~N

[e]

dian 'lightning'

[T]
[G]

ta-r-kia
t'ah-li-kiang (2)
talgiyan
talkiyan
talixiaN

[K]
[M]

*talkia

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

yan 'mist, smoke'


ang-gia
~ang-kiang (13)

23

[e]
[T]

~angiyan

~anggiyan

siau~N

[A]

*sanggia

'smoke, white'
'smoke'

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]
[N]

[e]
[T]
[M]

19

tian shang 'in the sky'


a-gua-de-Ie

[A]

[5]

18

xel~m~N

[A]
[e]
[T]
[G]

17

*helme

Ga1~m~

[T]
[N]

16

ying 'shadow'
he-r-me
helmen

hong 'rainbow'
Jue-Ie-mo
no cognate

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

hun 'dark, dusk'


fa-r-hung
fah-li-kien (609)
farigiyen
farhun
far~huN

1-23

*juelemo
24

[A]

[e]

tian xia 'under heaven'


a-gua-fu-Ji-Ie
*agua fu;ile
fuh-ci-Ieh 'under' (595)
fuJile
fej ile
fejerexi 'below'
fejeresi 'under'

*farhun

[A]
[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

tian bian 'horizon'


a-gua-Je-~i
~e-~'e

(612)

Je~e

jecen
jec~N

1-24

'frontier'

*agua

je~i

140

141
25

[A]

[C]
[T]

28
xue xia tian leng
'it is snowing, the
weather is cold'
i-mang-gi-tu-he-he
a-gua-~a-hu-Iu

[G]
[K]

[M]
[5 ]

[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]

26

[T]

[M]
[5]

[N]
27

[C]

[T]
*imanggi tuhe-he
agua !:ahuru

[M]

[5]
[N]

29
feng si jian 'the wind is
like an arrow'
e-du-nie-lu-ge-se
*edu nieru gese

[T]

gese 'to be like'


gese
9-580-26

[T]

[M]
[5 ]

[N]

tian you wu 'there is fog


in the sky'
a-gua-ta-r-ma-gi-bi
*agua talmagi-bi
talmatalt!!'mne'me'
the -bi shows this is a
verbar-form, corresponding
approximately to the
infinitive 'to be foggy'
l-l6-bi

f~das~huN,

f~da~ihuN,

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

30

this is an example of a
subordinate clause introduced
by the particle de (as, when).
For examples of this
construction in Manchu, cf.
E. Haenisch, Mandschu
Grammatik, p. 65
l-28-de-812

[A]

[C]

[A]

[C]

ni tian zhe wang , he who


opposes heaven perishes'
a-gua-fu-da-su-he-bu-de *agua fudasuhe
de bude
fudasihun 'go against'
fudas~huN

t'uh-woh[wah]-hei (687)
tuwehei
tuhe- 'fall down'
tuxt!!'mt!!', tuxumt!!'
y ih-ma-kih (17)
imagi
nimanggi
nimaI)t!!'

[A]

[C)

[A]

yue ming ru zhou 'the moon is


so bright it looks like
daytime'
bie-ge-tie-i-neng-gi-ge-se
*bie getie
inenggi gese
yih-neng-gi (3)
inengi
inenggi 'day'
in~IJ~

6-71-29-26

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

tian yao xia xue 'it's


going to snow'
a-gua-i-mang-gi-le-se-bi *agua imanggiresebi
the form in -resebi is
probably the imperfective
participle followed by sebi,
corresponding to Manchu
sembi. It seems to mean 'to
be about to ... cf. 47, 67
l-9-resebi

142

143
31

[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

32

35

[A]

[A]
[C)
[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

tian gao 'the sky is high'


a-gua-de
*agua de
den 'high'
deN
1-31

[A]

[C)

[T]
[N]

tian qing , the sky is clear'


a-gua-ha-la-ha
*agua gala-ha
1-15-ha

36

[T]
[N]

[A]

[C)

wu yu jin chao 'if there

[T]

a-gu-a-kua-~i-o-r-do-do-~in-nu

*agua gerke

ger~m~

the form in -ke is an


irregular form of the
perfective participle
1-35

[A]

[C)
33

tian xiao 'day breaks'


a-gua-ge-r-ke
gere- 'to break' of day

tianqi re 'the weather is


hot'
a-gua-ha-1u
*agua halu
in 276 below, 'hot' is
given as *halu'u
1-276

is no rain, go to court'
37

*agu akua-ci
ordo do~inu
[M]
[S]
[N]

34

[A]

[C)

dosi- 'go in, enter'


dioSim~

the form in -nu is imperative,


cf. Manchu dosinu
the form in -ci is conditional.
akua is a negative form (cf.
Manchu aku)
In the Seikado text, there
are two -Q- between the -~i
and the --, but not in the
Awanokuni text, which is
obviously correct.
3-neg-cond-547-33

[T]
[N]

38

tian shang you yun


'there are clouds in
the sky'
a-gua-de-le-tu-gi-bi

*agua dele
tugi-bi

on -bi, cf. the comments


under 27 above
1-21-2-bi

[A]
[C)
[T]
[N]

tian wan 'it's late'


a-gua-yang-di-ha
1-275-ha

*agua yamdi-ha

[A]

[C)
[T]
[N]

39

tian yin 'the sky is dark'


a-gua-tu-lu-lu
*agua tulu'u
1-13

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]

[N]

tian han 'the weather


is dry'
a-gua-hia-li-ha
cf. hiyaribu- 'to
wither up from a
drought'
1-39-ha

*agua hiari-ha

145

144
40

[C]
[T]
[N]

41

[T]
[M]

[N]

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

46

ji tian 'to sacrifice


to heaven'
a-gua-Ju-he
*agua ]uhe
juge- 'to offer sacrifices
to the Big Dipper at night'
1-41

47

[M]

[5]
[N]

2-46-he

lime

[A]

[C]
[N]

tian yao xia yu


'it's going to rain'
a-gua-a-gu-Ie-se-bi
The Awanokuni text has

*agua agu-resebi

*agua sa-ra
in the Chinese entry.
1-3-resebi

sam~

the -ra is a sign of


the imperfective
participle.
1-42

48

[A]

[C]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

cai yun 'multicoloured


clouds'

[T]

ha-~i-tu-gi

hacin 'kind, sort'


hacingga 'kinds of,
various, different'
haciN, haciIJ~
43-2

*ha~i

tugi

[5]
[N]

49

[T]

jing tian 'respect heaven'


a-gua-tu-ki
*agua tuki

[N]

1-777

shun tian zhe chang


'he who obeys heaven
prospers'
a-gua-da-ha-ha-de
go-r-mi
t'ah-hah 'be obedient'
taha
daha 'to follow, to be
obedient'

*agua daha-ha de
golmi

daMm~

1-48-ha-de-149

[A]

[C]
[T]

[A]

[C]

*tugi huedi-he

yun kai 'clouds disperse'


*tugi nei-he
tu-gi-nei-he
nei- 'to open'

[T]

tian zhi 'heaven knows'


a-gua-sa-Ia
sah-hi (353)
sahi
sa-

yun zhe 'clouds cover


[the sky]'
2-124-he

[A]
[C]
[T]

[M]

[5]
[N]

44

[N]

[A]
[C]

[A]

[C]

[A]

[C]
[T]

43

kuang feng da you chen


'when the wind is strong,
[it raises] a lot of dust
ang-ba-e-du-bu-Ia-ki-bi *amba edu
buraki-bi
1153-26-145-bi

[A]

[C]

42

45

[A]

[N]

ri luo 'the sun sets'


eu-un-tu-he-he
5-25-he

*~e'un

tuhe-he

147

146
50

[e)
[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)
[N)

51

[T)
[N)

[T)
[N)

tuti-he

[T]
[N]

tiucim~

5-50-he

ri xie '[the rays of]


the sun [are] slanting
seu-un-mi-Jo
*e'un miJo
cf. Manchu miosoro'to become crooked or
bent, to become askew'
5-55

[A]

[e]

ri duan '[the time of]


the sun is short'
~eu-un-fo-ho-lo

*~e'un

[T)

foholo

[G)

5-150

[K]
[M]
(5)
[N]

ri chang '[the time of]


the sun is long
~eu-un-go-mi

*se'un go[lJmi

5-149

ri zhong 'the sun is


at its highest'
seu-un-i-neng-gi-fo
*se'un inenggi fo
fuh-wan-to 'time' (81)
fondo
fon
foN
the -to (-do) in G. and
K. 81 is a locative
suffix. The word ~
would derive from a Jin
form *QQ1gl, which appears
to be a borrowing from
Khitan.

[A)

[e)
[T)
[N)

yue luo shi jin chao


'attend court when the
moon has set'
bie-tu-he-le-e-ri
0- r-do-do- !Hn-nu
6-25-re-271-547-33

57

*bie tuhe-re eri


ordo dosi-nu

[N]

[A]

[e]

[T]
[N]

tianqi leng 'the weather


is cold'
a-gua-!!a-hu-lu
*agua sahuru
1-277
cf. 25 above

[A)

[e]
[T)

58
54

[A]

[e]
*~e'un

[A)

[e)

53

ri chu 'the sun rises'


!!eu-un-tu-ti-he
t'uh-t'i-mei (25)
tutimei
tuci-

[A)

[e)

52

55

[A)

[A]

[e)
[T]
[N]

59

ri ying 'shadow of the sun'


seu-un-he-r-me
*se'un helme
5-20

ri gao 'the sun is high'


seu-un-de
*se'un de
5-31

[A]

[e)

[T]
[N]

tianqi feng 'it's getting


windy'
*agua edu
a-gua-e-du-de-de-he
de[kJde-he
1-26-113-he

149

148
60

64

[AJ

[e]

xing man tian 'stars


fill the sky'

[T]

u-~i-ha-a-gua-Ja-Iu

[N]

7-1-65

[e)

[TJ
[NJ

*usiha agua ]'alu


65

61

[A]

[e]

62

tu-gi-nei-he-~eu-un

[N]

tu-ti-he
2-46-he-5-S0-he

[GJ
[KJ
[MJ
[5J

*tugi nei-he,
~e'un tuti-he

[NJ

66

[A]

[e]
[T]

ri zhao 'the sun shines'

[N]

there does not seem to


be a cognate for se'ucuin Manchu. It is derived
from se'un.
S-62-ha

~eu-un-~eu-cu-ha

~e'ucu-ha

[T)
[NJ

67
63

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

[TJ
[G)
[K)
[M)

68

yun wu man shan 'clouds


and mists fill the
mountains'
tu-gi-ta-r-ma-gi
a-li-Ja-Iu
2-16-130-65

*tugi talmagi
ali jalu

[AJ

[eJ
yue chu 'the moon has
risen'
bie-tu-ti-he
*bie tuti-he
the past participle form
of tuti- in Manchu ends
in -ke (tucike), as does
the past participle of
tuhe- (tuheke). However,
as the transcription could
have indicated -ke but has
still used -he i~such
words, I have retained
this form in the reconstruction.
6-50-he

yue man 'the moon is full"


bie-ja-la-ha
*bie 5ala-ha
~ah-Iu-hah (726)
Jaluha
jalujaluu
6-65-ha

[AJ

[e)
*se'un

yue luo 'the moon has set'


bie-tu-he-he
*bie tuhe-he
6-25-he

[A)

[eJ
[TJ

yun kai ri chu 'the


clouds disperse and
the sun comes out'

[T]

[AJ

mi yun yu yu 'the clouds


are dense - it's about
to rain'
tu-gi-u-Je-a-gu-Ie-se-bi *tugi ule agu-resebi
wuh-~e 'heavy' (396,699)
uJee
ujen

[5J

'uj~N

[N)

2-67-3-resebi

[AJ

[eJ
[T)
[M)
(5)

[N)

yue yuan 'the moon is


round'
bie-mu-li-e
muheliyen 'round'
mux~liN, muxuliN
6-68

*bie muli'e

150

151

69

73

[A]

[e)
[T]
[M]
[N]

yue que 'the moon is


waning'
bie-e-tse
cf. edele- 'to wane'

[e)
[T]
*bie etse

[M]
[N]

[T]
[N]

yue xie 'the [rays of


the moon are slanting'
bie-mi-Jo
*bie miJo

[T]
[G)

[K]
[M]

[S]

[N]

yue hei 'the moon is dark'


bie-fa-r-hung
*bie farhun

[N]

6-19

[A]
[e)

[A]

[e)

[e)
[T]

6-55
75

yue ming 'the moon is


bright'
bie-ge-tie
*bie getie
cf. ken-kien 'bright'(608)
gengiyen
cf. genggiyen 'bright',
getuken 'clear, distinct'
gi9iN 'light-coloured,
bright-coloured',
get~xuk~N 'distinct'

[T]
[N]

76

lei da-le 'there has been


a thunderclap'
a-dien-du-he
*a[kldien du-he
4-810-he

[A]

[e)

[T]

yue ying 'shadow of the


moon'
bie-he-r-me

[N]

6-20

*bie helme

6-71
77

72

[A]

[A]
[e)

71

lei xiang 'thunder roars'


a-dien-gun-bi
*a[k]dien gu-mbi
guwe- 'to sound, resound'
4-73-mbi

6-69

74
70

[A]

[A]

[A]

[e)

[e]
[T]

[M]

lian ri you yu 'there


is rain day after day'
i-neng-gi-nao(?)-a-gu-bi
*inenggi nao agu-bi
no cognate for *nao.
H. Franke suggests that

[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

r~~ nao might be a mistake

forf}~ lan, and *inenggilan


a previously unrecorded
form parallel with written
Manchu biyalame 'months long,
for months on end'.

78

yue shi 'eclipse of the


moon'
bie-Je-ke
*bie Je-ke
biya jebiaa jem~
cf. 1017 ~- 'to eat'.
The -ke is an irregular
past participle form, cf.
Manchu jeke

[A]

[e)
[T]

[N]

zuo ye xia yu
'last night it rained'
si-se-do-bo-li-a-gu-ha
*~i[k)se dobori
agu-ha
280-273-3-ha

153

152
79

[e)

[T]
[N]

80

yue zhao 'the moon is


shining'
bie-eu-cu-ha
6-62-ha

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

eu~u-ha

[N]

[T]

[G)
[K]
[M]
[N]

86
you yu mian chao 'if
there is rain, it is
not necessary to go
to court

3-~i-547-33-kua

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

do~indakua

87

(neg.)

[N]

[e)
[T]
[N]

yu buzhu 'the rain won't


stop'
a-gu-ung-de-kua
*agu unde-kua
3-93

88

[N]

[A]

[e)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[N]

xing duo 'there are


many stars'
u-i-ha-ang-ba-la
'an-pan-lah (668, 724)
amban
amba
7-83

89

xing luo 'stars have fallen'


u-si-ha-tu-he-he
*usiha tuhe-he
7-25-he

[A]

[e)
[T]
83

feng xi 'the wind has ceased'


e-du-na-ha-ha
*edu naka-ha
naka- to cease, give up
naqeme
26-86-ha

[A]

[e)
[T]

[A]

xing shao 'stars are few'


u-si-ha-o-so
*usiha oso
woh[wah]suh-wan (669)
oson
osohon
7-85

[A]

[e)

*agu-ci ordo

a-gu-~i-o-r-do

do-in-da-kua
[N]

[T]

*bie odi-ha

xing xi 'stars are rare'


u-i-ha-se-li
*usiha seri
seri 'rare'
7-84

[A]
[e)

[A]
[e)

82

*bie

[T]
[M]

85
yue jin 'the moon has
waned'
bie-o-di-ha
waji- 'to finish'
vajeme, vajime
6-80-ha

[A]

[e)

[A]

[e)

81

84

[A]

da feng 'big wind'


ang-ba-e-du
1153-26

*amba edu

lei pi 'thunderclap'
a-dien-du-bi
4-810-bi cf. 75

*a[k)dien du-bi

[A]

*uHha ambala

[e)
[T]
[N]

155

154
90

[AJ

[CJ
[TJ
[NJ

91

96
da yu 'big rain'
ang-ba-a-gu
1153-3

*amba agu

[NJ

[C)

wu yu 'there is no rain'

[T]

a-gu-a-gua
cf. akfr 'to be nonexistent'; neg. suffix
cf. 'aqu
3-96

[M]

[5]
[NJ

[AJ

[CJ
[TJ

[A]

chun feng 'spring wind'


nie-nie-li-e-du
265-26

*nienieri edu

97

[AJ

[CJ
92

[T]
[N]

[A]

[C)
[T]
[MJ

feng chui 'the wind blows'


e-du-fu-Ieng-bi
*edu fule-mbi
fulgiye- 'to blow'

[5J

filixim~

98
93

[AJ

[CJ
[TJ
[NJ

hao feng 'good wind'


sai-in-e-du
this word could also
be transcribed savin
or sai'in
694-26

*sain edu

[A]

[C)
[T]
yu zhu 'the rain stops'
a-gu-ung-ku
cf. 82 undekua

*agu akua

[N]

hao yu 'good rain'


sai-in-a-gu
694-3

*sain agu

bao xia 'it's hailing'


bo-nio-tu-he-bi
10-25-bi

*bonio tuhe-bi

*agu ungku
99

[AJ

3-82
94

[AJ

[CJ
[TJ
[NJ

95

[C)
[T]
[N]

feng lai 'the wind comes'


e-du-di-bi
*edu di-bi
26-758-bi

100

[AJ

[CJ
[T]
[N]

feng leng 'the wind is


cold'
e-du-!la-hu-ru
26-277

101

[A]

[C)
[T]

xiao yu 'small rain'

[N]

1154-3

a-~a-a-gu

*a~[h]a

[AJ

*edu ahuru

[CJ
[TJ
[N]

you yu 'it is raining'


a-gu-bi
3-bi

*agu-bi

agu

157

156
102

[A]
[e]
[T]
[N]

103

*talmagi nei-he

xia xue 'it is snowing'


i-mang-gi-tu-he-bi
9-25-bi

[N]

*imanggi tuhe-bi

[A]

110

[e]

yan duo 'much mist'

[T]
[N]

~ang-gia-ang-ba-Ia

[T]
[N]

[e]

yan xi 'the mist has


disappeared'

[T]
[N]

~ang-gia-na-ha-ha

17-83

lu gan 'the dew has


dried up'
si-Iei-o-Io-ho
11-235

[T]
[N]

*~ilei

oloho

111

[T]
[N]

~eu'un-Je-ke

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[N]

*agua daha

bing 'ice'
Ju-he
~u-hei (15)
Juhe
juhe
juxee, juxuu

*]uhe

*~e'un ie-ke

[A]

[5]

tian 1i 'principles of
heaven'
a-gua-da-ha
the Jurchen means
'to follow Heaven'
1-48

5-77

112

[e]
[T]
[M]

17-86-ha

[A]

[e]

ri shi 'eclipse of
the sun'

*!fanggia naka-ha

[A]
[e]

*sanggia ambala

[A]
[e]

107

yan chu 'mist has risen'


ang-gia-tu-ti-he
*anggia tuti-he
17-50-he

[A]

[A]

[e]

106

[e]

[T]

109

[N]

105

wu san 'the fog has


dispersed'
ta-r-ma-gi-nei-he
16-46-he

[A]

[A]

[e]
[T]

104

108

[A]

[e]
[T]
lu shi 'the dew is wet'
i-Iei-u-i-he
usihi 'to get wet'
'usixE! 'wet'
12-107

[N]

ming xing 'bright star'


ge-tie-u-~i-ha
71-7

*getie u~iha

*~ilei u~ihe

113

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
rNl

feng qi 'a wind has


risen'
*edu de[kJde-he
e-du-de-de-he
t'eh-ye-mei (392)
teyemei
dekde- 'to float, to rise'
dex~dE!m~

26-113-he

159

158

ll4

[A]
[e]

[T]
[N]

feng xiang 'the wind is


howling'
e-du-gun-bi
26-73-mbi

[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]

*edu gu-mbi

[N]

ll5

[N]

xue bao 'the snow is thin'


i-mang-gi-nie-ke-ye
*imanggi neke[llie
9-152

120

[T]
[N]

xue da 'there is a lot


of snow'
i-mang-gi-ang-ba
9-ll53

*imanggi amba

121

[T]
[M]

wu shou 'the fog has


receded'
ta-r-ma-gi-he-te-he
hete- 'to fold, to
tuck up, to recede
(of fog)

[5]

xetem~

[N]

16-120-he

*talmagi hete-he

[A]

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

xue hou 'the snow is


thick'
i-mang-gi-di-la-mi
In the 5eikado
manuscript, there is

E?/5

[e]
[T]
[N]

yan qi 'the mist has risen'


*anggia de[k]de-he
~ang-gia-de-de-he
17-223-he

*imanggi dirami
122

[A]

[e]

-lang- between the

[T]

-gi- and the -di-, but


this is not there in
the Awanokuni ms., and
should be omitted.

[N]

123
ll8

[A]

[e]

[A]

[e]

ll7

u~iha

[A]

[e]
[T]

ll6

bei dou xing 'The Dipper'


na-da-u-i-ha
*nada
nadan usiha
nad~N 'u!lihaa
lit. 'seven stars'
ll15-7

yan san 'the mist has


dispersed'
sang-gia-nei-he
17-46-he

*~anggia

nei-he

[A]

[A]
[e]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

xue xiao 'the snow has


melted'
i-mang-gi-ung-ke
we- 'to melt', pp.
wengke
this may be the same
word as in 82 and 93
9-118

[T]
[N]

tian he 'the Milky Way'


a-gua-i-bi-la
1-i (gen.)-137

*agua-i bira

*imanggi ungke
124

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

yan zhao 'the mist has


covered [ ... ]'
ang-gia-hue-di-he
*sanggia huedi-he
huweje- 'to screen off,
to cover'
17-124-he

161

160

125

[A)
[C)

[T)
[N)

126

SECTION TWO - GEOGRAPHY

hete-he

129

5..L

[C)
[T)
[G)

jiang 'river'
u-la
wuh-lah (49)
ula
ula
'ulaa
cf. bira (137) below;
ula is a large river,
bira a smaller river.

[M)

[5 )

[5)

gec~m~

[N)

[N)

l3l-l26-he

[K)

[A)

[C)
[T)
[N)

dou 'The Dipper"


na-da [------)
cf. 119. It would seem
that u~iha has been
mistakenly omitted from
this entry

[T)
[N)

[A)

[C)
[T)
[G)

*nada [u~ihal

[A)
[C)

[K)
[M)

130

[K)
[M)

(5)
131

yue shang jin chao


'when the moon rises,
go into the court'
bie-de-de-he
*bie de[kJde-he
de-o-r-do-do-~in-nu
de ordo dosinu
6-ll3-he-de-547-33

7L

..ljo

shan 'mountain'
a-Ii
'a-Ii-yin (39)
alin
aIin
'aliN

[C)
[T)
[G)

[5)

shui 'water'
mu-ke
muh (51)
mu
muke
mukee, mukuu

[A]

/6

[C]
[T]
[G]

shi 'stone'
u-he
woh-hei (52)
wehe
wehe
vehee

[5]

*aIi

~,-t

7K

[K)
[M]

*ula

fliiJ fJ

[A)

[K)
[M)

132

%'1

[A)

shui dong 'the water has


frozen'
mu-ke-ge-ti-he
*muke get i-he
koh-t'i-leh (96)
getile
gece- 'to freeze'

[T)
[G)

128

*~anggia

[A)
[C)

127

yan shou 'the mist has


receded'
sang-gia-he-te-he
l7-l20-he

*muke

7L ,',
*uhe

163

162
133

[A]

1.1.

[C]
[T]

lu 'road'
Ju

[G]
[K]
[M]

~u-wuh

[5]

134

~,

138

[C]
[T]

[G]

(57)

[K]
[M]
[5]

Jugu
jugun
joMN
139

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

j ing 'well' (n.)


hu-ti
hi-llih (56)
hiH
hucin
qociN
140

135

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

qiang 'wall'
fa-di-la
fah-tah-'an (64)
fadan
fajiran
fajerll!MN

di 'land'
na
nah (37)
na
naa

[A]

[C]

tu 'earth'
be-ho
puh-huo (38)
boiho
boihon
biohl'lN, biohuN

[K]
[M]

[5]

141
[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

13 7

[C]
[T]
[G]
[M]
[5]

[T]
[G]

*fadira

[C]
[G]
[K]
[M]

142

[C]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

he 'river'
bi-la
pih-'a (40)
bira
bira
biraa

*bira

*na

1B~

tian 'field'
u-!li
wu-~ih-yin

[5]

ullin
usin
'uSiN

[A]

~
/J'ra]

[C]
[T]

[A]

*mede

*beho

[A]

[T]

cheng 'city wall'


he-ce
hei-c'e-ni (33)
heceni
hecen
keci:!N
the -ni in G. and K.
is a gen. suffix

hai 'sea'
me-de
meh-t'eh-'oh-lin (46)
meterin
mederi
mederi, muduri

[A]

[A]

[C]
[T]

136

[A]

[M]
[5]
[N]

*ulH
(50)

It:'
-tJ 1-1'1~
/\
IlfJ

qiao 'bridge'
hu-fu-lun
*hufurun
no cognate
cf. kur~v~, kuruvu
the Chinese transcription
could also represent a
form *hufulun; I have
opted for the form with
-- on the basis of the
Sibe forms

164

165
143

144

[e]

quanshui 'spring water'

[T]

~e-i-mu-ke

[N]

233-i-131

[M]

[T]

muke

[M]

[5]
[N]

sha 'sand'
Jo-r-o
*]oro
no cognate. cf.
~urga 'snow blown
by the wind; blowing
sand'. The transcription
is unusual for a form
*Joro (for which one
would have expected
Jo-lo); perhaps we
have here a form like
*Ior[lf]Q

149

[G]
[K]
[M]
[N]

chen 'dust'
bu-la-ki
puh-leh-k'i (59)
bureki
buraki
the form given in
Kiyose is dureki,
but this is an
obvious misprint

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

150

*go[l]mi

Gol~miN

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

duan 'short'
fo-ho-lo
fuh-huo-lo (691)
foholo
foholon
fiohel~N, fiohuluN

*foholo

[A]

151

[e]

[M]

hui 'ash'
fu-1eng-gi
fuh-leh-kih (65)
fulegi
fu1enggi

[5]

fili9i

[T]
[G]
[K]

147

chang 'long'
go-mi
kuo-mi-kih (690)
golmigi
golmin

*buraki

[5]

146

jin 'close'
ja-ha-la
*jakara
no cognate. Cf.
jakan 'just now,
not long, recently'
cf. jai 'next, following'
in the absence of an
obvious cognate in M or
5, it is impossible to
decide whether the
second syllable should
be ha, ka or ~, or the
third syllable ra or la

[A]

[C]

[A]

[e]
[T]

[A]

[e]
*~e-i

[A]

[e]
[T]

145

148

[A]

*fulenggi

[C]

qian 'shallow'
mi-~a

micihiyan
micaN, miciaN

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]

[A]
[T]
[M]
[5]

[A]

*mica

hou 'thick'
di-la-mi
tih-lah-mei
diramei
j iramin
j irame

*dirami

166

167

152

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

153

156

[A]

bao 'thin'
nie-ke-ye
nan-k'oh-hong (693)
nankehun
nekeliyen
niNk~N, niNkiN
it would be possible
on the basis of the
Chinese transcription
to reconstruct *nie
for the first syllable
of this word; I have
opted for *ne- on the
basis of Manchu

[C)

*neke[l]ie
[T]
[M]
[N]

*ali buti

130-156

157

[A]
[C)

158

[5]

shen 'deep'
so-mi
~u-mi-kih

[T]

shan gao 'the mountain


is high'
a-li-de

[N]

130-31

*ali de

[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

[C)

~umigi

[T]

!lumin
?;umiN, sumiN

[M]
[N]

159

[T]
[M]
[N]

ga~an
gas~N

'countryside'

*ali dele

130-158

shan xia 'under the


mountain'
a-li-wa-ge-de
cf. wargi 'under'
-de is loco suffix

*ali wa[r)ge-de

130-159

160

yuan 'far'
go-lo
kuo-lo-woh (701)
goroo
goro
Gore

shan shang 'on the


mountain'
a-li-de-le
dele 'on top of'

[A]

[C]

cun 'village'
ha-!la
hah-h (42)
gah

[A]

[C)

[A]

(695)

[A]

[C)
[T]

155

shan di 'the mountain


is low'
a-li-bu-ti
cf. but en 'the foot
of a mountain'
cf. 162

[A]
[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

154

[A]

[A]

[C)
[T]
[N]

shan shen 'the mountain


is deep'
a-li-~o-mi

130-153

*ali somi

169

168
161

[C)
[T]
[N]

162

[T]
[N]

*ali du1imba

168
shan jiao 'foot of the
mountain'
a-li-be-tie
cf. 156
130-889

[T]
[M]

[5]
[N]

shan ding 'peak of the


mountain'
a-1i-ning-gu
ninggu 'on top of,
over, above'
nuguu, niu~uu, niguu
130-163

[A]
[C)

shui qian 'the water is


shallow'

[T]

mu-ke-mi-~a

[N]

131-148

*a1i betie

169

[T]
[M]

shui zhang 'the water


has risen'
mu-ke-bi-sa-ha
bisa- 'to overflow,

[5]
[N]

to flood'
bisaN 'flood'
131-168-ha

[A]

[C)

[T]
[M]
[N]

shui hun 'the water is


muddy'
mu-ke-fa-ha-1a
faha1a 'muddy, turbid'
131-169

*muke faha1a

[A]
[C)

shui shen 'the water is


deep'

[T]
[N]

mu-ke-~o-mi

170

[A]

[C)

*muke somi

131-154
[N]

166

*muke bisa-ha

*a1i ninggu

[T]
165

*muke mica

[A]

[C)

[A]
[C)

164

shan zhong 'in the


middle of the mountain'
a-1i-du-1in-ba
130-1148

[A]

[C)

163

167

[A]

shui 1uo 'the water has


fallen'
mu-ke-na-ha-ha
131-87-ha

*muke naka-ha

[A]

[C)

shan bian 'side of the


mountain'

[T]

a-li-Je-~e

[N]

130-24

171

*a1i re~e

[A]

[C)
[T]
[N]

shui chu 'water has


come out'
mu-ke-tu-ti-he
131-51-he

*muke tuti-he

[A]

172
[C)

[T]
[N]

shui qing 'the water is


clear'
mu-ke-ge-tie
131-72

[A]
[C)

*muke getie

[T]
[M]
[N]

shui kuan 'the water


is wide'
mu-ke-o-tso
onco 'wide'
131-172

*muke o[nJtso

171

170
173

[C]
[T]
[N]

174

178

[A]
qing shan 'green
mountain'
nien-gia-a-li
1099-130

[CJ

[M]
[5]
[N]

[TJ

*niengia ali

[NJ

179

[A]

[C]
[T]

shui liu 'water flows'


mu-ke-e-in-bi
eye- 'to flow'
'e'ime
this could be written
*eyi-mbi.
131-174-mbi

[AJ

[C]

[TJ
[N]

[A]
[C]

[T]

mu-ke-u-~i-u-la-ha

[M]

ulga- (old form ulha-)


'to wet, to dampen, to
dip in liquid'
l3l-141-175-ha

[N]

176

[TJ
shui yan-le tian
'water has submerged
the fields'

[MJ

[NJ

*muke ulH
ul[hJa-ha

[N]

182

[T]

mu-ke-he-~e-u-la-ha

[N]

l3l-136-176-ha

[G]
[K]
[M]
[NJ

*muke hece
ul[hJa-ha

183
177

[AJ

[C]

[TJ
[NJ

*bira isehun

da he 'big river'
ang-ba-bi-la
1153-137

*amba bira

cu sha 'rough sand'


y
ma-Jo-r-o
ma-rh (671)
mar
muwa
182-144

*ma Joro

[A]
[C]

jiang xin 'in the middle


[lit. 'heart'] of the
river'
u-la-du-lin-ba
*ula dulimba
129-1148

he zhai 'the river is


narrow'
bi-la-i-se-hung
isheliyen 'narrow'
137-180

[AJ

[C]
[T]

shui yan-le cheng


'water has submerged
the city walls'

*bira o[nJtso

[A]

[C]
[TJ

[A]

[C]

181

he kuo 'the river is


wide'
bi-la-o-tso
137-172

[A]
[CJ

175

*ula re~i

[AJ

*muke e'i-mbi

180

jiang bian 'the side of


the river'
u-la-Je-ci
129-24

[T]
[N]

jiang kuo 'the river is


wide'
u-la-o-tso
129-179

*ula o[nJtso

173

172
184

190

[A)

[e)
[T)
[N)

jiang zhai 'the river


is narrow'
u-1a-i-se-hung
129-180

[e)
[T)
[N)

*u1a isehun
191

185

[A)

[e)
[T)
[N)

1154-137

a-~a-bi-1a

[T)

*a1l(h)a bira

[N)

[A)
[e)
[T)
[N)

187

da jiang 'big river'


ang-ba-u-1a
1153-129

*amba ula

[e)
[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
[5)
[N)

xi sha 'fine sand'


na-r-hung-Jo-r-o
nah-rh-hung (672)
narhun
narhun
nad!huN
187-144

*narhun loro

193

[A)

[e)

[T)
[N)

189

-+7
/'- /f].

da shi 'big stone'


ang-ba-u-he
1153-132

[T)
[M)
[5 )
[N)

[G)
[K)
[M)

yih-e'e-kih (626,666)
icegi
ice
'ieee
192-142

195
sui shi 'broken stones'
bu-ya-u-he
buya 'small,scant'
buyaa 'petty'
189-132

*ice hufurun

shi lu 'stone road'


u-he-Ju
132-133

[N)

shi sha 'stones [and)


sand'
u-he-Jo-r-o
132-144

[A]

11
~ /',#
1:J /,,-+' 1~
S~
1F,I.!.'
~

[e)

*buya uhe

i-~e-hu-fu-Iun

*uhe

]U

[A]

[T)

*amba uhe

*u[n]te hufurun

[A]

[e)

[A)
[e)

xin qiao 'new bridge'

[N)

S
_GI
~p 1'- ILJ ~.,

ban qiao 'bridge made


of boards'
u-te-hu-fu-Iun
546-142

[e)
[T)

[e)
[T)

194
188

*uhe hufurun

[A)

(5)
[N)

[A)

shi qiao 'stone bridge'


u-he-hu-fu-Iun
132-142

[A)

[e)
xiao he 'small river'

192
186

[A)

[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)
[N)

*uhe lora

jiu qiao 'old bridge'


fo-hu-fu-Iun
fuh-'oh-yin (667)
fuwei
fe
fee
195-142

*fo hufurun

175

174
196

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

197

lu jin 'the road is


close'
Ju-han-ci
hanci 'near'
haNci
133-196
06

[A]

[e]
*lu

[T]

han~i

[M]
[N]

'p) \ 1

[A]

7t .JYci"

[e]

da lu 'big road'
ang-ba-Ju
1153-133

[T]
[N]

198

201

[A]

[T]
[M]

[5]
[N]

guo qiao 'crossed over


the bridge'
hu-fu-Iun-du-Ie-ke
dule- 'to go by, to
pass through'
dul~me, dulume
198-142-ke

*amba

JU

the 5eikado text1Y,K


-lin- .
It would seem that
-lin- is correct, cf.
207 *fuli-

*hufurun dule-ke

202

[A]

[e)
[T]

fen tian 'to divide a


field'
u-H-deng-de-bi
141-801-bi

*uH dende-bi

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

du jiang 'to cross a


river by boat'
di-ha-do-un-bi
doo- 'to cross over'
da'ume
614-228-mbi

203

[N]

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

[A]

[e]
[T]

*diha dO'u-mbi

204
200

feliye- 'to walk'


-de is a sign of the
locative
The Awanokuni text
/,-6.

[N)

199

*lu-de fulu-mbi
(fuli-mbi? )

has /fffJ -lun- here,

[A]

[e]

zou lu 'to walk along


the road'
Ju-de-fu-Iun(lin)-bi

[A)

[e]
kai tian 'to open up
the fields'
u-H-nei-bi
141-46-bi

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

*uH nei-bi

205

lu yuan 'the road is far'


Ju-go-Io
*lu goro
133-155

lu ping 'the road is


level'
Ju-nie-~e

*]u nece

necin
neciN
133-204

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

ni lu 'mud road'
ti-pa(ba)-Ju
261-133

*tipa/tiba ]U

177
176
~

206

[A]

~*!-) EfJ " 7C.l/J~, 7L ~

[e]
[T]
[N]

shou tian 'ripe field'


u-Ie-he-u-!H
1028-141

211

[e]
[T]

*ure-he ul!i

[N]

212
207

[A]

[A]

[A]

[e]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[N]

shui da, che xingbude


'the water is big [=high]
the vehicles cannot go
[through] ,
mu-ke-ang-ba-se-Je
*muke amba, sere
fu-li-he-ba-ha-Ia-kua fuli-he baha-rakua
baha- 'to be able'
131-1153-603-he-201-rakua

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

213

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]

[N]

shang yu lu 'go along


the road leading to the
imperial palace'
hi-r-Ie-u-si-nu
*hirle usinu
no cognate for *hirle
*u~i, cf. wesi- 'to mount,
to ascend'
note irr. imperative in
-nu, cf. M. wesinu.

[T]
[M]
[5]

214

[e]
[M]
[N]

[A]

[M]

guo yuan 'fruit garden'


tu-yu-he-ya-fa
yafan

[S]

yaf~h~N

[N]

347-209

[e]
[T]

*tuyuhe yafa

215

he ni "to mix mud


[for plaster]'
be-ho-sui
sui- 'to mix'
213-214

*beho sui

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

210

ban tu 'to move earth,


soil'
be-ho-tu-ki
*beho tuki
tukiye- 'raise, lift'
boihon 'soil,earth, dirt'
boiMN, boihuN

[A]

[T]
209

zhong tian "to cultivate


a field'
u-si-ta-lin-bi
*usi tali-mbi
taritiarim~ 'to sow, plant'
141-212-mbi

[A]

[e]
208

hua yuan 'flower garden'


i-Ia-ya-fa
*il[hja yafa
346-209

shihui 'lime'
do-ho
doho

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

cai yuan 'vegetable garden'


su-gi-ya-fa
*sugi yafa
353-209

216

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

kan chang 'to guard


the city walls'
he-ce-to-bi
136-807-bi

*hece to-bi

179

178

217

[C]

shang cheng 'to climb


the city walls'

[T]

he-~e-te-de

[M]

cf. dekde- 'to float,


to rise' (7)
136-217

[N]

218

219

[C]

cheng wai 'outside the


city walls'

[T]

he-~e-tu-Iu-ge-de

[N]

136-1152-de (loc.)

[N]

*he~e te(klde

[T]
[M]
[N]

224

xia yu 1u 'go down from


the road leading to
the imperial palace'
hi-r-1e-wa-si-nu
wasi- to go down
note irr. imp. in -nu,
cf. Manchu wasinu.
208-223

*hir1e wa~i-nu

[C]

*hece tulu[rlge-de

cheng Ii 'inside the


city walls'
he-ce-do-Io
136-1151

*he~e

dolo

[A]

225

[T]

yu lu shang bu yao zuo


'do not sit on the road
leading to the imperial
palace'
hi-r-Ie-do-Io-u-me-te-re

[N]

208-1151-neg.-770-re

[T]
[M]
[N]

cheng xia 'under the


city walls'
he-ce-wa-ge-de
wargi 'under'
136-220-de (loc.)

*he~e wa[rlge-de

226

[A]

[C]

cheng gao 'the city walls


are high'

[T]

he-~e-de

[N]

136-31

[C]

wanli changcheng 'the


ten-thousand Ii
long wall: the Great
Wall

[T]

tu-me-ba-go-mi-he-~e

[M]
[N]

ba 'a Chinese mile, Ii'


1129-225-149-136

[A]
[C]

chu cheng 'went out from


the city walls'

[T]
[N]

he-~e-tu-ti-he

136-50-he

*hece tuti-he

*tume ba go[IJmi
hece

[A]

[C]
*hece de

*hir1e dolo
ume te-re

[A]

[A]

[C]

222

[C]

[A]

[T]

221

[A]

[A]

[C]

220

223

[A]

[T]
[N]

du mu qiao 'a bridge made


from a single board'
e-mu-mo-hu-fu-Iun
*emu mo hufurun
1109-352-142

181

180
227

232

[A]

[C]

[TJ
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5 ]
[N]

qiao gao nan guo 'the bridge


is high; if you want to
get across it, it will be
difficult .'
*hufurun de.
hu-fu-lun-de
dule-~i mangga
du-le-~i-mang-ha
mang-hah[ka] (702)
manga
mangga

mage

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

233

the -~i suffix is a


sign of the conditional
gerund
142-31-198-227

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

228

[5]

[A]

[N]

[C]
[T]
[N]

du jiang 'to cross over


a river'
u-la-do-un-bi
129-199-mbi

*ula do'u-mbi

234

[C]

[T]
[N]

230

[N]

[A]
shui yan 'water has
overflowed'
mu-ke-u-la-ha
131-175-ha

235

[M]
[N]

[C]
[T]

236

[N]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

ku shui 'bitter water'


go-l!io-mu-ke
gosihon
Gos~huN

231-131

lu gan 'the road is dry'


]u-o-ho-Io
*lu oholo
olho
'ol~h~,

'ol~h~N,

'ol~huN

133-235

[A]

[T]

[A]

[C]

*ali bo

*ali hada

[C]
231

shan she 'mountain hut'


a-li-bo
130-525

[A]

[M]
[5]
[N]

shan yan 'cliff'


a-li-ha-da
hada 'cliff, crag'
130-230

~e

*muke ula-ha

[A]

[C]
[T]

shan quan 'mountain spring'


*a1i
(48)
!jere
l!ieri
seri, seri
130-233
a-li-~e
~e-'oh

[A]

[C]
[T]
229

shan lin 'mountain forest'


a-li-bu-Iang
*ali bUlan
cah-puh (= puh-~ah) (47)
Jabu?/buJa?
bujan
bujaN
130-232

*go/lo muke

cheng men 'gate in a


city wall'
he-ce-du-ha
136-557

*hece duka

183

182

237

242

[A)

[C)
[T)
[M)

[N)

shui tui 'the water


has receded'
mu-ke-go-ti-ha
goci- 'to fall (of
water) ,
131-237-ha

*muke goti-ha

243
238

[T)
[N)

[C)
[T]

huang tian 'barren field'

[M)
[N]

no cognate
242-141

huang cheng 'Imperial


City'
o-r-do-he-ce
547-136

[N)

244

[T)
[M)

[5)
[N)

shui ji 'water is
rushing'
mu-ke-ha-ta
hatan 'hasty'

[T]
[M)
[N)

241

245

hat~N

huang qiang 'wall


around Imperial City"
o-r-do-he-~e

[N]

547-136.
Same as 238

*ordo

he~e

I
'I

[A)

"

131-239

he wan 'bend in a
river'
bi-Ia-mo-da
mudan 'bend'
137-240

246

If

c4z ' 9
Ji"'a~Y.i.*:,

[C)

[M)

lu shi 'the road


is wet'
Ju-u-sI-he
usihi- 'to be wet'

[5)
[N)

A '
-1.17L

h.

gao qiang 'high walls'

[T)

de-he-~e

[N)

31-136

*de

he~e

[A]

*bira moda

[A)

[T)

*ali Iu

*muke hata

[A)
[C)

shan 1u 'mountain road'


a-li-Ju
130-133

[T]

[C)

240

u~i

[A)

[A)

[C)

*u1angga

*ordo hece

[C)
239

u-Iang-ha-u-~i

[A)

[C)
[T)

[A)

[C)

[A)

[C]

qiang dao 'the wall


has fallen down'

[T]

he-~e-tu-he-he

[N]

136-25-he

*hece tuhe-he

-A:. ,

247
*]U uHhe

[A]
[C]

zhu qiang 'to build a


wall'

'usixe

[T]

he-~e-du-bi

133-241

[M]
[N]

du- 'to beat, hit'


137-247-bi

*hece du-bi

185

184

248

254

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

fei chen 'flying dust'


de-Ie-bu-Ia-ki
deye- 'to fly'
de'im~,

[C]
*de-re buraki

[T]
[N]

diem~

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

duan qiao 'broken bridge'


hu-fu-Iun-Ia-Ja-ha
*hufurun 1aJa-ha
cf. laksa- 'to break'
142-249-ha
256

250

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

251

252

253

sangyuan 'mulberry-tree
garden'
i-ma-Ia-ya-fa
yin-ma-Iah (108)
inmala
nimalan 'mulberry'
nimaleN
250-209

muke huti

[A]

[e]

bian qiang 'side of


city wall'

[T]

Je-~i-he-~e

[N]

24-136

[A]

[e]
[T]

mi-~a-bi-Ia

[N]

147-137

qian he 'shallow river'


*mica bira

257

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

258

hai shen 'the sea is deep'


me-de-so-mi
*mede ~omi
138-153

[A]

cun dian 'village shop'

[T]

ha-~a-hu-da-~a-bo

[N]

154-698-525

[e]

*gasa huda~a bo

[T]
[N]

[A]

259

[e]

jing shen 'the well is


deep'

[T]

hu-ti-~o-mi

[N]

134-153

[T]
[N]

~omi

260
da jing 'big well'
ang-ba-hu-ti
1153-134

*amba huti

gao qiao 'high bridge'


de-hu-fu-Iun
31-142

*de hufurun

[A]

[e]
*huti

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

*dan~u

*imala yafa

[A]
[e]

tian shui jing 'sweet


water well'
dang-cu-mu-ke-hu-ti
1021-131-134

248-re-145
255

249

[A]

ping qiao 'level bridge'


nie-ce-hu-fu-Iun
*nece hufurun
204-142

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

tu qiao 'earth bridge'


be-ho-hu-fu-Iun
140-142

*beho hufurun

187

186

261

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

[N]

;~ y}/ . :J~

;j} \

*J t ~

ni sha 'mud [and] sand'


ti-pa[ba]-jo-r-o
cifahan 'viscous mud,
mud used as plaster'

*ti2altiba "loro

SECTION THREE

261-144
265

262

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

263

264

}'J,l'

4~Y-1 *~ ~.Jt

145-144

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

hui chen 'ash [and] dust'


*fulenggi buraki
fu-Ieng-gi-bu-Ia-ki

~ ~~t
266

Ai

[C]
[T]
[N]

shi j ing 'stone well'


u-he-hu-ti
132-134

[S]

ni'ia~~ni'iari

[A]

[S]
[A]

#- .

*uhe huti
267

[A]

~.

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[S]

'/

cc

ltl !l.

[S]

[G]
[K]
[M]

268

t,

*luanri

qiu 'autumn'
bo-Io-ri
puh-Io-'oh-lin (75)
bolo erin
bolori
bolori

[C]
[T]

*nienieri

I ;;1.!I
xia 'summer'
Juang-li
cu-'a 'oh-lin (74)
juwa erin
juwari
j iuari

[G]
[K]
[M]

*. 7L .,. :t,;tJl

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]

[C]
[T]

146-145

1:- . :J:f;j'f.f.
chun ' spring'
nie-nie-li
nieh-nieh-'oh-lin (73)
niyeniyen erin
niyengniyeri

[C]
[T]

chen sha 'dust [and] sand'


v
*bulaki loro
bu-Ia-ki-Jo-r-o

il . 11;.';1- t

[A]

TIME AND SEASONS

itt!

dong 'winter'
tu-e-li
t'uh-'oh-'oh-lin (76)
tuwe erin
tuweri
tiuri

~
~
)

*bolori

*tu'eri

189

188
269

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

270

271

1t.

~
::t:

nian 'year'
se
seh-koh (82)
sege
se
see
M. ~, 5. see refer
to years of age

274
*se

han 'cold'
H-mu-wu
no cognate
In the Awanokuni text
this entry is written

~;t7L

*;ft

. 01;-~

[G]
[K]
[M]

j ie 'season, festival'
*halH
ha-H
hah-~'eng-yin (80)
ha~in 'term'
cf. hacin 'the fifteenth
day of the first month;
the lantern festival'

[A]

e% .'t~JJ

[e)
[T]

shi 'time'
e-li
erin
'eriN

[A]

If''t)U!

[e)

zao 'early'
(here :morning)
ti-ma-li
cimari 'morning'
cimad! 'tomorrow'

[T]
[M]

[5]
273

[A]

[e)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

lH-mu-wu ,

is written ha-Iu-u,
so *halu'u, parallel
with *~imu'u. ef. M.
~ahuran 'to be cold'
275

[A]

fli . *1 ~ erg--

[e)

wan 'evening'
(here: 'it has become
evening' )
*yamdi-ha
yang-di-ha
yen-tih-hung (98)
yamdihun
yamji 'evening'
yamji- 'to become evening'

*eri

[G)
[K]
[M]

*timari
276

[5]

yam~ji

[A]

-i-tI...

~ '1t~'j]

[e]
[T]

ye 'night'
do-bo-li
to-Io-woh (78)
dorowo
dobori
diovere

[G)
[K]
[M]

*dobori

!H-mu-kej

in 338 and 345, this


word is also written
H-mu-ke. The word
for 'hot' in no. 276

[T]
272

*~imu'u

but in the 5eikado text

[e]
[T]

[5]

[e)
[T]
[N]

"*

[M]

~.

[M]

[A]

~p

**7L

[A]

[5]
[N]

'\\

. ~'~'JL

re 'hot'
ha-Iu-u
hah-Iu-wen (92)
hal gun
halhlm
haahuN
in 344 and 1007,
this word is written
ha-Iu, so *halu or
*hal[h]u

*halu'u

i
d
c:

191

190

277

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

278

282

[A]

leng 'cold'
h-hu-lu
cf. ~en-wen (91)

[A]

[C]

*l!ahuru

[T]
[N]

~ingun

l!ahurun
sahuruN, sahuruN
the G. and K. forms
are related to M.
singkeyen 'chilly'

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

ming ri 'tomorrow'
ti-ma-ha-neng-gi
cimaha inenggi

*timahanenggi

283

[A]

[M]

hou ri 'the day after


tomorrow'
tiao-lu-neng-gi
coro

[5]

ciort~

[C]
279

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

[T]
chen 'morning'
bu-da-e-li
buda 'rice, food'

*buda eri

(cf. 1008)

284

eri 'time'
(cf. 271)
[N]

280

[A]

[5]

[M]

zuo ri 'yesterday'
H-se-neng-gi
sikse

[5]

cik~see,

[C]
[T]

285

cek~see

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]

*ere anie

[A]

[T]

jin ri 'today'
e-neng-gi
enenggi
enege

jin nian 'this year'


e-Ie-a-nie
'a-nieh (70)
aniya
ere 'this'
aniya 'year'
'erE! 'this'
'ani 'year'

*H [k) senenggi

[C]

281

*tiaorunenggi

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

the expression
literally means
'food time'

chu yue 'the moon


has risen'
*bie'a tuti-he
bie-a-tu-ti-he
note the transcription
bie-a, so *bie'a or
perhaps *bi'a (though
the transcription could
have represented such
a form as bi-a or bi-ya.
Presumably this is the
stressed form of the word;
usually it is *bie.
6-50-he

[M]

*enenggi

[5]
[N]

qian ri 'the day


before yesterday'
ta-neng-gi
cananggi
cianeIJll!, cane!)~
note the unusual
development ta > ca

*tanenggi

193

192

286

287

[A]

ti!if .

[C)

[T]

hou nian 'year after


next'
tiao-lu-a-nie

[N]

283-284

[A]

[C)

[T]
[M]
[N]

288

j4t l JrOJ -t~

[A]

[C)

[T]
[M]
[N]

Jj .

291

*tiaoru anie

[A]

i-!f' 7t ~ }TO] 1!f.

[C)

qu nian 'last year'

[T]

du-~a-a-nie

[M]

duleke aniya
perhaps -C!a- is a
mistake? H. Franke (1982)
suggests *du~a might
represent a form
related to M. tuci-;
'to exit, to go out,
to depart, to leave'.
In this case the J.
form might be a calque
based on the Chinese
expression.

[N]

11 lJJ~j

qian yue 'the month


before last'
Ju-le-bie
cf. julesi, juleri
'before'

*]ule bie

287-6
..><:...h

ft'J

:.If-

-t+

jIiiJ4:f

qian nian 'the year


before last'
ta-a-nie
cE- ca- in cala,
cargi, canenggi etc.

292

*ta anie
293

288-284

[A]

-~. $~

[C)

[T]

yi nian 'one year'


e-mu-a-nie

[N]

1109-284

[A]

4- 1t- . ff rtF;- fIOJ 1~

[A]

[M]

ming nian 'next year'


i-su-a-nie
ishun aniya

[N]

289-284

[C]

[T]

290

BJ31f #11 iT Ji] :J~

[A]

[T]
[N]

1128-284

[T]
[N]

196-284

*emu anie

*mingga anie

*is[h]u anie
294

[A]

*fo anie

295

s1f

1t'liJ b trDJ :tIY

[T]

bai nian 'one hundred


years'
tang-gu-a-nie

[N]

1127-284

[A]

l'

[C)

[T]

shi nian 'ten years'


Juang-a-nie

[N]

1118-284

[C]

11 if . 1.fb /fii) 4!f


jiu nian 'years gone
by'
fo-a-nie

[C]

anie

:t fIiiJ :1~

qian nian 'one


thousand years'
ming-ha-a-nie

[C)
289

*du~a

*tanggu anie

1f- ~ II OJ :t'i!

*]'uan anie

196

197

309

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

310

[T]
[N]

[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

312

[C]

309-6

[T]

fa lei 'to beat


a drum'
tung-ke-du-bi

[N]

562-810-bi

315

ye chang 'the night


is long'
do-bo-li-go-mi

*dobori go[l]mi

[T]

273-150

[M]
[N]

ji ye 'how many
nights/several
nights'
u-hia-hu-do-bo-ri
no cognate cf.
udu 'how many'
cf. 'udu

316

[C]

[T]
[N]

[N]

1110-315-56

days/several
days'
u-hia-hu-neng-gi
note contracted
form of *inenngi
'day'

*uhiahu nenggi

318

*lue ging fo

[A]

[T]
[N]

j i ri 'how many

san geng 'the third


watch of the night'
i-lang-ging-fo

*ilan ging fo

1111-315-56

[A]

[T]

si geng 'the fourth


watch of the night'
du-in-ging-fo

[N]

1112-315-56

[C]

311-29

313

[T]

[C)

[A]

*emu ging fo

1109-315-56

er geng 'the second


watch of the night'
]ue-ging-fo

[C]

317

yi geng 'the first


watch of the night'
e-mu-ging-fo
ging 'night-watch'
( < Chinese)

[A]

*uhiahu dobori

cf. 312
311-273

*tungke du-bi

[A]

[C]

[A]

[C]

[A]

banyue 'half month'


du-Iu-a-bie
*dulu'a bie
dulga 'half, half-filled'

[A]

[C]

311

314

*du'in ging fo

[A]

[C]

319

[T]

zhuang zhong 'to


strike a bell'
Jung-dung-bi

[N]

562-810-mbi

[A]
[C)

wu geng 'the fifth

[T]

watch of the night'


sun-Ja-ging-fo

[N]

1113- 315- 56

*Jung du-mbi

*sunj'a ging fo

199

198

320

325

[A]

[C]

chuyi ri 'the first


day of the month'

[T]
[N]

i-~e-neng-gi

[e]
*i~e

[T]
[N]

nenggi

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

322

shiwu ri 'fifteenth
day of the month'
to-fu-neng-gi
t'oh-puh-huan
yih-neng-kih (86)
tobohon inengi
tofohon inenggi
tofeh~N, tofuhuN

[A]

[e]
[T]

yin shi '3 am - 5 am'


ta-s-ha-e-li

[N]

407-271

*tasha eri

*tofu nenggi
327

[A]

[T]

mao shi '5 am - 7 am'


gu-ma-hung-e-li

[N]

420-271

[e]

328

[T]
[N]

ershi ri 'twentieth
day (of the month)'
o-li-neng-gi

*gu[l)mahun eri

[T]
[M]

[N]

[T]
[N]

1119-29
329

sanshi ri 'thirtieth
day (of the month)'
Ja-ha-neng-gi
jaka 'intermediate
space, gap,
interstice'
this refers to the last
day of the month in the
lunar calendar

[A]

[C)
*ori nenggi

[A]

[C]

[C)
[T]
[N]

*laka nenggi
330

[A]

[T]

zi shi 'II pm - 1 am'


sing-ge-li-e-li

[N]

416-271

[C]

*singgeri eri

chen shi '7 am - 9 am'


mu-du-li-e-li

*muduri eri

406-271

[A]
si shi '9 am - 11 am'
mei-he-e-li

*meihe eri

425-271

[A]

[e]

wu shi 'II am - 1 pm'

[T]

i-neng-[gi]-e-li
*inenggi eri
cf. inenngi dulin 'noon'
-gi- is missing from the
Awanokuni text, but is
supplied here on the basis
of the 5eikado text, as
well as many examples in
other entries

[M]
[N]

324

*iha eri

412-271

[A]
[C]

323

chou shi 'I pm - 3 am'


i-ha-e-li

192-29
326

321

[A]

29-271

201

200
331

337

[A]
[C)

[T]
[M]

[A]

[C)

wei shi ' 1 pm - 3 pm'


*imu'a eri
i-mu-a-e-li
imahu 'ibex' (Hauer);
'wild sheep' (Gabelenz);
'goral (Naemorhedus goral)'
(Norman); cf. Mongol
ima~~ 'goat'. (Cf. Ligeti,
"Les inscriptions de Tyr ... "

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

1ian ri 'one day after


another; days on end;
day after day'
e-se-neng-gi
*ese nenggi
ese 'these'
'est!!
337-29

p. 11)

338

331-271
332

[A]
[C)
[T]

[A]

[N]

[C)
[T]
[N]

shen shi '3 pm - 5 pm'


mo-nio-e-li
424-271

*monio eri
339

333

[N]

you shi '5 pm - 7 pm'


ti-ko-e-li
421-271

*tiko eri
340

[A]

[C)
[T]

xin nian 'new year'

[N]

192-284

i-~e-a-nie

*ice anie

[A]
[C)

[N]

xu shi '7 pm - 9 pm'


in-da-hu-e-li
413-271

[T]
[G)

*indahu eri

[K]

[M]
[N]

chun nuan 'spring warmth'


nie-nie-li-du-lu-u
*nienieri dulu'u
tu-lu-ken (94)
dulgun
no cognate
265-340

[A]
[C)

[T]
[N]

336

~imuke

[A]

[C)
[T]

335

*nienieri

[A]

[C)
[T]

334

chun han 'spring cold'


nie-nie-li-si-mu-ke
cf. form *~imuke with
*~imu'u (274) above
265-274

hai shi '9 pm - 11 pm'


u-gia-e-li
414-271

341

[A]

*u[lJgia eri

[C)

xia ri chang 'the summer


days are long'

[T]

Juang-li-~eu-un-go-mi

[N]

266-5-149

[A]

[C)
[T]
[N]

ye duan 'the night


is short'
do-bo-1i-fo-ho-10
274-151

*dobori foholo

*luanri /fe'un
go[lJmi

203

202
342

[A]

[T]

qiu feng qi 'in autumn,


the wind rises'
bo-lo-li-e-du-de-de-he

[N]

267-26-113-he

[C]

SECTION FOUR - FLOWERS AND TREES

*bolori edu
de[kJde-he
346

343

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

[A]

[C]
qiu liang 'autumn cool'
bo-lo-li-se-r-[kung]
serguwen
~er~xuN,

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]

*bolori serkun

ser~xuN

there is no -kung in
the Awanokuni text,
but is supplied here
on the basis of the
Seikado text

347

[C]

[T]
[N]

xia re 'summer heat'


Juang-li-ha-lu
note the shortened
form of *halu, cf.
276 above *halu'u

*luanri halu
348

[K]
[M]

[5]

tiuf~xi,

[T]
[G]

[A]

[T]

dong han 'winter cold'


tu-e-li-si-mu-ke

[N]

the Awanokuni text

[C)

has

4-:

:1,7L

!H-bu-wu,

-bu- presumably being a


mistake for

;t.

-mu-; the

Seikado text has


~i-mu-wu;

[K]
[M]

*tu'eri !Hmu'u
(Hmuke?)

~;j;.. 7L

cf. the comments

on this word (274, 338) above.

[S]

349

*tuyuhe

tiuv~xii

[A]

[C]
345

'il~aa

guo 'fruit'
tu-yu-he
t'uh-woh-hei (124,125)
tuwehe
tubihe

[G]

[A]

*il [hJa

[A]
[C]
[T]

344

hua 'flower'
i-la
yih-leh-hah (118)
ilha
ilha

Ii 'pear'
H-lu
1lih-lu (ll2)
ilu

*!Hl[hJu

~ulhe
~ul~xee,

sul~xee,

suluxuu

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[N]

Ii 'plum'
fu-yo
[fu]-yoh-moh (107)
foyo mo
foyoro 'plum'
G. 107 reads ~uen-yoh
moh; ~uen is a
transcription error
for fu

205

204
350

[C]

[T]
[N]

351

[C]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

353

xing 'apricot'
gui
kuei-fah-lah (110)
guwifala7/guilafa7
guilehe
gulixH
in G. 110, fah and
lah may be inverted,
in view of the M.
form. The J. form
seems truncated; it
appears in this form
also in entry 388

[C]

gua 'melon'

[T]
[G]
[K]

hen-ke
hei-k'oh (131)
heke (henke?)
hengke
keNkee, xeNkee

[M]
[5]

357

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]
[5]

mu 'tree'
mo
moh [muh]
mo
moo
moo

358

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

cai 'vegetable'
su-gi
so-kih (524)
sogi
sogi
!;iog~, siogi

J1ucai 'scallion'
se-ku-le
sengkule
sem~k~lt'!

qie 'eggplant'
ha-!H
hasi
hasH

(117)

359

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]

cong 'leek'
e-lu
elu
'ulu

[A]

[A]
[C]

354

356

[A]

[C]

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]

zao 'date'
zao-r
< Chinese

[A]

[T]

352

355

[A]

*sekule

dou 'bean'
tu-li
turi
tiurH
in the Awanokuni
text, the second
character is -gi,
but the form in -Ii
appears in entry
404 and is correct,
based on the M. form

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

mi 'uncooked rice'
be-Ie
puh-leh (530)
bule
bele
bele

*hengke

207

206

360

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[N]

s . //\ rpa

1;(.~

364

,:it;.

dao 'rice [ still in


the field]'
hung-pa
handu 'rice-plant'
perhaps the character
.::..p.!! is a mistake

*hungpa?

[A]

~ -1;'-

[e]

[S]

gen 'root'
da
tah (120)
da
da
daa

[A]

[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]

362

[e]

[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[S]
[N]

[A]

366

367

*apuha?

Gar~h~n

mogu 'mushroom'
fihe
no cognate

[A]

368

369

;f~ ~t

-t] i8

I\.:.,

hetao 'walnut'

[G]
[M]

huh-!lu (129)
huliu
husiha 'wild walnut'

[A]

*'4't .

[e]
[T]
[M]

songzi 'pine kernel'


hu-li
huh-li (127)
hud
had

[A]

~. ~Ii .

[e]
[T]

putao 'grape'
mo-Z:o-o
meh-/:'uh (130)
mecu
mucu
the final - may
represent a long
vowel, or may be
a mistake

[K]
I
I

*san~a

[e]
[T]

[G]

*garga

mu'er 'wood fungus'

[A]

[K]

[M]
[N]

*fihe

*4' ~
liang-~a
san~a

[G]

*suhe mo

1.~,

-kt,

[M]

[K]

iR . a1' t crt

[S]

[e]

[e]
[T]

the character ~ifj is

[M]

*da

af~h~

zhi 'branch'
ha-r-ha
gargan

[e]
[T]

[A]

[T]
[M]

read ~, however
it may represent
bu here, as the
phoneme [p] is
very rare, even
non-existent in
Jurchen of the
Ming period.
363

liu shu 'willow tree'


su-he-mo
suhai moo 'tamarisk'
-I+-

365

{J'iiI ~ ifi of;-

ye 'leaf'
a-pu-ha
'a-puh-hah (119)
abuha
abdaha

*9P tit . 1 .~, t

[T]
[M]

[e]

-!t-

361

[A]

hu-~u

*hu~u

~, 11
*huri

"J-X t.1p
*mo~o'o

208

209
370

[A]
[C)
[T]
[G)

[K]
[M]

374
zhenzi 'hazelnut'
H-H

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

Hh-lHh (128)
H!!i
sisi
375

371

[A]

[A]
[C)

[T]
[N]

shandinger 'a type of


plant'
i-la
Franke (1982)points out
that shandinger might
be the same word as

I.Li -ft(

[M]

[T]
[G)

*sira

shand ian

[K]
[M]
[N]

376

(Morohashi Vol 4 207/11;


215/1) 'a plant from
which a blue dye is
obtained, similar to
indigo' .
Franke suggests siraca,
'Chinese boxthorn;
a yellow dye made from
the rotten bark of the
tree Quercus bungeana
(Norman)

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[S]

377

[C)

[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]
[N]

yu shu 'elm'
hai-la-mo
hai-lah (109)
haila
hailan
hialiN
372-353

[C)

378

[C)

qiaomai 'buckwheat'
me-Ie
mere

cao 'grass'
o-r-ho
woh-rh-huo (116)
orho
orho

*orho

'or~h~

hong hua 'red flower'


fu-liang-i-ha
1100-346

*ful[g]ian il[h]a

[A]

*haila mo
[C)
[T]
[M]
[N]

[A]
[T]
[M]

*hondo/holdo mo

[A]

[A]

[T]

song shu 'pine tree'


hon-do-mo
huo-to-moh (104)
holdo mo
holdon
375-352

[A]

[T]
[N]

373

*nienmuJu

[A]
[C)

372

luobo 'turnip'
nien-mu-Ju
nieh-~u (132)
niyaJu
no cognate

*mere

j iecai 'mustard'
ha-r-hi-su-gi
hargi
378-353

*harhi sugi

211

210

379

[AJ

[C]

[T]

380

4ilPd.1l

mi-su-hu-!la
misu hllsiha

[A]

J.....~.

[C]
[T]

rensheng 'ginseng'
o-r-do-da
ordoda
cf. orho 'grass' 376
da 'root' 361

[N]
[A]

384

wuweizi 'type of medicine'


[the seeds of the schizandra
chinensis - used as a tonic]

[M]

[M]

381

7L D;f -t '

...

./

*misu

[M]
[5 ]

[N]

mianhua 'cotton'
ku-bu
kubun
kuvuN
the text has ~~

385

*ordoda

xi xin 'type of
plant (asarum
sieboldi)
H-!li-men-da
no cognate
~i~imen is possibly
from Chinese xi xin;
da means 'root' .
(cf. 361)

[A]

.:tAl.. . t~

[C]

donggua 'type of melon'


(benincasa cerifera)
ang-ba-hen-ke
the J. is literally
'big melon'

[T]
[N]

[T]
[M]

go-lo-mo
goro 'a tree of the
50~hora family'

[N]

384-352

[A]

~~. ~ll ~

[C]
[T]

hu-~a-mo

[M]

[N]

J \.

i~

ja~onica)

*goro mo

Ii mu 'chestnut tree'
*hu~a

mo

ho.siha 'wild walnut'


cf. 368 hullu
385-352

[A]

387

[A]

~' ~
J..; ~ $~ 3N

[A]

-i-1t . 71Ft:}

1153-356

xing hua 'apricot


blossoms'
gui-i-Ia

*um~u

*gui il[h]a

351-346

B~,*I1 '1f~l

[M]

baiyangshu 'poplar'
fa-ha-mo
fulha

[N]

389-352

[C]
[T]

*amba hengke

'ifJ'

[M]

[A]

*uri-he

'urum~

shanlihong 'hill-haw'
ung-pu
umpu

[T]
[N]
389

.'f,

'ur~m~,

[C]

j;

[5]

da
388

. 7C

[M]

[C]
[T]

*H~imen

*~ ~

j ie guo 'to bear fruit'


u-li-he
ure- 'to become ripe'

[C]
[T]

*kubu

* *1r~i-

[C]

[N]

383

:#p

lffl ~ .

[M]

huai shu 'locust tree'

hu~a

~5L A:~

[A]

[T]

[C]

,tfys 1t . i l'

not
382

1ft. ~lt, if!z it ~


(so~hora

386

[C]
[T]

[A]

*fa[l]ha mo

212

213

390

[A]
[C)

[T]
[N]

391

395
shu zhi 'branch [of
a tree]'
mo-ha-r-ha
352-363

[C)

*mo garga

[T]
[M]
[N]

396
[M]

tanshu 'sandlewood tree'


gin-de-he-mo
*gindehe mo
cf. ayan gintehe 'a tree
with green bark, small
leaves and fine wood -good for making bows and
knife handles' (Norman).
Franke (1982)points out that
the sandlewood tree does
not grow in Manchuria,
and here the term tanshu
must refer to some other
kind of tree

[C)
[M]
[N]

[T]
[N]

397

wang gua [= huang gua]


, cucumber'
su-yang-hen-ke
1101-356

*suyan hengke

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]

[N]

woju cai 'lettuce'


na-mo-su-gi
namu
392-353

*namo sugi

398

[C)

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

[M]
[N]

xiao mi 'millet'
3e-be-Ie
je
jee bele
393-359

399

[C)

[M]
[N]

[N]

xian cai 'spinach'


fi-Ieng-su-gi
fiyelen
394-353

huang mi 'yellow rice;


coarse rice'
fi-se-be-Ie
fisihe
398-359

*fise bele

[A]

[T]

[C)

*liwa hengke

*le bele

[A]
[T]

ku gua 'bitter melon'


(a small, yellow gourd)
li-wa-hen-ke
lugiya hengke 'bitter
melon (Momordica
charantia) '(Norman)
397-356

[A]

[T]

394

*nasa sugi

[A]

[C)

[A]

[T]

393

xian cai 'pickled


vegetables'
na-sa-su-gi
nasan
395-353

[A]
[C)
[T]

392

[A]

*filen sugi

lin ji mi 'rice kept


in a granary'
gua-ni-be-Ie
guan < Chinese. The
J. expresssion means
'the official's rice'

*guan-i bele

214

215
400

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

401

[A]

~ 1

* ,~, 1J t'l

li hua 'pear blossom'


H-lu-i-la

*Hl[hlu ilrhl a
SECTION FIVE

348-346

1-/,-<' 1(,
-++-

~. 1J

11-1j
406

[C]

[T]
[N]
402

403

. 1$--<f
~ 1-

[C]
[T]
[N]

shu gen 'root of a tree'


*mo da
mo-da

[A]

ytif-

[A]

352-361

407

*' . 1 t

."= 'It

'jJ

'

"'f"

t7

lR~tlJJ
huang dou 'soya bean'
su-yang-tu-ri

408

[C]
[T]
[M]

kang 'chaff'
a-la
ara

[A]
[C]
[T]

*suyan turi

1101-358

fi . JTiiJM

Jt . a

[M]
[S]

138-353

[A]

[A]

[G]
[K]

hai cai 'edible seaweed'


*mede sugi
me-de-su-gi

ILJ

EB

\:1 I~

hu 'tiger'
ta-s-ha
t'ah-si-hah (136)
tasha
tasha

-t . 11ft

[A]

r. ,~.
-'( ~ 1:.~-G'

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[S]
[N]

*tasha

tas~h~

[M]
[S]

*ara

*muduri

01:r.z

xiang 'elephant'
su-fa
su-fah (140)
sufan
suvaN, sufaN

[G]

409

. 1\~}J

[M]
[S]

[C]
[T]

-:t

~a

long 'dragon'
mu-du-li
muh-tu-rh (135)
mudur
muduri
muduri

[G]
[K]

i:rJ;t~

[C]
[T]
[N]
405

-:.

[A]
[C]
[T]

368-346

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]
404

song hua 'pine blossoms'


*huri il[h]a
hu-li-i-la

BIRDS AND ANIMALS

tuo 'camel'
te-mu-ge
t'eh-'oh (137)
temge
temen
tem~N

cf. Mongol temegen

*sufa

*temuge

216

217
410

[A)

[A)

4- ftat'

[H)
[5)

niu 'ox'
i-ha
wei-han (143)
ihan
ihan
'ihaN

[A)

.f

[C)
[T)
[G)
[K)

[H)
[5)
[A)

.1('. @A~
o It..;'

[K)

[C)
[T)
[G)
[K)

[H)
[5)
414

[A)

[C)
[T)
[G)
[K)

[H)
[5)
[N)

quan 'dog'
in-da-hu
yin-tah-hung (147)
indahun
indahtm
yon~huN,

17S . JL

416

v~l~giaN

*iha

[K)

[H)
[5)
417

[A)

*indahu

cf. kesike
cf. ke1l~kee, keSikee

~ . fj~$-7J
shu 'rat'
Sing-ge-li
en-koh (149)
Hnge
singgeri
Siger~,

7rp7[,

[C)
[T)
[G)

zhang 'roebuck'
H-r-ha
H-rh-hah (154)
lHrha
sirga

:ir..

*Hnggeri

siIJ~ri

~,

[K)

*u[l)gia

*ha~u? lka~u?

ha-~u

[A)

[H)
419

mao 'cat'

[H)
[5)
[N)

[K)

418

1m . ~

1u 'deer'
bu-u
puh-ku (146)
bugu
buhu
boM
cf. Hongol bU1r!:!

[C)
[T)
[G)

*honi

E?

in G. 162, ,'f -heihas been amended


to .!. -li-.

[A)

[C)
[T)
[G)

'in~huN

zhu 'pig'
u-gia
wuh-li-yen (162)
uliyan
ulgiyan

[A)

[C)
[T)
[H)
[5)

*muri

7;0
~~)2,

yang 'sheep'
ho-ni
huo-ni (144)
honi
honin
honiN

[C)
[T)
[G)

413

415

[5)

[K)

412

. ;1\;1]

rna 'horse'
mu-li
mu-1in (138)
morin
moriN

[C)
[T)
[G)

411

,,~

*bu'u

*~a;3'

[A)

1~

[C)
[T)
[H)

pao ' species of roe'


giu
gio 'roe deer'

*Hrga

11
*giu

218

219
420

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]
[N]

421

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]
422

[A]

-Itt iii ~

tu 'hare'
gu-ma-hung
ku-lu-ma-hai (150)
gulmahai
gGlmahun

425

[e]
[T]
[G]

*gu [ 1 lmahun

[K]

[M]
[5]

Gul~mahuN

the G. and K. forms


may be in the
genitive.

426

#.>.~
B ~ ,

ji 'chicken, cock'
ti-ko
t'i-huo (161)
tiko
coko
coqoo

[A]

*tiko

427

[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]
423

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]

*niunieha

428

niu~t!niah~

Ell,~ :J'f ~.

[M]
[5]

ya 'duck'
nie-he
mieh-hei (160)
miyehe
niyehe
'iixe

[A]

~1i .

[e]
[T]
[G]
[M]
[5]

hou 'monkey'
monio
moh-nen[nun] (152)
monio
moni

[K]

424

e 'goose'
niu-nie-ha
nen[nun]-nieh-hah (159)
niyonniyaha
niongniyaha

[A]

:e.1t1.~

*monio

~i-lu-u

*!Hlu 'u

silun 'lynx'
cf. Mongol
silUgUsUn

[M]
[5]

chong 'insect'
i-mi-ha
wuh-mieh-hah (166)
umiyaha
imiyaha, umiyaha
nimahi! 'worm'
imah~;

[A]

~~~,

[e]
[T]
[G]

yan ' swallow'


!H-bie-hu
sih-pieh-hung (183)
Hbihun
sibirgan 'speckled
swallow'
cibin 'swallow'
cf. civaqeN ' swallow'

[5]

llt

*'~'7L

bao 'leopard'

[M]

*meihe

me'ix~

[e)
[T]
[M]
[N]

[K]

*niehe

she 'snake'
mei-he
mei-hei (165)
meihe
meihe

~.

[K]

[e]
[T]

ii~\7f
. ...

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]

. 4j~ a?;-

$'Z. .

-:tt-

*imiha

. l:K jl.J 1&..


*!Hbiehu

220

221
429

[A]
[C]

que 'small bird'

[T]

se-~e-[hei]

[G]

~ih-~'i-hei (158)
lHnhei
cecike
cicikee
the G and K forms
are perhaps in the
genitive.
The transcription
seems to be missing
a -he; cf. 469

[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

430

432

[A]

[C]
*se~e(he)

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[N]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[5]

ying 'hawk'
gia-hu
giyahun
giahuN

*giahu

433

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

431

[A]
[C]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[N]

yu 'fish'
ni-mu-ha
li-wah-hah (163)
liwaha (limaha ? )
nimaha

*nimuha

nim~haa

the character read


-wah- by Grube can
also be read -moor -ma-, which is
the basis of Kiyose's
reconstruction.

434

qilin 'unicorn'
a-sa-Iang
cf. arsalan 'lion'
it is possible that
there is some confusion
between this and the
previous entry; the
fact remains, however,
that in the Bureau of
Translators' voabulary,
the word for 'lion' is
also given as *afi

*a[r]salan

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

435

shizi 'lion'
a-fi-a
*afi'a
'a-fei (139)
afi
no cognate
W. Fuchs (1976)suggested
that this word
might be connected
with some form of
the name "Africa";
its derivation, and
possible cognates
in other languages,
however, remains
obscure.

diaoshu 'sable'
se-ke
seh-koh (191)
seke
seke

*seke

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]

huang shu 'weasel'


so-lo-hi
solohi

*solohi

222

223
436

[A)

. ~,rr,

[M)

Hi 'donkey'
e-he
'oh-hen (141)
eihen
eihen

[5)

'e'ix~N

[A)

,rw,,~

[e)

[T)
[G)
[K)

437

J~l

[e)

[T)
[N)

441

hei rna 'black horse'


sa-ha-1iang-mu-li
1103-410

~/A\;11.

[G)
[K)

[M)
[S)

[N)
438

[A)

yinshu 'ermine'
u-nie
*unie
cf. Mongol Une 'polecat'

[A)

[e)

439

i~l' 7L~~

[T)
[N)

fR. t{: Ri-lft

[T)
[M)
[N)
440

[A)

fen shu 'mole'


mu-tu-sing-ge-1i
muktun
439-416

,,~f 7-

443

. Jfn 1l.'

,~~,

[e)

[S)

xiong 'bear'
le-fu
leh-fu (145)
lefu
lefu
leH!

[A]

ffi ,"fA

*mu[k]tu singgeri

[T)
[G)
[K)

?It ~5z.

[M)

[M]
[S]

los~

[T]

[N]

Hauer gives loose as


an old form of lose,
and lose as an old
form of losa

[G)
[K)

[G)
[K]

1- '}Z.'

[A)

luozi 'mule'
lao-sa
lao-sah (142)
losa
losa

[e)

[T]

*uluhu

huH 'fox'
*dobi
do-bi
to-li-pih/to-pih-li (153)
doribi
dobi
diovi
Grube suggested
that the order of
-li- and -pih- may
have been inverted,
and suggested the
cognate M. dobiri
'an animal that
resembles a fox that
can climb trees'
L.",

[e)

fLo.'

[A)

[T)
*saha1ian muri

El

qingshu 'squirrel'
u-Iu-hu
ulhu

[e)

~ -;f:..iJ

it 7L'~'-t.7

[T)
[M)

[e)

*ehe

442

. :tR~ 4

[A)

*laosa
444

[e)

[M]
[S]

[N)

flo];tf

*lefu

1]

shan rna 'gelding'


a-ta-mu-li
'a-tah mu-lin (168)
akda morin
akta morin
'aql!t~ moriN
444-410

*a[k]ta muri

224

225

445

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

446

450

[A]

luo ma 'mule'
geu-mu-li
geo (morin) 'mare'
note the difference
in meaning between
the ~ and J.words

[A]

[C]
[T]

*geu mori

[M]
[N]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

er ma 'stallion'
a-Ja-la-mu-li
'a-~i-rh mu-lin (170)
aJir morin
ajirgan/ajirhan 'a male
horse, donkey, camel
or dog' (Norman)

[S]

'aj~r~haN,

[N]

on the basis of the


MIS forms, perhaps
one could reconstruct
*ajar[h]a

*aiara muri
451

452

~ang-gia-mu-li

[N]

1102-410

[C]
[T]
[M]

ye zhu 'wild boar'


ai-da
aidahan

[G]
[K]
[M]

*aida
453

448

tian e 'swan'
ha-lu
hah-rh-wen (185)
garun
garu

[A]

[A]
[C]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

449

*sanggia muri

[A]

[T]

[A]

bai ma 'white horse'

[T]

[C]

447

*tama u[lJgia

[A]
[C]

'ajir~haN

zong zhu 'boar'


ta-ma-u-[gia]
taman 'castrated swine,
hog' (Norman)
the Chinese term is
a rare one, now a
dialect term meaning
'boar'. The -gia is
missing from the
Awanokuni text, but
is in the Seikad6 text
450-414

chi ma 'reddish horse'


j'e-r-de-mu-li
jerde 'sorrel horse'
448-410

[T]

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

[N]

*]erde mud

ma ju 'foal'
u-r-ha
*urha/ulha
cf. unahan 'colt, foal'
Franke (1982) suggests
ulha' livestock, domestic
animal'

454

huang niu 'yellow ox'


su-yang-i-ha
1101-411

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

lusi 'egret'
a
su-'an (181)
suwan
suwan

*suyan iha

226

227
455

[A]

459
[C]
[T]
[M]

tun zhu 'small pig'


me-he-u-gia
mehe 'a spayed sow'
mehejen ' a sow'
mehele jui 'piglet'
mehen 'a sow that has
not yet farrowed'
(Norman). mehe is
glossed 'a spayed
cow', an obvious
misprint
455-414

*mehe u[lJgia

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

460

[C]
[T]

[N]

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]

luci 'cormorant'
ha-sa-ha
gftwasihiya 'eastern
egret'

*gasaha

461

[C]
[T]

[A]
[C]

[T]

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

xianhao 'crane'
bu-Ie-he
puh-Ieh-hei (182)
bulehei
bulehen
buluxu
the G. and K. forms
may be in the
genitive

462

[N]

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

*satseha

[M]

*tiko hula-mbi

hulam~

458-421-mbi

banjiu 'dove'
a-lin-hu-tie
130-484

*alin hutie

zhiguan 'stork'
wei-ju
weijun

*wei]u

[A]

[C]
[T]
ji ti 'the cock crows'
ti-ko-hu-lan-bi
hula- 'to cry out loud'

xiqiao 'magpie'
sa-tse-ha
saksaha
perhaps the -tserepresents a form
-ks-

[A]

[C]
[T]

[A]
[C]

*wa~a

*bulehe

463
458

qingzhuang 'heron'
wa-!a
cf. wakan 'night heron'
wasiha 'claw, talon'
perhaps -a is a mistake

[A]

[M]
[N]

457

*imuko

[A]

[M]

456

haiqing 'gerfalcon'
lH-mu-ko
en-k'o-'an (187)
!inkoan
cf. !ongkon

228

229
464

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]

465

[T]

anchun 'quail'
mu-llu

[M]

mu~u

470

471
*mu~u

[C)

huang que 'golden oriole'

[T]
[M]
[N]

gulin cecike

gui-li-se-~e-he

*guili

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

469-429

[C)

pangxie 'crab'

[T]
[M]

no cognate

i-~u-he

*H:uhe

gui 'tortoise'
ai-u-ma
'a-yu-ma (164)
aihuma
aihuma
'a'ihum!!

[A]

[T]
[M]
[5]

472

*ai'uma

[T]
[G)
[K]

[M]
[5]

luoyi 'ant'
i-r-hue
yerhuwe

*irhue

yur~'imah~

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[A]

[C)

zhizhu 'spide r'


he-ming
helmehen
xem~x!!n

the 5eikado text


has

wuya 'crow'
ha-ha
hah-hah (157)
gaha
gaha
Gah!!

*he[llmin

-%- -gQ

for the

second syllable,
but this is an
obviously miswritten character;
the Awanokuni text
is correct

468

se~ehe

[A]

[C]

[A]

[C)

467

yagu 'turtle-dove'
hui-ho-lo
*huiholo
hoei-huo-lo (184)
guwiholo
no cognate. Franke (1982)
suggests kokoli
'the name of a small
bird that resembles
the woodstock'
(Norman)

[A]

[A]
[C]

466

469

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

yaoying 'kite'
fi-le
hiyebele 'black-eared
kite' ;
fiyelen 'yellow-beaked
young birds'

473

*file

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]

[5]

R
shi 'louse'
ti-he
cihe
cixee

*tihe

231

230

474

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

479
hudie 'butterfly'
ge-po
cf. gefehe
another example of
a possible remnant
of [I!] in Jin
Jurchen, if the
transcription is
correct

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

[5]

480

[M]

wei 'tail'
u-ce
uncehen

[5]

'uNcix~N,

[C]

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]

476

wenchong 'mosquito'
ha-r-ma
galman

*galma

481

GaH!m~n

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

cangying 'fly'
de-r-hue
derhuwe
dur~vee, duruvuu

*derhue

482

477

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

478

j iao 'horn'
wei-he
wuh-ye-hei (602)
uyehe
weihe, uihe
viixl1!

[T]
[M]

*weihe
483

'uNciuxiuN, 'iuNciuxiuN

mao 'hair'
fun-he
*funhe
fen-yih-li-hei (493, 515)
funirhei
funiyehe
fenix~

the G. and K. forms may


be in the genitive

[A]

[e]

[A]

*u[nl~e

[A]
[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[A]

*deli

[A]

[T]
475

zong 'mane'
de-Ii
delun
deH!N, duluN

[A]
[e]
[T]
[M]

qingting 'dragonfly'
fo-lo-gu
no cognate
t::b 0 rb:4.
:IiR:. :J.ia}\,

/.- i
-1i'ii!

cuzhi 'cricket'
gu-Iu-Ji
gurjen

*fologu

"

*guruJi

[A]
484

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

ti 'hoof'
fa-ta
fatha
fat~h~,

fatt1!q~

*fat[hla

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

gezi 'pigeon'
hu-tie
kuwecihe
gucixee

*hutie

233

232
485

489

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

long gua 'whirlwind'


*muduri laki-ha
mu-du-ri-Ia-ki-ha
the Chinese expression
literally means 'dragon
hangs [down]', 'the dragon
has descended' etc. For
J. *laki, cf. M. lakiya'to hang'. Franke (1982)
points out that long gua
is a literary allusion
to an atmospheric phenomenon
which describes thunderstorm
cloud formations or a whirlwind. The source is the
Bishu luhua by Ye Mengde
of the Song.

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

490

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[M]

486

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

muxiang 'female elephant'


e-mi-Ie-su-fa
*emile sufa
cf. emile 'the female of
birds'
486-408

[N]

491
487

[A]
[C]

[T]
[N]

492
488

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

long xi shui 'watersprout'


mu-du-ri-mu-ke-go-ti-bi *muduri muke
goti-bi
the Chinese lit. means
'the dragon plays with
water'. Franke (1982)
also points out that this
must be another type of
atmospheric phenomenon,
such as a watersprout. Cf.
M. goci- (def. 7) 'to appear,
to come out (of a rainbow)'
(Norman)

zhan rna 'warhorse'


so-li-1a-mu-ri
*sori-ra muri
cf. so-li-tu-man
(455,484) 'to fight'
cf. sori- 'to kick (of
horses); to paw the
ground, to jump around';
cf. also sorin den
'running with the chest
high (of horses)'
490-ra-410

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

hu xiao 'the tiger roars'


ta-s-ha-hu-Ian-bi
*tasha hula-mbi
407-458

gongxiang 'male elephant'


a-mi-Ia-su-fa
*amila sufa
amila 'the male of fowl'
as in the case of *emile
(486), in Manchu this word
seems to be restricted to
birds. Either in Jurchen
its use was broader, or
this is a mistaken usage

hu yao 'tiger bites'


ta-s-ha-ung-bi
407-1055-mbi

*tasha u-mbi

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

gengniu 'ploughing ox'


u-i-ta-1i-Ie-i-ha
*u~i tari-re iha
tari- 'to till, to plough'
tiarimt!!
141-re-411

235

234
493

[A]
[e]
[T]
[M]

[N]

498
yinhe ma 'horse with
silver coloured hair'
kung-go-li-mu-li
*kunggori muri
konggoro morin 'Isabella
coloured; an Isabella
horse'
the character transcribed
here -gQ- should have been
read -gue-, in which case
we would have *konggueri
for this word.

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

499

[e]
[T]

500

[T]
[M]

[N]

hongsha ma 'horse with red


and sand-coloured hair'
fu-liang-bo-lo-mu-Ii
*ful[glian boro
mori
boro 'grey'
burulu 'a horse having
mixed red and white hair'
1100-494-410

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

501

[A]
[e]
[T]
[N]

feng gou 'mad dog'


e-du-Ie-he-in-da-hu
cf. comments under 710
710-4l3

[T]
[M]
[N]

*edule-he indahu

502
[A]
[e]
[T]
[N]

497

ma si 'the horse neighs'


mu-li-hu-Ian-bi
*muri hula-mbi
410-458-mbi

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

*nieha

*a[kltala honi

huang yang 'Mongolian


gazelle'
ie-Ii
jeren
cf. Mongol Jegere

[A]

[e]

daimei mao 'tortoiseshell [colour] cat'

[T]

su-yang-i-Ia-ha-~u

[N]

1101-346-415

*suyan i l [h] a
ha~ulkai::u

503
xiao gou 'small dog'
nie-ha
niyahan

jieyang 'wether'
a-ta-la-ho-ni
aktala- 'to castrate'
500-412

[A]

[e]

496

yinghuochong 'glow-worm'
Ju-1!in-po(?)
*lu/limpo?
juciba 'firefly'

[A]

[e]

495

*as[h]a miho

[A]

[M]

494

xiao zhu 'small pig'


a-1!a-mi-ho
mihan
mihaN
1154-498

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[M]
[5]

jinqian bao 'leopard'


ya-r-ha
ya-Iah (148)
yarha
yarehe

*yarha

237

236
504

510

[A]

[T]

lUmao gui 'green-haired


tortoise'
nien-gia-fun-he-ai-u-ma

[N]

1099-481-466

[C)

[C)
[T]
[M]

*niengia funhe
ai'uma
511

505

[A]

[C)

[C)

[T]
[G)

[T]
[N]

[K]
[M]

[S]

506

[C)

ye mao 'wild cat'

[T]

u-~e-hi

[M]

uj irhi

*u~ehi

[C)

[T]

[A]
[C)

[T]
[M]
[N]

nian yu 'catfish'
la-ha-ni-mu-ha
laha
507-431

'ol~hum~

513

diao ying 'falcon'


gu-di
no cognate. Franke
(1982) suggests
huksen 'a type of
falcon kept in the
house'

514

[C)
[T]
[M]
[N]

*tahuda

[A]

[C)

liyu 'carp'

[T]
[M]

tu-~e-ni-mu-ha

[C)

515
*]010 bu'u

*tu~e

nimuha

no cognate

[A]

[T]
[M]
[S]

[A]

milu 'the tailed deer'


Jo-lo-bu-u
jolo buhll 'doe,
female deer'
509-417

hali 'clam'
ta-hu-da
tahura
in the light of the
M. form, perhaps
-da is a mistake for
-la

*laha nimuha

[A]
[C)
[T]
[M]

509

'ol~h~m~,

*ul[h]uma

[A]

[M]
[N]

508

ye ji 'pheasant'
u-lu-ma
wuh-lu-wuh-ma (188)
ulguma
u1hfuna

[A]

512

507

*e)'ume

[A]

[A]
huang ying 'yellow hawk'
su-yan-gia-hu
*suyan giahu
1101-340

bianfu 'bat'
e-Ju-me
no cognate

weishu 'hedgehog'
sengge
sengge
se9~

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]

xia 'shrimp'
hi-te
no cognate

*sengge

239

238
516

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]

517

[A]

:(!. :a-;r ~

[G]
[K]
[N]

[A]

fj6,~ . P1---~' ;1-<tJ

[e]

[N]

[A]

fei rna 'fat horse'


ta-1u-mu-li
in entry 719, 'fat'
is given as *taru'u
719-410

ft.~

[N]

[A]

1~

[e]

[T]
[N]

o{ .

;< ~

1'gip -t 1~ , IJoJ ~f ji'ii]

[e]

shizi mao 'lion-cat'


(a type of cat of the
Angora or Persian
variety)

*ta:)..[h]u mud

*turha muri

/'

[l;J ~'//,. //.


~~ \4'
o II..:..
I

gou yao 'the dog bites'


in-da-hu-ung-bi
413-1045-mbi

a-fi-ha-~u

[T]
[N]

432-415

[A]

'4' t.~

[e]

[T]
[N]

[A]

~:t:

*afi

ha~ulkaC'u

, P"Ti! tVg ~

gong j i 'cock'
a-mi-la-ti-ko
489-421

*amila tiko

-ffi- f.~ . t~i1ltJ ~ ~

[e]

mu ji 'hen'

[T]
[N]

e-mi-le-ti-ko
486-421

*sufa weihe

. 1t ~w ~:f. j]

shou rna 'thin horse'


tu-r-ha-mu-li
709-410

[e]

[T]

523

524

'l..~

xiangya 'ivory'
su-fa-wei-he
su-fah wei-hei (582)
sufa weihe
408-477

[T]

[A]

*sui1an

t J .~ ,z"<;t ,".
tf1

[e]

521

mifeng 'bee'
sui-lang
suilan
siuliaa

[A]

[T]

520

522

[G]
[K]
[M]

[T]

519

~p

yuanyang 'mandarin duck'


*guyahun
gu-ya-hung
gu-ya-huh (180)
guyahu
guyahu

[e]

518

~* t

*indahu u-mbi

*emile tiko

241

240
530

SECTION SIX

525

[C]
[M]

[S]

526

fang 'house'
bo
boo
boo

[M]

uce
'ucii
533

[A]

[M]

fang yang 'eaves'


bo-si-hi-mu-ha
*bo sihi muha
sihin 'eaves (of a house)
mohon 'end'
534

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[N]

wa fang 'tiled house'


wa-ze-bo
wase 'tile'
wase boo 'house with
a tiled roof'
*waze < Chinese
528-525

[C]
[T]
[N]

cao fang 'thatched house'


o-r-ho-bo
*orho bo
376-525

hod!h~N

414-531

niu 1an 'cattle-shed'


i-ha-ho-ro
412-532

*iha hor[h]o

lin she 'nearby hut'


han-~i-bo

[M]
[T]

hansi 'near'
533-525

*han~i

bo

[A]

yanglan 'sheep-pen'
ho-ni-ho-lo
412-531

*honi hor[h]o

tuo 'large tie beams'


tai-u
cf. 536 below

*tai'u

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

[A]

*u[l]gia hor[h]o

[C]
[T]

[N]

535

zhu juan 'pigsty'


u-gia-ho-lo
horho 'stable'

[A]

[C]
[T]

*waze bo

*muri bo

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

u-~i

ma fang 'stable'
mu-1i-bo
410-525

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

*bo

532
men 'door'

[T]

529

531

[C]
[T]

[C]

528

BUILDINGS

[A]

[S]

527

[C]
[T]
[N]

[A]

[T]

[A]

243

242
536

[e]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]
[N]

537

[T]
[M]

chuan 'beam, rafter'


so
son

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[T]
[M]

[N]

541

542

i-~e-bo

[N]

192-525

[M]
[5]

545

[T]
[M]
[5]

suvad~h~N

subarhan

*subu'an
(*subu[r][h]an?)

*]U'U

yantong 'chimney'
hu-lang
hulan
hulaN

*hulan

[A]

[e]
[T]

baozi 'screen'

[N]

perhaps this is the


same word as entry
608 'flag', *fanta

525-538-mbi

ta 'pagoda'
su-bu-an

zao huo 'stove, furnace'


Ju-u
jun
juN

[A]

[e]
[T]

'ar~m~

*ice bo

[A]

[M]
[5]

gai fang 'to build a house'


bo-a-lan-bi
*bo ara-mbi
ara- 'to make, to do'

xin fang 'new house'

[T]

[e]
[T]

544

zhe fang 'demolish a house'


bo-e-feng-bi
*bo efe-mbi
efule- 'to destroy'
525-540-mbi

[A]
[e]

*so

[A]
[e]

[A]

[e]

543

[A]

[e]

539

liang 'beam [of a house]'


tai-fu
*taifu
t'ai-pen (207)
taibun
taibu
the 5eikado text, here and
in the previous five entries,
is corrupt, and the present
entries are based on the
Awanokuni text. Particularly
in 535 and 536, however, there
still seems to be some
corruption or confusion.
Perhaps the -fu in this
entry should we -wu, which
is what we would expect,
given the relationship M.
intervocalic -b- = J. -w-

[A]

[e]

538

540

[A]

fang-~a

*fan~a

[A]
[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

chuang 'window'
fa
fah-'a (209)
faa
fa
faa

*fa

244

245
546

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

551
ban 'board'
u-te
undehen

[A]

[C]

*u[n]te

[T]
547

[C]

[T]
[M]
[N]

548

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[N]

*ordo ha'an bo

xiu fang 'repair a house'


bo-da-sa-bi
*bo dasa-bi
dasa-

552

[T]

[M]
[N]

[A]

[C]

das~m~

[T]

525-548-bi

[M]

[5]
[N]

[A]

[C]

550

huang dian 'imperial


palace'
o-r-do-ha-an-bo
ordo 'palace, court'
547-653-525

[A]

[C]

549

[M]

[A]

guanfang buxu zuojian


'it is not permitted to
run around in official
residences'
gua-ni-bo-u-me-ha-sa-la

553

[T]

hasa- 'to hurry, to be


in a rush'
guan < Chinese
549-i-(gen.)-525-neg.-ra

[N]

554

[C]
[T]

[A]

555

men chuang buxu shaohui


'it is not permitted to
burn doors and windows'

[T]

u-~i-fa-u-me-de-di-le

[N]

526-545-neg.-1042-re

l i bu < Chinese

bingbu yamen 'Board of War'


*bing bu hafa
bing-bu-ha-fa
bing bu < Chinese
553-552

jilong 'chicken cage'


ti-ko-!!o-lo
!Ioro
421-554

*tiko !!oro

[A]
[C]

*uci fa ume
dedi-re

hav~N

[A]

[M]
[N]

[C]

libu yamen 'Board of Rites'


li-bu-ha-fa
*li bu hafa
hafan 'official, officer'

[A]

[C]
*guan-i bo ume
hasa-ra

jijian fang 'a house with


several rooms' or
'how many rooms?'
mu-gian-bo
*mu gian bo
giyan 'measure word for
rooms and buildings'
< Chinese
Chinese i i can mean 'several'
or 'how many'. In entries 311
and 312, i i is translated as
*uhiahu in Jurchen. 'How much'
in Manchu is udu; I cannot
find a Manchu cognate for
either *mu or *uhiahu

[T]
[M]

[5]

kang 'brick-bed, kang'


na-ha
nahan
nah~N 'underfloor
heating flue'

*naha

247

246

556

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

557

guan yi 'post-house'
guan-i
< Chinese

*guan i

SECTION SEVEN

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]
[N]

561

da men 'main gate'


ang-ba-du-ha
tu-hah[ka] (201)
duka
duka
duqaa

[A]

[C]

*amba duka

[T]
[S]

562

1153-557

[C]

[T]
[M]
[N]

559

[K]
[M]
[S]

yimen 'the middle gate


of a yamen'
~i-de-ki-du-ha

*~ideki

duka

cf. siden 'space,


interval, interstice'

563

558-557

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

560

[T]
[G]

[A]

jiaomen 'side gate'


da-ba-ki-du-ka
dalbaki 'on the side'

*da[l)baki duka

zhu 'pillar'
tu-la
t'uh-lah (208)
tura
tura
turaa 'post'

564

gu 'drum'
tung-ke
t'ung-k'en (256)
tunken
tungken
tuNkeN

*tungke

[A]

[C]

zhi 'paper'

[T]

hao-~a

[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]

hao-~a

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]

zhong 'bell'
Jung
jugE!

[A]
[C]

558

TOOLS AND UTENSILS

*hao~a

(222)

hausa
hoo~an

hosiN, ha'usaN 'paper


offerings used in
ancestor worship
ritual'

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[M]
[S]

mo 'ink'
be-he
poh-hei (223)
behe
bexee

249

248

565

569

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

fei (224)

[K]
[M]
[5]

fi
fi
fii

[C)

570

[GJ
[K]
[M]
[5]

*se
571

[C)

die 'plate'

[TJ

fi-Ia

[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]

fei-Iah (243)
fila
fila
Hlaa

[C)
[T]
[M]
[N]

shi 'stone'

zhuo 'table'
de-Ie
t'eh-'oh (238)
tere
dere
derE!

[CJ
[KJ
[MJ

[NJ

deng 'bench'
mu-Iang
muh-Iah (239)
mulan
mulan
the second char.
in G. 239 is -lah,
which Kiyose has
amended to -Ian on
the basis of the
Jurchen characters
used

penzi 'basin'
fun-ze
fengse
both J and M forms
< Chinese penzi
In the 5eikado text,
this word is written
pen instead of penzi

*funze

*dere
572

[A]

[C)

[T]

[A]

[T]
[GJ

*Hla

[AJ

[M]

568

mor~

[A]

[AJ
[C)

*moro

bi

yan 'ink-slab'
se
seh[saiJ (225)
se
the Manchu word for
'ink-slab' is yuwan,
< Ch. van. Franke
(1982) suggests J.
*se < Ch.

[T]

wan 'bowl'
mo-Io
moh-Io (246)
moro
moro

J. *fi < Jin. *i

[A]

[T]
[G)
[K]
[N]

567

[T]
[G)

*fi

~
< Chinese --f

566

[C)

bi 'pen, writing
instrument'
fi

[AJ

[5J

saf~q~

[N]

-ba could also be


read -~, but I have
opted for -ba on the
basis of the M. form

*mulan
573

zhu 'chopsticks'
sa-ba
sabka

[A]

[C)

guo 'cooking pot'

[T]
[GJ
[K]
[M]
[5]

mu-~e

muh-sien (244)
mu1l'en
mucen
meceN

*sab[kJa

251

250
-j-

574

,8

579

[A]

'1r

[C]
[T]

hu 'pot, jug'
tang-ping
tamp in
both J and M forms

[M]

[N]

'/~

[C]
[T]
[G]

*tampin

[K]

[M]
[5 ]

< Ch. ~ ~t tanping


575

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]
576

-tt

-t-++
D~

qiang 'spear'
gi-da
kih-tah (234)
gida
gida
gidaa

580

[C]
[T]
[G]

*gida

[K]

[M]
[5]
[N]

J]

[C]
[T]
[M]

dao 'knife'
hue-iii
huwesi
kuHi

*huelH
581

577

578

[A]

~~

[A]

[5]

[A]

. :J~9.. 'J...

[A]

.m2.

[C]
[T]
[G]

kui 'helmet'
sah-~'a

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]

*saca

sa-~a

[A]

[M]

(232)

[K)

sa~a

[5]

[M]

saca

[N]

[A)

E . 7L

*--

[C)
[T]
[G)

j ia 'armour'
u-lii
wuh-l:'eng-yin (233)

[K)
[M)

uksin

[5)

'ux~siN

uk~in

75 1811
gong 'bow' (n)
be-li
poh-li (236)
beri
beri
berii
~

fl'J

582

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]
[N]

. jEf. ,~,

jian 'arrow'
nie-1u
ni-1u (237)
niru
niru
niur~,

*niru

yur~

it would also be
possible to reconstruct *nieru, but
I have opted for
*niru on the basis
of the G and M forms

tl' f.lJJ ~
jing 'mirror'
*me1eku?
me-1e-ku
puh-1ung[nung]-k'u (251)
bu1unku
bu1eku
bu1uNku, bu1~ku
note the similarity of
the 5ibe to those found
in G and K . The character
~ might be a mistake
~

*u[k)H

*beri

'M

~~t

jian 'scissors'
ha-dza
hah-tsl-hah (252)
haJ'iha
has aha
has~h~

perhaps a form
*ha][h]a is
possible

*hadza?

253

252
583

[A]

[A]

j'ffl. 1G

[e]

[T]

ping 'bottle, vase'


hua-ping

[N]

< eh.

[A]

~.~-~,

[e]

fu 'axe'
su-he
suhe
suxee, suxuu

[T]
[M]
[5]

586

[A]

[e]

[T]
[M]

587

[G]
[K]
[M]

[T]

585

[Iii] t.J

pan 'dish'
a-Ii-gu
'a-li-k'u (242)
aliku
aliku

[e]

584

M
.llll..

[A]

[e]

[T]
[M]

589

[e]

[T]

*aIigu

[M]

590

*huaping

591

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[e]

[T]
[M]

t~

*tunggu

tOI)~

b-

~t

. 7L IP

'.'

zhen 'needle'
u-me
wuh-lu-meh (249)
ulme
ulme
'unuu
Ir!.

592

*u rlJme

If

~-t

[e]

bizi 'fine-toothed
comb'
me-r-he
merhe

[M]
[5 ]

[A]

[e]

[T]
*ya[k]!Hgu

,~,
..:t.

[A]

[T]
*u[ljtu

. 3J 57z 1i

suo 'lock'
ya-iH-gu
yaksiku 'bolt of
a door'

~%

*fufun

593
588

[A]

*sonko

xian 'thread'
tung-gu
t'oh-kuo (250)
togo/tongo
tonggo

[T]

Tu~

qiao 'shovel'
u-tu
cf. uldefun 'a large
hoe made of wood'

yao 'key'
son-ko
no cognate
Franke (1982) suggests
M. su- 'to untie,
to unhitch'

[e]

[e]

. 11:-' _~,

-1TfJ

,*~

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5 ]

*suhe

X- tff{

-6..h.
~lunJ

[A]

[T]

11:. #~ huaping

ju 'saw' (n)
fu-fung
fufun

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]

' "- ~/

*merhe

med!x~

:tiL T . iJ- S"]1A-'


shuzi 'comb'
i-di-fu
yih-rh-tih-hung (549)
irdihun
ijifun

*idifu

255

254

594

[C)
[T]
[M]
[5 ]

595

[G)

[K]
[M]

[5]

[M]

[5]

[N]

zhentou 'pillow'
ti-r-gu
t'i-Ieh-k'u (550)
tireku
cirku
cunuku, cunuku

*tirgu

[G)
[K]
[M]

600

[C)
[M]

601
tong 'bucket'
hu-niu
hunio
xuni

[T]
[M]
[5]

602
shan 'fan'
fu-se-gu
fuh-seh-gu
fushegu
fusheku

[M]

603
598

[A]

[C)

[M]
[N]

lihua 'plough'
u-pu[fu]-ha-Iang
ofoho 'ploughshare'
halhan 'ploughshare'
the character -fucould be read -pu-,
but I have opted for
-fu- on the basis of
the Manchu form

[G)

*ufu hal[h)an

[K]
[M]
[5]

604

*safi

zhou 'broom'
e-r-gu
eriku
'ir~k~

bo 'winnowing fan'
fi-u
fiyoo

*fi'u

[A]

[T]
[C)
[T]

chi 'spoon'
sa-fi
saifi

[A]

[C)
[T]

*fusfh]egu

*muri yarfu

[A]

[C)
*huniu

majiangsheng 'bridle'
mu-li-ya-r-fu
yarfun 'a long leather
cord attached to the
headstall or bridle,
tether' (Norman)
410-599

[A]

[T]

[A]

[C)
[T]

[A]
[C)
[T]
[M]

*derhi

[A]
[C)
[T]

597

xizi 'mat'
de-r-hi
derhi
dirixi

[A]

[C)
[T]

596

599

[A]

che 'vehicle'
se-je
seh-ce (253)
sej'e
sejen
sejElN

[A]
[C)
[T]
[M]

wang 'net'
i-Ie
ile

*ile

257

256

605

[A]

[C)
[T]

606

[M]
[5]

[A]

ill, .

[C]
[M]
[5]

sheng 'string, rope'


fu-ta
futa
fEitaa

[A]

~r

[C]

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M)

608

610

ling 'small bell'


hung-go
honggon
hOIJEiN

[T]

607

M-.
':it.'~
'f.z Yl\~

/ft.'

*futa

. 1L, 11:.'

612

deng 'stirrup'
tu-fu
t'uh-fu (231)
tufu
tufun

[A]

~. fL~

[C)

qi 'flag'

[T]
[G]

fan-~a

[K]
[M]

611

*tufu

< Ch.

~~

614

t fanzi

Cf also 544
609

\f1

_~" TL.

*6

[C)

chan 'saddle-flap'
he-u-te
hei-puh-t'eh (227)
hebte
habta 'the wing of a
saddle'

[K]
[M]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]

tizi 'ladder'
wang
wan
vaN

[A]

]1!

[C]
[T]

ti 'drawer'
na-mu-ki
namki

[A]

'<.:,,'

'l:fu 6i
~

./ -

*hudar[g]a

*wan

:t t
*namuki

. *:z lfJ 1;;]

Ie.'

tz-'
a

jiuzhong 'wine-cup'
nu-le-hu-ta
huntahan 'cup, mug,
glass'
1007-613

[A]

f.H}' EtJ~

[C]
[T]
[G]

chuan 'boat'
di-ha
tih-hai (254)
dihai
jaha
G. and J. are in
the gen. form

[N]
*he'ute

~r-q

[N]

[K]
[M]

"\,'

[A]

[T]
[G)

1-$ t . Yl-

[M]

fan-nah-rh (220)
fannar
no cognate. cf.
fangse 'pennant'

~,~jlJ

[A]

[C]
[T]
*fan~a

[K]
[M]

[M]

613

li~

qiu 'crupper'
hu-da-la
huh-tih-lah (228)
hudila
kudargan

[C]
[T]
[G]

*hunggo

n-

[A]

*nure hu[n]ta

-'

*diha

259

258

615

[e)
[T)
[M)
[N)

616

[G)
[K)
[M)

[S)

10M

[e)
[M)

[G)
[K)
[M)

*u[njte siangze

[S)

lian dao 'sickle'


ha-tu
hadufun 'sickle';
hadu- 'to cut with
a sickle'

[T)
[G]
[K)
[M)
[S)
[N)

*hatu

623

[T)

niuche 'ox-cart'
i-ha-se-Je

[N]

411-603

624

ma'anzi 'saddle (for


horses) ,
mu-li-an-ge-mu
'en-koh-mai (226)
engemer
enggemu

*muri anggemu

'em~IJ~

410-622

[A)

[e]

dudai 'girth'

[T]
[M)

0-10

*010

olon

[T)
[M)

[e)
[T)

anzuo 'saddle-cushion'
saofu
soforo

[M)
[S]
[N)

*saufu
625

[A)

[e]
[T)
[G]
[K)
[M)

[A)

*iha sere

[A)
[e)

620

*hadala

[A)

[e)

*loho

liantou 'bridle'
ha-da-la
t'a-ta (229) (7)
tada (7)
hadala
had~l~, qad~l~ 'bit
'of harness)'

[A)
[e)

619

[e)

[A]

[T]

[A)

[T)

622

yaodao 'dagger'
lo-ho
lo-huo (235)
loho
loho

[T)

618

banxiang 'a chest


made of boards'
u-te-siang-ze
undehen 'board'
J. *siangze < eh.
xiangzi

[A)
[e)

617

621

[A)

zhangfang 'tent'
~a-~a-li
~ah-~'ah-li

Ja~ili

cacari

(214)

macao 'trough (for


horses) ,
mu-li-hu-H
huju
xujuN

*muri

hu~i

410-624

[A)
[e)

bianzi 'whip'

[T)

su-~i-ha

[G)

su-~ih-kai

[K)
[M]
[S]
[N)

suHgai
susiha
susihaa, siusihaa, susihaa
the G. and K. forms may
be in the genitive.

*su~iha

(230)

260

261
626

[A]
[e)

[T]
[M]
[5]

627

gou 'hook'
go-ho
gohon
GoM

[A]

[e)
[T]
[M]
[N]

[A]
[e)

628

632

[T]

tuhaobi 'rabbit's
hair brush: a
fine writing
brush'
gu-ma-hung-fun-he-fi

[N]

420-481-565

633

[K]
[M]

[A]

[e)
[T]

an-~u-sa-~a

[N]

1064-577

*an~u sa~a

634

[A]
[e)
[N]

[T]
chao zhong 'palace bell'
o-r-do-Jung
*ordo lung
547-561

[N]

635
630

geyang pan 'dish for


cutting sheep(meat) ,
ho-ni-fi-ta-a-li-gu
faita- 'to cut,
to slice'
412-634-583

*honi fita aligu

[A]

[A]
[e)

[e)

[T]
[N]

genggu 'drum for marking


each two hour period'
ging-du-Ie-tung-ke
*ging du-re
tungke
315-810-re-561

[T]
[M]
[5]

636
631

*fi'ulagu

[A]

[M]

[T]

dengtai 'lampstand'
fi-u-Ia-gu
cf. fei-pen (247)
'lamp'
fibun
cf. hiyabun 'lantern'
hiyabulaku 'a lantern
rack'

jin kui 'golden helmet'

[e)

629

*tuhuru

[A]
[e)
[T]
[G)

*gu [11mahun
funhe fi

ciwan 'porcelain bowl'


tu-hu-lu
cf. tomoro
-hu- is possibly a
mistake for a char.
read -mo-

[A]

[A]
[e)

[T]
[e)
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

jiutan 'jug for wine'


nu-Ie-ma-Iu
malu

[M]
[N]

*nure malu

mal~

1007-631

fangche 'spinning wheel'


fo-Io-gu
*forogu
forko
forequ 'well pulley'

yingfu 'chowry, fly whisk'


de-r-hue-bo-do
*derhue bode
cf. derhuwe ba~aku
Franke (1982) suggests
bodo- 'to drive
animals to a predestined place'
476-636

263

262

637

[C]
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

638

641

[A]

yuwang 'fish net'


ni-mu-ha-a-su
asu

[C]
*nimuha asu
[T]
[M]

'as~

431-637

[T]
[M]

[N]

pipa '~ (a musical


instrument similar to
a lute)'
ku-lu
cf. huru 'a mouth-harp
made of cows horn and
bamboo'
cf. Mongol ~ur, guur
'balalaika, guitar'
cf. Ligeti, "Anciens
elements", p. 235.

642

[A]

[C]
*kuru

[T]
[M]
[N]

643

suona 'suona (a trumpetlike wind instrument)'


ya-r-hi
*yarhino cognate
in the 5eikado text,
this word is written
ya-hu-hi

[A]

[A]
[T]

yundou 'flat iron'


hu-!li-gu

[M]

huwe~eku

[C]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

640

beiluo 'beiluo (a military


musical instrument)'
bu-Iu-dun-bi
*burudu-mbi
burde- 'to blow on a
conch, to sound
advance or retreat
on a conch'

[A]
[C]

639

[A)

da wei wang
sa-ha-da-i-le
cf. sahada- 'to hunt
in autumn'
639-604

*sahada ile

644

[C]

[T]
[M]

[A]

[C]

[A]

huqin 'hugin (a Chinese


stringed instrument)'
ki-Ja-li
*kiJari/kiJali?
no cognate. Manchu for
hugin is onggocon <
Mongol ongoca 'boat'

[T]
[N]

645

tie kui 'iron helmet'


se-Ie-sa-ta
1077-577

*sele sata

pi jia 'hide armour'


su-gu-u-iH
894-578

*sugu u[k]H

tie jia 'iron armour'


se-Ie-u-!li
1077-578

*sele u[k]H

[A]

[C]

[T]
[N]

646

*hu~igu

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

264

265
647

[A]
[C)
[T]
[N]

648

huo jian 'iron arrow'


ta-nie-lu

*ta niru

1012-580

5ECTION EIGHT

[A]

653

649

[C)
[T]

tie suo 'iron lock'


se-le-ya-iH-gu

[N]

1077-588

[T]
[N]

[T]
[M]
[5]

652

tong suo 'bronze lock'


iH-li-ya-iH-gu

[C)

[G)
[K)
[M)
[5)
[N)

*!Hri ya [k) iHgu

1066-588

654

zhuzhang 'walking stick,


crutch'
tui-fu
*tuifu
teifun
te'ifuN

[A]

tong gu 'bronze drum'


H-li-tung-ke

[N]

1066-562

*iHri tungke

[T)
[N)

[C)
[G)
[K)

[M]

[C)
[T)
[K]
[M]

yusan 'umbrella'
a-gu-san
J. san < Chinese
3-652

[5)
[N]

*agu san

*ha'an

guan 'official'
bei-le
pei-leh (277)
beile
beiH!

*beile

[A)

[G)

[A]

huangdi 'emperor'
ha-an
han-'an-ni (272)
haganni
han
haaN
cf. Mongol ~yan
the G. and K. forms
are in the genitive

[A]

[T]

655

[C)
[T]

[C)

[A)

[T)

[A]
[C)

651

*sele ya[kJiHgu

[A]

[C)

650

PEOPLE

da ren 'important man'


ang-ba-nie-ma
nieh-rh-ma (331)
niyarma
niyalma
na9~

it is difficult to
determine whether an
-[r)- or an -[1)(or neither) should
be inserted here.
1153-655

*amba nie[lJma

267

266

656

[C]

min 'people'
*i[l]te
i-te
yih-t'eh-'oh (288,297)
itege
cf. irgen
cf. 'ir~x~N
Ligeti ("Note preliminaire",
p. 222) reconstructs ilde
for the Grube form, on the
basis of Nanai elda

[G]
[K]

[M]
[5]

[N]

658

[A]

[C]
[M]
[5]

'am~he'

[A]

[e]

-++

~~ EJ

[e]
[T]
[M]

toumu 'chief, leader'


da-ha-la-nie-ma
cf. da 'head, chief,
master, sovereign. This
word may be related to
M. dahala- 'to escort'

[N]

657-655

[A]

~,/~,~,*

bi-te-H
J. *H < eh. ~ shi
1094-658

662

[T]
[M]

po 'mother-in-law'
e-mu-he
emhe

[5]

'em~x~

[A]

X-.

[e]

[e]
[T]
[G]

jun 'army'
~ao-ha

flO}

*emuhe

[M]
[5]

'am~

[A]

-&J-

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5 ]

mu 'mother'
e-me
cf. eniye
cf. 'eni, 'eni'ee

[A]

91...;

[e]

xiong 'elder brother'


a-hung
'a-hun-wen (286)
ahun
ahun
cf. 'ahuNduu 'brother'

[K]

663

*bit[h]e Si

664

*cauha

[T]
[G]

[M]

c'ao-hah (296)
cauha
cooha 'soldier'

[5]

cuah~

[M]

[N]

perhaps the Chinese


entry should read

[5 ]

[K]

junren 'soldier' ,

which would more


suit the context and
the M. equivalent

fl-i-

fu 'father'
a-ma
'a-min (282)
amin
ama

[T]
[G]

-W3~

'i--

*amuh a

~~.~,

*dahala nie[l]ma

l i 'clerk'

[A]

[K]

flaJ4-~

gong 'father-in-law'
a-mu-ha
amha

[T]

661

~'

~~l'J~m-

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

659

660

~.

[T]

657

1!- -t'
'L::'

[A]

*ama

~ l

iIiiJ

*eme

*ahun

268

269
665

[A]
[e)

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

670

di 'younger brother'
deu
teu-wuh-wen (287)
degun
dec
duu

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

671
666

[A]

[e)
[T]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[G)

[A]

[e)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

p5]

668

[N]

*neu'u

672

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

sun 'grandchild'
o-mo-Io
woh-moh-Io (285)
omolo
omolo

[G)
[K]

*omolo

'om~H~

[M]
[5]

673

[5]

nil 'girl'
sa-Ian-jui
sargan jui
saMNj i

[N]

669-671

[T]
[M]

*haha lui

(294)

hahai
Juwii
haha 'man, male'
jui 'child'
hahe
jii
the ~ and K.forms
are in the genitive

chou 'ugly'
eu-sung
'oh-wu
(716)
eru
cf. ersun
cf. 'er~suN

*eusun

[A]
[e)
[T]

[A]
[e)

er 'son'
ha-ha-j'ui
hah-hah-ai (298)

[A]

[e)
[T]

[A]

[e)
[T]

669

[5]

mei 'younger sister'


neu-u
nieh-hun-wen (291)
niyohun
non
nuN

yad~h~N

~ui-yih

[K]
[M]

667

*yadahun

[A]

[e)
[T]

jie 'elder sister'


ge-ge
gege
gexee

qiong 'poor'
ya-da-hung
yadahun

[M]
[5]

jun 'handsome'
ho-Jo
hojo 'healthy, fine'
hojEl

*sar[g]an lui
674

[A]

[e)
[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

deng 'wait'
a-li-su
aliya'ialime
~ is an imperative
suffix

*ali-su

271

270

675

1~

[e]

ni 'you'
IH
si
Hi

[T]
[M]
[5]

676

[e]

wo 'I, me'
bi
cf. mih-ni (853)
mini
bi 'I'
mini 'mine'
bE, mini
the G. and K. forms
are in the genitive

[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

681

*bi

682

[S)

sao 'sister-in-law'
a-ze
a:!!a 'elder brother's
wife'
'as!
'as~,

[A)

tx: k

[e)

[T)
[M]

shufu 'uncle' (father's


younger brother)
e-se-he
ecike

[A)

tt~

[e)

niixu 'son-in-law'
ho-di
huo-tih-woh (289)
hodiyo
hojihon
hocehuN, hocuhuN

[T)

~li~

!i.~ . fTiiJ~,

[G)
[K)
[M)
[S)

[e]

[M]

bofu 'uncle' (father's


elder brother)
sa-da
cf. sakda 'old'

[A]

16#' _~, ~,~9..~

[e)

jiwnu 'aunt' (wife of


mother's brother)

bomu 'aunt' (wife of


father's elder
brother'
he-he-sa-da
hehe 'woman, female'
xexl!

[T)

na-ha-~u-e-mu-le

[N]

684-661

[A)

w~'m~

[T]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[e]
[T]
[M]

*hodi

*sa[k]da
683

[A]

~-lit-. ~r:tJ!r~' t $~ ::t .if..

*nakacu emule

*hehe sa[k]da

678-677
684

[A]

*esehe

~i tij":]

1e )t

[e]

*ate

%~ t'f.

[A]

[T]

679

[A)
[e)
[T)
[M)

*H

~. /JoG '

[G]

678

680

[A]

[T]

677

. ~

[A]

~t -Ii}- 7L

:f.. 1:

shenmu 'aunt' (wife of


father's younger
brother)
u-he-me
uhume

[e]

*uheme

mujiu 'uncle' (maternal


uncle)

[T]

na-ha-~u

[M]

nakcu
d. Ligeti, "Anciens
elements" p. 235

[N)

*nakaC'u

273

272

685

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

686

qinjia 'a relation by


marriage'
sa-du
sah-tu-kai (683)
sadugai
sadun

[A]
[C]

[T]
*sadu

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[T]
[N]

jia ren 'one of the


family; a domestic'
bo-i-nie-ma
525-j:.<gen) -655

691
*bo-i nie[l]ma

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

[T]
[M]

xiaojiu 'brother-in-law'
(wife's elder brother)
meye
*meye
meye

692

[T]
[M]
[N]

beiyou 'young, small'


a-1\a
asihan
cf. 1154

[N]

*a!l(h]a
693

[T]

[C]

jiazhang 'head of the


family'

[T]

e-~e

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

'oh-~an-ni

laoren 'old man'


sa-da-nie-ma
sakda 'old'

*sa[k]da nie(l]ma

sah~d~

692-655
cf. 677

[A]

[C]

[A]

laoshi 'honest'
ton-do
*tondo
t'uan-to (407)
tondo
tondo
toNd~ 'straight, honest'

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]

[A]
[C]

689

*aha

[A]

[C]

[A]
[C]

688

nubei 'slave'
a-ha
'a-hah-'ai (338)
ahai
aha
'ah~ 'servant'
the G. and K. forms are
in the genitive

[A]

[C]

687

690

[N]

shaoren 'young man'


a-lla-nie-ma
1154(688)-655

*a!l(hJa nie[IJma

*e~e

(792)

694

[A]

eJenni
ejen

[C]

'ej~N

[T]

the G.and K. forms are

[G]
[K]
[M]

in the genitive.

[5]

haoren 'good man'


sai-in-nie-ma
sai-yin (696)
sain
sain
694-655

*sa'in nie[l]ma

275

274

695

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

700

fu ren 'rich man'


*baya nie[l]ma
bai-ya-nie-ma
poh-yang (pai-yang) (346)
bayan
bayan
ba'iN

701

[A]

[e]

yinjiang 'silversmith'

[T]

meng-gu-fa-~i

[N]

1065-747

[A]

695-655
[e]

[T]
696

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

697

[M]

fanren 'opponent, rebel'


fu-da-su-nie-ma
*fudasu nie[l]ma
fudasi 'recalcitrant,
rebellious, obstinate'

[N]

702

[G]

[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

en ren 'benefactor'
bai-li-nie-ma
baili 'grace, favour,
charm'

*baili nie[lJma

701-655

[A]

696-655

[A]

[e]
[T]

*menggu fa[kJH

dai ren 'evil man'


*ehe nie[lJma
e-he-nie-ma
'oh-hei-poh nieh-rh-ma (337)
ehebe niyarma
ehe niyalma
'ex~ 'evil, wicked'
G. -poh and K. -be are
accusative suffixes

703

[e]

ranjiang 'dyer'

[T]

i-~e-fa-H

[M]
[5]
[N]

ice- 'to dye'


, icim~

*i~e

fa[kJH

702-747

[A]

[e)
[T]

tongjiang 'bronzesmith'
H-li-fa-H

[N]

1066-747

*Hri fa[kJH

697-655
704
698

[A]

[A]
[e)

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

699

shangren 'merchant'
hu-da-a-nie-ma
huda~a- 'to trade'

[T]
*huda~a

nie[lJma

[M]

698-655

mazi 'pockmarked person'


bie-tu
*bietu
cf. biyataha 'a scar on
the head, a spot on the
head where the hair is
sparse; cf. also fiyatun
'scar, blemish, spot'

[A]
[e]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

zei ren 'thief'


hu-lu-ha-nie-ma
*huluha nie[l]ma
hu-lah-hai-nieh-rh-ma (336)
hulahai niyarma
hulha 'thief'
hul~haa

the G. and K. forms might


be in the genitive
699-655

705

[A]
[e)

[T]
[N]

changzi 'a tall man'


bei-ye-de-nie-ma
887-31-655

*beye de nie[lJma

276

277

706

[A]

711

[A]

[C)

maojiang 'hat-maker'

[T]

ma-hi-Ia-a-Ia-fa-~i

[M]
[N]

ara- 'to make, to do'

[M]

972-706-747

[5]

*mahila ara

[C]
[T]

fa[kJ~i

[N]

707

712

[A]

xijiang 'tinsmith'

[T]

to-ho-Io-fa-~i

[N]

1068-747

*toholo fa[kJH

[M]

yazi 'dumb person'


he-Ie
hele

[5]

xel~

[C]

[T]

[A]
[C)

[T]
[M]
[5]

709

longzi 'deaf person'


du-tu
dutu
dutu

713

[A]

*dutu

[C]
[T]
[M]

chizi 'fool, idiot'


yu-tu
yoto

[A]
714
[C)
[T]

[G)
[K]
[M]

shouzi 'thin person'


tu-r-ha
*turha
t'uh-hah (519)
turha
turga, (old form: turha)

[A]
[C)

[T]
[M]

[5]
[N]
710

*do

[A]
[C)

708

xiazi 'blind person'


do
do go
dohe
is -gQ missing?

er ge 'second [eldest]
brother'
Ja-ti-a-hung
jacin
j iaci

*lati ahun

714-664

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[N]

fengzi 'mad person'


e-du-Ie-he
cf. edule- 'to catch
cold' < edu 'wind'
cf. 495 'mad dog'
J. *edule-he indahu.
It seems that in
Jurchen *edule- had
the connotation 'to
go mad'. The Chinese
entry is written with
the character)~
feng, without rad.
104; perhaps this is

some kind of a calque,


or perhaps a mistake.

715

[A]

*edule-he

716

[C)
[T]

da ge 'eldest brother'
ang-ba-a-hung

[N]

1153-664

*amba ahun

[A]

[T]

er jie 'second [eldest]


sister'
Ja-ti-ge-ge

[N]

714-666

[C)

*Yati gege

279

278

717

722

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[5]

qingbao 'thoughtless,
frivolous'
wei-hu-ku
weihuken 'light;
not serious,
frivolous'
cf. ve'ixuk~N 'light;
mild (of flavour)'

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

*weihuku

723
718

[A]

[T]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[M]

jinshen 'careful'
ya-ti
no cognate

[5]

724
719

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

fei 'fat'
ta-lu-u
t'ah-wen (518)
tagun
tarhun

*efi-bi

[A]

[C]
[T]
*taru'u

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[C]
[T]

taozijiang 'maker
of belts'

[T]

u-mu-su-du-le-fa-~i

[M]

umiyesun 'belt, girdle,


sash'
du- 'to beat'

[N]

720-810-re-747

[M]

*umusu du-re
fa[k]H
[5]

726

chou 'to be sad'


!Ii-na-bi
~en-nah-lah (375)
~innala

sinagala- 'to mourn'


cf. ~in~haN 'mourning'

*!lina-bi

chi 'late'
gui-da-ha
goida- 'to last for
a long time, to
endure
Go'idamll! 'to take a
long time'

*guida-ha

[A]

[C]

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

*ili

[A]

[A]
[C]

qi 'rise'
i-li
yih-lih-pen (424)
ilibun
ili, iimll! , 'ilam~

tar~huN

725

721

shua 'to play'


e-fi-bi
efi, ifim~

[A]

[C]

720

*inu

[A]

[C]

[A]

shi 'yes'
i-nu
yih-na (706)
ina
inu
'iN 'too, also'

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

zi 'child'
Jui
cui-yih (294)
Juwii
jui
jii
the G. and K. forms
may be in the genitive

*jui

282

283
736

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]
[N]

739
wanshua 'to play'
sui-bi-e-fi-bi
efi- 'to play'
this entry is curious.
the expression wanshua
is normally written
'l. -

[A]

[C]

*sui-bi efi-bi

[T]
[G]
[K]
[N]

flf,

huangdi wansui 'may the


Emperor live for ten
thousand years'
ha-an-tu-me-se
*ha'an tume se
cf. t'u-man seh-koh (866)
tuman sege
653-1129-269

.Y/L it and means 'to

play, to sport with,


to romp' (Mt.7010.a);
in this expression,

740

[C]

J7L is interchangeable
wi th ~~

[T]
[G]

~~ wan

usually means 'obstinate,


wayward, stupid, corrupt,
greedy, covetous' (Mt);
in Manchu there is a
series of words beginning
with sui- with this
general meaning (cf.
Norman pp. 250-251)
The usual meaning of M.
sui-mbi is 'to mix'
which does not seem to
be appropriate here

[A]

[K]
[M]
[N]

741

[C]

[T]
[G]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

738

[M]

jixing 'quick-tempered'
ha-ta-di-li
*hata dili
hatan 'furious, violent,
impetuous'
j Hi 'anger'

[N]

742

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

cishan 'kind, charitable,


benevolent, good'
no-mu-ho
*nomuho
nen[nun]-muh-huo (340)
nonmuho
nomhon
nom~huN 'well-mannered'

743

huturi

chou, xi 'sad, happy'


*Sina-bi
H-na-bi
*ur[g)u!u-bi
u-lu-Ju-bi
~en-nah-lah (375)
woh-wen-ce-leh (372, 374)
~innala

urgunjere
sinagan 'mourning'
urgunje- 'to be happy'
721-741

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

[A]

~omi

[A]

[K]
737

huangdi hongfu 'Emperor's


great happiness'
ha-an-~o-mi-hu-tu-li
*ha'an
cf. ['an-pan-lah]
huh-t'uh-rh (803)
[amban(la)] hutur
huturi 'good luck,
good fortune'
653-153-740

kangkai 'generous'
Jen-du-le
no cognate

*)endule

shan ren 'good man'


no-mu-ho-nie-ma
738-655

*nomuho nie[lJma

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

284

285

744

[A]

749

[C]

jianzha 'crafty, cunning'

[T]

e-~e-Ja-li

[M]

cf. eitere- 'to deceive,


to defraud'
jalingga 'cunning'

[C]

*e~e Jali

[T]
[N]

750
745

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

746

[N]

[M]

[S]
[N]

[T]
[M]

[N]

*uluhu/buluku7

has

bu shi 'no, not'


o-ha
*oka
cf. aku 'particle of
negation; there is not,
there are not'; cf. also
waka 'sentence particle
that negates nominal
predicates: is not, are
not'

~-

for the

jiangren 'artisan'
fa-IH-nie-ma
faksi
fahl:!H, faq~H

*fa[kl~i

751

nie[l]ma

752

753

a mistake for
748-655

ir

ai

bu-. There

[A]

[C]

747-655

eren 'evil man' (7)


go-su-nie-ma
cf. gosi- 'to love,
to feel compassion
for'
perhaps Chinese fl. ~ is

.:t-.

does not seem to be


any cognate in Manchu
for either form

[A]

[C]

ruanruo 'weak'
u-[bu]-lu-hu
The Awanokuni text

first character;
the Seikado text

[A]

[T]

*tsaifung

has 7L

[T]
[M]

[C]

748

[C]
[T]

yi ren 'doctor'
*daifu nie[llma
dai-fu-nie-ma
daifu
daifu < Chinese 1'\..J;: daifu

caifeng 'tailor'
tsai-fung
< Chinese

[A]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

747

[A]

*hendu

[A]

[C]
[T]

pijiang 'tanner'
su-gu-fa-H

[N]

894-747

*sugu fa[klH

[A]

[T]

jiajiang 'armourer'
u-lli-du-le-fa-/Ii

[N]

578-810-re-747

[C]

*gosu nie[llma

tuozi 'hunchback'
heng-du
hundu

*u[kllH du-re
fa[kllH

287

286

754

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[N]

755

756

quechuner 'a person


with a harelip'
fu-mu-e-tse
Manchu for 'harelip'
is omcoko.
For J. *etse,
cf. esen 'slanting,
oblique
906-754

SECTION NINE

*fumu etse

758

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[A]

[C]

xibaijiang 'launderer'

[T]

a-du-ao-le-fa-~i

[N]

962-931-re-747

*adu ao-re

[S]
[N]

fa[kl~i

[A]

759

[C]

nishuijiang 'plasterer'

[T]

be-ho-fa-~i

[N]

213-747

*beho

[M]

qu 'go'
ge-nie
koh-nieh-hei (713)
genehei
gene-

[S]

gen~me'

[G]
[K]

757

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]

tuzi 'bald person'


ho-to
hoto
hoti!

*hoto

760

*diu

*genie

[A]
[C]

[M]

gui 'kneel'
nie-ku-lu
mieh-k'u-lu (466)
miyakuru
niyakura-

[S]

yaqure'm~

[T]
[G]
[K]

761

lai 'come'
diu
tih-wen (712)
digun
jijime
this is the imperative
form; cf. M. jio (an
irregular imperative)

[A]
[C]
[T]

fa[kl~i

ACTIONS OF PEOPLE

*niekuru

[A]
[C]
[T]
(G]

[K]
[M]
(S]

bai 'bow' (v)


hen-ki-le
*hengkile
k'ang-k'oh-leh-mei (751)
kankelemei
hengkile- 'to kowtow'
xeNkile'm~

288
762

763

[T]
[N]

[T]
[G]
[K]

[M]
[N]

765

[G]
[K]
[M]

[N]

shang ci 'reward'
hng-si
< Chinese

*Ilangsi

768

[C]

J1n gong 'offer tribute'


te-de-me
*tede-me
t'eh-t'eh-puh-ma (482)
tetebuma
cf. dekdebu- causative
of dekde- 'to rise'
perhaps this word could
be reconstructed *te[kJde-

[K]
[M]

[5]

769

[M]

[N]

yan yan 'to feast'


ba-la-bi
cf. bara- 'to mix
together'; barabuto mix, to mix among,
to mingle together
Manchu for 'to feast'
is sarilaPerhaps
ba- here is a mistake

fang wu 'local products'


ba-i-u-li
*ba-i uli
wuh-li-yin (580)
ulin
ba 'place'
ulin 'goods, property,
possessions, wealth'
767-1:.- 767

[A]

[T]
[G]

hui 'return'
mu-li
muh-t'ah-pen (378,379)
mutabun
mari- 'to come back,
to go back'
marime

*muri

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[C]
[T]

766

[T]

[A]

[C]

[A]
[C]

jugong 'bow' (v)


hu-zu
huh-tu-Iah (750)
huJula
huju-

[A]

[C]

764

767

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

289

shui 'sleep'
de-du
t'eh-tu-Ieh (355)
tedure
dedu- 'to lie down'

*dedu

dudum~

*bara-bi
770

[A]

[C]
[G]
[K]
[M]

zuo 'sit'
te
t'eh-pieh (423)
tebi
te-

[5]

tem~

[T]

*te

[A]
[C]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

j ian 'see'
a-ca
hah-c'ah-pieh (352)
hacabi
aca- 'to meet, to join'
'aceme

771

*ata

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]

xiao 'laugh'
in-Ie-hi
yin-ce (461)
inJe
inje-

[5]

'iNjim~,

[C]
[T]

'iNj~m~

*inje-bi

290

291
772

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

773

ku 'cry, weep'
sung-gu-bi
sang-kuo-lu (460)
sangoru
songgo-

[G]

[K]
[M]

sOIJ~me'

778

shuo 'speak, talk'


hen-du
hen-tu-lu (467)
henduru
hendu-

*hendu

779

[T]

wen 'ask'
fo-ni

[G]

mai-fan-~u

[K]
[M]

fan-cu-mai (444)
fanJ'umai
fonj ifioNj im~

[5D]

[T]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[C]

[C]

he 'harmony'

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

nu-~i

*nu~i

nu-Uh-yin (432)
nuHn
necin 'peaceful, quiet'

[A]

dao 'arrive'
i-U-ha
yih-~ih-mai

*B'i-ha
(380, 381)

Himai
isi-

[A]

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

pa 'fear'
ge-le-bi
koh-leh-leh (370, 371)
gelere
gele-

[5]

gelem~

[A]

Jf~ .. l~fr a~

[C]

776

j ing 'respect'
tu-ki
tukiyecf. tiukim~ gisur~m~
'to speak repectfully
toward'

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

780
775

[A]

[C]
*sunggu-bi

[A]
[C]
[T]

774

777

[T]
*gele-bi

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

781

[C]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

ting 'listen'
*dondi
don-di
tuan-di-sun (351, 354)
dondisun
donj idioNj im~
Ligeti "Note preliminaire"
suggests *doldi- for the
G. form

xiu 'shame'
gi-li-cu-ke
kih-lu-~'uh

*giri~uke

(345)

girucu
girucun 'shame'
giruke 'shameful'
giricuN, gicik~,
gicuku

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

mang 'busy'
eu-Hn-bi
'oh-wuh-lu (362, 363)
egur
ebse- 'to hurry, to
hasten, to be busy'

*eu~i-mbi

293
292

787
782

[A]

[e]
[T]

[G)
[K]
[M)
[5]

(AJ
[e J

ai 'love'
bei-yin-bi
pei-ye-mei (385)
beyemei
buyebuy~m~,

(T]

*beyi-mbi

[N]

788

[A]

bey~m~

[e)
[T]

783

[M]
[N]

[A]
[e]

[T)
[M)
[5]

shuixing 'wake up,


awake'
ge-te-he
gete-

789

get~m~

[G)

[K]
[M]

nao 'angry, offended'


fu-hin-bi
fei-hi-lah (373, 386)
feshila
fuhiye- 'to get angry'

[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

*fuhi-mbi

790
785

[A)
[e]
[T]

(G]
(K)

[M]
(5]

786

tao 'ask for'


bai-Si
poh-/len (415)
baHin
bai-

*baHi

[T]
[G]
(K]
[M)
[5]

zui 'drunk, intoxicated'


su-to-ho
*su[klto-ho
so-t'o-huo (445)
soktoho
sokto
soq~t~m~,
soqHum~

soh~t~me,

791

hah-~ah-lu

*gai-su
(440)

gaJaru
gai- 'to take'
Giam~

-su: imperative
form

[e)

j in 'enter'

[T]
[G]

do-Un-diu
to-flen (413)
dosin
dosi- 'to enter'

[K]
[M)
(5)
[M)

biam~

yao 'want'
gai-su

[A]

(A]

[e]

*fuli-su

[A]

[e)

[A]

[e]
[T]

zou 'walk'
fu-li-su
feIiye-su : imperative
form

*gete-he

[T]
784

tui 'return'
mu-Ii
same as 768

*doUndiu

dioSim~

-diu is an irr.
imper. form of
di- 'to come';
cf. M. jio

[A)
(e)

dong 'move'

[T)

a-~ing-gia

[G)
[K)
[M)

'a-~'ih-tu-lu
a~iduru

acinggiya

*a~inggia

(447)

294

295
792

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]

793

798

zhu 'live at, reside'


ta-ha-su
cf. te- 'to live'
teme

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[e]

*tahasu

[T]
[M]
[5]

[A]
[e]
[T]

[A]

799

shi 'send'
*taku[ra]-ha
ta-ku-ha
t'ah-k'u-Iah-hai (376,377)
takurahai
takurataqureme, taqurume
on the basis of the G,
K, M and 5 forms, perhaps
-[raJ- should be inserted
into this word

[e]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

795

che 'pull, drag, haul'


go-ti
goci-

801

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

wu 'dance'

ma-iH-bi
makiH-

*ma[k]H-bi

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

797

'uncam~

*uda

Giam~

tiao 'jump'

[T]

fu-~u

[M]
[5]

fekce-

*fu[kJ~u

fekum~

[A]

[e]

fen 'divide'

[T]

deng-de-~e

[M]
[5]
[N]

dendece-

*dende~e

deNd~m~

cf. 877

mah~~im~, maq~sime

802
796

mai 'buy'
u-da
'ai-wan-tu-mei (417)
aiwandumei
uda-

[A]

[e)
794

bah~m~

[A]

[T]

800

de 'get, obtain'
ba-ha
baha-

cheng 'to complete'


me-te-he
mute-

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

*mete-he

qiang 'snatch'
du-li-Ie
tao-li-mei (457)
daulimei
duridiuim~ 'to rob'

*dure-re

[A]
[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

tou 'steal'
hu-Iu-ha
hulhacf. 699

803

*hulaha

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

[5]

j ie 'lend'
Jue-u
juwen bujuN bum~

*lue'u

296

297

"*

tm

804

805

[A]

/..,' rJR.
;r.

.'J~

[C)

mai 'sell'

[T]

ung-~a

(M]

unca-

(S]

'uNcam~

(A]

~/F1
,,

810

*unca

806

(M]

[S]

bum~

(K]
(M]

*bu

t~

[C)

(M]

huan 'return,
give back'
tao-da
tooda-

(S]

tod~m~,

..fi . ;j a&-

(M]

(S]

taam~

(T]

812

(A]

(e)

(T]
(N]

::}t-. k

*to-ha

813

(A]

9{.'

(e)

(T]

si 'die'
bU-r':i-he

(G)

puh-~'e-hei

809

[A]

. 1-f ti-V ~

bucebece'm~

(A]

fiI ft. . iF 1t ~ t4-

[e)

(K]
(M]

sheng 'be born'


ban-di-ha
pan-tih-hai (388)
bandihai
banj i-

(S]

baNjim~,

(T]
(G)

banj~m~

*bandi-ha

i..

qingyuan 'willing'
i-ni-ti-ha
*ini tiha
ciha 'willing'
ini cihai 'under his
own strength'
ciha'i 'at will, freely,
as one wishes'

1f~

t1 . if- iJ

II..!.!.'

(M]

landuo 'lazy'
ban-hu
banuhun

(S]

ban~huN

(T]
(e)

*bu~i-he

(389)

(M]

(A]

*,afa-ha

4\J:.. .If.,

(S]

(S]

814

jaf~m~

*gai-rakua

*du

,d5i~

(S]

(M]

~j~"

(K]
(M]

(e)

buyao 'do'nt want'


gai-la-kua
J. *-rakua cf.
M. -raku

zhuona 'sieze'
Ja-fa-ha
l!ah-fah-pieh (365)
Jafabi
jafa-

(T]
808

"""-

t~

*taoda

todum~

kan 'look at'


to-ha
tuwa-

(e)

(e)
(G)

l...

[A]

(A]

(T]

(A]

(T]

807

If!!!

da 'beat, hit'
du
tu-ku-mei (464)
dugumei
du- (now written
tu-)

.~

yu 'give'
bu
bu-

(e)

(e)
(G)

811

[T]

17'

(T]

bum~

[A]

*banhu

299

298

815

[C]
[T]

[M]
[5]

816

jiuxing 'become sober'


nu-1e-su-bu-ha
subu1007-815

[A]

~o

[T]
[N]

fh

[A]

[C]
[T]

*nure subu-ha

[G]
[K]
[M]
[N]

suvum~

[N]

[ CJ

817

819

[A]

t.:!X Ii:..

he quan 'make
harmonious'
nu-IH
cf. 778

*nuS'i

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]
[N]

pao ma 'race horses'


mu-li-fu-H-Ie
feks i- 'gallop'
410-817-re

820

[A]
[C]
[M]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

sisha 'slaughter one


another, in battle;
a melee'
su-li-bi
so-li-tu-man (455, 484)
soriduman
cf. sori- 'to be in
disorder, to be
confused'; sorindu'to be in total disarray, to be crisscrossed'

*sahada-bi

*muri fu[kJiH-re

[T]
818

dawei 'hunt' (v)


sa-ha-da-bi
sah-tah-mei (481)
sahadamei
sahadaKiyose points out
that the first char.
in the J. script
version of this word
should be read *saha,
even though the Ch.
transcription is the
single char. sa, and
has reconstructed the
word accordingly

821

[T]

[M]

[5]
[N]

822

qiang lu 'to
capture'
dao-li-ha
duri- 'steal, snatch
away from'

i'dauri-ha

diurim~

cf. 802 *duri-

[A]
[C]
[T]
[N]

823

*he'ude

[A]

[C]

*suri-bi

shangyi 'discuss'
he-u-de
hebte-

ci 'take leave'
ge-nie-he
cf. 759

*gene-he

chenguai 'rebuke'
fu-hin-bi
cf. 784

*fuhi-mbi

[A]
[C)

[T]
[N)

301

300
824

[A]

[e]

[T]
[N]

825

1'~~ '~'~'~GJ~1'
bu xianliang 'not
virtuous'
tung-me-a-kua
no cognate
M. for eh. xianliang
is mergen
J. *akua = M. aku
(negative: there is
not, there is none)

[A]

:]t.

[e]

j ie , meet'

[T]
[M]
[S]

829

830

831
*o[k]do

oh~d~m~,

[M]

[A]

& . ~'~Y<

[e]
[T]
[N]

ying 'welcome'
o-do-ho
same as 825

[A]

~,/tJ

[C]

wu yong 'useless'

[T]
[M]

bai-ta-kua
baitakt1

[A]

111: .

[e]
[M]
[M]

cui 'urge'
ha-ti-bi
hacihiya-

[A]

oilL ~ JJ ,If.,
.:L. ~
0.

[T]
*tungme akua

oh~dum~,

l! . 14 G ,~"
song 'send'
ban-di-he
benji-

[C]

~'~

o-do
okdo-

[A]

832
826

[AJ

[e]

[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

827

[AJ

[e]

[T]
[M]
[S]

$':] 1) 1t.~

nu 'anger, angry'
di-li-tu-ti
j ili
jili
*tuti cf. 50

*dili tuti
833

[e]
[T]

~. i&J:t n
jing 'frightened'
go-lo-ho
gologel~mE! Gol~m1! 'to be
palpitating with fear'

[M]

*golo-ho
834

[A]

[e]
828

:3

1B IZ1

I~'

[AJ

[e]
[T]

xun 'search, look for'


be-in-bi
bai-

[M]

[T]
[M]

*be'i-mbi

1\

*o[k]do-ho

. H~~t

o'udume
f.X
IG'

*bandi-he

tri;-

*baita-kua

n I~'

" ,

*hati-bi

sj~ b 6I:J'

huan 'call, summon'


su-li-me-ha-di-ha
suri' 'to cry, shout,
scream'
gaj i- 'to bring hither'

*suri-me gadi-ha

-1'1~fl/~'
zheng 'struggle'
hen-je-bi
Franke (1982) suggests
et. M. elJ'e- 'to
oppose, to resist,
defy'

*hen]e [helle-bi

303

302
835

840

[AJ
[e J

[T]
[M]

quan jie 'mediate,


exhort to peace'
ta-fu-la-ha
tafula- 'warn,
dissuade from,
advise against'

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

*tafula-ha
841

837

[e]

bu cheng qi 'will not


become a useful
person'

[T]

hua-~a-la-kua

[M]

huwa~a-

[e]
[M]

839

*hua~a-rakua

'increase,
develop, grow,
thrive, flourish,
get on well,
prosper, succeed

[M]
[5]

843
zuo yi 'bow, salute'
cang-zu-la
canjura- 'to greet by
holding joined hands
up at face level and
bowing slightly'

[T]
[M]
[N]

844

[e]
[T]
[M]

daying 'agree'
da-na-la
no cognate

[AJ

IG'.!!

[e]

siliang 'consider'
fu-nie- Jan-bi
funiyagan 'judgement,
reasoning faculty,
discernment'

EB J2..

[T]
[M]
[N]

.1-1-' -t 8
f. 1.'1,
'1,,-'f:LO't-'

*funie a-mbi

845

'urunum~

xiaode 'know, understand'


u-r-hi-he
*ulhi-he
ulhi 'understand'
'ulixim~

zixi wen 'ask in detail'


da-hu-da-hu-fo-ni-su
*dahu dahu
foni-su
dahu- 'to do once more,
over and over'
843-774-su (imper.)

[A]

[e]

*dana-ra

'urun~m~,

893-841

[A]
[e]

*~anzura

du ji '[stomach] hungry'
heu-li-u-lun-bi
*heuli uru-mbi
uru- 'hungry'

[A]
[T]

[A]

[T]
[MJ

842

[e]

[A]

[T]

838

[T]
[M]
[5J
[N]

[A]

*di-rekua

[A]

[e]
836

bu lai 'don't come'


di-le-kua
758-rekua 'neg. imper.'

nalai-le 'brought'
go-di-ha
gaji- 'bring'
cf. 833 *gadi844-ha

*godi-ha

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

bu zhidao 'don't know'


sa-la-kua
42-rakua

*sa-rakua

305

304
846

[C]
[T]
[M]

[5]

847

849

[A]

buyao zhe deng 'do not


act like this'
*ume utala
u-me-u-ta-la
ume 'verb used for
negating imperatives
(stands before the
imperfect participle)'
utala 'so much (many) as
this'
uttu 'thus, like this, so'
'utu 'in this way'

[C]
[T]
[M]

[5]
[N]

850

[G]
[K]
[M]

[M]

[N]

yiqi zou 'go together'


e-mu-de-fu-li-su
emu 'one'
de 'locative particle'
J. *emu-de 'at one
altogether'(?)
fuli-su cf. 201
In both Awanokuni and
5eikado texts, the Ch.
version reads 'yiqi
deng' -

;t

*emu-de fuli-su
[5]

851

[N]

852

[N]

[A]

[G]

[T]
[M]
[5 ]

jiaodao 'teach'
ta-ti
t'ah-t'i-puh-lu (805)
tatiburu
taci- 'learn'
tacim~

*tolihi

qing jiu 'ask for wine'


nu-le-gai-ki
-ki = optative form
1007-789

*nure gai-ki

[A]

[T]
[C]

meng 'dream'
to-Ii-hi
t'oh-hing (356)
tolgin
tolgi- 'to dream'
tolgin 'dream'
(old form: tolhi-)
tioloxiN, tioloxin~m~

( 'wait

[C]

[T]

*erde ye

[A]
[C]
[T]

together'), a scribal
error probably
influenced by 846
848

zao qi 'get up early'


e-r-de-ye
erde 'early'
cf. ili- 'to get up'
cf. iim~ 'to get up'
5. ilam~
M. ili-

[A]

[C]
[T]

[A]

[C]
[T]

[A]

*tati

jin rna 'bring in horses'


mu-li-te-te
*muri tete
410-764
cf. form J. *tete-/
*te[klte- as distinct
from *tede-/*te[k]dein 764, but similar to
the G.! K. form (cf. K.
*tetebuma)

306

307
853

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

854

856
fang xin 'do not worry'
mei-Ie-hin-da
*meile hinda
the M. equivalent is
mujilen sinda-; a lit.
translation of the Ch.
fang xin (lit.) 'put
down your heart'. The
J. word for 'heart' is
given in 942 as *mu~ile,
but in 941 (Ch. zhi xin
'to know one's heart'
as *meile sa-bi. Perhaps
*meile is a contracted
form of *mu~ile? M.
meiren means 'shoulder'
and does not seem to be
related.

[e)
[T)
[N)

857

[T]
[M]

[T]
[M]

zhunbei 'prepare, make


preparations'
ta-hia-fi-a-li-su
dagila- 'to prepare,
to get ready'
-fi is the past
participial suffix
ali- 'receive, take'
-su is an irr. imper.
suffix

[N]

*tahia-fi ali-su

858

[e)

[A]

[C]
[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
[N)

[N]

manman zou 'go slowly'


*nuha fuli-su
nu-ha-fu-li-su
nu-han (454)
nuhan
nuhan 'at ease, easygoing'
8SS-201-su
(cf. 847)

,
I

*ha'an uTe ~angsi

huiqu buxu zuo dai


'when you return you
must not do anything
bad'
*muri ume ehe
mu-li-u-me-e-he
jafa-ra
Ja-fa-la
jafa- 'assume, enter
on, apply oneself to,
take up'
ehe 'evil, wicked' (697)
768-846-697-857

[A)

[T]
855

chaoting zhong shang


'the court will
reward you well'
ha-an-u-je-sang-si
653-67-763

[A]
[e)

[A]
[C]

[A)

niannian J~n gong 'bring


in tribute every year'
a-nie-a-nie-de-te-me-diu *anie anie de
tede-me diu
284-284-de[loc.part.]
764-me[gerund]-758[imper.)

308

309

859

[A]

[C]

[T]
[M]

[N]

861

[C]

J1n hou jin hao rna lai


'from now on bring in
good horses'
e-gi-a-mu-~i-sai

mu-li-te-de-me-diu
J. *e[r]gi amusi
= M. ereci amasi
'from here on'
in the Chinese text,
,~

[A]

[T]
[M]

*e[r]gi amu~i sai


muri tede-me diu
[N]

haosheng paizhe 'line


up well'
sai-ha-Je-r-me-i-li
*saika ]erme iIi
saikan 'nicely'
jergile- 'to be in order,
to be arranged according
to rank'
perhaps the transcription
is at fault here
861-724

ma 'horse' is

written

l:t

gao 'high';
862

[A]

a scribal error
859-694-410-764-me-758
[C]

860

[A]

[T]
[M]

[C]

bu xu fanbian 'you must


not violate the
border'

[T]

u-me-Je-~i-ba-de

[N]

dao-li-la
*re~i ba-de is lit.
'in the area of the
border'; ba = place;
-de 'loco suffix'
The Seikad6 text here
(according to Ishida)
has bianfan; the Awonokuni fanbian, which
is correct.

*ume Je~i ba-de


dauri-ra

863

bu xu shuo hua 'you are


not allowed to talk'
u-me-gi-su-Ie
gisure-

[S]

gisur~m~

[M]

846-862

*ume gisure

[A]

[C]

bu yao dong shen 'you


must not move your
body'

[T]

u-me-bei-ye-a-~ing-gia-Ia

[N]

846-887-791-ra

*ume beye
a~inggia-ra

864

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[N]

L....

haosheng xing Ii 'perform


the ceremony well'
sai-ha-do-lo-da-ha
*saika doro daha
doro 'rite, ritual'
daha- 'obey, follow'
861-864-864

310

311
865

868

[A]
[e]

[N]

bu yao duo ren caiwu


'do not steal other
people's property'
u-me-nie-ma-i
*ume nie[l]ma-i
u-li-du-li-le
duri-re
846-655-i[gen.]-767-802-re

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

869
866

[A]

[A]

[A]

[e)
[T]
[e]

[T]
[M]

[N]

bu xu duo yao jiu rou


'do not want too much
wine and meat'
*ume futse nure
u-me-fu-tse-nu-le
yaH gai-ra
ya-H-gai-la
no cognate for *futse;
M. for 'too much' is
dabali. Franke (1982)
suggests M. fusen,
glossed in Hauer as
'Fortpflanzung, Zuchtung,
Vermehrung' and in Norman

[M]
[N]

870

as 'propagation'
846-866-1007-9l7-789-ra

bu yao tai tou


do not lift your head'
u-iu-u-me-tu-ku-si
*uJu ume tuku-~i
tukiye- 'to lift up'
perhaps -si is a mistake,
one might expect -la;
cf. however Manchu
tukiyeshun 'looking up,
facing upwards'
880-846-869

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

867

bu yao wang shang kan


'do not look upwards'
u-me-u-sun-to-la
*ume us[h]un to-ra
wesihun 'upwards'
846-868-807-ra

buyao kesou 'do not cough'


u-me-fu-ca-la
846-957-ra

*ume

fu~a-ra

[A]
871

[e)
[T]
[M]

[N]

fadu lihai 'the laws are


severe'
do-lo-ti-ta-mang-ha
*doro ti[k]ta
mangga
doro 'right way, moral'
ciktan 'relationship,
natural law, principle'
867-227

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

haosheng guishun chaoting


'submit properly to
the throne'
sai-kan-ha-an-da-ha
*saikan ha'an daha
In the SeikadO text,
-kan- is omitted
861-653-864 (cf. 14)

312

313
872

[A]

876

[A]

[C]
[C]
[T]
[N]

zhaojiu zuo maimai


'do business as before'
fo-i-ge-se-hu-da-~a
*fo-i gese
195-i[gen.]-26-698

[T]
[N]
huda~a

877
873

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

J~nr~ J~n

[T]
[N]

*enenggi bit[h]e
dola-mbi

878
874

[A]

[C]
fan zi 'today
offer barbarian
[native] writing'
e-neng-gi-bi-te
do-lan-bi
281-1094-790-mbi

fen san xia cheng


'disperse according
to the set procedure'
hia-ceng-deng-de-ce
*hia ceng
J. *hia ceng < Ch. xia
cheng 'in accordance
with a set procedure'
877-801

dende~e

[A]

[A]

[C]

[C]

koutou shi koutou 'when


it is time to kowtow,
kowtow'

[T]

hen-ki-le-~i-hen-ki-le

[N]

this construction is
presumably based on
Chinese. Franke (1982)
suggests that -i might
be the same as Manchu
-ci, the conditional
gerund suffix
761-874

[T]

*hengikle-si
hengkile

[M]
[N]

879

[C]

[A]
[N]

[C]

[T]
[N]

qilai shi qilai 'when it


is time to rise, rise'
i-li-~i-i-li

cf. comments 874


724-874

*ili-~i

iIi

jinri lingshang 'today


you will be rewarded'
*enenggi
e-neng-gi-ang-si
ali-mbi
a-lin-bi
ali- to accept, receive
281-763-878

~angsi

[A]

[T]

875

jugong shi jugong 'when


it is time to bow, bow'
hu-~u-i-hu-tu
*hutu-i huzu
762-874

mingri xie en 'tomorrow


you will give thanks
[for the kindnesses
bestowed on you]'
ti-me-ha-neng-gi
hen-ki-le
the J. expression is
lit. 'tomorrow you
will kowtow'

*timaha nenggi
hengkile

315

314
884

SECTION TEN

880

[A]
[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[S]

~~

PARTS OF THE BODY

7L

11.

tou 'head'
u-Ju
wuh-~u

885

*ufu

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

kou 'mouth'
ang-ha
'an-hah[ka] (494)
amga
angga

[S]

'a9~

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)
[S]

she 'tongue'
i-leng-gi
yih-leng-ku (499)
ilengu
ilenggu
, ile9~' , il9i

[A]

~-

[K]
[M]

881

882

[j

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

mu 'eye'
ya-sa
ya-H (496)
yaH
yasa

[S]

yas~

4-

[C)
[T]
[G)

er 'ear'
sang

[K]
[M]

saa
!lan
saN, saN

887

viix~

:1/,:.

*weihe

FJ "j~

(497)

[C]
[T]
[G]

bi 'nose'
sung-gi
suang-kih (501)
songi
songgiha 'tip of
the nose'

[S]

shen 'body'
bei-ye
pei-ye (490)
beye
beye
be'i

[A]

J.

[C)
[T]
[G)
[M]

shou 'hand'
ha-la
hah[ka]-lah (504)
gala

[S]

Gal~

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

r;y-x

!t.

/,

[S]

~.

*ilenggi

i~.,

[K]
[M]

[A]

*angga

J};,t1

chi 'teeth'
wei-he
we-hei (495)
weihe
weihe

[C)
[T]
[G)

*san

[A]

[K]
[M]

886

/Ci]

~a-hah

*yasa

.J/

[A]

[S]
883

~ili

[A]

Pp~

(492)

uJu
uju
'uju

[A]

Cl

888

*sunggi

*beye

[l~<fj
*gala

317

316

889

894

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

jiao 'foot'
be-tie
puh-tih-hei (505)
budihe
bethe
bet~x~,

[A]

[e]
[T]

*betie

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

beU!k~

in view of the G. and


M. forms, perhaps a
reconstruction *bet[h]ie
or *bet[hle is
possible

pi 'skin'
su-gi [=gu]
su-ku (514)
sugu
suku
soq~

the transcription
char. ~

must be a mistake
for

890

[T]
[N]

fa 'hair'
fun-he
cf. 481

*funhe
[A]

[A]

[e]
[e]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[T]
[G]

mian 'face'
de-Ie
t'eh-'oh (491)
tee
dere

[K]
[M]
[5 ]

den!!

[N]

gu 'bone'
gi-lang-gi
kih-po-kih
kih-lang-kih (510)
girangi
giranggi
giraIJ~

the char.

~>t.Q2

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]
[5]

xin 'heart'
nie-ma
niyaman

in G. 510 should be
*niema

niam~m

896

893

-&!!;

c. f. 645, 752 as
well as the G. and
M. forms

895

892

1i

[A]

[e]

891

-gi

[A]

[A]

[e]
[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

fu 'stomach'
heu-Ii
hefeli, hefeliye
kev~l~,

[T]
[M]
[5]

*heuIi

xev~H~

1.

naohou 'back part of


the head'
hu-da
hoto 'cranium'
hot~

*giranggi

319

318

897

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

[5]
898

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[M]

[5]
899

[A]

[e]
[T]

yanzhu 'pupil [of


the eye]'
ya-sa-fa-ha
yasa faha
yasHaht!

meimao 'eyebrow'
fa-ta
fei-t'ah (500)
faitan
yasHa'id1:!N

~!t,

[e]
[T]

sai 'cheek'

[A]

[e]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[5]

*yasa faha

[N]

903

*fata

01* . 1}L,tJ

[A]

[M]

902

!,

j~ .

.jR~

xu 'whiskers'
sa- [
salu

*sa[

]?

sal~

perhaps -lu is
missing from the
transcription

) -t, . 1~ >{,

[5]

[5]
[N]

901

f;r, . ;t-1~~ ~~ ~

hou 'throat'
bi-Ia
bilha
biH!haa

[M]

900

~~

Fl

1~~

bei 'back'

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

fei-sah (503)
fisa
fisa
fisaa

*bil[h]a

*fisa

fi-~e[=sa]

1~Jz. -~e is a scribal


error for ;jR~ -sa

904

[A]

*fun~i

905

xiong 'chest'
tung-ge
t'ung-'oh (502)
tunge
tunggun
tU9l=!N

[A]

f1f . ~ /t1;

[M]
[5 ]

qi 'navel'
e-Ieng-gu
ulenggu
'ulu9 u

[A]

O~

[e]
[T]

~L . ~b%
~

906

[e]
[T]
r

W ;~l

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[e]

fulcin
filiciN
as in similar cases,
it is difficult to
decide between
*fun~i and *ful~i

ru 'breast'
gu-gu
huh-hun (541)
huhun
huhun
xuxuN

ie:

[e]
[T]

[N]

)]/:..

fun-~i

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

*tungge

*elenggu

8r:&~1
Cp
- r::D ,
~

kouchun 'lips'
ang-ha-fu-mo
fuh-muh (498)
fumu
femen
fem1:!N

*angga fumo

321

320

907

908

~~

[C)

xie 'ribs'
e-u-~i

ebci

[5]

'ef~ci

[A]

~t- . ?r. ~

[M]

yao 'waist'
do-e
darama, dara

[5]

dar~m~

[A)

Ai - ?it ~

[C)

[T]
[M]

910

[A]

[A]

1 ~F .

[M]

911

*do'e

915

916

J~

[C]
[T)

zhij ia ' fingernail '


hi-ta-hung
hitah(ln

[A)

[M)

[5]

jal~N

[N]

888-911

[A]

1j

917

889-915

[A)

Ai! . !~.~

[C]

shouzhi 'finger'

[T]

ha-Ia-~in-mu-hun

[M)
[S)

simhun
siumuxuN

[N)

888-912

918

*gala !linmuhun

[A]

-.!t.
fJfP fif.<. . is,-pl> f!

[M]

jiaogen 'heel'
be-tie-gui
guye

[N)

889-918

[C)

[T]

*betie saihada

*susha

~1J

[5]

[G)
[K)
[M]

1--j:t

tui 'leg'
su-s -ha
suksaha 'thigh'

rou 'flesh, meat'


ya-Ii
ya-Ii (511, 521)
yaIi
yaIi
yaIi

[C)

'R
~5}j
0-< i;;f.l
I;,

fftp~ . 1s 1t t ~ ~"

[N)

[T)

*gala Jala

*hitahun

kiat~huN

[M)

[A)

*susha heuli

Ejl - ftj:~ ~

j iaoguai 'shin'
be-tie-sai-ha-da
saihada

[M)

~ jfJ~J r~

tuidu 'calf [of the


leg)'
su-s -ha-heu-li

[A)

[C)
[T)

*meire

11

916-893

[C)
[T)

*buhi

fl~~:L - t~ I~ 1i

[T)
[N)

[M)
[S)

shoujie 'knuckles'
ha-Ia-Ja-Ia
jalan

[C)

[T]

912

914

~. tit llJ

[5]

[T)

[C)

xi 'knee'
bu-hi
buhi

jian 'shoulder'
mei-re
meiren
miriN

[C)

[A]

*e'u~i

[M]

[T]

913

Tl.J.R.

[T]

[C]

909

[A]

*yaIi

*betie gui

322
323
919

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[5 ]

ftlt . ~~
x. . :It
j ",

924

gan 'liver'
fa-hung
fahun
fahuN

*fahun

~t

[C)

han 'sweet'
nei
nei
Iii

[T]

[M)
[5 )

920

[A]

L!1Z..

921

[C)
[T]

xue 'blood'

[G)
[K]

seh-kih (512)
segi
senggi

[A]

922

[C)

Si9~

AA . frt oi'

926

[A]

Arj7 7L ;,~'

[C)
[T]
[M]
[5]

fei 'lung'
u-pu[?]
ufuhu
'ufux

[N]

the char.

1jfj

*duha

[5 ]

'um~haN

[A]

11

[C)
[T)
[G]

[M]
[5]

927

*upu

[C)
[T]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]

[G)
[K]

[M]
[5]

929

[A]

[C]

*Silihi

[T]
r

[M]

*husu

shu tou 'comb the hair'


u-Ju-i-di
ij i-

has

dan ' gall-bladder'


Si-Ii-hi
!Hh-li-hi (516)
!Hlihi
silhi
Silixi

Ii 'strength'
hu-su
huh-sun (513)
hOsun
husuN

[C]
[M]
[N]

Ali . ~1J4

~ ,~

/C..~

#Lf~

[N]
[A]

*umuha

[A]

[T]

928

7G;tiJ'f;-

sui 'marrow [of


bone) ,
u-mu-ha
umgan (old form:
umhan)

[T]

the reading !!, but


in view of the M.
and 5. equivalents,
it would seem to
be read here fu

923

flllL .

[M)

[M]
[5 ]

[G)
[K]

,lil,.A.

[A]

*~enggi

~eng-gi

chang , intestines'
du-ha
tu-hah (507)
duha
duha
duhaa

[C)
[T]

*nei

~1'
925

[M]
[5]

(-:q

[A)

[N]

7C 1i jJ. ~9
*U]U idi

880-927

-:f~

TL,

i1 1;:t{-;~

guangtou 'bald head'


u-j'u-gi-ta-hung
gincihiyan 'smooth,
even, glazed'

*U]U gitahun

880-928

(7)

i}~

fEI -'"

ILdi /,
P
7) _ .. ,

1: ?:
,_

liu tou 'to let one's


hair grow long'
u-Ju-fun-he-su-Iao
sulabu- 'to let free
[as of hair]'
880-481-929

""

*ulu funhe sulau

324
930

(A)

(e)
[T)
(N)

931

932

933

kai yan 'open the eyes'


ya-sa-nei
881-46

936
*yasa nei

1tJf,
,.

l 13/';1:
;~ 1lJ-.'.

[A]

1; h
p),:R'

[e]
[T)

tan qi 'sigh' (v)

[M]

[5]

sej ilesej iH!m~

[A)

~*Pj

[e]
[T]

ya-~i-me

[M]

yacihiya-

[5)

yacixiam~

1tln~

:t.....

(e)
(T)
[M)

xi lian 'wash the face'


de-Ie-au
obo- 'to wash'

(5)

'ov~m!!,

(N)

891-931

(A]

?rt~

(e)
[T)
(N)

kai kou 'open the mouth'


*angga nei
ang-ha-nei
884-46

[e]
[T]

(A]

Mflllt . ~-;;t~Z 1~ ~

[N]

chu lei 'weep'


di-la-me-tu-ti-he
j ila- 'to feel
pity for'
938-me-50-he

[A]

I1~ D-#i:.

rpr1;Pi

bi yan 'close the eyes'

(M)

nicu- 'to close the


eyes'
881-993

[M)

(N)

[AJ

[e)
[T]
[M)
[N)

ya-sa-ni-~u

~~t

*dere au

'ovum~

[e]
[T)

[A)

937

938

*yasa

(M]

939

ni~u

if; b1;* 11 1.

shu kou 'wash the mouth'


ang-ha-i-li-hia
*angga ilihia
silgiya- 'to rinse out
[the mouth with water]'
884-934

$11~

[A]

940

941

*U]U fuZi

*ya~i-me

~ ~h... 6lg

*'1 l1u 1.. ~"

[5)
[N]

fekce- 'to jump'


fekumE!
881-939

[A]

fIe:.

ya-sa-fu-~un-bi

~'lJ

fei xin 'worry, be


distressed'
sui-la-~u-ha

[M)

suilacuka 'painful,
distressing'

(T)
(N)

*yasa fu[k]cu-mbi

tt pf;

[T)

[A]

*dila-me tuti-he

5f ::tR~ 17;.' ~/)L,'

[M]

[e)

tHen 'sneeze' (v)

yan tiao 'eye twitches'

7L 111-;t:' B

ti tou 'shave the head'


u-Ju-fu-Zi
fusi- 'to shave'
880-935

. JZ,l

[e]
[T]

[e]

*sediele!H-mbi

se-die-le-~in-bi

~l;tM

[e]
(T]

935

:tm 0J

(A]

(N]

934

f-It~ ~

325

*0 Ie>

*suila~uka

. ttjf, l/J ::J~jz ',/>'

zhi xin 'to know one's


heart [mind) ,
mei-le-sa-bi
852-42-bi

*meile sa-bi

327

326

942

[C)

944

mu-~i-le-o-tso

[G)
[K)
[M)

meh[mai)-~ih-lan-[poh)

(506)

mer ilenbe
mujilen 'heart, mind'
onco 'magnanimous'
cf. 852 and 941 above
the G. and K. forms are
in the accusative

948

[C]

saoyang 'scratch'

[T]
[M]
[S]

u-~a-bi

xin zhi 'heart is upright'


mu-~i-le-ton-do

[N)

942-691

*mu~ile

tondo

949

[A)

qian shou 'hold the hand'


ha-la-Ja-fa
*gala lafa
jafa- 'to catch hold of'

950

jaf~m~

888-944

*u!la-bi

wa!lavasE!mE!, vasE!mE!

[A)

[C]

[C)

[M)
[S)
[N)

[A]

[T]
[M)
[S]

[T)

[C)

xizao 'wash, bathe'


eu-se
ebBe'efeSE!mE!, 'efE!sE!m~
'to swim'

[A]

[C]
[T]

tou teng 'head ache'


u-ju-ni-men-bi

[N]

880-952

*uju nime-mbi

[A)

[C)
[T)

zhijie 'knuckles'

[N]

912-911

~in-mu-hung-Ja-la

*sinmuhun ]ala

[A)
[C]

[T]
[M]
[N]

946

*mutile o[n)tso

[A)

[T)

945

xin kuan 'magnanimous'

[T)

[N)

943

947

[A)

951

cha shou 'join the hands


[in greeting]'
ha-la-Jao-la
*gala jaula
joola-

[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

[G]
[K)
[M]
[S]

sheng 'voice'
di-lu-a
tih-leh-'an (780)
dilgan
j ilgan
j ilE!haN

[A)

If . 1~ 1f~ '0-'

[C)

[T]

888-945

[A]

[C]

[A)

pai shou 'clap the hands'


*falangga du
fa-lang-ha-du
[galai] falangga
[Gale'i] fale9-/:!

952

[C)
[T)

946-810

[M)

[S)

II

teng 'painful'
ni-men-bi
nimenimeme

*dilu'a

*nime-mbi

328

329
953

[A)
[e)

[T)
[M)

[5)
[N)

958

biliang 'bridge of
the nose'
sung-gi-tu-la
tura 'pillow, post,
support' (cL 560)
turaa 'post'

[e]
[T]
*sunggi tura

[M]
[N]

[A)

[M)

bikong 'nostril'
sung-gi-sang-ha
sangga 'cave'

[5)

saI}~

[e)
[T)

be-tie-~in-mu-hung

[N]

889-912

960

[G)
[K)

xinjiao 'distressed'
mu-zi-le-Jo-o-bi
~oh-puh-wen

[M)

jobogun
jobo-

[5)

jovem~,

jiaozhi 'toe'
*betie

~inmuhun

*sunggi sangga
[A]

[T]
[T)

880-958

[e]
[T]

[A)
[e)

*u]u dida

[A]

[e]
955

di tou 'lower the head'


u-}u-di-da
uju gida- 'to let the
head hang'

883-953
959

954

[A]

[N]

*muzile jO'o-bi

(844)

da dan 'courageous,
cheeky'
U-li-hi-ang- ba
both eh. and J.
expressions lit.
mean 'big gallbladder'

*Ulihi amba

923-1153
jovum~

'to

suffer'
961
956

[A)
[e)
[T)
[M)
[5]

957

[A]
[e]

tou yun 'dizzy, giddy'


u-Ju-me-tu
*uJu mefn]tu
mentuhun 'stupid, silly'
meNtuxuN

[A]
[e]

kesou 'cough' (v)

[T]

fu-~a-bi

[M]

fucihiya-

[5]

f1!q~sam~

*fu~a-bi

[T)

du teng 'stomach ache'


heu-li-ni-men-bi

[N]

893-952-mbi

*heuli nime-mbi

330

331
967

SECTION ELEVEN

962

963

964

~.

[e]
[T]
[G]

yi 'clothes'
a-du
hah-tu (554)

[K]
[M]

hadu
adu

[A]

/f'p;f} .

[C]
[T]
[N]

bushan 'shirt'
da-gu
cf. 980

[A]

[M]

[A]

966

[G]
[K]
[M]

ku 'trousers'
ha-1a-gu
hah-lah-k'u (553)
halaku
halakG.

[A]

li~. ~.~.
o 8.

[C]
[T]

969

*dagu

rr6' $'J

1;
*ha1agu

aozi 'jacket'
to-lo-gan
no cognate

[S]
[A]

*Jt -} . 11:.' 1J t:.

[K]
[M]

*tologan
970

[A]

t~

[C]
[T]
[G]

hu-~i-ha

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]

7G ill

~~~
It....:...'
.......
1".1

971

qun 'skirt'
*huHha

huh-Hh- 'an (552)


husigan
husihan

*guluha

*fumoci

11 . it

[S]
[A]

A 'PEls

[C]
[T]

da mao 'big hat'


bo-lo
boro 'hat worn
during summer'

[M]

wazi 'socks'
fu-mo-ci
fuh-{:'i (556)
foci
fomoci

xie 'shoe'
sao
sa-pu (555)
sabu
sabu
sav/'!

[K]
[M]

*u(:ie

0-&
t:l

xue 'boot'
gu-lu-ha
ku-lah-hah (546)
gulaha
gG.lha
GuH!haa

[C]
[T]
[G]

111#

[M]

[K]
[M]

968

*adu

J\,."t

daizi 'belt'
u-cie
u!ie

[C]
[T]

[C]
[T]

[G]
[K]
[M]

1(~ -f . 1i

'T'

*~

/fOJ~~

[A]

[C]
[T]

965

CLOTHING

[A]

*sau

w.=

t. 11i
*boro

333

332
972

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

mahH~

[A]

*~*

[C]
[T]
[N]

974

[A]

7;

[AJ

[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

bos~

[C]
[T]
[M]

[N]

978

*kubu adu

[M]

1- *~-i
chuan 'wear'
e-tu
'oh-t'uh-hung (846)
etuhun
etu'utumE!

1~*i

*su]e

[C]

dan yi 'unpadded
clothes'
u-mu-su-a-du
emursu etuku
979-962

[A]

981

982

,,~'

[A]

it i;

[M]

[A]

ill

[N]

*dahu

. 11;.' 11:.

hanshan 'shirt'
fu-to
fokto

[C]
[T]

Ai}

[M]
[N]

[C]
[T]

*]uresu adu

*umu[r] su adu

pi'ao 'fur-lined coat'


da-hu
dah(l
cf. entry 978 above

[C]
[T]

*bosu

~*~

*dehele

*i ;rOJ~p

-f. -i'<. 7G

[M]
[N]

980

[A]

[T]

*etu

. rr',"*JJ

dahu 'type of jacket'


de-he-le
dehele 'short jacket
without sleeves'
PO

979

t" . it if;/] t. ~Q} ~r

j ia yi 'lined
clothes'
Ju-le-su-a-du
jursu (etuku)
'padded clothing,
clothing made of
two layers'
976-962

[A]

[C]
[T]

t,t

bu 'cloth'
bo-su
puh-su (559)
bosu
boso

[A]

[G]
[K]
[M]

t1B

~.

[C]
[T]

[A]

[C]
[T]

*mahila

~, jTD]~fY

[5]

[G]
[K]
[M]

976

mian yi 'wadded
clothes'
ku-bu-a-du
381-962

~.

977

[5]

duan 'satin'
su-je
su-~e (563)
suJe
suje
sujii

[C]
[T]

975

m. *P 1)

xiao mao 'small hat'


ma-hi-la
ma-hi-lah (547)
mahila
mahala

[C]
[T]

973

,1 rp~

*' .

[Iii] ~iJ jIDJ

*fu[k]to

it lV.'

feng yi 'sew clothes'


a-du-a-lan-bi
962-538

*adu ara-mbi

335

334
983

i-L~i

[A]

*<Ei"

[C]

yi niu 'button'
to-ho
tohon
toh1!N

[T]
[M]
[S]

988
*toho

[A]

~~

[e]
[T]

juan 'thin silk'


do-ko
doko 'lining of a
garment'
doqu 'id. '

[M]

[S]

984

[A]

Fit;t< " {I ~ f-ff.

[C]

tuo yi 'take off


clothes'
a-du-su
su-

[T]
[M]
[S]

985

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]

[5]

[N]
986

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]

[5]

989

~OJ

l-p 15: ts

990

of. ,

bu yi 'patch clothes'
a-du-nie-tie-bi
niyece, imecim~
962-985-bi

*adu nietie-bi

[A]

1cJ~

[C]
[T]
[M]
[S]

gaoli bu 'Korean cloth'


su-lo-o-bo-su
so-kuo (326)
sogo/solg07
solho
sol1!hoo

[A]

~~~~*- ;;}.Tap 1J fTDJ#

[H]

[K]

:fJt 1<fft 8118 ~* ~ 1bei ru 'bed quilt'


di-be-hung-!li-se
puh-tih-hung =
tih-puh-hung (557)
Hh-lHh-hei (558)
dibohun
HSihe
jibehun 'bedding quilt'
sishe 'mattress quilt'
j if1!xuN, j iufuxuN
sis~xee,

[N]

[T]

991
*dibehun

~is[hJe

[A]

t-rp41

[e]
[T]

shou jin 'napkin'


fung-ku
fungku

[M]

*fungku

*orho sau

i.m~1~t
*sulo'o bosu

~*) . :t~ 1-~t~

[M]

987

tp

[A]

[C]
[T]

Hs~xe

~IQ

[N]

[T]

992

-;-

manglong yi 'dragon
clothes'
mu-du-li-a-du
406-962

[C]

*doko

1f11 liFt)(1t
zaoxie 'shoes made
of grass'
o-r-ho-sao
376-970

[e]
*adu su

soom~

iJfj'-R '

[A]

" } t!

zhan shan 'felt shirt'


nie-mu-r-e
cf. nemerku 'raincoat,
rainj acket' ;
nemerhen/nemergen ' a
raincoat made of
reeds'

*muduri adu

*niemur'e

337

336

993

[e]

[T]
[N]

994

998

[A]
wang jin 'netting'
wang-gi-r
J. *wanggir < eh.

*wanggir

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

[A]

[e]

zhi jin pao 'a long


robe embroidered
with gold'

[T]

ang-~u-la-ha-ge-~u-li
(ge-~u-ha-li 1)

jin ru 'brocade quilt'


ang-~u-la-~i-se

[G]
[K]
[M]

*an~ura ~is[h]e

cf. 1064 *an~u 'gold';


cf. also 998 *an~ura
998(1064)-986

[N]

995

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

996

[A]
[e]

[T]
[M]

[S]
[N]

997

guan mao 'official's hat'


gua-ni-ma-hi-la
*guan-i mahila
*guan < eh.
995-i[gen.]-972

999
shudai 'type of belt worn
by officials'
gua-ni-u-mu-si
*guan-i umusu
umiyesun
nimesuN, niumusuN
995-i[gen.]-996
1000

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

xi bu 'fine cloth'
na-r-hung-bo-su
187-975

[e]

zhan tiao 'felt mattress'


Ja-fu-~i-se

*jafu ~is[hle

jafu 'felt'
jaf~ 'homespun carpet'
999-986

[A]

[M]

[S]
[N]

'an-~'un-wen-lah-hai (564)
ancunlahai
gecuheri 'brocade, satin
with dragons or flowers
depicted on it'
the transcription reads
ha-ge-~u-li (in that order);
Ishida suggested the
arrangement ge-~u-ha-li
which, in the light of
M. gecuheri, has been
adopted here
994-998

[T]
[M]
[S]
[N]

[T]
[G]
[K]

ge~uhari

[A]

[e]
*narhun bosu

*an~ura

cu bu 'coarse cloth'
ma-bo-su
ma-rh (671)
mar
muwa
maa
1000-975

*ma bosu

339

338

1001

[A]

,'-5<-

\JI7

*11 .

1'0

[N]

1uo 'gauze, gossamer'


10
10 (562)
10
*10 < Chinese

[A]

;jfo:~ .

[C)

[T]
[G)
[K]

*10

1007
1002

[C]

[T]
[M]

1003

[A]

[C]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

1004

J17t-:t

I \

pei jian ' shawl'


sa-mu-pa
no cognate

~~"

~a

[A]

il

[C)

ling 'damask'
ling-ze
*lingze < Chinese

[N]

1008
*!!a

[C)
[G)
[K]
[M]

j iu 'wine'
nu-1e
nu-1ieh (520)
nure
nure

[S)

nur~

[A]

1~

[C)

[T)

[S]

[T]

~f!E

[T)
*samupa

[G)
[K)
[M)
[5)

~1,l
".

-,-

*lingze

1009

[A]

[C)

[T)
1005

[A)

[M]

ma bu 'hempen fabric'
30-do
jodon

[A)

1iA rp~ . if.:t mfp If)

[C]

[T)

1006

fr+ Tfo

.~,

[C]

[T)
[M)
[N)

hu mao 'barbarian hat'


fa-tu-ma-hi-1a
cf. fadu 'bag, pouch'
1006-973

[G)

[K)
*Jodo

*fatu mahi1a

-tt:x.llJ

[A)

Jl

sha 'gauze'
!!a
!!a (561)
a

FOOD AND DRINK

SECTION TWELVE

[M)
(5)

*nure

~~

fan '[uncooked)
rice'
bu-da
puh-tu-kuai (523)
budgai
buda

*buda

b~daa

~.

iiI!

j iang 'sauce'
mi-su
yih-suh-wen (528)
isgun
misun 'soya sauce'
misuN 'fermented
bean paste'

*misu

341

340

1010

[A]

[e)

[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)

[N)

d..IlIL

Ji-.11L

yan 'salt'
da-tsu
tah-puh-sun (527)
dabsun
dabsun

1015

[e]

[T)

*datsu

1016

in light of the
G. /K. and M. forms.
perhaps the underlying word here
is *dabsun, though
one might expect
*dausun in Jurchen

1011

[e)

[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
[5)

1012

i-IB

you 'oil'
i-meng-gi
yih-men-kih (526)
imengi
imenggi. nimenggi

[e)

huo 'fire'
ta
t'oh-wei (21)
tuwe
tuwa
tuaa

[G)
[K)
[M]
(5)

JH::

1013

[A]

1014

M~t

[e]

[M]
[5]

xian 'salty'
ha-tu
hatuhlln
hati:!huN

[A)

*mo

*hatu

shi 'eat'
Je-fu
ce-fuh (535)
Jefu
je- ; jefu (imper. )

*]efu

jem~

*J'efu is in the
imperative form

~~.

*- lJJ

/'J.:..

[e)

dan 'weak [in taste)'


ni-ta
nih-t'ah-pa (463)
nitaba
nitan

[G)
[K)
[M)

*lusu

~ iffiift.

[A)

[T]

*buIu

jiu~iuxuN

[M)
[5)

[T)

1019

suan 'sour'
v
JU-su
ju!!'uhun

tang 'soup; hot water'


!ii-Ie
sile
silee

[e)

*ta

/f;' ~

[A)

[T)

[G)
[K)
[M)
[5)

[N)

[N)

[T]

[e)

[T)

1018

chai 'firewood'
mo
cf. 352

[e)

[A)

. it!.,

[A)

[T)

@~. J~t

[M)
[5)

nimt':!~~

zhu 'cook' (v)


bu-Ju
buju-

[A)

[T]

*imenggi

1-~JL

bujum~

[e)

7F:5iz. 2;

if

[M)
[5]

daf~suN

1017
[A)

[A]

;i(

*1Hle

. ~/i t-%
*nita

344

345
1030

[A]

[C)

1031

[T]

mikang 'rice-bran,
paddy-chaff'
be-1e-a-la

[N]

359-405

[T]
[N]

[T]
[M]
[N]

1034

[T]
[N]

[C)
[T]
[M]

*nure lafa

[5]

1007-944

*ta dedi

1012-1042

[N]

gun shui 'boiling water'


fi-se-mu-ke
*fise muke
fuye- 'to boil'
fe'ixE! mukee
perhaps -se- is a
mistake for -he1037-131

tan jiu 'be greedy


for wine'
nu-1e-un-mu-hu
no cognate

1038

*nure unmuhu

[A]
[C)

[T]

1007-1032

[M]
[N]

huo tan 'charcoal'


ta-ya-ha
yaha

*ta yaha

1012-1038

[A]

[C)
[T]

yin jiu 'drink wine'


nu-1e-u-mi

[N]

1007-1047

1039

*nure umi

[T]
[N]

[A]

[C)
[N]
[M]

[A]
[C)

re jiu 'hot [=warm]


wine'
ha-1u-nu-1e

*ha1[h]u nure

1040

276-1007

[M]

ge rou 'cut meat'


ya-li-fi-ta
faita-

[5 ]

fiat~m~

[N]

917-cf.634

[C)

[A]

[T]

1eng jiu 'cold wine'


!:ia-hu-1u-nu-le

[N]

277-1007

[C)

*~ahuru

xing 'offensive smell,


especially of fish or
blood'
ni-su
nincuhun

*ni [nJ su

[A]

[T]

1035

shao huo 'light a


fire'
ta-de-di

[A]

[A]
[C)

1033

*bele ara

1037

ba jiu 'raise one's


wine-cup [as a
sign of respect]'
nU-1e-Ja-fa

[A]
[C)

[A]

[C)

1032

1036

*yali fita

nure
1041

[A]

[C)
[T]
[M]
[5]

chou 'stinking'
wa-hung
wahun
vahuN

*wahun

346

347
1042

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[S]

1043

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[S]

1044

1045

-;./%
,7C.

f~. .
~ ...
If1 ,

shao 'burn'
de-di-he
deij idejim~,

*dedi-he

dijim~

't-fr . 1!1J Sfi ~!


ganj ing 'clean'
bol-Io-ko
bolgo
boH!hl:!n, boH!huN

ifM

[e]

wochuo 'dirty. goodfor-nothing'

[T]

ha-ta-~u-ha

[M]

hatacuka

[A]

pQ.

TL..

1049

*boloko

,Fi:!,

[e]
[T]
[M]

JJ.an 'fry'
fi-fu
fuifu- 'cook' (v)

[A]

.t~~

[T]
[M]

1050

*hata~uka

yao 'bite'
u-Ie
cf. 492, 521 *u-mbi
'to bite'

1051

[A]

[e]
[T]

1047

.....

1':

[C]

cha 'tea'
*~a

[T]

~a

[N]

< Chinese

[A]

~.

[C]

yin 'drink'
u-mi
omiiomim1!

[T]
[M]
[S]

[N]

1ili

[A]

1052

*umi

dian huo 'light a fire'


ta-ni-du
no cognate
1012-1051

. 1-e

[e]

fang huo 'fire off,


set fire to'
ta-hin-da-bi
sinda- 'to fire
[a gun]'
seNdam~, siNdam1!
cf. 853, where J.
*hinda- also
corresponds to
M. sinda1012-cf. 853

[S]

[N]

*ta nidu

iIffi ,w,/, 4- ''/0-'

:r~ ~

[M]

*ta file

!,/j J:. ' 1l!!. ~/P.., Ta-~

[A]

[T]

Tw&

*nure sa'u

~1J

xiang huo 'move towards


the fire'
ta-fi-Ie
file- 'to warm oneself
by the fire'
1012-1050

[M]

1046

*- . 111. f

[C]

[N]

*u-re

dian jiu 'pour a


libation of wine'
nu-Ie-sa-u
cf. subu- 'to slake
[one's thirst]'

f;;J

[M]

*fifu

. ~ lJJ :fA 7L

[A]

[T]

l1.J

1ft

[A]

[e]

p1;-4 t c~

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

-"'.

1048

*ta hinda-bi

351

350

1068

SECTION THIRTEEN

1064

[A]

i:. 7t~

[C]
[T]
[G]

an-~u

[K]
[M]

[S]
[N]

1065

JEWELS AND VALUABLES

jin 'gold'
*an~u

'an-~'uh-wen

(568)

1:~

[C]
[T]
[G]

yin 'silver'
meng-gu
meng-ku-wen (570)
mengun
menggun
meIJuN, mUI}uN

[S]

[C]
[T]
[M]

xi 'tin'
to-ho-Io
toholon

[S]

toh~H!,

1067

~JL

1070

[A]

1m .

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

tong 'bronze'
!a-Ii
!ah-Ii (573)
Hri
sirin

[A]

It J!i .

[C]
[T]
[G]

ni-~u

[K]
[M]

tohuluN

q~ -t ~~"f

[A]

~SE

[C]
[T]
[N]

yin hu 'silver pot'


meng-gu-tang-pin

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

yu 'jade'
gu-u
ku-wen (569)
gun
gu

*menggu

1071

[A]

1:&.J~ tIl

[C]
[T]
[M]

1066

*toholo

*menggu

tam~in

1065-574

an~un

cf. aisin
cf. 'a'isiN
Ligeti, "Note ~reliminaire"
p. 225, reconstructs
*al~u for G. 568

[A]

[K]
[M]

~.

-r

1069

i4... /s I

[A]

!J;. /J

~Ft:

*!Hri

zhenzhu 'pearl'
ning-tu-hei (572)
ninJuhe
nicuhe

*nicu

. -t~ 7l
*gu'u

. Ji 1i t 111 :W, ,

yin xiangquan 'silver


necklace'
*menggu selehe
meng-gu-se-Ie-he
cf. selhe 'the pendulous
fold of skin under a cow's
neck; dewlap; cf. selhen
'a cangue'

353

352

1072

1075

[A]
[C]
[T]
[M]

[5 ]
[N]

jin taizhan 'gold wine-cup


with saucer'
*ancu taili
an-cu-tai-1i
tai1i 'a saucer for a
wine cup'
tiali
the Chinese term taizhan
does not appear in
dictionaries of Modern
Chinese. Franke translates
it 'Becher mit goldenem
(bezw. silbernem) Fuss';
the translation above is
based on the definition
in Ciyuan (1979 revised
ed.) Vol. III p. 2590,
which gives as a reference
a passage in the Liaoshi.

[A]

[e]
[T]
[M]
[N]

1076

[G]
(K]
(M]
[N]

[C]

jin maoding
'golden knob
on a skull-cap'

[T]

an-~u-ma-hi-la-ning-gu

[M]

ninggu 'top of, above,


over'
nuguu, niuguu, nivuu
1064-972-1073

[5]
[N]

1074

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[S]

[A]

(T]
(M]
[N]

*ancu hulu

tie 'iron'
se-Ie
seh-Ieh (574)
sele
sele
sele

*sele

*an~u

mahila
ninggu
1078

[A]

[e]
[T]
(G]
(K]
[M]
[N]

[A]

(C]

jin huanr 'golden ring'


an-cu-hu-Iu
huh-Iu (548)
hulu
no cognate
1064-1076

[A]

[e]
1073

*menggu suihu

[A]

(C]
(T]

1077

yin erzhui 'silver


earrings'
menggu suihu
suihu 'earrings
worn by men'
1065-1075

jin jiezhi 'gold fingerring'


an-cu-gui-fi
*ancu guifi
guifun
1064-1074

1079

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

1080

tongqian 'money'
Ji-ha
ci-hah (262, 575)
Jiha
jiha
jihaa

jin xian 'golden thread'


an-cu-tung-gu
*ancu tunggu
1064-590

[A]

[e]
[T]
[N]

yin zhong 'silver goblet'


meng-gu-hu-ta
*menggu hu[n]ta
1065-613

354

355
1081

1082

[A]
[C]

jin pen 'golden dish'

[T]

an-~u-fun-zi

[N]

*funzi < Ch. penzi


1064-1081

*ancu funzi
SECTION FOURTEEN

[A]

1085
[C]
[T]
[N]

jin zhong 'golden goblet'


an-cu-hu-ta
*ancu hu[njta
1064-613

[A]

[C]
[T]

1083

[M]

chi shu 'imperial


rescript'
a-r-ba
cf. 1086 below

*arba

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

yin taizhan 'silver winecup with saucer'


meng-gu-tai-li
*menggu taili
1065-1072

1086

[A]

[C)
[T]

1084

WRITING

[G)
[K]
[M]
[N]

[A]

[C]
[T]
[N]

jin erzhui 'golden


earrings'
an-cu-sui-hu
1064-1075

*ancu suihu

sheng zhi 'imperial


decree'
a-r-wa
'a-lah-wa-kih (576)
arawagi
no cognate
the G./K. forms are
followed by the
instr. suffix -&1;
Jin Qicong reconstructs
*alawa. It occurs
fairly often, but
does not seem to
have a cognate in
Manchu. It is quite
possible that this
is a Khitan word.
There is also an
interesting parallel
in the forms *arba
and *arwa, and the
forms given for
'beam', *taibu and
*tai'u (535, 536)

*arwa

356

357
1087

[A)
[C)

[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)

1092
yin xin 'official seal'
do-Io
do-1o-wen (577)
doron
doron

[C)
[T)

*doro

[M)

1093
1088

[A)
[C)

[T)
[M)
(5)
[N)

du shu 'study' (v)


bi-te-ta-ti
taci- 'to learn'

[T)
*bit[hle tati

[M)
[N)

tacim~

[A)

[C)
[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)

[A)
[C)

[T)
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)
[N)

1091

6r'-,
-'6+.

[M)

zi cuo 'mistake in
writing'
bi-te-en-de-he
ende- 'make a mistake'
1094-1093

*bit[h]e ende-he

zi 'writing'
bi-te
cf. 1090 above

*bit[h]e

[A)

[C)
[T)

mingzi 'name'
ge-bu
koh-puh (742, 780)
gebu
gebu

[N)

1095

gev~

[A)
[C)

-&
Ta .
./"""...

)I'!'"\'
~

[M)
[N)

1);-0

IL:l ~

wenshu 'documents'
bi-te-e
pih-t'eh-hei (216)
bitehe
bithe

*bit [h]e 'e

1096

[C)

bit~xee

[N)

this word usually


appears as *bit[h]e,
cf. 1094

1097

[T)
*gide-he

[N)

*doro digia-bi

xue zi 'learn writing'


bi-te-a-Ian-bi
cf. 1092

*bit[hle ara-mbi

[A)
[C)

feng j i 'seal' (v)


gi-de-he
gida- 'press down'

shi yin 'use a seal'


do-1o-di-gia-bi
cf. gide- (1091)
1089-1095

[A)

[T)

[A)

[C)
[T)

*bit [h) e ara

1094-1088

[T)
1090

xie zi 'write'
bi-te-a-ra
1094-538

[A)
[C)

1094
1089

[A)

kan he 'official check,


official identification
card, document'
kan-ho-bi-te
Ligeti "Deux tab1ettes"
p. 216 has a long note
on this word
1097-1094

*kanho bit[h)e

359

358

1098

[A]
[C)

[T]
[M]
[S]

chang qu 'sing'
u-C!u-lo
ucule'ucul~m~,

*u~ulo

SECTION FIFTEEN

COLOURS

'uculum~

1099

[A]

,1. "fJu

[A]

~L

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K)
[M)
(5)

hong 'red'
fu-liang
fuh-lah-kiang (624)
fulagiyan
fulgiyan
felegiaN, fuH!giaN

[A]

~.!

[S)
[A)

a .

[G)
[K)
[M]

*ful[g]ian

*suyan

~1JC1

[G)
[K)
[M)

bai 'white'
sang-gia
sang-kiang (619)
!!angiyan
!lanyan, /!langgiyan

[S)

~ia9aN

[C)
[T)

*niengia

1~'~

huang 'yellow'
su-yang
so-kiang (618)
sogiyan
suwayan
suyaN, suayaN

[C)
[T)

1102

[S]

[G)
[K]
[M]

1101

qing 'green, blue'


nien-gia
nen[nun]-kiang (616)
niyongiyan
niowanggiyan
niu!}iaN, nil}eniaN

[C)
[T]

1100

*sanggia

360

361
1103

[A]

1105

[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[A]

~. ~

HOB

Hi 'green'
bu-r-ha-bo-~o

[M]

burga (old form:


burha) 'willow
tree'
boco 'colour'

[C]
[T]
[N]

*burha boC':o

[A]

[N]

cai duan 'varicoloured


satin'
ha-n-su-je
43-974

*ha~i

sure

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]

[5]

zi 'purple'
nio-hung
cf. niohon 'green'
(or 'blue', in 'blue
sky'); niohun 'peagreen'
nioohuN 'dark green'

*niohun

[A]
[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[A]

*sahalian

~ ti!j Jj~'

[C]

[T]

1107

[T]

[C]

1106

. :tf~u1i ~

hei 'black'
sa-ha-liang
sah-hah-liang (620)
sahaliyan
sahaliyan
sahaliN, saheliaN

[C]

[T]

1104

~,

biao li 'outside and


inside of a garment'
tuku doko
*tuku doko
t'uh-k'o (544)
to-k'o (545)
tuko, doko
tuku 'the outside of
a garment'
doko 'inside, the lining
of a garment'

da hong 'crimson [lit:


'big red ']
ang-ba-fu-liang
1153-1100

*amba ful [g]ian

363

362
1113

5ECTION 5IXTEEN

li.

[C]
[T]

wu 'five'

[G]

NUMERAL 5

[K]
[M]

1109

[C]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]

[5]
1110

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]

[5]
1111

[5]

yi 'one'
e-mu
'oh-muh (636)
emu
emu
'eme
,

er 'two'
v
Jue
coh (637)
V'
Juwe
juwe
juu

san 'three'
i-lang
i-Ian (638)
ilan
ilan
, ilaN

[5]

[C]
[T]
[G]

[K]
[M]

[5]
[N]

*lue
1115

1116

[C]
[T]

si 'four'
dui'in
tu-yin (639)
duin
du'iN

ifXJ ~

[M]

[5]

nad~N

[A]

/\ . :tJ ?l

[M]

[5]

' J?
'I!i -1l--

qi 'seven'
na-da
nah-tan (642)
nadan
nadan

[K]

*sunla

liu 'six'
*ninggu
ning-gu
ning-cu (641)
ningu
ninggun
niuuN, niuIJuN
G. 641 should be ning-ku,
as corrected by Kiyose;
*ninlu means 'sixty'
(cf. 1123)

[C]
[T]

[G]

*du'in

I,

-G

[K]
*ilan

[A]

[G]

11

rrg

[K]
[5]

[A]

[C]
[T]

[A]

[G]

*emu

]} t!~

[C]
[T]
[K]

1114

it

[M]

lIun-Ja
sun-cah (640)
sunJa
sunja
suNjaa

t~ ;t

[A]

[G]

1112

[A]

. )//~ ~0

[A]

ba 'eight'
Ja-kung
~ah-k'un (643)
Jakun
jakun
jaquN

*nada

*Jakun

364
365
1117

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)

[K]
[M]
[5]

1122

j iu 'nine'
u-yung
wuh-ye-wen (644)
uyun
uyun
'u'iN, 'uyuN

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]

[5]

1118

[A]

i'

[C)
[T]

shi 'ten'
Juang

[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

~ua

1123

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

1119

[G)

[K]
[M]
[5]

*ninlu

ershi 'twenty'
o-li
wo-lin (655)
orin
orin
'oriN

1124

*ori

[A]

[C)

[5]

qishi 'seventy'
na-da-j'u
nah-tan-cu (660)
nadanJu
nadanju
nadeNju

[A]

h,

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

*nada)u

[A]

[C)

1125

sanshi 'thirty'
gu-H

[T]
[G)

ku-~en

[K]
[M)
[5]

guHn
gtlsin
go!dN

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

(656)

[5]

1121

liushi 'sixty'
ning-Ju
ning-cu (659)
ninJu
ninju
'iNju

[A]

[C)
[T]

1120

*susai

[A]
[C)

(645)

Juwa
juwan
juaN

wushi 'fifty'
su-sai
suh-sah-yih (658)
susai
susai
susa'i

'~'1 ~1i

bashi 'eighty'
Ja-kung-5u
cah-k'un-cu (661)
j'akunJu
jakunju
jaquNju

*lakun]u

[A]
[C)

[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]

sishi 'forty'
de-hi
t'eh-hi (657)
tehi
dehi
dixi

1126

*dehi

[A]

[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]

[5]

jiushi 'ninety'
u-yung-Ju
wuh-ye-wen-~u

(662)

uyunJu
uyunju
'u'iNju, 'uyuNju

*uyun)u

367

366

ll27

[C]
[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

ll28

[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]

[T]
[G]
[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

ta9~

ll33

[T]
[N]

ll09-ll28

ll34

*emu tume
ll35

[T]
[M]
[N]

ll36

[C]
[T]
[N]

[N]

ll09-ll28-ll32

[A]

[C]
[M]
[5]
[N]

yiqian 'one gian [unit


of money]
e-mu-Ji-ha
ll09-1078

*emu 'jiha

ll37

yiwan liang 'ten thousand


taels'
e-mu-tu-me-yang
*emu tume van
ll09-ll29-ll32

[A]

[T]

[A]

ll09-ll27-ll32

[T]

[C]

*emu fun

yibai liang 'one hundred


taels'
e-mu-tang-gu-yang
*emu tanggu van

yiqian liang 'one thousand


taels'
e-mu-ming-ha-yang
*emu mingga van

[T]
[N]

yifen 'one fen [unit


of money]
e-mu-fun
fun
< Chinese

*emu van

[A]

[C]
yiwan 'ten thousand'
e-mu-tu-me
t'u-man (665)
tuman
tumen
tum~N, tumuN

yiliang 'one tael [unit


of weight]
e-mu-yang
yang (261)
yan
yan
yaN
< Chinese liang

[A]

[C]

*emu mingga

[A]
[C]

ll31

*emu tanggu

ll09-ll27

yiqian 'one thousand'


e-mu-ming-ha
ming-kan (664)
mingan
minggan
migaN

[A]
[C]

[A]
[C]

1130

yibai 'one hundred'


e-mu-tang-gu
t'ang-ku (663)
tangu
tanggu

[A]

[C]
[T]
[G]

ll29

ll32

[A]

yikuai 'one piece'


e-mu-fa-!!i
farsi

*emu fa[r)lH

far~H

ll09-ll36

[A]

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

yipian 'one slice'


e-mu-Ju-te
no cognate
ll09-ll37

*emu Jute

369

368
1138

[A]

[N]

[A]

:li -t

[C]

wushi liang 'fifty


taels'
su-sai-yang
1122-1132

[M]

[5]

[T]
[N]

1140

[A]

-, t>;', . 1:t "/]


~

[A]

..:.m

[T]
[N]

SECTION SEVENTEEN

1142

[C]
[T]
[M]
[N]

*susai Van

*lue )iha

1143

;JJ.. t!P#.

san liang 'three


taels'
i-lang-yang
1111-1132

[T]
[M]
[N]

*ilan van

~eu-un-tu-ti-le-ge

*~e'un

tutirefr]ge

*~e'un

tuhere[r]ge

ergi 'side'
the J. expression
literally means '
the side where the
sun rises'
5-50-re-1142

xi 'west'
~eu-un-tu-he-le-ge

sun tuhere ergi


lit. 'the side where
the sun sets'
4-49-1142

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]

[5]

1145

dong 'east'

[A]

[C]

1144

GENERAL

[A]

tJ0
a

[N]

[C]

*emu Jure

~ . il tit

er qian 'two gian'


Jue-Ji-ha
1110-1078

[C]

[T]

1141

U*t~, lfJ

yidui 'one pair'


e-mu-Ju-le
juru
juru
1109-1138

[C]

[T]

1139

- 1i.

nan 'south'
Ju-le-ge
julergi
juH!rixi

*]ule[r]ge

[A]
[C]

[T]
[M]

bei 'north'
fu-hi-ge
no cognate

*fuhi[r]ge

371

370

1146

[C]

[T]
[M]
[5]

1147

1152

[A]
zuo 'left'
ha-su
hashu
hasl:!huu

[A]
[C)
[T]
[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]

*has[hlu

[C)
[M]
[5]

1153

you 'right'
i-ti
ici
, icii

[C)
[T]

[G)

[K]
[M]

[5]

zhong 'middle'
du-lin-ba
tu-li-Iah (610)
dulila
dulimba
dioliNbaa

*dulimba

1154

da 'big'
ang-ba
'an-pan (29)
'an-pan-Iah (668, 724)
amban
amba
'amI:!, 'aNbuu
Kiyose points out that
the form in G. 668 and
724 is a scribal error

[C)

xiao 'small'

[C)

[T]
[M]
[5]

asihan

[5]

qian 'before, in
front of'
Ju-Ie-ge
julergi 'front, south'
jull:!rixi

[C)

[T]

[G)
[K]
[M]

[C)

hou 'back, behind'


a-mu-Ia
*amula
'a-muh-1u-kai (599)
amurgai
amala 'afterwards, later'

[G)
[K]
[M]
[5]

nei 'in, inside'


do-10
to-10 (600)
dolo
dolo
dol~, dolu

'a~ih~N,

***

[A]

[T]

*a~[hla

a-~a

*lule[r]ge

[A]

*do10

*amba

[A]

[A]

[T]
[M]

1151

[K]
[M]
[5]
[N]

[A]
[C]
[T]

1150

tul~rixi

[A]

[G)

1149

tiul~rixi,

*tulu[r]ge

[A]

[T]

1148

wai 'outside'
tu-lu-ge
t'uh-1i-leh (601)
tulile
tulergi

'asl:!h~N

373

172
INDI0\

207
1044
878
949, 952
961
advise against
835
agree
28
anger
737, 826
angry
784
able
abominable
accept
ache

ant
471
antelope
501
apply oneself to
857
apricot
ill, 388
araki
1029
578, 645
armour
646, 753
753
armourer
659
army
779
arrive
26, 580
arrow
647
700, 702
artisan
703, 706
707, 720
731,747
872
as before
208
ascend
146, 263
ash(es)
1060
774
ask
785
ask for (1)
851
ask for (2)
843
ask in detail
857
assume
855
at ease
1044
atrocious
53
attend (court)
678
aunt (l)
679
aunt (2)
683
aunt (3)
267, 342
autumn
343
783
awake
585
axe
903
back
1150
back (behind)

back part of
the head
896
bad (l)
~, 857
748
bad (evil)
757
bald
896
bald patch
928
bald (guangtou)
732
barbarian
1006
barbarian hat
242
barren
571,1081
basin
510
bat
948
bathe
27,
37
be (is, have)
101
536, 537
beam
358, 404
bean
1026
bean-curd
443
bear (n)
386
bear fruit
902
beard
313, 314
beat
810, 946
809
be born
836
become useful
986, 994
bed quil t
986
bedding
516
bee
1149
before
1150
behind
641
beiluo
313, 561
bell
629
605
bell (small)
720, 965
belt
996
belt-maker
720
bench
568
bend (in a river)
240
benefactor
701
738
benevolent
40,
88
big
90, 116
181, 186
188, 197
207, 252
383, 557
655, 960
1108,1153
971
big hat
429
bird

1045
bitter
231
397
bitter melon
black
437,11 03
blind (man)
711
blood
920
blow (wind)
92
blue-green
173,1099
boar
447
boar (castrated)
450
board
191, 546
615
Board of Rites
552
Board of War
553
boat
199, 614
body
70S, 887
863
boil (v)
1037
bone
895
boot
968
border
~, 255
860
born (be born)
809
bottle
584
bow (n)
579
bow (v) (1)
ill, 876
bow (v) (2)
~, 874
bow (salute)
837
bowl
569
bowl (porcelain)
632
branch
ill, 390
breakfast
1059
breast
901
breath
12
brick-bed (kang)
555
bridge
142, 190
192, 198
226, 227
258, 259
260
bridge of the nose
953
bridle (1)
599
bridle (2)
621
bright
29,
71
112, 166
bring
844
bring here
833
bring in
859
brocade
994, 998
broken (1)
189
broken (2)
249
649. 6')1
bronze

bronze smith
broom
brother (elder)

703,1066
703
601
664
714,

715

brother (younger)
665
brother-in-law
687
brush (writing) 565,627
bucket
596
buckwheat
373
burn
550,1042
business
872
781
busy
butterfly
474
button
983
buy
799
cage
554
calf (of the leg)
913
call
833
camel
409
can (v)
207
capture
821
careful
718
carp
513
carpenter
731
cart
618
castrate
500
castrated boar
450
cat
415, 502
522
catfish
507
catch hold of
944
cattle shed
532
cave
954
cease
86
ceremony
864
chaff
405,1030
charcoal
1038
738
charitable
charm
701
cheek
900
Cheeky
960
chen (time period)
328
clerk
658
chest
904
chest made of
boards
615
chestnut treE'
385
chicken
333, 421
458, 523
524, 554

374

child

375

669, 671
726

chimney
Chinese (man)
Chinese mile (li)
Chinese violin
chopsticks
chou (time period)
chowry
ill,
city (walls)
216,
218,
220,
222,

543
735

225
640
640
325
636
176

217
219
221
236
238
512
clam
946
clap
1043
clean
15,
32
clear (1)
2.1:, 166
clear (2)
658
clerk
230
cliff
196
close (1)
148
close (2)
933
close eyes
975, 990
cloth
997,1000
755, 962
clothes
973, 976
979, 982
984, 985
991
~,
37
cloud
45,
46
61,
66
67
169
cloudy
1000
coarse
398
coarse rice
333, 421
cock
458, 523
554
25,
54
cold (1)
95, 277
1035
274, 338
cold (2)
345
collect (of fog)
120
125
1104
colour
592
comb (n) (1)
596
r nm h (n \ (7 \

comb (v)

927

758
859
61
come out
108
222
938
1142
ill, 128
come up
342
796
complete
641
conch
839
consider
1015
cook (v)
1028
cooked (meat)
229,1008
cooked (rice)
573
cooking pot
343
cool
456
cormorant
381, 973
cotton
870, 957
cough
960
courageous
33,
53
court
81, 128
238, 244
547
45, ill
cover
470
crab
744
crafty
230
crag
457
crane
896
cranium
896
cricket
H08
crimson
cross over (1) 198, 227
cross over (2) 199, 228
457
crow (n)
crow (v)
458
crupper
610
crutch
65 0
cry (call out) 458, 48 7
49 6
77 3
cry (weep)
6
39
cucumber
212
cultivate
74 4
cunning
613,1 080
cup (goblet)
10 8Z
619
cushion
634,10 40
cut (v)
6Z 0
dagger
10 0
damask
come

94,
840,
50,
63,
171,
282,

dance
dark (1)
da rk (2)
date (fruit)
day

11,
12,

795
34
74
350

l1,

72

312, 320
321, 322
337,1022
day after
tomorrow
day before
yesterday
days on end
deaf
decree
deep

283

285
337
708
1086
153, 160
164, 252
257, 740
deer
!:l2, 509
1062
demolish
540
67
dense (heavy)
dew
g, 105
107
die (v)
28, 812
227, 867
difficult
Dipper (star)
119, 127
dirt
213
dirty
1044
disappear
109
discernment
839
discuss
820
dish (1)
583, 634
dish (2)
1081
disperse (open) 46,
61
102, 122
disperse (divide)
877
dissuade from
835
distressed (1)
940
distressed (2)
955
distilled liquor
1029
divide
202, 801
877

dizzy
do
do evil
do not

956
538, 706
1096
857
224, 549
860, 862
863, 865
866, 868

doctor
document
doe
dog
dog (small)
donkey
don't want
door

745
1090
509
334, 413
495, 521
497
~,1063
~,

808
550
559
462
25
53
99
246
794
406
488

558,
dove
down (come down)
49,
87,
103,
drag
328,
dragon
485,
991
482
dragonfly
612
drawer
dream
850
1033,1047
drink
1072
drinking vessel
1083
drive (animals)
636
drum
314, 562
630, 651
drunk
786
dry (1)
39
dry (2)
235
duck
423
duck (Mandarin)
517
dumb
712
dusk (dark)
19
dust
40, 145
248, 262
263
dye
702
dyer
702
ear
882
early (1)
272
early (2)
849
1075,1084
earrings
140, 213
earth
260
east
1142
855
easygoir.g
1017
eat
527
eaves
eclipse
Zl, 106

377

376

357
eggplant
454
egret
304, 1116
eight
304
eighth
1125
eighty
elder brother ~, 715
666
elder sister
715
eldest brother
408, 486
elephant
489, 515
307
eleven
372
elm
547, 653
emperor
739, 740
856, 871
53
enter
81, 128
790
ermine
438
escape
727
evening
39, 275
1027
evil
697
evil man
748
evil (do evil)
857
exhort to peace
835
eye
881, 930
933, 939
898
eyebrow
~, 931
face
956
faint
falcon
508
falcon (gerfalcon)
459
fall (1)
25,
87
99, 246
170
fall (2)
237
fall (of water)

n,

family (cE. house)

686
728
family servant
728
fan
597
far
ISS, 203
fat
519, 719
734
father
662
father-in-law
660
fear
775
feast
765
feel pity for
938
felt (n)
999

486
female
fen(unit of money) 1130
festival
270
few
85
field
141, 175
200, 202
206, 212
242
fifteenth day
of the month
321
fifth watch
301
1122,1139
fifty
490
fight
60
fill (full)
187, 647
fine
997
fine hair brush
187
finger
912, 950
959
914
fingernail
1074
finger ring
301, 319
fire
1012,1036
1051,1060
1113
1052
fire off
firewood
1013
first day of month 320
first month
297
fish
431, 437
507
637
fish net
301, 319
five
1113
flag
614
flat iron
643
flesh (cf. meat)
917
flood
168
1023
flour
836
flourish
174
flow
flower
211, ill
377, 388
400, 401
502
248
fly (v)
476
fly (n)
636
fly-whisk
449
foal
16,
27
fog
102, 120
fnll('\'[J'

/.

"Po

110, 864
871
food (cf. meal)
1027
1059
fool
713
foot
162, 889
915, 918
959
foot(of mountain) (1)156
foot(of mountain) (2)162
forest
232
forty
1121
300, 318
four
1112
300
fourth
fourth watch
318
fowl (cf. chicken)
fox
442
126
freeze
827
frighten
frivolous
717
from now on
859
front(in front of) 1149
8
frost
126
frozen
209, 347
fruit
fruit, to bear
386
fry
1048
full (1) (cE. fill)
65
66
1053
full (satiated)
366
fungus (wood)
980
fur-lined coat
737
furious
542
furnace
923, 960
gall-bladder
817
gallop
323
gap (in time)
garden
209, 210
211, 250
1107
garment
gate
236, 557
558, 559
1001
gauze (1)
1003
gauze (2)
~, 500
gelding
generous
742
~ (unit of time) 315
316, 317
318, 319
gerfalcon
459

get on well
get up
giddy
ginseng
girdle
girl
girth
give
give back
give thanks
glazed
glow-worm
go
go (walk)
go down (1)
go down (2)
goat
goat (yellow)
goblet
gold

golden knob on
skullcap
golden oriole
good (1)

836
849
956
380
720
669
623
80S
806
879
928
499
759, 822
202, 207
847
223
1043
331, 501
501
613 ,1080
1082
628, 998
1064,1072
1073,1074
1075,1076
1079,1081
1084

1073
469
97,
98
694, 859
good (2)
738, 743
good for nothing
1044
goose
422
grace
701
grandfather
730
grandson
668
grape
369
grass
376, 380
529, 989
Great Wall
225
greedy
1032
green
1104
green-blue
173, 504
1099
grey
494
guard (v)
216
hai (time period)
335
hail
10,
99

379

378

627, 890
929
309
half (month)
888, 911
hand
912, 944
945, 946
673
handsome
485
hang (1)
958
hang (2)
740
happiness
741
happy
327, 420
hare
627
754
harelip
816
harmonious
778
harmony
549
haste, make
239
hasty
972, 995
hat (big)
1006,1073
706
hat (small)
hat worn during
971
summer
706
hatmaker
794
haul (v)
430, 505
hawk
370
hazel-nut
869, 880
head
927, 928
929, 935
949, 958
head (of the
family)
689
head, back part of 896
heart (1)
892
852, 943
heart (2)
941, 942
heart (3)
955
344
heat
1., 14
heaven
21,
23
25,
27
28,
30
31,
32
34,
35
37,
38
39,
41
42,
44
47,
48
54,
59
60

heavy
hedgehog
heel
helmet

9.2, 856

514
918
577, 628
644
hempen fabric
1005
hen
524
heron
460
hide (d. skin)
645
752
1044
hideous
g, 58
high
157, 221
227, 258
705
387
hill haw
75,
89
hit (d. beat)
313, 810
944,1031
hold
691, 943
honest
1025
honey
478
hoof
626
hook
24
horizon
477
horn
1044
horrible
410, 437
horse
448, 451
490, 493
494, 496
519, 520
530, 622
624, 817
852, 859
36, ill
hot
344,1034
1018
hot water
234, ill
house
527, 528
529, 530
540, 541
547, 548
549, 559
311, 312
how many
114
howl (of wind)
751
hunchback
294,11~
hundred
1133
819
hungry
639
hunt
729
husband

111
ice
identification
1097
document
713
idiot
238, 244
imperial
547
1086
imperial decree
547
imperial palace
imperial rescript 1085
655
important man
1151
in
14
in accordance with
1149
in front of
161, 177
in middle of
1148
1054
incense
836
increase
564
ink
566
ink-slab
insect
427
inside
219,1151
intermediate space 323
733
interpreter
323
interstice
921
intestines
786
intoxicated
644, 646
iron
648,1077
iron (flat iron)
643
Isabella horse
493
518
ivory
964
jacket (1)
978
jacket (2)
1070
jade
945
join hands
839
judgement
574
jug (1)
631
jug (2)
800, 939
jump
kang (brick bed)
555
589
key
490
kick
818
kill
738
kind
468
kite (bird)
909
knee
760
kneel
576
knife
42, 842
know
9ll, 950
knuckles

611
ladder
139
land
291
last year
late
~, 725
771
laugh
755
launderer
867
laws
814
lazy
657
leader
leaf
361, 362
leave
822
leek
355
left
1146
916
leg
lend
803
426, 503
leopard
929
let free
929
let hair grow
392
lettuce
204, 259
level
Ii (Chinese mile)
225
liang (unit of
weight: cf. tael)
1049
libation
213, 869
lift up
1036,1051
light (v)
22
lightning
29
like (similar)
26,
872
215
lime
line up
861
lined (clothes)
976
lining(of a garment)988
lion
432, 522
lip(s)
754, 906
776
listen
792
live at
liver
919
767
local products
588, 648
lock
649
384
locust tree
long
52, 149
225, 310
341
216, 807
look at
868
828
look for
473
louse
751
love (1)

381

380

lower the head


958
loyal (cf. honest)
943
lung
922
lute
638
mad
495. 710
942
magnanimous
461
magpie
557
main door
538. 706
make
982,1092
1096
make harmonious
816
male (bird)
523
male (elephant)
489
man
655, 686
692, 693
694, 695
696, 697
698, 699
701, 705
735, 743
745,747
748, 865
mandarin duck
517
mane
479
many
83, 104
mao (time period)
327
marrow
925
master(of a family) 689
594
mat
802
match
986, 994
mattress
999
676
me
866, 917
meat
1024,1028
1040,1061
1062,1063
835
mediate
medicine (type of)
379
766
meet (1)
825
meet (2)
356, 383
melon
396, 397
ll8
melt
698
merchant
middle (cf. in
161, 177
middle of)
309,ll48
middle gate of
'i'iF!
vamen

mind (heart)
mirror
mist

~.

943
581
E. 66
104. 108
109. 121
122. 124
125
mistake
1093
mix
214
mole
439
money
1078
Mongol
732
monkey
332, 424
month (cf. moon)
moon
~,
29
53,
64
65,
68
69,
70
71,
74
76,
79
80, 128
297, 298
299, 300
301, 302
303, 304
305, 306
307, 308
309
morning
272, 279
1059
mosquito
475
mother
663
mother-in-law
661
mount (v)
208
mountain
66, 130
156, 157
158, 159
160, 161
162, 163
165, 173
232, 233
243, 462
mourn
721
mouth
884, 906
932, 934
1055
move (1)
213
move (2)
791, 863
much (too much)
866
mud
169, 205

mu 1 e
440, 445
multicoloured
~,1105
mushroom
365
musical instrument:
638
piba
640
hugin
641
beiluo
642
suona
378
mustard
1061
mutton
1089
name
987
napkin
180, 184
narrow
1044
narrow-minded
905
navel
1071
necklace
591
needle
496
neigh
604, 639
net
637
net (for fish)
1001
net (gauze)
993
netting
192, 320
new
339, 541
289
next (year)
861, 320
nicely
871
78, 273
night
310, 311
336,1027
305,lll7
nine
ll26
ninety
305
ninth
746
no, not
J.l., ll4
noise
1023
noodles
56
noon (1)
330
noon (2)
1022
noon meal
ll45
north
883, 953
nose
954
953
nostril
48, 864
obey
871
798
obtain
1039
offensive smell
764
offer tribute
549, 995
official (1)
399, 654
off c al (2)
552, 553
off c al (3)

official check
official seal
oil
old
195,

1097
1087
1011
290
872
old man
692
on top of
21, 158
once more
843
one
226, 292
315,ll09
ll27,1128
ll29,l130
1131,1132
ll33,1134
1135,1136
1137,1138
one after another
337
open
46,
62
102, 122
200, 930
932
opponent
696
oppose
28
oriole
469
outside
218, 1152
over again
843
overflow
175, 176
229
ox
324, 411
453, 492
532, 618
ox cart
618
padded clothing
976
paddy chaff
937
pagoda
539
pain
949, 952
961
painful
952
pair
1138
palace
547, 629
palace bell
629
palm (of hand)
946
paper
563
pass around
1031
pa s s ove r (1)
199
pass over (2)
227
pass through
198
patch (v)
985
peace
835
778
peaceful
peak
163

383

382

1067
pearl
pen (writing
instrument)
565
pen (sheep etc.)
531
532, 534
people
656
perish
28
pheasant
511
pickled vegetables
395
pickles
395
1136
piece
335, 414
pig
450, 455
531
498
pig (small)
462, 484
pigeon
531
pig-sty
560, 953
pillar
595
pillow
375
pine (tree)
368, 401
pine kernel
~ (musical
638
instrument)
938
pity (v)
22, 860
place
212
plant (v)
756
plaster
570
plate
723, 736
play (v)
492, 598
plough (n)
349
plum
704
pockmarked
670
poor
389
poplar
632
porcelain bowl
560, 953
post
556
post-house
573
pot (cooking)
~,1069
pot (jug)
pour (libation
1049
of wine)
854
prepare
li, 867
principles
865
property
48, 836
prosper
794
pull
897
pupil (eye)
1106
purple
qian (unit
1131,1140
of money)
465
quail

quilt
rabbit

986,

994
627

(cf. hare)

race (v)
radish
rafter
rain (n)

817
374
537

l,

33

47,
72
78,
81
82,
90
93,
96
98, 100
101, 652
rainbow (1)
18
rainbow (2)
488
raise
213, 869
rare
84
rat
324, 416
439
raw (meat)
1024
read (v)
1088
reasoning faculty
839
rebellious
696
rebuke
823
recalcitrant
696
recede
237
receive
878
red
377, 494
1100,1108
red/white
494
hair (horse)
448
reddish (horse)
867
regulation
867
relationship
relation-by685
marriage
548
repair
792
reside
respect
44, ill
return
768, 787
806, 857
763, 856
reward
878
720
ribbon
907
rib (s)
rice (uncooked)
~
393, 398
399,1030
rice (cooked)
279,1008
1053,1059

rice (in

rice (in
a granary)
399
rice bran (chaff)
1030
rich
695
right
1147
ring (finger-ring) 1076
rinse out
934
206, 386
ripe
59, 113
rise
121, 128
342
123, 137
river (1)
179, 180
185, 240
256
129, 177
river (2)
178, 179

road

(1)

road (2)
road leading
to imperial
court
roar (of
thunder' )
roar (of
animals)
rob
robe (long)
roe (type of)
roebuck
root

180,

181

183,
186,
133,
196,

184
228
193
197

201,

203

204, 205
235, 241
243
224

208,

223
224
73
487

821,

860

865
998
419
418
361, 380
402

rope
round
rough
run
rush (of water)
sable
sacrifice to
heaven at
winter solstice

606

68
182
788
239
434

41

saddle
622
saddle cushion
619
saddle flap
609
salt
1010
salty
1014
salute (bow)
837
sand
144, 182
187, 194
261, 262
sandlewood tree
391
sash
720, 996
satiated
1053
satin
974,1105
sauce
1109
saw (n)
586
scallion
354
scissors
582
scratch
947
screen
544
sea
138, 257
403
seal (n)
1087
seal (v)
1091,1095
search
828
season (n)
270
seaweed
403
second
714, 716
second eldest
brother
714
second eldest
716
sister
766
see
811
seize
251, 698
sell (1)
829
804
sell (2)
792
send (1)
829
send (2)
728
servant
set light to
1052
set (go down)
49,
53
64

seven
seventh
seventy
severe
sew (clothes)
shadow
shallow

119, 303
1115
303
1124
867
982
20,

57

76
147, 167

384

shame
shave
shawl
sheep

385

54.
66.

780
935
1002

331. '!l1
500. 534
634.1061
534
sheep-pen
332
shen (time period)
915
shin
~.
79
shine
963, 981
shirt
992
shirt (felt)
970. 989
shoe
251
shop
51. 150
short
336
shoulder
910
shovel
587
shrimp
515
si (time period)
329
sickle
621
side gate
559
sigh (v)
936
silk (thin)
988
silk (damask)
1004
700,1065
silver
1069,1071
1080.1083
silver-coloured
hair (horse)
493
silversmith
700
sing
1098
sister (elder) ~. 716
sister (younger)
667
sister-in-law
680
224, 770
sit
302,1114
six
302
sixth
1123
sixty
645. 894
skin
966
skirt
896
skull
1, 14
sky
21,
23
24,
25
27.
28
30.
31
32.
34
35,
36
37,
38
39,
41

59
110
123

sky (cf. heaven)


70
slanting
55,
690
slave
769
sleep
634,1137
slice
855
slowly
100, 185
small
498, 688
1154
small (broken)
189
small bell
605
429, 469
small bird
497
small dog
972
small hat
455, 498
small pig
1039
smell (n)
1041
smelly
17
smoke
329, 425
snake
802, 865
snatch
937
sneeze
snow
2., 25
30, 103
115, 116
117, 118
815
sober
969
socks
213, 214
soil
659
soldier
son
671
son-in-law
682
soup (hot water)
1018
sour
1016
south
1114
sow (v)
212
sow (n)
455
soya bean
404
soya sauce
1009
speak
773, 862
spear
575
spider
472
spinach
394
spinning wheel
635
spoon
600
spring (water) 143, 233
spring (season) 91, 265
338, 340
441
squirrel
............... , ...

446
861
875
2, 60
star
83,
84
87, 112
119
797, 865
steal
1041
stinking
607
stirrup
841. 893
stomach
913, 961
132, 188
stone
189, 190
193, 194
264
82,
93
stop
463
stork
542
stove
926
strength
75. 313
strike
810
606
string
834
struggle
1008
study
531
sty (pig-sty)
submerge
@' 176
229
871
submit
succeed
836
sugar
1020
summer
266, 341
344
summon
833
sun
2. 49
50.
51
52,
55
56,
57
58,
61
62, 341
1142,1143
642
~
428
swallow (n)
swan
452
sweet
254. 924
1021
table
567
tael
1l.32,l133
1134,1135
1139,1141
480
tail

stallion
stand

~,

tailol:
take leave
take off (clothes)
take up
talk
773,
tall
tanner
tea
teach
295,
ten

749
822
984
857
862
705
752
1046
848
306
1118
620
tent
306
tenth
225, 296
ten thousand
739,1129
1135
529
thatched house
117, 151
thick
699, 797
thief
115, 152
thin (1)
520, 709
thin (2)
988
thin silk
299
third watch
1055
thirsty
thirtieth day
323
of the month
1120
thirty
284
this (year)
717
thoughtless
293,1128
thousand
1133
590,1079
thread
299, 317
three
1111,1141
899
throat
thunder
!"
73
75,
89
535
tiebeams
326, 407
tiger
487, 491
tile
528
tiled house
528
time (1)
53, 271
279, 324
325, 326
327, 328
329, 330
331, 332
333, 334
335
56, 315
time (when)

387

386

tin
tinsmith
today
toe
tomorrow
(day after

318, 319
707,1068
707
281, 873
878
959
~, 879

tomorrow)
tongue
too much
tooth
top (on top of)158,
518,
tortoise
466,
tortoise-shell
(colour)
tree
226,
364,
375,
385,
391,
tribute

283
885
866
518
477
886
504

502
352
372
384
390
402
1013
764, 852
858, 859
624
967
169
374
464
308
308

trough
trousers
turbid
turnip
turtle dove
twelfth
twelve
twentieth (day
322
of month)
lll9
twenty
939
twitch
298, 316
two
1110,ll40
672
ugly
652
umbrella
677
uncle (1)
681
uncle (2)
684
uncle (3)
23
under (1)
159, 220
under (2)
understand
842
unicorn
433
unpadded (clothes)
979
upwards
868
urge
832
useful (person)
836

various
vase
vegetable

43
584
210, 353
378, 392
394, 395
403,1058
1058
vegetable food
vehicle
207, ~
618
venison
1062
154, 251
village
vinegar
1057
violate (border)
860
violent
737
violin (Chinese)
640
virtuous (not)
824
voice
951
wadded clothes
973
908
waist
674
wait
201, 788
walk
855
650
walking stick
135
wall (1)
136, 216
wall (2)
217, 218
219, 220
221, 222
225, 244
245, 246
walnut
367
wane (1)
80
wane (2)
69
789, 808
want
851, 866
490
warhorse
340
warm
1050
warm oneself
755, 931
wash
948
wash (bathe)
934
wash (mouth)
watch (of
315, 316
the night)
317, 318
319
water
126, ill
143, 164
166, 167
168, 169
170, 171
172, 174

207, 229
231, 237
239, 254
488,1037
1037
water, boiling
1018
water, hot
14
way
750
weak
1019
weak (in taste)
977
wear
435
weasel
weather (cf. sky)
weep (1)
772
weep (2)
938
wei (time period)
331
830
welcome
134, 252
well (n)
253, 254
264
861, 864
well (adv)
871
1028
well-cooked
1143
west
107, 241
wet
wether
500
625
whip
whiskers
902
white
451,ll02
wide
172, 179
183
wife
729
wild boar447
wildcat
506
wild sheep
331
willing
813
364,ll04
willow tr-ee
wind
26,
40
59, 86
88,
91
92,
94
95,
97
113, 114
342
window
545, 550
wine
631, 815
851, 866
1007
1031,1032
1033,1035
1042,1049
wine-cup
613,1083
winnnyin'a_fAn

~n?

winter
268, 345
woman
678
wood (cf. tree)
wood-fungus
366
worried
940
worry
940
write
1092
writing
658, 873
1090,1093
1094,1096
writing-brush 565, 627
wu (time period)

330
334
xu (time period)
552, 553
yamen
558
284, 286
year (1)
289, 290
291, 292
293, 294
295, 296
339, 858
269, 739
year (2)
year after- next
286
year before last
288
years gone by
290
1061
yeast
396, 404
yellow
453, 502
505,llOl
501
yellow goat
722
yes
yesterday
78, 280
yin (time per-iod)
326
you
675
you (time per-iod)
333
young (cE. small)
688
1154
young man
693
younger brother
665
younger sister
667
zi (time period)
324

389

388

Fangshi mopu

J,\1~!
'l .;,,I
:;f F\:>.:. 0 a

Fang Yulu

Du-er-ji

GLOSSARY

Ajia kenkyu

.5l.lm5IM-~
I 4., it{ 4lt5

Fengtian Mantie tushuguan congkan

j- t
4- ~ ~;!kmJjJtn 1+J

Fuyu

11;, ~~

Gengo

t t!

Gengo kenkyii

Gengo shiiroku

H};r;it'~
~ ~f, 1J. L1<

~ < tk31~H
/Iii] iN I!JJ xlf

Getianhougong

ifL;z iR 'E

Gu taishi mingshi bei

'Mz ~~;p ti-ii

Azuma kagami

*fit

Guichou

Ba sui er

/\~.~

Guoli Beiping tushuguan yuekan

~2..h+OOfnf3

Baijiaxing

etd

Guoxue congkan

Baishi celin

sF\'t.U

Guoxue jikan

llB~ lflJ
I~!p,t 1-'1

Bai ta

s:i-

Guoxue shangdui

@,f$~

Bei da wang muzhi

:1tJ:-..L

Guoxue wenku

L~PiHz~

Beiqing

:1t::.7f

Ha-da-mie-er-yu

~~4~t

Bianzheng yanjiusuo nianbao

Hailong

~fi

Bing shu

..tt~

Hailong Nuzhen guo shu moya

~~~1J:l-l!]t frtf

Bunka

;t -it..

Hailong-xian zhi

Aa-~~l!r/~'

Bu sanshi yiwenzhi

-t~ ~ ~ i- 3<. ~ .
;ht;t~t:R.~

Hamky~ng

Aotun Liangbi
Aotun Liangbi jianyin bei
Aotun Liangbi shi
Awanokuni bunko

Bu Yuanshi yiwenzhi
Chosen gakuho
Chounan

"

of., ~ 5g5~f %t4

1. tIl.

& ~ ~ pfr ~ trx

..

Hei bai banyuekan


Heilongjiang wenwu congkan

tA.~.t~tfi.
111... Jji.

Helong

da'an

Heshenmiao

dading

Hetouhulun he

Da Jin
Da Jin deshengtuo songbei

~'i

Hezhouhaiman

~ ~ 1~ ti!fJ't ~'j~

Da Jin huangdi dutong jinglue 1\.

Hua-Yi yiyu

t ~j;~~*fdf.mt-e~~?JtG

Huangshi nii shu

langjun xingji

!i- ;t;;
,.;.

~d,

.'r, 1- Jj t y
~J~~.I.jz '1t):i-f'J
~ 0] ~t
}OJ *'P $]

;iiJ ~ t,j~~}ol
tD 1ti: *tr t

~ ~~ ~{

~~1tt

Huitong guan

'f [iJ tff

~ ~f Ll-J
..i + /,-j-

Diela

i!-fJ

Jiahunshan

Dong bang hak chi

~~\~~.

Jiang Taigong shu

Dongbei bowuguan

~:il<. r~'~t'F

Jianguo daxue

Dongbei congkan

'~ttftJ

Jiayu

it: />

L,

fJ

390

Jiayu xian-neng-yan-yu zhuan

391

l'
'"

~lh"
"" ~ "21<
dl.
1I n~
bO loj

.,

DO

Jilinsheng kaogu gongzuodui

;:t;t1;

Jilinsheng wenwu gongzuodui

2,

11 ~ ~

Jilin waiji

-t1 /M,jr
77 I ~
0 C.

if

11 ~

fJtJ.I--fF ~

Liao Jin Yuan yiwenzhi


Liaoning daxue xuebao
Liaoning shehui kexueyuan

Jin guoyu jie

/t JJ5J H Wf-

Lishi yanjiu

Jinshi

1:!t.
0!-t

Liuhe banjieshan

~t;t~ ~~.
& ~
.", <11
li. T'- t. 'f' T 'fIll,
c;[1

t1r-1L t itlftTt
Jr. 'f {;it ~

fi. ~CJ tm ~

Liuzi

~+

Jin taihe timing canshi

/~\t;;f:O ~ .t ~~'. ~

Lunyu

Jiugang shibashan

fu iL T

Mamiya Rinzo

Juhua

e: {to

Mamma

tiT;g*
Fe~ ~ ;ft~
~~t

Kando

FoH ~

Manshu gakuh6

;i!J ~'tJ ~ fa

Jinshi

J\.. J..i

Kaogu

;f"b

Manshil shigaku

~ -;{q)jj 1: I~

Kaogu xuebao

l' 1;~f&

meng'an

1it '1i

Mengzi

iz.+

Kechenshan

ilJ~J.<

Ke Shaomin
Kewei

:iOY i11J ~.

Mingshui

~ .2l<..

cp~

Ming wang shen de,

sR l iI1~. fl9 A -;;.

Ke-you-qian-qi

it To Jfj :11

Ke-you-zhong-qi

:t-'f'{; 'f;r$

si yi xian bin
Ming yiwenzhi, bubian, fubian
Mombush5 kagaku kenkyu

Khuchit

'ft ,to<
l-17 ~

Kobe gaidai ronso

frf 9t

Kobe gengo gakkai h6

:rEf' l' ~ ~{; I~

Kokuritsu chua hakubutsukan j iho @ i

1:-

~f

t {&

tf 1:: tIfj fjtJfi'S1-lR

~~ ij. ~ ~'. *ifJ~, ~fj ~

~ :g~1' :f.+~~ft ~frx. %:JtM,

hokoku shuroku
mouke

~l.

Naikaku bunko

0J ~~ -x.1f.
(J;j i:-m.;J::~~

Naito Torajir6

Kongfuzi shu

.JL

Kongfuzi you guo zhang

JL f; -T 21~~

Neimenggu daxue xuebao

Kory6-sa

~I >'t

Neimenggu shehui kexue

kuan

JJ::

Nihon Chugoku gakkai

Kwansan

.rJ.

Nuergan Yongningsi bei

1;"+

At 7; 7"'~f&
rtJ t t 1:1.. t-tt'if
B ;f if I!il IF'!

~x ~ i ~~% ~

Ky~ng-guk-tae-ch~n

Niizhen zi shu

1i! -t ~ -i ~'*
ij-j.'"f?t

Kyt'Sngwt'Sn

Niizhi da zi

tt

Lailiu

Niizhi xiao zi

f.l

Lalin

Niizhi zimu

Nlizhen jinshi timing bei

Laozi
Li Bu
Liao J in Yuan sanshi guoyu j ie

"* T
-} r: r
Lf 'i ~ ~ 1:.. ~ ttwtT",

:0"

-l

-it l

1. ~ i
,j. '#
-It .l 1=-e-

Pangu shu

-If!}
.!it(.

Penglai

J*,

Pukch't'Sng

=i\::t

T
Q

-
Ei

392

393

l1\t

Si yi guan

l2'l gf(~)pg

Sizhou

;'f!B~Jtj

Qi sui er

1:,

Qian Daxin

tl1;:afr

Qian zi wen

+t3z

S~ul

Sunbin shu

Qingyuan

1:: ;Jf-

i 1Jf;tt: ~ ~1A
-JJ m;!

Sunzi

-J~,

Quhua

-1;1L
aB "t:J5-~!

taihe

{t~

Qingling

Qu Peimo

~'Pl

Rekishi ky6iku

J!l 'f.;t e, }!
If $:~~

renyin

Sa-ydk-wlSn

C'Y

Rekishi chid

~f

pt

Seikad6 bunko

111. t>z 7l-

Seikei jihCi

~ft, B1~

Seikyu gakusa

Shang shu

.~

fr'tt
-iI-

10)8

taehakkyo nonmunjip

Taigong shu

-<1

-i-I'-
8

/,,\ L,

Taizu

Telin

11U

tianfu
T'ong-mun-guan

#1'
t.m ~ it

T'ong-mun-guan-chi

iili x~'t 7c .

"ill

Torii Ryiiza

,~!t~~

Tayo bunka

! Yi- sZ 1l.J

Tayo bunko

~Yt
~ ~-t ~ -b'tt- t.
07 7 IL r n? l'

Shanyu shu

-li!

Shehui kexue zhanxian

-i1. t~~,~/tf

Uraru-Arutai gakkai

shence

#-Ifr-

Wada Kiyoshi

Tayashi kenkyG.

x.

Shi' er zhu guo

-t..:.~

Wanbu Huayanjing ta

Shigaku kenkyu

~.4l ~"t

i"- ffJ j,-W


It *[1 !f i H'l%

Wang Shizhen

L1!:~

Shigaku zasshi

~ "':r ~ 5/ C: '

Wangshougong

Wanyan Xiyin

t*~4'

t>J;}'

-'.-J:

~ L~)

Wenlinlang

Shinagaku

~U
1J: tG
~J1~ f:f

Wenxue nianbao

~~

Shirin

~U

Wenwu

x.~

Shixue jikan

~~if'J
!J:.~1fm

Wenxian

-;z fW'

Shixue nianbao

Wenzhongzi

1!!''i:

jz tf-t

Shizong

Wu-lan-mao-du

ShodD zenshu

f&1't

Wuzi

%+

shouguo

~!liJ

Wu Zixu shu

Shuazu

~f1L

Xi Han shu

11z. ~
r!b ~l

Shujing

t1

Xianping fu

Jtx' f %:)

IN

Xiao er lun

Shikan
Shiji

Sikuquanshu
Silingol

~ i:-f
t~ui~l!J

Xiaojing

jz ;f,;f.lk (J

1t .fl~

ar

p- -.r -:t,!.C

,q

l1X.

it
t

~~~

1f t

394

395

Zhubu Buxiuhong
Xiao Xiaozhong muzhi

Zi shi wei

Xigushan

Xin changzheng

1Jr f.z lL

Xing shu

ij

Xing Yuren

HfI.L J.-....

Xin Tang shu

lfr !fJ t

Xinya xuebao

jfr Q l:rw

Xixia

I:fu~

-fMJ.i

~}

Xiyin
Xizong
xuande

~e.

r:,
"" ,I,
, /.iI:J

~1'L: '

Xueshe
Yang Bin
Yang Pu
Yangshulinshan
Yangzi
Yantai

rtf

Yelli Yanning muzhi

:t }~ L4 J-.. C!9 ~ i:&


*" .......
J/ iT"~T If '-'f":f.
~hO-'

Yi-cho Shil-lok

t ~~ ts:1,

Yanzhou shanren sibu gao

Yigaidage

-# t~li~

Yij ing

~~~

yiqiu

2.R

Ying Li bei
Yong-bi-~-ch'~n-ga

Yongningsi
Yoshi taehakkyo sahak hoe
Youdeguan

11; ft, it

Zhang Hui

5{

Zhao Yong da jiangjun

Bt! ~ ;t;..tf 'f


FcJ ~ t.1Htj it

tongzhi Xiongzhou

:(-4

n.

.i~

dushi muji
Zhongyang minzu xueyuan xue bao
Zhongyuan y inyun

l' ~ f\, ~ ~ p.t .,l&


d7
Ii;
T Iif.

Jz.
EI ~
!ill!

397

396

Akademija Nauk SSSR

BIBLIOGRAPHY

(Institut Vostokovedenija) , Pismennye

pamjatniki vostoka - Istoriko-filologiceskie


issledovanija - Ezegodnik 1969. Moscow 1972

ABBREVIATIONS

AOH

Acta Orientalia Academiae


Scientiarum Hungaricae

BEFEO

Bulletin de l'Ecole Franyaise


d'Extreme Orient

BSOAS

Bulletin of the School of


Oriental and African Studies

II RAN

Izvestija Imperatorskoj Rossiskoj


Akademii Nauk

JA

Journal Asiatique

JRAS

Journal of the Royal Asiatic


Society

T'P

T'oung Pao

UAJ

Ural-altaische Jahrbucher

ZVOlRAO

Zapiski Vosto~nago Otdelenija


Imperatorskago Russkago

Akademija Nauk SSSR

(Ordena Trudovogo Krasnogo Znameni

Institut Arxeologii), Arxeologiceskie otkrytija 1976


goda , pp.253-254, "Rabota Sajginskogo otrjada". Moscow
1977
Akiyama Kenz5,

# u.. ~,1f!)it

"Kamakura j idai ni okeru

Joshin-sen no raiko, Azuma Kagami no Joshin moji to Ka-I


yakugo no Joshin moji to no hikaku kenkyii" it:tIlT1-t'~:'~lt:[J

*",$I.m. - ~f~t" tt~5< 1- t." *~!, Hf >, ~ -ttl ~t ~ q') t:k'~' Mf ~


If)

[The arrival of a Jurchen ship during the Kamakura


period, and a comparative study of the Jurchen
characters in the Azuma kagami and the Hua-Yi yiyu]
Rekishi chiri Vol. 65, No.1, (1935), pp. 65-74
Amiot, J.M.,

Arxeologi~eskago Ob~~estva

Memoires concernant les Chinois, Vol. XIV,

"Introduction

la connaissance des peuples qui ont ete

ou qui sont actuellement tributaires de la Chine",


Paris, 1789

Characters for the titles of journals in Chinese,


Japanese and Korean are given in the Glossary.

Amma Yaichiro,

kenkyii'

'i;,~ 5i
yomu"

- Nfl

"'Daikin tokushoda shohi no

J\t 1~ fI~fJ!t,

"j;u, "'kit t t !t t,

[On reading "Research on the Jin Victory Stele"] (Cf.


Tamura Jitsuzo, "Daikin tokushoda ... "), T5yoshi kenkyu,
I

Vol. 111:6 (1938), pp. 92-94

ttt

398

399

----------

Joshimbun kinsekishi k5

-If.t:lt 'i-ki if"

1-~

[A

Chang Shun {III~

,Jilin tongzhi

1; Uii~

Study of Inscriptions in the Jurchen Script], Kyoto,

Record of the Jilin Area], juan 120,

1943

[Inscriptions]; Jilin, 1891

Aurousseau, L.,

"Chronique: Chine", BEFEO Vol. XI (1912) pp

190-201

[A General
"Jinshi

zhi"it~Z

Chavannes, E., "Note sur l'inscription joutchen de K'ien


tcheou" , T'P Vol. IX, (1908), pp. 263-265

Austin, W.M., "The Phonemics and Morphophonemics of Manchu",

Chen Shu

i1 ~ ,

"Ba Jilin Da' an chu tu Qidanwen tongj ing "

in N. Poppe, (ed.), American Studies in Altaic

[A postscript to the

Linguistics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1962, pp.

bronze mirror with an inscription in the Jurchen script

15-22

excavated at Da'an, in Jilin], Wenwu, No 8, 1973, pp.


36-40

Bang, W., Review of W. Grube, Die Sprache und Schrift der


Ju~en,

in Wiener Zeitschrift fur die Kunde der

Chinggeltei, Chen Naixiong, Xing Fuli, Liu Fengzhu and Yu

Morgenlandes, Vol. X (1986), pp. 252-255

BaoEn [The Khitan Script Research Group],

"*l}1$, ftp~tf, ~IJJll~ , j'llit

"Guanyu Qidan xiao zi yanj iu" ,~~ t?-tA-Pt'J4i-1f1t

Benzing, J., Die tungusischen Sprachen: Versuch einer


vergleichenden Grammatik

i--R*m4- '

Mainz, 1956

[Research on the Khitan small script], in Neimenggu


daxue xuebao, 1977, No 4, Special Issue on the Khitan

Bushell, S.W.,

"Inscriptions in the Jurchen and Allied

script.

Scripts", in Actes du Xle Congres International des


Orientalistes, Sec.V., Vol.I, pp.11-35 Paris, 1898

----------

"Qidan xiao zi jiedu xin tan", JjJft'J''fM-~t.tfr1W,

[New investigations in the decipherment of the Khitan


Cao Tingjie, t#.~,

,"Dong san sheng ditu shuo: TeEn bei

shuo", -' -=- ~-IIl~.l

: ~ ;f;j..~ aJ

script], Kaogu xuebao , 1978, No.3.

[On the

map of the three eastern [northeastern] provinces: on

----------

Qidan Xiao zi yanj iu !ZJ -PH, 'f~if~

[Research

the stele at Tyr], 1887, reprinted in Chang Shun, Jilin

on the Khitan small script], published by Zhongguo

tongzhi, 1891.

shehui kexueyuan chubanshe , Beijing, 1985.

----------, "De sheng tuo bei shuo" ,

1t,q~ ft..-o, ~>t

[On the

Victory stele] and "Desheng tuo yibei ji"


[A record of the stele in memory of the victory [of
Aguda]]; originally written 1885; included in Luo Fuyi,
Manzhou jinshi zhi, 1937.

Chosen Sotokufu.ffi~ ~~, 'W,iff

(compiler), Chosen kinseki soran iB.H

-t-tii~, ~ [A General Catalogue of Inscriptions in Korea],

1919, reprinted Tokyo 1971

401

400
Cong Peiyuan,

J1ij7..,il.

Song Dej in,

i'r,~. i

Zhao Mingqi,~ ~.~ *J

Denison Ross, E., "New light on the history of the Oriental

"Lun Cao Tingjie dui Yongningsi bei de yanjiu",

College, and a 16th century vocabulary of the Luchuan

~~t.J!f.,f:j~~7-i~~-l:1t'it

language", T'P Vol. II, No 9 (1910), pp. 689-695

, [On the research of

Cao Tingjie on the Yongningsi bei inscription], Kaogu


Deveria, G., "Examen de la Stele de Yen-tai. Dissertation sur

xuebao , 1980, No.1.

les caracteres employes par les Tartares Jou-tchen.


Extraite du Houng-hue-in-yuan, traduite et annotee",

Courant, M., Bibliographie Coreenne , Paris 1894

Revue de l'Extreme Orient, Vol.I, (1882), pp. 173-186


Dao Erji, J.~ "&

, "Niizhen yuyin chutan"~.l~ti1lJ1gr.

[A

preliminary study of the phonology of Jurchen], in Dao


Erji and He Xige,

---------- "Histoire du College des Interpretes de Pekin", in


Melanges Charles de Harlez, Leyden 1896, pp. 94-102

Nuzhen yiyu yanjiu.

---------- "Guanyu Niizhen da, xiao zi wenti" n~%-tt j..t. ,'J' +f/J II
Neimenggu daxue xuebao, 1980, No 4, pp.41-48

---------- "L'ecriture du Royaume de Si-hia ou Tangout", in


Memoires presentes par divers savants a l'Academie des
Inscriptions et Belles Lettres de l'Institut de France,

Dao Erj i and He Xige

to fb,*

,"Hailong Hanwen, Niizhenwen

duiyi moya zhen-wei bian" )~U~~,-Q'l3( f1t~

ser.I, tome XI (1901), pp. 147-175

Jt trl1A Jjl

[A discussion on the authenticity of the Chinese-Jurchen


bilingual inscription found in Hailong], Neimenggu

Dong Qing

~i

,"Gudai shaoshu minzu wenzi 1unzhu mulu"

1;{t'~yt~1trt31:*~t~t~

[A catalogue of articles

and other works on the ancient scripts of the National

shehui kexue, 1984, No.3, pp. 47-49

Minorities], in Zhongguo minzu gu wenzi, ~@~~ b ~':f:


---------- Niizhen yiyu yanjiu ~..J ~'f~~.1;ftn

[Research on

Beijing, 1982

the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu (Vocabulary of the Bureau of


Translators)], published as a supplement to Neimenggu
daxue xuebao, 1983

**

l~t~ and He Xige, "Niizhen wenzi


shiliao zhaichao" '(i 1 ~ t ~1t:jlil~'
[Excerpts

Dao Erj i, Mu Hongli

Dong Tonghe

-It
~.i
.i.lijlAt11-

,Hanyu yinyunxue, )i~~U,f$

[Chinese

Historical Phonology], Taibei 1970


Douglas, R.K., Supplementary Catalogue of Chinese Books in
the British Museum, London, 1903

from historical materials relating to the Jurchen


script], Neimenggu daxue xuebao, 1979, Vol. 3/4,
p.193ff.

Duan Yiping i~

-t

,"Niizhen wenzi de chuangzaozhe: Wanyan

Xiyin",1tl~'+~t011t- '~t~~Jl

[The creator

of the Jurchen script: Wanyan Xiyin], in Xin changzheng,


1981/2, pp.44-45

403

402

Edkins, J., "The language of the Golden Tartars", in China

Mandchourie, Hongkong 1934

Review, Vol.XXII (1897-98), pp. 674-678


Feng, Yongqian ;.JI~(t~

"Hailong Jin, Han wen shi jindai wei

ken j1fr.~ti'~t* ~lfr.t\,1A~'J

Gilbert, L., Dictionnaire historique et geographigue de la

[The inscriptions in

Jurchen and Chinese at Hailong are recent forgeries], in

Giles, H.A., A Catalogue of the Wade Collection of Chinese


and Manchu Books in the Library of the University of
Cambridge. Cambridge, 1898

Liaoning daxue xuebao, 1980, Vol. III


Grube, W., "Note preliminaire sur la langue et l'ecriture
Franke, H., Review of Mikami Tsugio, Kinshi kenkyu III, in

Joutchen" , T'P (1st series), Vol. V, (1894) pp. 334-330

T'P Vol LX (1974) pp. 182-186


---------- Die Sprache und Schrift der
---------- "Etymologische Bermerkungen zu den Vokabularen der

Ju~en.

Leipzig, 1896,

reprinted Beijing 1936 and Tianjin, 1941.

Jur~en Sprache" , in Florilegia Manlurica in Memoriam

---------- Vorlaufige Mittheilung tiber die bei Nikolajewsk am

Walter Fuchs, Wiesbaden 1982, pp. 7-18

Amur aufgefundenen

Ju~en

Inscriften. Berlin, 1896

---------- "Randnotizen zu einigen Worten der Khitansprache


im Licht neuerer Arbeiten', AOH Vol. XXXVI (1-3),1982,

Haenisch, E., Mandschu-Grammatik. Leipzig, 1961

pp. 173-182
Hambis, L. "Premier essai de dechiffrement de la langue
Fuchs, W., "Remarks on a new Hua-I-I-Yu", in Bulletin of the
Catholic University of Peking, No 8 (1931), pp. 91-97

Khitan", in Comptes Rendues de l'Academie des


Inscriptions (seance du 27 mars), Paris 1953, pp.
121-134

----------

"Ju~en-ManJurische

Wortgleichungen", in Tractata

Altaica Denis Sinor ... Dedicata, Wiesbaden, 1976 pp.

, "Nlizhen yi ming kao" iJ: l ~l~7g

[A

Study on the Transcription of the name of the Jurchens],

181-188

Fukushima Kunimichi

.... .b.. ri>-tt

Han Rulin .!f-l1,m /f'T\

*;; t fPJ...

Studia Serica, Vol. III (1942), pp. 1-11


,Sanshu Nihon Yakugo

Cf.

the resume in Monumenta Serica, Vol.XII, p. 371

l~fJfifH [A Collection of Japanese and Loochoo


Vocabularies Transliterated into Chinese, Edited and
Published in China], Compiled and edited by Kyoto
daigaku kokubungakkai

tFt..~ ~ ~~1'

[Society

Haneda Toru

~~EB

,"Kittan mOJ1 no shin shiryo"

~ft5Z10>

l~~ti [New material for the study of the Khitan


script],

Shirin, Vol. X., No.1 (1925). Reprinted in

#,

for the Study of Japanese Language and Literature],

Haneda Hakushi shigaku rombunsho ~ ffi tft ~t$ ~ 3l:

Kyoto, 1968

[Collected articles on history by Doctor Haneda], Vol.


II, pp. 420-434, Kyoto 1957

404

405

Harlez, C. de, "Niu-tchis et Mandchous, rapports d'origine et


de langage', JA, Vol. XI, No.2, (1888), pp. 220-249

Heissig,

Walther et al., Tractata Altaica Denis Sinor

Sexagenario Optime de Rebus Altaicis Merito Dedicata,


Wiesbaden 1976

Hauer, E., Handworterbuch der Mandschusprache. Wiesbaden


1955-1958

Hirth, F., "The Chinese Oriental College", in Journal of the


North China Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol.

He

4.,,~ 79.
Xige, ~'I'7b'

"Cong Jindai de jin, yin pai tantao Nuzhen

da, xiao zi" 1tt ~1t~'i~B.:tf'.:mt1t;t.J~ ,J.

XXII, (1887), pp. 203-223

'+

[An investigation into the large and small Jurchen

Hiu Lie,

scripts on the basis of gold and silver travel-passes


(paizi) of the Jin dynasty], in Neimenggu daxue xuebao,

Die Mandschu-Sprachkunde in Korea, Bloomington,

1972

1980/4, pp.28-40
Holzman, D., Resume of Li Xuezhi, "Jinshi yujie", in Revue
----------

Bibliographigue de Sinologie, Vol. IX, (1963) p.278

"Jin bainian guo nei-wai "Nuzhen yiyu" yanjiu

gaikuang" if

a1f @ f1:/ff "-Ii'l

~f it ;;!t- t

:tot. )fi..,

[A

general outline of research on the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu

Honda, M., and Ceadel, E.B., "A Survey of Japanese

(The Jurchen Vocabulary of the Bureau of Translators) in

Contributions to Manchurian Studies", Asia Major (NS)

China and abroad during the last hundred years], in

Vol. V (1955-56), pp. 59-105

Neimenggu shehui kexue, 1982, No.3, pp.104-l08


Huang Zhenhua
"Niizhenguan za zi, laiwen yanj iu" ~~ht~~,l~.frll.~

~ 11k f

bei xin shi"

, "Mingdai

Nuzhenwen Nuergan Yongningsi

ll~ft'ttl~ttJ(.t1-Jk~~~tL~fr*~

[Research on the Vocabulary and Petitions of the Jurchen

new interpretation of the Jurchen inscription in the

Bureau of Translators], in Dao Erji and He Xige, Nuzhen

Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan], in Zhong guo difang shi


1982, Vol. 2, pp. 32-39

yiyu yanjiu, pp. 242-436


Heilongjiang-sheng wenwu kaogu gongzuodui ,!J~~I..~')Z1'tJ1f 1i ~1t~
[Archeological relics bureau of Heilongjiang

Huth, G., "Zur Entzifferung der

Niu~i-Inschrift

von

Yen-t'ai", lIRAN, Ser. V, Vol.V (1896), pp. 375-378

province] ,
"Heilongjiang-pan Suibin Zhongxing
gucheng he Jindai muqun" !fJVJ:.sf~~nl,t1J!l t

1'ft'!?f

t-J'\. iD

[An ancient settlement on

the banks of the Heilongjiang river and a number of Jin


dynasty tombs], Wenwu 1977 No 4, pp. 40-45

Imanishi Shunju -1;--

f!SJ*:tk.

, "Joshinji d6in",

ttl'*ifaJfF

[A bronze seal in the Jurchen script], T6y6shi kenkyu,


Vol. III, No. 4 (plate before page 1)

[A

407

406

Inaba Iwakichi

:i~

i;; ~

,"Hokuseij6 Kanzan jCi Joshinji

magai k6shaku",.,Jt,tt.7i\fJ.,1!i\tt$-X/fjl1'11'

[Notes

----------

"Jur~ica"

(contains the following two articles:

"Guriibe-bon Ka-I yakugo ho-i", ~i,)~-,,;t.<.1f.~itH'>ffid

on the Jurchen inscription cut in the rockface at the

(A supplement to Grube's edition of the Hua-Yi yiyu) and

summit of Mount Kwansan near Pukch'ongsong), Seikyu

"Hoshi bokufu ni mieru Joshinji meimon kashaku" ,tEtl~I'::'


(An investigation into the

gakus6, No.2, (1930) pp. 21-42

inscription in Jurchen characters recorded in the


"Azuma kagami Jojikiji no shin kenkyii"*~tttll~d>
[New research on the Jurchen characters in

Fangshi mopu), in Ikeuchi Hakushi kanreki kinen tayoshi


ronso,

;~(J;jt~-til,ft(,t!bt~~t:

pp.39-57,

the Azuma kagami), Seikyu gakuso, Vol. IX (1932) pp.

Tokyo 1940. Reprinted in Toa bunkashi sako, pp. 71-86,

1-19

under the title "Joshingo zatsuso",'if.lt~-t11ji>.


[Miscellaneous comments on Jurchen).

----------

"Ry6 Sh6s6 T6wa gen no Bonnu Daishi no boshi"

i.l-t:t

fr:t;p,rB~.-,a-(tX~~ip"i !~~., [Epitaph for the late Pennu

---------- "Iwayuru heishiibon Ka-I yakugo no Dattankan

;6~:R 0J,*i.t ".~~~,~~> ~ M.~ 'i1 ~,~* ~

Taishi of the tonghe era of the reign of Shengzong of

yakugo" ,

the Liao dynasty), Seikei jih6, 27th September 1939

[On the so-called C-type Hua-Yi yiyu of the Mongol


Section of the Bureau of Interpreters), in Taa bunkashi

Ishida Mikinosuke --b ffi -ttL EljJ


shiry6"

, " Joshingo kenkyii no shin

5t~~~fi-~<11Vr1tf

[New material for the

study of Jurchen), in Kuwabara Hakushi kanreki kinen


tay6shi rons6,

~ J,f, t~' --:t;j 1ft $G :t ~>f If! t~"

Kyoto, 1931, pp. 1271-1323

sake, pp. 147-205

"Joshin daiji to wa nanzo

[What are the large Jurchen characters?), in Shigaku

Reprinted (with corrections)

zasshi, Vol. VII, 1942

in Toa bunkashi sak6, pp. 3-70


---------- Toa bunkashi sok6,
"Daikin tokushada hi no saihatsugen,

ya",itl;;i;+'C.{t{OTt~

~ i:1~~

~~i'~;e!7S

[Studies on

the Cultural History of East Asia), Tokyo 1973

[The rediscovery of the Jin Victory


Memorial Stele),

Shigaku zasshi, Vol. XLV, No.1

-ti ~f tit, ;tf7~ , "Mammo


~~t~g~ntM.; 1tl~{

Ishihama Juntar6,

gengo no keit5:

(1934), pp. 108-110. Reprinted in Toa bunkashi sake, pp.

Joshingo" ,

884-887

the Manchu and Mongol languages: Jurchen), in Iwanami


koza ti5ye shich6,;; Y$ tlJ.i
October, 1934, pp. 50-52

~t;tl ~~

[The structure of

15th

409

408
Jia Jingyan,

f~ft~

,"Niizhenwen guanyin

kaoltie","9'J--;z'FfP1~

[A brief study of official seals in the Jurchen

Jin Qicong. "Shaanxi beilin faxian-de Niizhen wenzi shu".

~~i!~;;.t;:t.f% j~ ~ ttl

J..1

[Writing in the

script], in Zhongyang minzu xueyuan xuebao, 1982, No.4,

Jurchen script discovered in the "Beilin" [Forest of

pp. 35-37

Stelae] in Shaanxi]. Neimenggu daxue xuebao. zhexue


shehui kexue ban. 1979. No 1/2

__________ , "Qidanwen ", tJ2 -A- ~

,[The Khitan script]. in


"Niizhen wen" ff

Zhongguo minzu gu wenzi, Beijing, 1982

13t

Zhongguo lishi da cidian.


h\'~

Jin Guangping, ~7Wf


da, xiao

,"Cong Qidan da, xiao zi dao Niizhen

zi",f:tfJR-A.,jTJiJ-ttl::t:."J'f.

[The Jurchen Language]. in

If f!/f ~ A ~l-*

[Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Chinese History].


preprinted in Lishi jiaoxue. 1980. No 12. pp. 61-62

[From the large and small Khitan scripts to the large


and small Jurchen scripts], in Neimenggu daxue xuebao -

r: ~~ L,'

Qidanwen muzhi shishi", i$irfu.ffi.lU,1]fi-

ttl~"-~-ft-'ktr:fLJ~5L

[A general outline of research on the Jurchen script].

shehui kexue ban, Vol. II, 1962


Jin Guangping and Zeng Yigong,

----------. "Niizhen wend yanjiu gaikuang".

in Zhongguo minzu gu wend yanjiu. C:P{[)tt~ ~ ~I.t~'t


,"Jinxi Xigushan

;t! ti7:., gi\'-*f

[Research on the ancient scripts of national minorities


in China]. compiled by the Zhongguo minzu gu wenzi

[An attempted explanation of the Khitan script on the

yanjiuhui and published by Zhongguo shehui kexue

epitaph found at Xigushan, Jinxi], Kaogu xuebao, 1957,

chubanshe. Beijing. 1984

No.2, pp. 83-84


----------. Nuzhenwen cidian.

l' 4~.f;}:
-(t 1: tg. ~ ~ 1:b-it 'fL

Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong,


wend yanj iu,

, Niizhen yuyan

Dictionary].

~t~~~~

[Jurchen

Wenwu chubanshe. Beijing. 1984

[A Study of the

Jurchen Language and Script], Wenwu chubanshe, Beijing,

Ju Deyuan. ~1!>1 "Guanyu Mingdai Nuergan Yongningsi beiji


de kaocha he yanj iu"

1980

n~~1--aIHtlIx. ~l...t ~<..~ 1 ~ ~c.. !ili7}~~b~ft 'R..

[Investigation and research on the stele in the


Jin Guangping, ed. by Jin Qicong, "NUzhen zhi zi fangfa 1un .
-t, 1h.~
r?
..
J1an
yu R1. b en Sh an I u Guangm1ng
s h'1 shangque" , -/oJ.
~~
~v

--;Y}i ~~ -1Ui~ 8 f

J.,

fl%~ sHE\,

Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan]. Wenxian. 1980. Vol 1.


p.64

&~'4l
[On the method of

Kara. D.

Ky~anov.

E.I. and Starikov. V.S . "Pervaja naxodka


rukopisnyx tekstov na bumage" [The first

construction of Jurchen characters - some comments on

~zurtzen'skix

the views of the Japanese scholar Mr Yamaji Hiroaki].

discovery of written texts in the Jurchen script].

Neimenggu daxue xuebao. 1980. No.4. pp. 11-27

Pis'mennye Pamjatniki Vostoka 1969. pp.223-228

410

411

Kara, G. (= Kara, D.), Review of Starikov, V.S. et al., AOH


Vol. XXVI, No.1, (1972), pp. 155-157

Laufer, B.,

"Jur~i

and Mongol numerals", in Kdr6si Csoma

Archivum (Budapest) Vol. I, No.2 (1921) pp. 112-115

Kara, Gy. (=Kara, G.), "On the Khitan writing systems", (to
appear in Mongolian Studies: Journal of the Mongolia
Society)

Lee Ki-moon, "A Comparative Study of Manchu and Korean", UAJ,


Vol. XXX (1958), pp. 104-120

Kiyose, Gisaburo N., "Joshin on saikosei ke", ~.fI;

a .$t-::f:-J!I.IIl(, >"

-t;->- -

Jtr:t~*

[Remarks on the reconstruction of Jurchen


phonology], Gengo kenkyU, Vol. 64, 1973, pp.

----------, "Mongolian Loan-words in Middle Korean", UAJ,


Vol. XXXV (1963), pp. 188-197

12-~3:

English summary pp. 41-42

----------, cf. Yi,Ki-mun.

----------, A Study of the Jurchen Language and Script Reconstruction and Decipherment , published by
Horitsubunka-sha, ~ttf~1t..t:L

Lewicki, M., La langue mongole des transcriptions chinoises


du XIVe siecle. Le Houa-yi-yi-yu de 1389. Wrocaw, 1949

,Kyoto, 1977

;+ ~
Li Lian, 1- ~f,1r,
Klaproth, J., Asia Polyglotta,
Kodaira Suih6, IJ,
seij i"

-*~::3"

Paris, 1823

(7)

~ 4-'

[The structure

of the scripts of the Liao, Jin, Xixia, Yuan and Qing


dynasties], Toyo bunka, No. 154 (1942)
Kondo Morishige, &

lit t .t

.' .... JE..-11 -t


IT
,h~_i1.L'c.

[Historical

relics of Kaifeng], published during the Ming Dynasty.

"Ry6 Kin Seika Gen Shin gocho no

if t tful ~ ~i 11. ~A

Bianjing yiji zhi,

Li Wenxin,

;F.., ;:~
-+ Y.-.. I [J

yanj iu", ~ -A-IJ,

~j-;"k*

'+ l~z.. ~ gf\1 i%.kJ ~G L ~ft '1L

[Research

on the Gu taishi mingshi ji inscription in the Khitan


small script],

, Seisai shojaku k5 iEpr./ B~ 5

"Qidan xiao zi "Gu taishi mingshi j i" zhi

(Manzhou) Guoli zhongyang bowuguan

luncong,

, Vol.III, (1942),

pp. 67-74

[An examination of the books held in the personal

library of Kondo Morishige], reprinted in Kondo Seisai


zenshii,

-"I:#.

Japan, 1906, Vol. III, pp. 317-333

Lacouperie, T. de, "The Djurtchen of Mandschuria: Their name,


language and literature", JRAS, Vol. XXI, No.2, 1889,
pp. 433-460

Li xuezhi,t,,*'J

"Jinshi yujie zhengwu

chugao"1:~HM.iEt~.

*ni~ [A preliminary draft of amendments to the Jinshi

yujie [The vocabulary of Jurchen words attached to the


History of the Jin Dynasty]]: in The New Asia Journal
(Xinya xuebao,tif3Z~~G. ), Vol. V, No.2, pp. 377-384.
Reprinted as an appendix to The History of Chin Dynasty

Langles, C., Alphabet mandchou, Third edition, Paris, 1807


(First edition 1787)

published by the National War College, Taibei, 1970

413

412
"Jinshi guoyu j ie zhu shi"

1i ~ @~!lf t1 f

"Les Joutchen "sauvages"", Altorientalische


Forschungen, Vol. 13, No. I, (1986), pp. 110-122

[The Jurchen vocabulary appended to the History of the


Jin dynasty, annotated and explained], appended to The

, ;f:.

2!J lifo"
fiJ l'
'n

ttl ~fa..iFt~~iIit

Liu Fengzhu, ~'

t.t~

[A preliminary list of amendments to the Jurchen Hua-Yi


~],

Li Yiyou,

ziliao"

j('+M1i

ilft

[A brief introduction to the Khitan and

"Niizhen zi "Guocheng" yinpai kaoshi "1tJ'f@t&>t~~ttf

"Neimenggu chutu gudai guanyin de xin

Pi ~1i :t::t... ti 1-\;,' t>g ~p f/"g}.fr ;'(lff

, "Qidan, Niizhen wenzi j ianj ie"

Jurchen scripts], Lishi jiaoxue, 1980 No.5, pp. 49-52

Bianzheng yanjiusuo nianbao, 1976, Taibei

~~~

11 @it..1I1 $c.

reprinted by Beijing guji chubanshe, Beijing, 1984.

College, Taibei, 1970


"Niizhen yiyu zhengwu juyu,

1ii

Linqingl[14 /')).' , Hong xue yin yuan tu ii, ~I,~

History of Chin Dynasty, published by the National War

[A study and explanation of the silver travel-pass

[New

material on official seals from ancient times excavated

(paizi) with the Jurchen inscription "Trust of the

in Inner Mongolia], Wenwu, 1961, No.9, pp. 64-65

Nation"], in Wenwu, 1980, No. I, p. 33

Li Yuchun, 1~~

"Liangke Qidanwen tongyin"

rn/1/1i}ff>zi!6J (p

Liu Fengzhu and Yu Baolin,

7fitlt

,"Niizhen wenzi "Da Jin De

Sheng Tuo Song" jiao kan ji", -tfP!~4>;{if;ht~~,,;j.2:IJJtG

[Two official seals in the Khitan script], Wenwu, 1959,

[A comparative annotated study of the Da Jin De

No.3, pp. 73-74

Sheng Tuo Song inscription in the Jurchen script], in


Minzu yuwen lun ii,

Ligeti, L., "Note preliminaire sur Ie dechiffrement des

t\ ~

t: ><- ~;ip 11

Be ij ing, 1981, pp.

292-344

"petits caracteres' joutchen", AOH, Vol. III, (1953),


pp. 221-228

----------

"Qidan zi yanjiu gaikuang",1Jfi+~it'~;tf!9w/5(.

[A survey on research on the Khitan script], in Zhongguo

"Deux tablettes de T'ai-tsong des Ts'ing", AOH,

minzu gu wenzi,

Vol. VIII (1958), pp. 201-239

Liu Houzi, ~'J ~ ~ft.

Beijing, 1982
"Chuanshi shike-zhong Nilzhen yuwen

cailiao ji qi yanjiu"1lt!.:t;tj'f~JH~;f1l't&J4h1L

----------, Les mots solons dans un ouvrage des Ts'ing", AOH,

[Extant inscriptions in the Jurchen language and

Vol. IX (1959), pp. 231-272

research concerning these], in Wenxue nianbao, Vol. III,


1941, p. 37. (Reprinted Hongkong, 1969)

----------, "Les anciens elements mongols dans Ie mandchou",


AOH, Vol. X, (1960), pp. 231-248
---------ma~i

"Les inscriptions Djurtchen de Tyr: la formule


padme

h~.

AOH, Vol. XII (1961), pp.5-26

Q~

414

415

Liu Shilu,

PI
'*
1i'J
gtP1- ,

.h

S~

"Niizhizi bei kao", 1/ .i. +--b"t ">

[An

----------, "Yantai Jinyuan guoshu bei shiwen"

investigation on a stele in Jurchen script] and "NUzhizi


bei xu kao"

tt. 1i

'f1i4! ~i 7S

i~;m, @t~ff;;z

[An explanation of the Jurchen script on the stele of

[Further investigations

Yantai],

Kaogu, Vol. V, (1936), pp. 191-208

on the stele in Jurchen script]; originally published in


a woodblock edition in 1829; reprinted in Kaogu, Vol.

----------. "Ming Nuergan Yongningsi bei Nlizhen guo shu tu

V,(1926), pp.173-178

shi"

[An

explanation of the Jurchen script on the stele of the

Liu Zuichang and Zhu Jieyuan,~IJ;&l ,~,t~?::..,

, "Xi'an

Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan]. in Manshu gakuho, Vol. V

Beilin faxian Nuzhen wen shu, Nan Song tuo Jin fu ji


Wang "Shengj iaoxu" j i banhua,li Jit~fUflJt

f$7 '% n ~ '1'~ #., l" :r.fR.:4~Jift.t

Il~ ttx t 1- ~ ~ i-tifpt-J ~ t ~*t

(December, 1937); before page 1

ttj~t ,

[Discovery of a

----------, Nlizhi yiyu,

Jurchen manuscript, a complete rubbing of Wang Xizhi's

-tt .it~ ~

[The Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu]

(Text plus supplements), 1933

calligraphy (Shengjiaoxu) and some woodblock prints],


Luo Fuy i . 1 i~

Wenwu, 1979, No 5, pp. 1-6

rw.

Luo Fucheng, 1ft *~P\

/}~

. Manzhou

j inshi zhi,

~ i!i >m ~ ~ ~,

[Inscriptions of Manchuria], Three volumes, Xinjing.

. ~
~
"Yantai Jinyuan guoshu bei kao" ,fti~}UtI8~"t

1937.
"Nuergan Yongningsi bei bu kao", ~x.tf;k~1-1{*~',f

[An investigation into the national script of the Jin


dynasty on the stele of Yantai], Guoxue jikan, Vol. I,

[A supplement to the stele of the Yongningsi Temple at

No.4, (1923), pp. 687-691

Nuergan]. Manshu gakuh6. Vol. V. (1937) pp. 97-103

----------, "Nuzhen guoshu bei kaoshi",

[~rt 1i~15;f'

Liao, Jin san shike: Jin Aotun Liangbi timing",

[A study of a stele in the Jurchen script], Shinagaku,

[Three inscribed stones

Vol. V, No.4 (1929), pp. 103-104

from the Liao and Jin dynasties: the Aotun Liangbi


tablet], Manshu shigaku, Vol. III, No.2 (1940). 37-40

----------, "NUzhen guo shu bei hawei" , -tttt~"*n Jt


[Further comments on a stele in the Jurchen script],

----------, Liao. Jin wenzi jincun

lu,fi~+11.{.j:.i*,

Guoli Beiping tushuguan yuekan, Vol. III, No 4, (1929),

[A catalogue of extant examples of the scripts of the

p. 457

Liao and Jin dynasties]. Manshu teikoku kokuritsu chuo


"Jin taihe timing canshi" 1?f.tll~Ya

9~..f

hakubutsukan jihe, Vol. XIII (1941), pp. 1-8


[An

inscribed stone fragment from the taihe period of the

Yinzhang gaishu,

Jin dynasty], Dongbei congkan, Vol. XVII, No.5 (1931),

~p ~ ~-l~

[Introductory

outline of seal inscriptions). Beijing. 1963

appendix

416

417
Ntizhenwen yinji,

-a. 1 ~ fP 1)

[A collection of

seals in the Jurchen script] (unpublished manuscript),


1965

Meng Zong,

;tr~}~

;1 ~

"Nilzhenwen keshi xin faxian",ttJfrt'J~

[A new discovery of an inscription in the

Jurchen script), Hei bai banyuekan, Vol. III, No 1,


1935.

----------, Gu xiyin gailun,

1i

fpi:~t~

[A general
Menges, K., "Die Sprache der 3i.ircen" , in Die tungusischen

discussion on ancient seals], Beijing, 1981

Sprachen, in
Luo Fuyi, Jin Qicong, Jia Jingyan and Huang Zhenhua,
"NUzhen zi Aotun Liangbi shi
keshi chushi" ,

Handbuch der Orientalistik: Erste

Abteilung, Filnfter Band: Altaistik: Dritter Abschnitt:


Tungusologie, pp.246-256

-ttJ t fJ i~.'7J~t-1:t~ ~*JJ:f'

[A preliminary explanation of the inscription with a

Mikami Tsugio, .Ll.~x. ~

Kinshi kenkyU III: Kindai se1J1

poem by Aotun Liangbi in the Jurchen script], Minzu

shakai no kenkyu, 1:,'('{lft:~."i1'\~~~*i.'t<1);t;-tt'~

yuwen, 1982, No 2, pp. 26-32

Tokyo, 1973

Luo Jizu,

n'~~*11.

"Niizhenyu yanj iu ziliao",

~J. t!;,Utifi ~ff

in UAJ, No. 47 (1975), pp. 146-153

Guoxue congkan, No. 14, 1944


Mao Wen,

i,z

Miller, R. A., "Notes on the JUrcen numerals for the teens",

,Niizhen wenzi zhi qiyuan, ttlj('+i..)i:f:~7!f-

Min, Y~ng-gyu, FR~ ~*r

,"Y<'5jin munja-tii kus~ng-e taehayo"

[The origin of the Jurchen script], Shixue nianbao, Vol.

-tfl-sz'+~tl7>\o{f1-f1'O:f

I, No.3 (1931), pp. 171-176

characters], Yoshi taehaekkyo sahak hoe. Vol. VII.

[On the structure of Jurchen

Pusan, 1952
"Jinshi guoyu mingwu pian si yi biao",t'1:.@~
[On the vocabulary of the Jurchen
language in the History of the Jin Dynasty],

Guoxue

shangdui, Vol. l,No. I, (1933), pp. 33-36

----------, "Kyll'ngwtsn Yll'jinja pi

gOS<'5k",~ ~7fr. 'tt~ ~ -b~7J-~~

[Notes on the inscription in Jurchen characters at


Ky<'5ngw~n],

Dong bang hak ji (Journal of Far Eastern

Studies]. Vol. VIII (October 1967). pp. 3-14


Maspero, H., "Etudes sur la phonetique de la langue
annamite" , BEFEO, Vol. XII, No.7 (1912), pp. 7-9

Matsuzawa Rosen,
Japan, 1820

;}'~

;ttt

Ikoku Shomoku

Gaishii,i'jfti3"I'~

Minn. Young-Gyu. cf. Min.

Y~ng-gyu

[Editorial board.

Minority Languages], Minzu yuwen lun

ji.f\;;t1:~)z~~,

Minzu yuwen bianjibu R,t~t}x$~,~i~

[Collection of articles on minority languages). Zhongguo


shehui kexue chubanche. 1981.

419

418
Murayama Shichiro,

;:#:i

Il.j {,

~~

"Kittan moji kaidoku no shin tenkai",

, " Azuma kagami ni mieru

4f!fI-~'+

Joshingo ni tsuite",*~ft/..:.t2. ~ stl~%L':'" :>IJ 2

M~t(1)~frtlril~

[On the Jurchen words in the Azuma kagami],

the Khitan script], originally published in Gengo

TOYo

[New developments in the decipherment of

(1980), and reprinted in Ajia no mikaidoku moji pp. 159

gakuho, Vol. XXXIII (1951), No 3/4, pp. 146-148

- 203

Nai to Toraj ira,


itx ~ t

I~ j. ffl..;t &p

' i- :. 1i!f NIdI

"Nurukan Eineiji ni hi hokan,


, [Supplementary research on the

Ajia no mikaidoku moji,

7 /:"

zI -,
~ ~
~~ ~it'.,., ' "=>f
~~ r ~~ x

[Undeciphered scripts of Asia], Tokyo, 1982

two stelae at the Yongningsi Temple at Nuergan] Tokushi


soroku,

~t ~l.t~:

Norman, Jerry, A Concise Manchu-English Lexicon, University

,Kyoto 1929, pp.85-102 and pp.

511-524, reprinted in Naito Konan Zenshli, 1"tJ

1-~1iR~1'~,

of Washington Press, 1978

[Collected Works of Naito Konan (Naito Torajiro), Vol.


Ogura Shimpei,

VII, Tokyo 1970, pp. 583-591

'4,:t lfi f

Joshin gogaku" ,
----------, "Nihon-Manshu kotsu ryakusetsu" ,

t:l~~~}itj.t:~~fu

,"Chosen ni okeru Kittan oyobi

~R~.H:.:J1' Ii '3 4Jfl-~ -Z;' "(tt~ ~

[A

study of the Khitan and Jurchen languages in Korea],

[A brief outline of communications between Japan and

Rekishi chiri, Vol. XXIX, No.5 (1917), pp. 559-569;

Manchuria], in Toyo bunkashi kenkyu, Tokyo-Kyoto 1936;

reprinted in Chosen gogaku shi, pp. 660-672

reprinted in Naito Konan Zenshu, Vol. VIII, Tokyo, 1969,


Chosen gogaku shi, ~A.~.f ~~ ~!J..

pp. 224-272

[A History of

Korean Linguistics], new edition edited and revised by


Nishida Tatsuo, tEB~t.tfi

,"Minmatsu kango no onin taikei",aR:*,).l~:"

Tokyo 1964

Kono Rokuro,

t~~it* [The phonological system of Chinese during the


late Ming dynasty],

Okada Hidehiro, "Color names in Manchu", in American Studies

Seibankan yakugo no kenkyu,

[A study of the Tibetan-Chinese vocabulary Xifan-guan


~],

in Altaic Linguistics, ed. by Nicholas Poppe, pp.225-228

Kyoto, 1970
Olbricht, P., review of Yamaji Hiroaki, Kittan moji.
"Joshin moji no seiritsu to hatten",

til ~q:

iT)

[The establishment and

Joshin moji.o. and Joshin gokai,

128-155

0,

Revue bibliographique

de sinologie, No.4 (1958), Nos. 595, 596 and 597.

development of the Jurchen script], Gengo Nos. 9, 11 and


12 (1980), and reprinted in Ajia no mikaidoku moji pp.

Onogawa Hidemi, } OJ

f+ 7; ~~

Kinshi goi shiisei, 1: ~ slj.

~ 7i\

[Index to names of people, places and official titles in


the History of the Jin Dynasty], Kyoto, 1960

421

420
Osada Natsuki, -K.ffJ~::Ht
onka ni tsuite"

"Joshin moji no kOZQ to sono

1;tJji/fll>;t:lt.X l,(1)~1$.'L:' }ii,'LJ u

__________ , "Joshin mO,ii to genson shiry5" ,

1tli<* tt~q.lff

[Extant historical materials on the Jurchen script], in

[On the structure of Jurchen characters and their

Rekishi kyoiku, Vol. XVIII, No.7 (1970), pp. 25-31

phonological values], lecture given to Nihon Chugoku


gakkai (Japanese Sinological Association), 23rd October,

Oshibuchi Haj ime, ~t~)4# ni tsuite",

1949

,"Ryok6 no omoide to Joshinj i hibun

7rR rjd) }!i. I):t

t: tt

1. 'f'.f;.,. i

{::. ~:(::

1)

1.-

[Recollections of a voyage and a stele in the Jurchen


-

----------, "Manshugo to Joshingo" ,

,-:'t. '+l-j~"

/1-<1</111180

y
L

-++ ~

script], Shigaku kenkyu, Vol. VI, No.2 (1934), pp.

\(~[lD

[The Manchu language and the Jurchen language], Kobe

273-274

gengo gakkai ho, No 1 (1949) pp. 1-5


Otagi Matsuo,

~ ;?::ti.;ff5

"Kittan (Kitai) moji gyofu,


.
'/:JlJ""''''i?J''* ",:\(.
gyokusan, dokyo me1D1on no ka1"dk
0 u" A"TTX + " .. 11 '.ci:h...

----------, "Joshin moji kinseki shiry5 to sono kaidoku ni


tsuite" ~JJ ~t1.'6}~~1c"t0) M i\,L~ ~.x: 'I 2.

iJili1i~5k d)/l#gt

[A decipherment of the inscriptions in

[On the decipherment of epigraphical materials in the

the Khitan script on some fish-tallies, jade vessels and

Jurchen script], Uraru-Arutai gakkai, Vol. VII, No.9,

bronze mirrors], Bunka, Vol. XX, No.6, pp. 944-956.

(1950)
Parker, E.H., "The Nuchens in China", China Review, Vol. XVI,
(1887-1888), pp. 242-243

----------, "Joshingo shiryo no gengogaku-teki kenkyu -

Arutai shogoshi-teki hikaku gengogaku no ikkan to shite


ichi",
~jff 0) H.g.I~ aHit1L - ? It. ~A ~%" t~ 1t J:d~~~ ~W

ttl

--- _______ , Review of Hirth, F., "The Chinese Oriental


College", China Review, Vol. XVI, (1887-1888),

[Linguistic research on
Jurchen: A link in the comparative linguistic study of

pp.360-365

the Altaic languages], Mombusho kagaku kenkyu hokoku


--- _______ , "Extracts from the Chinese works regarding the

shuroku, February,1951

writing of the Ju-chih and Kitan Tartars", Journal of


----------, "Nurukan Eineiji hi MiSko Joshimbun shakko" ttx.~t

~;'l~~ ~6 itl3z:f~1k

Ishihama Sensei koki kinen toyogaku ronso,.fz

tc.t*~"~l

Vol. XXII.

[An explanation of the Mongol

and Jurchen versions of the Nuergan Yongningsi Temple


Stele],

the North China Branch of the British Asiatic Society,

Osaka, 1958, pp. 36-47

~tft..t~

Pelliot, P., Review of Denison Ross, E., "New Light ... ",
BEFEO, Vol. IX (1909), pp. 170-171

423

422
__________

"Sur quelques mots d'Asie centrale attestes dans

Qian Daosun,

1~,*~-tt.

"Nuzhenwen zhi yanjiu ziliao",

tllzgft'1i/~.ft

les textes chinois" , JA, Vol. XI, No 1 (1913), pp.

[Materials for the study of the Jurchen language],

451-469

Xueshe, Vol. I, No. 1 (1930)


"Les mots

ah

initiale, aujourd'hui amuie, dans

Remusat. J.P Abel, Recherches sur les langues tartares,

Ie mongol des XII Ie et XIVe siecles", JA, 1925, pp.

Paris, 1820

193-263
----------, 'De l'etude des langues etrangeres chez les
__________ , "Le

~6ja

et Ie Sayyid

~ussein

de l'Histoire des

Chinois" ,

Ming" , T'P, Vol. XXVI (1929), pp. 207-290

Melanges asiatigues, Vol. II (1826), pp.

242-265

__________ , Bibliographie: "Sseu-yi-kouan tso", T'P, Vol.

Rin~en

Yongsiyebu, "Melanges archeologiques: les inscriptions

inconnues sur pierre et les plaques d'or ornamentees du

XXVI (1929), pp. 53-61

Harnais de Tonyoucouc" , Central Asiatic Journal, Vol.


Popov, P., "0 Tyrskix pamjatnikax" [On the Stelae at Tyr],

IV, (1958-1959), pp. 289-299

ZVOlRAO, Vol. XVI, No.1 (1904), pp. 012-020, 077


----------, "Les dessigns pictographiques et les inscriptions
Poppe, N., Vergleichende Grammatik der altaischen Sprachen,

sur les rochers et sur les steles en Mongolie" , Corpus

Teil I, Vergleichende Lautlehre, Wiesbaden, 1960

Inscriptorum Mongolorum, Vol. V. No. 11, Fasc. 1.


Ulaanbaatar, 1968

__________ , (ed.), American Studies in Altaic Linguistics,


Indiana University, Bloomington, 1962

Rosny, L. de, "Les Niu-tchis, leur langue et leur


litterature", Revue orientale et americaine, Vol. I,

Introduction to Altaic Linguistics, Wiesbaden,

(1861), pp. 379-387

1965
Rudolph, R.C., review of Yan Wanzhang, "Jinxi ... ",
__________ , "Jurchen and Mongolian", in Henry G. Schwarz,

Revue

Bibliographigue de Sinologie, 3, (1957), pp. 215-216,


item no. 539

(ed.) Studies on Mongolia, pp. 30-37


Pozdneev, A.M., Lekcii po Istorii Mongol'skoj Literatury

Rudov, L.L., "Jazyk i pis'mennost'

czur~zenej"

[The language

[Lectures on the History of Mongolian Literature],

and script of the Jurchens], Arxiv Vostokovedov

Vladivostok, 1908

Obstestva, IAN, Vol. X, 1940

. I

425

424
Shinoda Minoru. The Founding of the Kamakura Shogunate

Rudov. L.N . "Problemy Kidan'skoj pis'mennosti" [Problems of


the Khitan script].

Sovetskaja Etnografija. 1963. No.

1180-1185. with Selected Translations from the Azuma


Kagami. New York. 1960

1. pp. 89-98

n\'i< -'I-

Saito. Buichi. R

/l!f; ~-

> '+-'.,
+ t -H.ill.
<.:" x

,i7J IiI ' .-'..


X/TX

,f?.~ ?;
lJ-A-it~ at; j ~ t~

Shiratori Kurakichi. t

"Kittan moji to Joshin moji"

ko".

[The Khitan script and the Jurchen

"Kittan Joshin Seika moji


[A study of the Khitan.

script]. Kokuritsu hakubutsukan jih5. Vol. X (March.

Jurchen and Xixia scripts]. in Shigaku zasshi. Vol.

1941)

IX.(1898). No. 11 pp. 922-936. No. 12 pp. 1054-1068;

Sa Ying' e

Fl ~~~ . Jilin waij i.1;H9r~c, (juan 9:

reprinted in Shiratori Kurakichi zenshu. s,~,-,?;1:-~,


Guj i

t i:JJ-

[Collected Works of Shiratori Kurakichi]. Vol. V. 1970.


pp. 45-68

Schlegel. G. Review of Grube. W. Die Sprache ... T'P Vol.


Sinor. D. "Introduction aux etudes mandjoues". TP. Vol.

VII. (1896). pp. 277-280

XLII (1953). pp. 70-100


----------. Review of Grube. W. Vorlaufige Mittheilung ...
T'P Vol. VIII (1897). pp. 114-115

----------. Introduction

l'etude de l'Eurasie centrale.

Wiesbaden. 1963
----------. Review of Huth. G. "Zur Entzifferung ... ". T'P
Vol. VIII (1987). pp. 115-117

----------. "La langue mandjoue". Handbuch der Orientalistik:


Erste Abteilung, FUnfter Band: Altaistik: Dritter
Abschnitt: Tungusologie, pp. 257-280

Schwarz. Henry G. (ed.). Studies on Mongolia: Proceedings of


the First North American Conference on Mongolian
Western Washington University. Bellingham.

Studies.

Sonoda Kazuki,

/I1 ffi -it

j;tt~/i~f!!{.~
l~ v.,' lj z..

Washington. 1979.

"Daikin tokushoda shohi ni tsuite".

[On the Jin Victory Memorial Stele].

Fengtian Mantie tushuguan congkan. Vol.XII, No. 12

Serruys. H. Sino-Jtir~ed Relations During the Yung-Lo Period

(1933)

(1403-1424). Wiesbaden. 1955


----------. "Kairyu kokusho magai hi. I.

~ ffl-ttt "Joshin moj i Oton Ryohitsu sen' in


*1{fi~~a~1~:tz-14
[The Aotun

[Two inscriptions in national scripts cut into the

Shimada Yoshimi.
hi".

ttl

II",*t&l!ijt'Ji.~-,~

rock-face at Hai1ong]. Manshu kinsekishi ko.

p. 140

Liangbi tablet with Jurchen script]. Shoko. Vol. V. No.


----------. Manshii kinsekishi ko. }-iJ(q~ttlf;n.z, ~

9. (1934). p. 685

Inventory of Inscriptions in Manchuria]. 1936

[An

426

427

Starikov, V.S., et al., Materialy po

de~ifrovke

Kidan'skogo

pisma [Materials for the decipherment of the Khitan


script], 2 vols, Moscow, 1970
Stary, G., "Chinesische Beschreibung der Mandschurei des 17

- - ---- - - --, "Kit tan Joshin Seika no moj i" , ~ft"ttl db ~


[The Khitan, Jurchen and Xixia scripts],
zenshu, Vol. XV (1954), pp. 45-48

ttl~'f , [The Jurchen


fE
",-,-.tt.
daijiten, 71' 5.fJ1t'g: ./\ ~T~

----------, "Joshin moji"

C1)

xt

Shodo

Script], in

Jahrhunderts, ihrer Bewohner und deren Sitten: Yang Pin

Toyo rekishi

und sein Werk Liu Pien Chi Lueh (Ein unvollendetes

[Encyclopaediac Dictionary of Far Eastern History], Vol.


IV, p. 420

Manuskript von Walter Fuchs)", in Weiers M. and Stary, G


(1982), pp. 49-56

----------, Chugoku seifuku oche no kenkyii ,tf@fiEFJ&1..WlI1l~tt.


Sun Jinj i,

1-,t, tf1 G

,"Hailong Niizhen moya shike" )~tt

-ttl

[Research on the Conquest Dynasties of China], 1971.

Atp~~1 [The rock inscriptions in Jurchen at Hailong],


----------, "Kittan, Joshin moji ko - mitabi "Daikin

Shehui kexue zhanxian, Vol. 2, 1979

tokushoda shahin Joshimbun no kaidoku ni tsuite"

----------, Niizhenwen zidian, 1!

"fr

t-*

[A Dictionary of

~ft-al~'t1'=-~~c;: X~1~~tJ't4~~tz-1!,z(1)
~?l.l."t

Jurchen], published in mimeograph form by Liaoning

~~,

shehui kexueyuan (Liaoning Academy of Social Sciences),

scripts - a third attempt to decipher the Jin Victory

1980

Memorial Stele",

,[A Study of the Khitan and Jurchen


Tayoshi kenkyu, Vol. 35 (1976), No.

3, pp. 1-53 (pp.361-413)


Susa Kakitsu,

}~ 1~!1ift

, "Tokushoda hi

koki",1tn~'i~fjtG

[A record of a trip to find the Jin Victory Stele],

Tamura Jitsuzo and Kobayashi Yukio,

+n

fj;t;fl

.
- ~ ITA
K e1ryo, 1') t'${

(English title: Tombs and Mural Paintings of Ch'ing

Seikyii gakuho , 1933.

Ling), Kyoto, 1952-1953


----------, Daikin tokushoda sho shashin cM

,i:if~M-fl't:';,'lr~jtf'~

[A collection of photographs of the Jin Victory Stele],

Taskin, V.S., "Opyt de~ifrovki Kidan'skoj pis'mennosti" [An


attempted decipherment of the Khitan script], Narody

1933.

Azii i Afriki, 1963, No.1, pp. 127-147


Tamura Jitsuzo,
kenkyu" ,

J:a,*11'11.

"Daikin tokushoda shohi no

~ t1~ ~ jf~ L;~:q. If) iff 1L

[Research

on the Jin Victory Memorial Stele], Toyoshi kenkyu, Vol.


II, (1937) No.5, pp. 405-437; No.6, pp. 542-560

Todo Akiyasu, "Development of Mandarin from 14c. to 19c.",


Acta Asiatica, Vol. VI (1964), pp. 31-40

428

429

Toriyama Ki'ichi,

,~~i--

, Mansen

bunka

shikan,~I<"H~1t...~1!

Wang Li, Lil

[The Cultural History of Manchuria and Korea]


Toyoda Goro,

tlfJJL. ~F

~
Wang Renfu, ~

/.,

1- ~

[A Draft History

,"Da Jin deshengtuo songbei wen

zhengli sande", ;t, 1.1f.~~ pt ~j 1i.!y ~

[The Khitan

large script - the origin of the Jurchen script],

T5yo

~ j.!.!.. tr~

[Three results in restoring the text of the Jin Victory

gakuhO, Vol. XLVI, No.1 (1963), pp. 1-39

----------,

gao,~*~t;f~

of the Chinese Language], Beijing, 1958

,"Kittan relJl k5 - Joshin moji no

genryu" , !Jft~1J}: tt~ ~'1O')Jlr,yt

,Hanyu shi

Memorial Stele], Heilongjiang wenwu congkan, 1984, No.1,


pp. 10-17

"An analysis of the Major Ch'i-tan Characters",


-<+-

Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko,

Watanabe Kuntaro,

No. 23 (1964), pp. 119-135

~tl. ':::~,t, 1:... ~p

kanj ion no kanke i ", };.t :'111 tit; ,

,"Manshiigo, Joshingo to

ttl tit; t: ~l ~r, ~

f1)

l\~ ~~,

[The relationship between Chinese characters used in


Vasil'ev, V., "Zapiska
stoja~~ix

nadpisjax otkrytyx na pamjatnikax,

transcribing and the Manchu and Jurchen languages],

na skale Tyr, bliz ust'ja Amur' [A note on the

Ajia kenkyu, Vol. II, (1925), pp. 19-52

inscriptions discovered on stelae at Tyr. near the mouth


of the Amur] , I IRAN , Ser. V, Vol. IV (1896). pp. 365-367

----------, Shimpen kinshi meij ikai, *~~t~.i ~~-9:-

[A

new approach to the explanation of words and expressions


Visdelou, C., Histoire abregee de la Tartarie,

Bibliothegue

in the History of the Jin Dynasty], Osaka, 1931

Orientale, Vol. IV (1779), pp. 42-296


Wang Chang,

.f..~

,Jin shi cui bian,

----------, "Joshinkan raibun tsiikai",

1: ~ l ~

"ft-lntx.iID.M-

[A study of the "petitions" of the Jurchen Bureau of

[Selected Inscriptions], juan 154: Guoshu bei,@Oli~q

Translators],

Ajia kenkyu, Vol., XI (1933)

[A stele in a national script]


Wang Jingru, 'f.

1? 1/:0

bei chushi"

----------, "Joshingo no shin kenkyu", 11


,"Yantai Niizhenwen j inshi timing

l' t. ~l3<:l1! -tn.-t~*7]*f

1- ~~ B~ Jfr :f.fliL

[New research on the Jurchen language],

Ajia kenkyu,

Vol. XII (1935) (The original English subtitle of this

[A preliminary explanation of the Yantai stele], Shixue

article is "The New Study of Nuchen Language")

jikan, Vol. III, (1937), pp. 49-68


Wild, N., "Materials for the Study of the Ssu I Kuan (Bureau
----------, "Xinglong chutu Jindai Qidanwen muzhiming jie",
.~f::t:.t. t1'\'~fl ~ [An explanation of the Khitan script

of Translators), BSOAS, Vol. XI, No.3 (1945), pp/.

ltt,t.sM

617-640

used on an epigraph of the Jin dynasty disovered in


Xinglong], Kaogu, 1973, No.5, pp. 310-312; 289

Wittfogel, K.A. and Feng, C.S., History of Chinese Society:

Liao (907-1125), Philadelphia, 1949

430

431

Wylie, A., Translation of the Ts'ing wan k'e mung, a Chinese


Grammar of the Manchu Tartar Language, Shanghai, 1855

----------

"Joshingo ni okeru kanzen iji to fukanzen iji",

1i 2lz.{, 7<--(1' r7>~1t '"'2' ... ..,. ~ /;-..:f. ~ t7


,,-*012-'"
,..--'t,;t.,';'T<-/I',,-<
""'i-

-tt

[On the

semantic and partially-semantic characters in the


Jurchen language]. Gengo shuroku. Vol. II, (1952), pp.
57-70

----------, "On an ancient inscription in the Neu-chih


language", JRAS, Vol. XVIII (1860), pp. 331-345

----------

----------, Notes on Chinese Literature, Shanghai, 1867,

IJ)

, [The ten
st~ms in the Jurchen language], Gengo shuroku, Vol. III
(1952), pp. 12-13

reprinted Taibei, 1964


----------

1i.l ~~

"Joshingo no jiikan" ,

"On an ancient Buddhist inscription at Keu-yung

Kwan, in North China", JRAS, (NS), Vol. 1 (1870), pp.

----------

"Joshingo nango ka~"


.I.

-1+
l!!:L
"I... '" '0 p

it.I~::Oil,
l:1 &: 0 ill.
fIilt

[Explanations of some difficult Jurchen expressions],

14-44

Gengo shuroku, Vol. V (1953), pp. 3-5


Xu Shiying and Liu Dezhi,ttttl .
yinyun, ~ ~i

t:f ly, ~~~

~H%.~

Yin zhu Zhongyuan

[The Zhongyuan yinyun with


[An investigation of Grube's Hua-Yi yiyu], Gengo

phonetic annotations], Taibei, 1969


Yagi, Shozaburo,

J \

*-~ NP

ft~p't~~
kyusekishi ~~~ii11J1l-1..:

,"Kin no shoda hi", 1:

[The Jin Victory Memorial Stele] Manshu

IT)

shuroku, Vol. V (1953), pp. 29-46. Reprinted in Joshin


moji, pp. 351-386

----------, "Joshingo ni okeru arushuno doji henkagobi ni

Vol. III, pp. 370-375

tsuite", 1Z
Yamaj i, Hiroaki, U. U~
kenkyii, 1l

aH

,Joshin mO]1 no seij i ni kansuru

-l ::z to) '\! (~ ~~ ~ ~ ~-tt '1L

[Research on

la L~M-lj )> ~. *! tn ~5) tr 1t..H Ii (~ ') I) l,.


(J)

[On the meaning of some verbal inflexions in Jurchen],


Gengo shuroku, Vol. VI, (1955), pp. 16-18

the Structure of Jurchen Characters], Tokyo, 1958


----------, "Kittan Joshin no gengo to moji oyobi sono kankei
----------, "Joshin setsumon ke",

if l

tl ~ t

[On the

Jurchen script], Gengo shGroku, Vol. I, pp. 10-28; Vol.


II, pp. 41-56; Vol. III, pp. 14-32; Vol. IV, pp. 29-48;
Vol. V., pp. 6-28; (1951-1953)
"Joshingo no jiini chi",

ttl~

<1)

1"

-"""1

[The

ni

tsuite",1lftttlt1)~~~r:~'+~tr "lucn&1{+.C-""
[On the relationship between the Khitan and Jurchen

languages and scripts], Shikan, Vol. XXXIX (1953), pp.


89-91

----------

1.i ~'l t':>


"Joshin seiji ni okeru katen no kenkyu" , ~1t
~+

twelve branches in the Jurchen language]; Gengo shGroku,

(:..t':-It )1)O.?&G1){ft1L

Vol. II, (1952), pp. 31-40

formation of Jurchen characters], Gengo shuroku, Vol. V


(1953), pp. 1-2

[A study of the added points in the

433

432

1[~ ~'tO);r/li1.1"

"Joshin moji no kazoo,

"Shin Jochoku kokusho hi ni tsuite",

[The

composition of Jurchen characters], Gengo shuroku, Vol.

{.: . . tt., lJ 1---

V, (1953), pp. 20-28

script],

~fr t: 1 @t~

[On a new stele in the Jurchen national

Fengtian tushuguan congkan, Vol. XVIII (1934);

Mamma, Vol. XV (1934)

1[Jjt!/lIlI

Joshin go kai,

[The Jurchen

----------

Yamazaki Tadashi, t.Li J..,~


:it ;i. ~~ Jz. 77,'~
shashi", T 7-? o!t- D p /lT1T tL

t,

Language], Tokyo, 1956

-t.t::f!fl-tt<fl#it1<1J-J! [Some

~ 1~!:

d1

"Ka-I yakugo kenkyu


,[A short his tory of

' "'-

research on the Hua-Yi yiyu vocabularies],

"Lexicography yori mita Gu-shi yakugo, Joshinkan

raibun no kento no ikkan" , L-u(ic.o,ro..r-ivg

,
J

7: I\, ~~~{

Ch5sen

gakkai kaiho; Part I in Vol. XIV (1952) pp.4-7; Part II


in Vol. XV (1952), p. 8

comments on the study of

Grube's Hua-Yi yiyu and the petitions of the Jurchen


Bureau of Translators from a lexicographical point of
view], in Waseda daigaku to shokan kiyo, Vol. VIII,
(1967), pp. 31-40

__ n

"Wagakuni ni okeru Ka-I yakugo kenkyu shi",

__ n n

-:h:,7i:'

@J L:....~' Ij ;>l~ ~'fH

[A history of the study of the Hua- Yi


-1;ff~.t..
~ vocabularies in Japan];
Chosen gakuho, Vol. V

(1953), pp. 45-48 and Vol. VI (1954) pp. 163-165


--+~~3:.

Yamamoto Kengo, J... -"" E;rr tz


; -:It . jj1 ~1z.
i:li 11 7.j, 31z.. ~11
/PIl1~
Db' /:10.0 ~'17~ btJ'~~ ...

Manshugo kogo hi so goi shu,


[A Classified Dictionary of

Van Hua,

1J~

, "Niizhenwen guo-xin pai de faxian" , tJ: ~ ~ i~

jt1f. ft-)t: 1t

Spoken Manchu], Tokyo, 1969

[The discovery of a travel pass with a

Jurchen inscription], Shehui kexue zhanxian, 1979, No 2,


"Seikado-bon Joshin yakugo koi",

p. 209

[Variants in the Seikado manuscript


of the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu],

Shako, Vol. XVI, No. 10

----------

" NUzhenwen " ,

~~*

in Zhongguo minzu gu wend,

(1943), pp. 13-36

,[The Jurchen Language],

rt @] ~ 7J1 't k ~

pp.

109-114
1lO
. yakugo no kenkyu_" , f!. ~
1i-:~~
1.Jz.
----------, "Josh1n
Db.

[Research on the Jurchen Hua-Yi yiyu],

---7-

a),{,it tl....t

Kobe gaidai

Yan Wanzhang,

&~ l~

,"Jinxi Xigushan chutu Qidanwen

muzhi yanj iu" ,~i& tt9+r.l~ ;t:.:t.

ronso, Vol. II, No.2 (1951), pp. 68-79

-ff-Pt:;z! ~~, ~1} ~

[A study of the epitaph in Khitan script excavated in

J,:,ifi' ,"Kin kei Joshin


shite", -ttl Tf.1"} t 11t m - c. l

Yamashita Taizo, tl.J


ichi to

mOJ 1 shiryo no

z...

[Materials for the study of Jurchen characters on


mirrors of the Jin dynasty],
No.2 (1940)

Manshu shigaku, Vol. III,

Xigushan, Jinxi],

Kaogu xuebao, 1957, No.2, pp. 69-82

rfo>

Yang Bin, ~1

, Liu bian j i llie,

*ml. ~r,~

published 1639, reprinted in 1936 in the Guoxue wenku


series. (Cf. Stary, G (1982

434

435
-j,n

Yang Boxing,

~ 18 ~

,Shengu,

~t 1~

(juan 3)

~ 3~ , "Mingdai Nuergan Yongningsi


kaoshi", BR+t'~~.t f~ ~ 1 i"~L.f~t

Yang Yang,

Weiers, M. and Stary, G., Florilegia Manjurica: In Memoriam


Walter Fuchs, Wiesbaden, 1982

beij i zai
[A

Zhao

Han,~ ~Ei:J ,

Shi mo juan hua,-ti

reinterpretation of the text on the stele in the

Zhibuzuzhai congshu,

Yongningsi temple at Nurgan],

pp. 8b/9a

Shehui kexue zhanxian,

ia=f.Jil t

~t~:f

(1618), in
Vol. III, juan 6,

1983, No. I, pp. 176-181


Yi Ki-mun,

1t ~

Zheng Shaozong,
[Lee Ki-moon], "Chung-se

tf t.!!: -tt~~

yl1ngu" ,

tu ~ ;t;ftL

phonology of Middle Jurchen],

[Research on the
S~ul

f~i~~.

,"Xinglong-xian Zimulinzi faxian de

Qidanwen muzhiming" , ~Jtlf

Y~chin-~ ~unron

;f.l:1-:Uftl~B7.f}ft xlt1.u

[An epitaph in the Khitan script discovered in Zimulinzi

taehakkyo nonmunjip,

village, Xinglong district],

Kaogu, 1973, pp. 300-309

Vol. VII (1958), pp. 343-395


/,~

Yi

Py~ng-do, t~ ,~,

, Kuksa taegwan,

la!!i: "t.tt

u.,

Zhong Minyan, -is.: ~ 11

, "Lishi de jianzheng - Mingdai

Nuergan Yongningsi beiwen kaoshi" ,If ~ a~ t

[An Outline

881-1.' -tix ~ t >i<*"~~ ;z;f~' [Historical

of National History], Seoul, 1957

t1'.-

proof: a study of

the text on the Ming Dynasty stele at the Yongningsi


Von Zach, E.R., "Einige weitere Nachtrage zum Jucen-Deutschen

temple, Nurgan], Lishi yanjiu, 1974, No. I, pp. 142-157

Glossar Prof. Grube's", T'P, Vol. VIII (1897), pp.


Zhong Minyan, Na Senbo, A~~~

107ff .

, and Jin Qicong, "Mingdai


Nuergan Yongningsi beij i j iaoshi", 8~1-\'fx t ~t:~i"
tL::t~lf
[Emendations and annotations on the

Vorob'ev, M.V., "Slovarnyj sostav


etnografi~eskij

isto~nik"

c~ur~~en'skogo

jazyka kak

[The lexicon of Jurchen as

Ming dynasty stone inscriptions of the Yongning

ethnographic source material], Doklady otdelenii i


komissii

geografi~eskogo ob~estva

monastery at Nuergan],

SSSR, Vol. V

Kaogu xuebao, 1975, No.2, pp.

33 ff.

(Leningrad, 1968), pp. 97-107


Zhong guo minzu gu wenzi yanjiuhui,
----------

"Jazyk i pis'mennost'

~~urc~enej

(kul'turno-

Zhongguo minzu gu wenzi,

istoriceskaja xarakteristika)" [The language and script

tb Q

i'Z...j.k

r/~ .~~~

tf lID ~ ~~ 1" ~

-+ ...
0

f.;.

7-

~ ~

~ +~ff ~

Beij ing

1982

of the Jurchens - cultural and historical


Zhou Mi, )1)

characteristics], ibid. pp. 85-96

~.

, Gui xin za zhi, ~"<."4

early fourteenth century


Walravens, H. and Gimm, M., Deutsch-mandjurisches
Wortverzeichnis, Wiesbaden, 1978

f-#. g~

published

436

Zhou Youguang,

/Ii -] fu

, "Nuzhen yuwenxue de fengshuo

cheng guo - jieshao Jin Guangping, Jin Qicong NUzhen


yuyan wenzi yanj iu", it

1'~-r~>,

-cz-i H t

t ~t.>Z a-!] t

1i~ h)4 ~ - 1d~ t :t:i ,

~ ~.6'R 1L

[A great achievement in the study of the Jurchen


language - introducing A Study of the Jurchen Language
and Script by Jin Guangping and Jin Qicong],

Neimenggu

daxue xuebao, 1980, No.4, pp. 49-52

***

APPENDIX:
FACSIMILE OF THE SINO-JURCHEN DICTIONARY
WITHOUT JURCHEN SCRIPT
(AWAKUNI MS.)

437

l(

~~~tfiJ 8%M~ ~

439
438
;)0

85

fR ~ Jf.\-.{r :r, f/; ;r,! Jil ~ !f


~1t -'X ~ Jb~ lfi.~.~.~:*

60
11,r:

't

110

~ 'fj rf{)~ )A ~t~~i:~!t ~

. ~~)!~~%.~/~~~
t.~

'"

-1fi:~~r~~