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FACTORS HELPING CORPORATE BUSINESSES

TO BECOME SUSTAINABLE IN SUPPLY CHAIN


LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN QATAR
Name

(i) Executive Summary:


This paper looks at the factors influencing supply chain management in the country of Qatar.
In todays fast moving and globalized economies, it has become imperative for organizations
to have strategic and comprehensively effective management tools at their disposal. A
sustainable supply chain management system covers all functional areas of management,
right from procurement of raw materials, to its production, it involves the marketing and
promotional activities of the company as well as ensuring effective and efficient delivery of
the finished product (or service) to the end user.
Qatar may be one of the smallest countries in the Gulf area. However, it is one of the fastest
growing. Qatar is looking to move away from its reliance on hydrocarbon and become a
knowledge based economy. It has recently been allotted to organize the 2022 FIFA World
Cup, which is a massive achievement for this small nation. However, the government and
other companies are having logistical problems in organizing this Global Event. The paper
takes a look at the problems in the supply chain system of Qatari companies. Research is
based on both primary as well as secondary sources. Secondary sources have given us a
strong albeit a limited view of the factors influencing supply chain management in Qatar.
However, the primary research has revealed all the limitations and provided us with a much
clearer picture. The paper attempts to derive suitable conclusions based on the research and
offer relevant recommendations based on the same.

Table of Contents
Executive Summary
1.1 Research Aim.......................................................................................................................4
1.2 Research Objectives.............................................................................................................4
1.3 Research Questions..............................................................................................................4
1.4 Data Collection.....................................................................................................................4
2.1 Introduction..........................................................................................................................5
2.2 Supply Chain Management:.................................................................................................6
2.3 Model for a sustainable supply chain management influenced by environmental practices:
....................................................................................................................................................6
2.4 Sustainability in Supply Chain Management:......................................................................7
2.5 Sustainable Supply Chain Management and Risk Management:........................................8
2.6 Need for Sustainability in Qatar...........................................................................................8
2.7 Sustainable Supply Chain Management and External Stake holders:................................11
2.8 Use and Role of Information Technology in SCM:...........................................................13
2.9 Factors contributing in Supply Chain Logistics.................................................................14
2.10 Recommendations............................................................................................................16
2.11 Summary..........................................................................................................................17
4.1 Survey Collection:..............................................................................................................19
4.2 Sampling:...........................................................................................................................19
4.3 Data Sets:...........................................................................................................................20
4.4 Research Schedule:............................................................................................................20
4.5 Pilot Study:.........................................................................................................................21
5.1 Results of the Survey:........................................................................................................21
5.2 Analysis of the Survey:......................................................................................................30
6.1 Conclusions:.......................................................................................................................32
6.2 Recommendations:.............................................................................................................33
Appendix 1:......................................................................................................................42
Appendix 2: Survey Sheet................................................................................................43

1. Research Methodology
1.1 Research Aim
The aim of this research will be to study the main factors that help the corporate businesses in
Qatar to bring sustainability in supply chain and logistics management.

1.2 Research Objectives


1. Understanding the nature of supply chain logistics industry in Qatar
2. Understanding the challenges present in the supply chain logistics industry in Qatar
restricting from sustainability adoption
3. Understanding the benefits of sustainability in supply chain logistics industry of Qatar
4. Analysing the main factors responsible for attaining sustainability in Qatar supply
chain logistics sector.

1.3 Research Questions


Q 1: What are the methods that help in adoption of sustainability within the supply chain
logistics management organizations?
Q 2: What are those factors that influence the rate of sustainability adoption within the sector
of supply chain logistics management in Qatar?
Q 3: What are those main factors that help in attaining sustainability within the industry of
supply chain logistics management, Qatar?

1.4 Data Collection


Primary and Secondary data will be collected. Secondary data will be reflected through the
literature review of this report. The literature review in turn will be developed from diverse
journal articles, referenced sources, electronic journals, online libraries.
Primary data will be collected through data collection instruments such as questionnaires and
surveys which will focus on a group of participants. From the result of the data collection, the
recommendations and conclusions will be highlighted.

The participants will be inclusive of employees from supply chain logistics management
sector. The questionnaires will be based on the research objectives.

2. Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
For a number of years, organizations of all industries have been struggling for coming in
terms with the mounting challenges of the society, environment, ethics, and economy related
to the supply chains. As the industry of airlines is responsible for generation of carbon and
other sources of pollution, there has been an increase in the need for having sustainability in
the supply chain logistics as well. Considering the concept of sustainable supply chain, it is
referred to as the approach followed for the management of supply chain that seeks on
actively managing and minimising the negative impacts on the society, economy, or the
environment related to the goods and services being sourced (Carter & Rogers, 2008). This
has to be done in a manner to maximize the positive effect where there is a need for
feasibility.
The subjects of sustainable Supply Chain Management (SSCM) has gotten developing
consideration and turn into an undeniably prominent examination zone. A few methodologies
were proposed for the execution of SSCM activities and additionally characterizing the part
of authoritative elements in the selection of natural advancements focused around variables
distinguished through overview. Regardless of diverse examination methodologies and
studies with SSCM, the basic variables influencing the execution and reception of SSCM is
still at embryonic stage. Then again, supply chain risk management in the effective execution
and reception of SSCM activities completely focus the manageable quality of such activities
for proficiency and long haul responsibilities.
Overseeing risk in the supply chain has never been as trying as it is today. As additional
organizations have outsourced creation to abroad areas, supply chain has been developed, the
quantity of hubs expanded, and the complexities of the systems have moved exponentially.
Besides, all the while with expanded demands on financial execution of the supply chain,
associations are currently considered in charge of the natural and social execution of their

suppliers and partners. Along these lines, to stay aggressive of supply chain, associations
concentrating on overseeing risk as well as also concerning numerous measurements (e.g.
natural and social issues) as an issues that need to be tended to for the maintainability of their
supply chains.

2.2 Supply Chain Management:


The idea of Supply Chain Management is focused around two centre thoughts. The main is
that essentially every item that achieves an end client speaks to the total exertion of various
associations. These associations are alluded to by and large as the supply chain. (Handfield,
2011)
The second thought is that while supply chains have existed for quite a while, most
associations have just given careful consideration to what was occurring inside their "four
dividers." Few organizations saw, a great deal less dealt with, the whole chain of exercises
that eventually conveyed items to the last client. The result was disjointed and frequently
inadequate supply chains. (Handfield, 2011)
Supply chain management, then, is the dynamic management of supply chain exercises to
boost client esteem and accomplish a sustainable point of interest. It speaks to a cognizant
exertion by the supply chain firms to create and run supply chains in the best & effective
ways that could be available. Supply chain exercises spread everything from item
improvement, sourcing, creation, and logistics, and also the data frameworks expected to
organize these exercises. (Handfield, 2011)
The associations that make up the supply chain are "connected" together through physical
streams and data streams. Physical streams include the change, development, and capacity of
products and materials. They are the most noticeable bit of the supply chain. Anyway pretty
much as critical are data streams. Data streams permit the different supply chain partners to
arrange their long haul plans, and to control the everyday stream of products and material
here and there the supply chain. (Handfield, 2011)

2.3 Model for a sustainable supply chain management influenced by


environmental practices:
The main features of a sustainable supply chain management which is influenced by
environmental practices include purchasing, manufacturing, distribution and reverse logistical
support in the value chain of the organization. [Appendix 1: (Sarkis, 2003)]. These
components are strategically important as it directly affects how the supply chain is
effectively managed. Reverse Logistical management is essentially the returning of products
as well as materials that can be recycled. Its requirements may vary, depending on the type of
organization or industry or even what the product may be. Hence it is quite likely that the

stakeholders in the company have a strategic role in the decision making process of the
organization, which may hinder the objectives for a sustainable supply. Green Supply Chain
is a relatively new issue any organization faces, but it is an important cog in the wheel for
them. (Boyd et al, 2007)
.

2.4 Sustainability in Supply Chain Management:


The basic work of Supply Chain Management could be defined as ensuring the flow and
manufacturing of goods and services from the raw material stage to the finished goods stage,
in the hands of the consumer. (Seuring & Muller, 2008). With the operations of organizations
globally being transformed optimally, there is a need to include supply chain management in
not just a few specific facilities, but to introduce and apply it at all stages of production and
marketing. (Linton et al, 2007) Effective supply chain management must be incorporated
even in designing of the product, product manufacturing, determining the by-products that
can be used, and, also in determining the life cycle of the products and services in addition to
the core uses of the supply chain management. (Linton et al, 2007) This makes supply chain
management more effective as well as sustainable. Merging sustainability and logistics in
supply chain management are important as this will increase the degree of efficiency and
helps in the elimination of waste. This is not only important for improving the image of the
organization in the society and the economy, but it is also important as the concerns of
environment have a direct link with a number of different aspects in relation with supply
chain (Benn et al., 2005). Hence, the above-mentioned combination requires an enhanced set
of Supply Chain Management, which sustainable management systems can only meet, as they
value a total set of values, with respect to the environment, economy as well as fulfilling the
customers needs and wants. (Buyukozkan et al, 2008) With an objective to ascertain the
needs and requirements of a sustainable supply chain management, Goran Svensson (2007)
finds that:
One aspect addressed is that firstorder supply chains of brand new clothing go beyond the
traditional point of consumption. Another aspect raised is that second and norder supply
chains should be considered in business practices from the point of origin in the firstorder
supply chains in order to enhance corporate efforts of SSCM. (Svensson, 2007, pp. 265266)

2.5 Sustainable Supply Chain Management and Risk Management:


Risk is usually characterized as the instability of conceivable return, the idea of data shortfall
and the ability to acknowledge a potential misfortune when positive returns are normal. In
light of the conventional choice hypothesis, risk is characterized as the variety in the
dispersion of potential results, likelihood of event and subjective qualities. (Sekhari et al, n.d)
Associations are encountering fast supply chain development with decentralized supplier
base. Albeit expanded supplier situated in supply chain has made a difference associations in
picking up real cost focal point and piece of the overall industry yet it has brought about
additional shaky supply chain. Supply chains are helpless against different sorts of
interruptions created by unverifiable financial cycles, shopper demands, and regular and manmade debacles. (Sekhari et al, n.d) Result of a shaky supply chain has expanded risks in
directing business operations and raises concerns on congruity of assembling or
administration conveyance operations. Supply chain risk management needs to be embraced
as best practice for supply chain administration to minimize affect on money related
methodology and productivity. The risk management points of view of Supply chain alludes
to the vulnerability or flighty occasion influencing one or a greater amount of the gatherings
inside the supply chain or its business settings, which can impact the accomplishment of the
business goals. This has dependably been a critical issue in supply chain management.
(Sekhari et al, n.d)Distinctive writing consider chances in connection to supply lead time
dependability, value instability, and demand instability which prompt the requirement for
security stock, inventory pooling procedure, request part to suppliers, and different contract
and supporting methodologies. The supply chain risks could be as deferrals of materials from
suppliers, extensive gauge mistakes, framework breakdowns, limit issues, inventory issues,
and disturbances The grouping gave by Tang classified supply chain risks into operations and
interruptions risks. (Sekhari et al, n.d)On account of operations risks, instabilities natural in a
supply chain assumes more basic part, which incorporate demand, supply, and expense
vulnerabilities while interruption risks are those created by real common and man-made
debacles, for example, surge, quake, torrent, and major monetary emergency. The supply
chain risk points of view can be further isolated from the perspective of builds: (1) Sources of
Risk, (2) Consequences of Risk, (3) Drivers of Risk and (4) Alleviation Strategies of Risk.
(Sekhari et al, n.d)

2.6 Need for Sustainability in Qatar


Supply Chains are constantly interconnecting and emerging globally. Qatar should acquire
supply chain logistics program in order to minimize business risk that include status, safety
and standard of supply and legal disputes, create effective cost savings that require paying
attention on total life span costs when providing goods and services instead of simply pricing,
expand corporate/ brand status in the industry field, and managing transformation such as
innovation and growth of new products and services that are sustainable and socially
accountable (Benn et al., 2005).

For Qatar, the chief operator for fixing supply chain sustainability operation within their
acquiring task is to address an outlook of emerging risk within the supply chain. There are a
number of renowned examples of how this increasing exposure to risk within the supply
chain has happened in latest times (Beamon, 2008).
Although, in addition to the past examples, the basic features and factors that emerge risk
within the supply chain are growing and harming rapidly. The awareness that Qatar Airlines
are not safe to these factors has led the Qatar to review the suggestions for their own business
plans and also for their supply chains.
It might be stated by one that the airlines in the global market that are providing services with
flights of long duration will be having better quality in the services being provided by them in
comparison with the ones running on regional basis in the domestic front (Beamon, 2008).
The supply chain logistics are important for the service sectors in order to increase the level
of attention for helping to create understanding regarding the complexities and issues within
the supply chain of services. The organization of Qatar should be following sustainability in
supply chain logistics will help in providing better services in the quality of supplier not only
within the routes of region in the domestic front as well as the international front.
Recently, the Fdration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) announced that the
2022 FIFA World Cup would be held in Qatar. (FIFA, 1994-2014). Although its a massive
achievement for Qatar to bag this prestigious global event, it also presents Qatar with a great
number of logistical challenges, especially regarding the management of moving materials
and labour. The proper management of these would be a great challenge to Qatar. (EC
HARRIS, n.d). Early appraisal of the effect of logistical necessities demonstrates that as an
after effect of late interest in air and seaport foundation, there is sufficient cargo limit
arranged, in any case it is because of go ahead stream at distinctive times in connection to the
demand top and may not be arranged sufficiently to manage the high extent of mass
materials. (EC HARRIS, n.d) Also, conveyance courses inside Qatar and street connections to
Saudi Arabia can possibly make bottlenecks in the supply chain and conveyance foundation.
As construction profit expands, the demand for a huge number of extra workers will get to be
clear, so this issue ought to be considered from both a section visa viewpoint and
convenience and welfare viewpoint. On the off chance that the estimates for the scale of
construction in Qatar are right, the construction materials business sector could be $6 billion
to $9 billion through the following two to three years. (EC HARRIS, n.d) At these figures, the

foundation speculation in Qatar is liable to drive the demand for building construction
material businesses all through the Collaboration Council for the Arab States of the Gulf
(GCC) region. As Qatar has restricted mainly created assets other than hydrocarbons, most
construction materials other than concrete and rebar need to be foreign made. (EC HARRIS,
n.d) The EC Harris Built Asset Consultancy provides some key focus areas for Qatar to
overcome the above-mentioned problems, which are:
To ensure sureness of conveyance, a key methodology to supply chain management will be
fundamental. (EC HARRIS, n.d) Logistically, there will need to be a watchful equalization
between construction vehicles and general activity to keep away from gridlock in urban
regions. This is especially applicable remembering the level of interest in enhancing the
current streets themselves, making the probability of further disturbance. (EC HARRIS, n.d)
A method of centrally managed logistics will make the best utilization of transport assets
also overseeing carbon outflows viably. (EC HARRIS, n.d) It is clear from the over that the
accessibility of key materials, for example, steel, reinforcing agents as well as cement will
form a composed methodology to supply chain and logistics issues at a national level to
maintain a strategic distance from neighbourhood rivalry for rare products driving inflation.
Procurement Category Management concentrating on particular sorts of materials and their
related supply chains will help to convey this general management schema. (EC HARRIS,
n.d)
Despite the fact that the worldwide monetary emergency has implied that materials, plant and
hardware are currently all the more broadly accessible, cautious arranging will be obliged to
permit the supply chain to ramp up with sureness - be it in the sourcing and procurement of
plant and materials or the construction of new offices in Qatar to meet the extra demand.
As it is clear that the quantum of work that will be needed to take care of the anticipated
demand does not right now exist in Qatar, it is of discriminating criticalness that watchful
thought is given in connection to the areas, scale and welfare nature of work camps. (EC
HARRIS, n.d) To combat extra logistical and set up expenses it would be gainful for a Qatar
wide answer for be set up and that these offices be implicit development of the demand. Two
different methods for alleviating this effect would, firstly, be the more extensive utilization of
nearby or reused substance inside construction is a method for easing the demand for
transported in materials, for example, totals for cement, bitumen for black-top and scrap
metal for steel. (EC HARRIS, n.d) Also, limit burdens could be smoothed through composed

forward purchasing of generally standard and simple to store material, for example, total. (EC
HARRIS, n.d)
In numerous markets, obtainment techniques are advancing to allot risk components all the
more equally over all construction stakeholders and are advancing towards more shared, nonantagonistic methods for working. The 2012 Olympics in London was an outstanding case of
this methodology. Particularly in businesses where "boom" conditions apply, to relieve
money related risk, altered value irregularity aggregate contracts are consistently supplanted
by those agreement acquired on a best esteem guideline to convey a high quality, savvy
conspire through an open book approach. These can include the customer tackling a more
prominent level of risk though without needing to pay a premium for the risk exchange.
There are numerous approaches to breaking point the Clients' introduction to cost
overwhelm/heightening in such contract game plans. Certain parts of the agreement, for
example, the Main Builders Fee, can be ring-fenced to guarantee that for any expense over
runs on materials, and sub-contract recompense bundles no extra stamp up is paid.
Fundamental Contractors Preliminaries can be altered for the program term, restricting the
Client to acceleration on staff rates, plant and so forth as all rates are altered for the span.
Fluctuating costs can also be focused around concurred records, for example, merchandise
value arrangement making the potential for the customer to support risks on money related
markets. National system prioritization and booking

2.7 Sustainable Supply Chain Management and External Stake holders:


2.7.1 Authoritative execution:
Execution is a measure for surveying the degree of an enterprise's target accomplishment
(Daft, 1995 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). Enterprises receiving GSCM practices may
create natural and business exhibitions (Walton, et al., 1998; Zhu and Cote, 2004 cited by
(Chien & Shih, 2007)). A green supply chain, for illustration, can enhance ecological
execution (diminishing waste and emanations and expanding
natural responsibility) and aggressiveness (enhancing item quality, expanding productivity,
improving profit and cutting expense), in this way further influencing financial execution
(new showcasing opportunities and expanding item value, net revenue, piece of the overall
industry and deal volume; Purba, 2002 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). Concurring to

Walton, et al. (1998), Zhu and Cote (2004) and Purba (2002 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)),
and in addition different specialists, authoritative execution is considered to incorporate
natural and money related execution.
2.7.2 Environmental execution:
Environmental concerns are intricately linked to various aspects of the supply chain.
Awareness of such concerns is reflected in the contemporary business environment and in
government legislation. (So et al, n.d, p. 1)
Environmental execution is characterized as the environmental effect that the partnership's
movement has on the characteristic milieu (Sharma and Vredenburg, 1998 cited by (Chien &
Shih, 2007)). Environmental execution pointers comprises of OPI (agent execution markers)
and MPI (management execution markers): OPI are connected primarily to materials'
utilization, vitality management, waste and discharge creation, and assessment of genuine
ecological parts of associations, though MPI chiefly concerns the organization's endeavors,
measures, and commitment to the generally association's ecological management
(Papadopoulos and Giama, 2007 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). GSCM pushes more than
simply progressing ecological execution; the usage of green supply chain management can
guarantee that the organization itself and its suppliers adjust to ecological regulations. Viable
management of suppliers can lessen exchange costs and advance reusing and reuse of crude
materials. Also, the creation of waste and unsafe substances can be cut, keeping partnerships
from being fined as a consequence of damaging ecological regulations. Hence, the significant
handling and operational expense included can be further lessened and, meanwhile, the
proficiency of utilizing assets can be upgraded (Sarkis, 2003). Besides, embracing a
sustainable methodology can deliver less waste and utilize more reused material,
consequently utilizing vitality, water and by-items in a more productive way (Tsoulfas and
Pappis, 2006 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). Considering the above two points, we can
derive two measurement principles: management performance (ecological strategies and
measures, the support rate of the management framework, and the change in group relations
and organization picture) and operational performance (the execution in utilizing
vitality/assets, the lessening of outflow, and waste transfer).
2.7.3Financial Execution:
Ecological assurance exercises can have a positive impact on an organization's budgetary
execution. GSCM can cut the expense of materials acquiring and vitality utilization, diminish

the expense of waste treatment and release, and evade a fine on account of natural mischance
(Zhu and Sarkis, 2004 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). A sustainable methodology can
prompt inward cost sparing, open new markets and discover helpful uses for waste (Tsoulfas
and Pappis, 2006 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). Natural kindness has a positive impact on
budgetary execution (for instance, development in benefits, deals and piece of the overall
industry) (Fuentes-Fuentes, et al., 2004 cited by (Chien & Shih, 2007)). Budgetary execution
is characterized here as expense decrease, market offer development and benefit increment.

2.8 Use and Role of Information Technology in SCM:


The research by Auramo et al, (n.d) addresses the operations of small scale supply chains. For
illustration, Gavirneni et al. (1999), Lee et al. (2000) and Raghunathan (2001) have
considered two echelon supply chains with one item, while the model of Evans et al. (1993)
comprises of four echelons. These studies have discovered that normally the offering of
demand data in supply chains builds the execution of the supply chain by expanding
accessibility and lessening inventory related expenses (Evans et al., 1993; Gavirneni et al.,
1999; Cachon and Fisher, 2000; Lee et al., 2000 cited by (Auramo et al, n.d)). The profits of
data imparting have been proposed to rely on upon the consistency of demand. For instance,
Cachon and Fisher (2000) suspect that data imparting can have an altogether more
noteworthy esteem in circumstances with obscure demand, for instance, early offers of new
items or advancement circumstances. Also Raghunathan (2001) has proposed data imparting
to be less gainful in circumstances where demand is unsurprising, and where past demand can
be utilized to structure a sensibly exact demand gauges. Also, Cachon and Fisher (2000) have
recommended that the profits of IT utilize are all the more because of the positive impacts of
IT on exchange handling effectiveness conceivably prompting shorter lead times and littler
bunch sizes than to offering of inventory and demand data. Evans et al. (1993), thusly, keep
up that the encouraging of real demand data forward in the supply chain gives more
prominent profits than lead time decreases. To finish up, while concentrating on the impacts
of the data offering between supply chain partners, the explanatory and displaying stream of
exploration does not talk about the real method for data offering. Accordingly, these studies
don't straightforwardly examine the utilization of IT for data imparting between supply chain
partners. Regardless, these studies are pertinent for our study as the imparting of arranging
data obviously is one the reasons for which IT can be used in SCM. (Auramo et al, n.d)
Two streams of observational studies on the utilization of IT in SCM can be recognized.
(Auramo et al, n.d) The principal stream concentrates on a particular innovation or
application zone, and the second stream mulls over the application and profits of IT all in all.
In the exploration concentrating on particular advances or application regions, there exists a
different collection of examination on the selection variables and effect of Electronic Data
Interchange (EDI) . For case cost cutting, goals (Mukhopadhyay et al., 1995 cited by
(Auramo et al, n.d)) and volume of exchanges between supply chain partners (Tuunainen,
1998 cited by (Auramo et al, n.d)) have been connected with the appropriation of EDI joins.
Further, for instance, the utilization of Extended Markup Language (XML) for supply chain
incorporation has been mulled over (Nurmilaakso et al., 2002 cited by (Auramo et al, n.d)).

With respect to research concentrating on particular application zones, for instance, the
following frameworks and their criticalness for the 4 productive coordination of logistics
streams have been generally contemplated (Harris, 1999; Stefansson and Tilanus, 2001; AlaRisku et al., 2003; Krkkinen et al., 2003 cited by (Auramo et al, n.d)). As indicated by this
assemblage of writing, following is required particularly in circumstances with in-travel
union, and in venture situated organizations. These following studies, in any case, are not
exactly established and hence, don't uncover how following frameworks and following data is
really used by organizations. As contrasted with the examination concentrating on particular
innovations or application regions, research on the utilization and profits of IT in SCM
without the concentrate on particular innovation is less in number. The examination on the
profits of the utilization of IT in SCM incorporates various studies examining the effect of IT
on supply chain reconciliation, client mix and administration (Closs and Savitskie, 2003 cited
by (Auramo et al, n.d)), supply chain time execution (Jayaram et al., 2000 cited by (Auramo
et al, n.d)), monetary execution, or a mix of these (Vickery et al., 2003 cited by (Auramo et
al, n.d)). Then, Auramo et al. (2005) performed an exploratory various research endeavor on
the profits of IT in SCM, and Mclaren et al. (2004) directed a various detailed analysis on
how diverse SCM IS capacities help diverse operations situations. Then again, regular to
these studies is that while serving to survey and understand the estimation of IT utilize and
reconciliation for SCM, they don't help in deciding how organizations really utilize IT as a
part of SCM.
There are some few grouping structures that depict how IT is utilized for SCM as a part of the
past writing. Bagchi and Skjoett-Larsen (2002) inspect the part of IT and hierarchical
incorporation in supply chain joining and propose an IT reconciliation way from low, through
medium, to high coordination. Themistocleous et al. (2004), thus, utilize the scale of low,
medium, to high to depict the integration of distinctive IT plan B. The centering of these
studies being on evaluating the levels of supply chain incorporation, they don't depict how IT
is really utilized for SCM purposes. In the mean time, in their examination, Kauremaa et al.
(2004) have concentrated on the ways organizations use IT in SCM and decide to arrange the
utilization of IT in SCM to exchange execution and data offering. (Auramo et al, n.d) Taking
into account the uncommonness of utilizing IT for data offering among their example of
organizations considered, they guess that the drivers and essentials of utilizing IT in exchange
execution and in data imparting contrast, and that the profits of IT in exchange execution are
less demanding to measure. Besides, they assume that organizations use IT for exchange
execution in circumstances with high exchange volumes and stable business connections,
while IT is utilized for data imparting particularly as a part of situations with demand
vulnerability and continuous item presentations. (Auramo et al, n.d)

2.9 Factors contributing in Supply Chain Logistics


The consequences and impacts of imperative and climate change for the enactment of
transition for sustainability, operational practices with low carbon are relevant factors to be
considered in the logistics of supply chain (Benn et al., 2005). The sustainability helps in the
representation of the balanced utilization of capital related to economy, society and nature for

enabling continuous wellbeing within the companies, the entire globe and the generations to
come in the future.
Corporate sustainability helps the enterprises and the counterparts of supply chain with the
initiatives related to systematic methods for the reduction of energy and the wastes of
environment, cutting out unwanted materials and the overheads of regulation, and the
generation of improved flow of cash (Carter & Rogers, 2008). All of these factors are
important for the downturn of economy and weak margins of profit. Sustainability in supply
chain logistics should be considered as an innovation of business that helps in representing
the new changes or ideas in the present practices. In a potential manner, this helps in bringing
radical improvements for the existence of operations.
Moreover, adoption of new ideas for innovation has a major impact on a number of different
aspects related to supply chain management (Beamon, 2008). These new ideas of innovation
that affect the supply chain logistics with sustainability are the new methods of management,
the production systems related to state- of- the- art, or the emergence of new technology that
affect the policies of supply, operations of manufacturing, stock and the management of item
as well as the distribution.
The achievement of this can be done by better coordination related to the utilization of
resources in the logistics of supply chain that include facilities, people, finance, and systems
(Beamon, 2005). There are a number of challenges faced in building the sustainable and
prosperous supply chain logistics that help to underpin through the low carbon acceptability
and emissions of other pollutants that needs extensive forms of research, the collaborations of
network and the remarkable innovation.
In respect to sustainable supply chains, Qatar Airlines pursue clean techniques of production,
reduction of the environmental impression of goods and services, and integrating
environmentally favourable decisions with productive supply chain applications. Hence the
term corporate sustainability incorporates more than the physical environmental elements
linked in order to preserve a sustainable organization. The execution of sustainability in a
manufacturing supply chain involves the following major components (Beamon, 2005):
(i) Process development is to lead new processes and refinement to meet fluctuating market
and customers needs on sustainability.

(ii) Clean production includes reduction of waste, recycling waste products, retrieve products
after usage, and minimizing pollution.
(iii) Loop system manufacturing, where a product is generated by renewable energy with no
harmful residue or waste.
(iv) Planning, execution and command on the flow of material, finished products and
associated information to recover value and correct disposal.
(v) Sustainable acquirement leads to procure goods and services with lower influence on the
environment rather than other products or services delivering identical performance
requirements.
(vi) Life Cycle Management (LCM) governs the environmental capacity and features linked
with a product, operation, or service, from the point of collection of raw materials to
production, transport, customer use and disposal, which basically illustrate start to end
lifespan of a product, process or service.

2.10 Recommendations
The adoption of new ideas being done by the firms, even when the advantages can be seen in
an obvious manner, can often be extremely difficult, as firms will be having different
objectives of value and no alignment in the operational processes, even if they seem to be
close partners of trade (Beamon, 2009). A number of innovations need a lengthy duration to
adopt a number of duration, from the duration in which there is availability towards the
duration where there is wide adoption.
In a mere sense, sustainability is not an issue of inter-organizations, but has also been
considered as the protocol of supply chain logistics that have the nature of being business to
business, being encountered for enabling to contribute for the creation of an economy
emitting low carbon. Therefore, the corporates have realized that there is a need for enabling
sustainability in a number of different logistics of supply chain. Although, in addition to the
past examples, the basic features and factors that emerge risk within the supply chain are
growing and harming rapidly (Beamon, 2009). The awareness that Qatar Airlines are not safe
to these factors has led the Qatar to review the suggestions for their own business plans and
also for their supply chains.
The adoption of sustainability in supply chain logistics must be done in a manner that it is
being considered as an innovation for the organization. Implementation of sustainability

should be done in the logistics of supply chain that results in bringing radical change not only
to manufacture operations along with several other regions like the selection and coordination
of supplier that might be including the implementation of related to information systems in a
number of units of business as well as re-engineering related to time to time activities for all
members of staff (Benn et al., 2005). The profound effect may result in helping the
manufacturers for seeking the reinforcement of their decision to adopt.
The issue The FIFA World Cup in 2022 offers a 'hard stop' due date for huge numbers of
Qatar's undertakings which implies that there is constrained space for system smoothing of
key undertakings. To be sure, numerous undertakings will require to be set up certainly
before 2022.
Whilst some significant tasks may need to be re-perused alternately conceded until after the
competition, a more extensive re-timing activity will need to occur in place to move as much
construction far from the foreseen crest construction period and into the post-competition
construction period. This movement would require project arranging coordination between all
the key open and private engineers and a centralisation of choice making identified with
project interdependencies and timings. With such an expansive pipeline of construction, a key
stipulation will be both the limit and the capacity of the current supply chain.
For the MENA region, nations' and in addition its carriers' supply alongside outstanding
economical practices, would build the demand for logistics and encourage better framework
and more noteworthy effectiveness. In truthfulness and reasonableness, an association with
tasteful natural neighbourly SC will make goodwill for brands and fortify the long haul
association with clients and the nearby individuals. Besides it serves the neighbourhoods
better place in which the business works in by emulating reasons;
Promoting eco procurements.
Enforcing socially capable suppliers
Encouraging differing qualities and different practices all through

2.11 Summary
The reversal of decision can be done there is exposure of management to the messages in
conflict regarding sustainability. For supporting the manufacturers to make adequate decision
in the entire process of decision, behaving as a framework that can be adopted by the
organization. These types of practices in sustainability within the supply chain of

manufacturers can be proposed on the basis of theory related to diffusion of innovation in the
dimensions of time (Carter & Rogers, 2008). Qatar should acquire supply chain logistics
program in order to minimize business risk that include status, safety and standard of supply
and legal disputes, create effective cost savings that require paying attention on total life span
costs when providing goods and services instead of simply pricing, expand corporate/ brand
status in the industry field, and managing transformation such as innovation and growth of
new products and services that are sustainable and socially accountable. Whilst the volume of
creation may not have a critical effect regarding the general coming about expansion figure,
there are essential benefits that could facilitate a percentage of the limited limit issues, for
example, the foundation of more creation and get together ability, procurement of pro
specialized administrations and the without a moment to spare gathering of higher worth
plant and equipment.

3. Limitations in the Research:


The Literature available for the purpose of this research is extremely limited; hence primary
research based on the above methodology has been conducted. However, the main limitation
lies in generalization based on a given sample. As mentioned earlier, there are little literatures
to support the research question. Here lies the novelty of the research. Numerical ratings have
a sense of objectivity that could be misleading. Inexorably, distinctive individuals who look
at the same data collection will once in a while concoct diverse ratings. This is particularly
genuine when evaluating a collection's research value, where individual interests or a bias
most effortlessly becomes an integral factor. Thus, it becomes paramount to have an
understanding in distinctive ranges of information, be acquainted with more extensive trends
in chronicled research, and figure out how to set aside their preferences and aversions
however much as could be expected. They're not completely objective, yet they do give a
predictable measuring stick and shorthand for comparing distinctive collections.

4. Methodology
A mixed method has been used for the research. Examples from secondary sources have been
drawn as a part of the literature review. Primary survey is used for the purpose.

4.1 Survey Collection:


The report has been prepared considering a questionnaire that is self-reported. Here the
notion of self-reported is related to the fact that the questionnaire has been verified from the
person who has created the questionnaire through the success of the data collection and
analysis. The type of questionnaire which is considered in this research has both open-ended
and close-ended questions. For the purpose of this research, we asked thirty professionals in
various corporations across the country of Qatar to give their opinions on the supply chain
management in the country.

4.2 Sampling:
Sampling is referred to the way subjects have been chosen to participate for the purpose of
the survey. The techniques of sampling are vital in research as they form the core of the way
data is collected and have a big impact on the results or analysis. (Fos & Fine, 2000). The
sample is as follows:
Industry
Construction
Industry
Airline Industry
Manufacturing
Industry
Oil Industry
Government
employees

No. of
Respondents
5
3
4
9
9

It is important to note here that 60% of the respondents have been chosen from the Oil sector
and Government employees combined, as we believe oil to be the biggest industry in Qatar
and government employees to be part of the strategic decision making process that may help

or hinder supply chain management in organizations in Qatar. Other important sectors like
Airline, Construction and Manufacturing too had respondents chosen from them, in order to
diversify the responses, and assess an impact of various sectors.

4.3 Data Sets:


Ordinal Data: These are data that can be put in an order, but dont have a numerical meaning
beyond the order. Examples: Questionnaire responses coded: Very unlikely, Unlikely, Neutral,
Likely and Very Likely (expressing the probability of a certain situation being present now or
in the future as per the respondent). Some questions are based on one or more choices. Each
choice there can hence have a maximum of 30 yes or nos. If the choice has more than 15 yes,
it may strongly point in the direction of that certain choice and hence become very relevant
and influencing. Choices with more than 20 responses are certainly influential and choice
with less than 10 responses may not be that influential.

4.4 Research Schedule:


Secondary research has been carried out with the help of various journal articles, white
papers, other relevant theses, and electronic sources such as websites. The total number of
days spent in completing the secondary research or literature review was 12 days.
Simultaneously, primary research was carried out in between, with the total number of days
spent on the primary research being 21 days. A further 3 days were spent on reviewing the
entire paper and providing relevant conclusions and recommendations. The primary research
was the biggest challenge, as finding suitable respondents in Qatar was an envious task.

4.5 Pilot Study:


A pilot study was conducted prior to the interviews and survey with the actual professionals
in the Supply Chain Management industry as well as key employees in various organizations
in Qatar. In this case, five friends of mine, all of whom work for various Multi National
Corporations across the globe (including one in UAE) helped me by taking the survey online
at http://freeonlinesurveys.com/s.asp?sid=33v96iz9itd9yau594895.
They provided valuable feedback to me, which has helped me modify some of the questions
and give more attention to the use of Supply Chain Management in Organizations. Having
had the experience of usage of Supply Chain Management in an interactive organization, I
was open to their feedback, and formed my own conclusions regarding the usage of Supply
Chain Management.

5. Results and Analysis:


As mentioned earlier, a total of thirty respondents have answered the questionnaire, from
various organizations and various management functional areas. While complete unison has
rarely been achieved in any question, some of the answers are extremely indicative of the
supply chain management scenario in Qatar at the moment. With the FIFA World Cup
looming large at their heads (in 2022) the figures reveal a story that calls for a more coordinated effort towards achieving organizational harmony.

5.1 Results of the Survey:


Question 1: How likely are you to find a Supply Chain Management expert in your
organization?
Very
Unlikel
y

Unlikely

Neutral

11

Likely

Very
Likely

12
10
8

Very Unlikely
Unlikely

Neutral
Likely

#REF!

2
0
How likely are you to find a Supply Chain Management expert in your organization?

20 out of the 30 respondents agreed that it was highly unlikely or at least unlikely to find an
expert on supply chain management in their organization, with 4 not being sure and only 6
agreeing that it was either likely or very likely to find experts in the supply chain
management in their organizations.
Question 2: Availability of Skilled Personnel

6 Skilled Personnel are abundantly available


8 Skilled Personnel are rarely available
16 Skilled Personnel are hardly available

Skilled Personnel are


abundantly available
Skilled Personnel are
rarely available

Availability of Skilled Personnel

Skilled Personnel are


hardly available

10

20

Question 3: What is the quality of human resource available to your organization?

1 World Class resources available


8 Adequate quality resources not freely available
21 Resources available at a premium or internationally

World Class resources


available
Adequate quality
resources not freely
available

What is the quality of human resource available to your organization?

Resources available at
a premium or
internationally

0 10 20 30

The quality of resources available across various organizations, as opined by the respondents,
shows that only one respondent agreed to having world class resources available to them,
whereas, 8 respondents said that adequate resources were not freely available and 21
respondents said that the resources may be available internationally, but, it came with a
premium cost attached to it.
Question 4: Major Supply Chain management hindrances (Choose one or more)
22 Fluctuating transportation rates owing to transporting limit requirements
19 Unsteady government standards and regulations
Conflict in understanding of exchange related principles & regulation
11 crosswise over GCC nations
18 Cross fringe transportation in GCC
27 Constrained days of storage spaces allowed at ports
19 Accessibility of talented staff
Transportation of products between free zone and non free zone
11 territories
9 Port/ Airport foundation
13 Ground level difficulties (like adequate parking facilities at prime areas)
11 Constrained accessibility of neighbourhood supplier(s)
17 Constrained perception in our supply chain
Inaccessibility of industry level information to benchmark our supply
19 chain execution

30
Fluctuating transportation rates owing to transporting limit requirements
Unsteady government standards and regulations
25
Conflict in understanding of exchange related principles & regulation crosswise over GCC nations
Cross fringe transportation in GCC
20
Constrained days of storage spaces allowed at ports
15
Accessibility
of talented staff
Transportation of products between free zone and non free zone territories
10
Port/ Airport foundation
Ground level difficulties (like adequate parking facilities at prime areas)
5
Constrained accessibility of neighborhood supplier(s)
0
Constrained
perception in our supply chain
InaccessibilityMajor
of industry
information
to benchmark
supplyone
chain
Supplylevel
Chain
management
hindrancesour
(Choose
orexecution
more)

When asked to list some of the major hindrances in a sustainable supply chain management
for their organizations, the respondents touched upon various issues in their organization,
which were:

Fluctuating transportation rates owing to transporting limit requirements


Unsteady government standards and regulations
Conflict in understanding of exchange related principles & regulation crosswise over
GCC nations
Cross fringe transportation in GCC
Accessibility of talented staff
Transportation of products between free zone and non free zone territories
Port/ Airport foundation
Ground level difficulties (like adequate parking facilities at prime areas)
Constrained perception in our supply chain
Inaccessibility of industry level information to benchmark our supply chain execution

A majority of the respondents said the above-mentioned hindrances directly affected their
organization into implementing a sustainable supply chain.

Question 5: Primary Supply Chain Management objectives of your organization

30
22
21
22
10
7

Enhancing administration levels to clients


Expanding operational productivity & enhancing supply chain execution
Adjusting supply chain to the business technique
Enhancing supply chain adaptability, & responsiveness
Incorporating supply chain management with IT frameworks
Enhancing supply chain risk management

Enhancing administration
levels to clients
Expanding operational
productivity & enhancing
supply chain execution
Adjusting supply chain to
the business technique
Primary Supply Chain Management objectives of your organization

Enhancing supply chain


adaptability, &
responsiveness
Incorporating supply chain
management with IT
frameworks
Enhancing supply chain
hazard management
0 10 20 30

All the respondents agreed that the primary objective of their organizations supply chain was
to enhance administration levels to the clients, while 22 and 21 respondents agreed that it was
also Expanding operational productivity & enhancing supply chain execution and Adjusting
supply chain to the business technique respectively. Moreover, 22, 10 and 7 respondents
suggested that the main objectives also included Enhancing supply chain adaptability, &
responsiveness, Incorporating supply chain management with IT frameworks and Enhancing
supply chain risk management each.

Question 6: What are the Operational objectives in Supply Chain Management of your
organization?
2
8
2
2
2
9
2
7
1
9
2
1
2
0
1

Minimizing general supply chain costs


Deciding better sourcing areas/suppliers
Fortifying demand arranging and estimating capacities
Enhancing inbound/outbound transportation
Distribution centre streamlining
Creating cooperation among supply chain partners
Diminishing interest in stock
Dealing with the expanded supply chain prerequisites because of business

1
1
2
1
9
2
5
4

development
Aptitudes preparing and training for supply chain particular abilities
Expanding time span of usability accessibility/lessening out-of-stocks
Outsourcing exercises to oversee cost/profit
Shortening our Supply Chain (more neighbourhood substance)

`
Deciding better sourcing areas/suppliers
Fortifying demand arranging and estimating capacities
Enhancing inbound/outbound transportation
Distribution center streamlining
Creating cooperation among supply chain accomplices
1

Diminishing interest in stock


Dealing with the expanded supply chain prerequisites because of business development
Aptitudes preparing and training for supply chain particular abilities
Expanding time span of usability accessibility/lessening out-of-stocks
Outsourcing exercises to oversee cost/profit
Shortening our Supply Chain (more neighborhood substance)
0

10

15

20

25

The respondents listed various objectives of the organizations supply chain management,
which were:

Minimizing general supply chain costs


Deciding better sourcing areas/suppliers
Fortifying demand arranging and estimating capacities
Enhancing inbound/outbound transportation
Distribution center streamlining
Creating cooperation among supply chain partners
Diminishing interest in stock

30

Dealing with the expanded supply chain prerequisites because of business


development
Aptitudes preparing and training for supply chain particular abilities
Expanding time span of usability accessibility/lessening out-of-stocks
Outsourcing exercises to oversee cost/profit
Shortening our Supply Chain (more neighbourhood substance)

Question 7: Major Constraints in your organizations Supply chain Management


11
21
22
11
22
22
19
2
26

Restricted arranging, anticipating and planning abilities


Our capacity to contract & hold gifted staff
Dealing with the expanded volume/ inefficiencies in our supply chain
Incorporating our IT framework
Overseeing venture into new markets/ new items
Restricted abilities of existing IT framework
Discovering suitable outsourcing partner(s)
No restricted coordinated effort among the supply chain partner(s)
Overseeing reverse logistics

Some of the major constraints in the organizations Supply Chain were identified as

capacity to contract & hold gifted staff


Dealing with the expanded volume/ inefficiencies in our supply chain
Overseeing venture into new markets/ new items
Restricted abilities of existing IT framework
Discovering suitable outsourcing partner(s)
Overseeing reverse logistics

Restricted arranging, anticipating and planning abilities


Our capacity to contract & hold gifted staff
Dealing with the expanded volume/ inefficiencies in our supply chain
Incorporating our IT framework
Overseeing venture into new markets/ new items

Restricted abilities of existing IT framework


Discovering suitable outsourcing partner(s)
No restricted coordinated effort among the supply chain partner(s)
Overseeing reverse logistics
0

10

15

20

25

30

Question 8: What is the understanding and (or) implementation of Supply Chain


Management in your organization?

3 Extremely incorporated with other management areas


19 Getting there/being planned and will see future results
8 Very Basic with little scope of improvement in the future

Most of the respondents believed that their organizations are developing a good supply chain
management system in place and will be ready for future challenges.

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4

Extremely incorporated
with other management
areas
Getting there/being
planned and will see future
results
Very Basic with little scope
of improvement in the
future

2
0
What is the understanding and (or) implementation of Supply Chain Management in your organization?

Open Ended Question which called for opinions on how to improve the supply chain
management in their organizations.

A lot of the respondents (majority, around 80%) opined that integrating technology was the
best way to improve the supply chain difficulties in their organizations. They also added that
to stay aggressive all around and stay on the front line of a complex business world, more
organizations are consolidating innovation into their supply chain management frameworks
today. Lately, purchasers have ended up progressively demanding, setting their desires high in
terms of value and administration. In the meantime, supply chain administrators now
understand that the most recent engineering can help them guarantee better responsibility and
perceptibility, permitting them to keep up tight control and stay in front of the pack. Today's
innovation has broad capacity with regards to staying with a' company's production on track,
foreseeing and repairing slip-ups, and making alterations that ensure a top-quality item. Each
connection in the supply chain can be observed at the same time, and mechanized notice
frameworks are particularly profitable for sending a solitary message to numerous players
through a mixed bag of media channels. Mechanized sending and following, and electronic
invoicing, are also centre parts of a cutting edge supply chain management framework that is
intended to keep clients fulfilled. The blossoming cluster of supply chain-related applications
and peculiarities for Smart gadgets (such as phones, Tablets and even Televisions) and other
cell phones is adding huge convey-ability to supply chain management. With their durable
battery life, console capacities, standardized identification filtering, top notch computerized
cams and discourse distinguishable characteristics, tablet machines and advanced cells give
fantastic usefulness to stockroom operations. This is particularly valid for handheld gadgets
that have been "ruggedized," or particularly intended to withstand unforgiving situations and
potential harm from being dropped or blasted. The versatility, adaptability and comfort of
remote gadgets mean supply chain supervisors can facilitate forms at each connection in the

chain, paying little mind to their physical area. Furthermore, workers, merchants and other
supply chain partners can assume dynamic parts in guaranteeing proficiency for instance;
truck drivers can utilize GPS-prepared gadgets to promptly report transportation catches that
may upset techniques further along the supply chain. Programming projects and distributed
computing have enormously upgraded the following of materials and items, with continuous
announcements accessible at the touch of a catch. They also permit organizations to modify
creation timetables and inventory levels on the fly.

5.2 Analysis of the Survey:


Increased competition and the fluctuating demand for items and administrations are the main
two business requirements refered to by respondents. These are to a great extent determined
by globalization and financial unpredictability consolidated with the effect of an educated and
developing purchaser base, whether from nearby, regional or worldwide sources.
Respondents
said that increased competition from regional and worldwide organizations, and
from little disorderly organizations is prompting value wars in this way affecting net
revenues.
The deficiency of talented assets is an alternate key business challenge. Organizations think
that it hard to enlisted person talented National ability. Qatar nations are concentrating on
lessening their dependence on remote work through different instruction and improvement
programs and the private segment is also being swayed to contract Nationals where
conceivable. The inexorably aggressive environment and the inaccessibility of aptitudes are
testing organizations to find better approaches for working together and including worth to
their items and administrations. This could incorporate delivering specialty items and
administrations or making preference through more compelling and effective supply chain
management. Supply chain goals and obligations The top supply chain objective for
organizations over Qatar is enhancing client administration which is seen as key to holding
and developing client bases. Organizations are receiving different methods to accomplish
this, case in point putting resources into CRM frameworks to better track and understand
client inclination. Other key targets are to progress operational proficiency and the execution
of their supply chains, to adjust the supply chain with the business system and to enhance
supply chain adaptability, dexterity and responsiveness. These targets are all adjusted to
backing the essential target of expanding client administration.
Minimizing operational supply chain costs has been positioned as the most critical
operational supply chain objective over Qatar nations. Respondents noted that decreasing
supply chain expenses are a continuous action and that they are consistently searching for
option approaches to oversee their operations all the more viably. Organizations are also
concentrating on streamlining their sourcing areas and suppliers and on fortifying their
demand arranging and estimating capacities to enhance their execution and lessen their
interest in inventory and outdated stock. Upgrading inbound and outbound transportation is
an alternate strategy they are conveying to lessen operational expenses as delivering and
cargo expenses are the key segments of supply chain costs.

Today supply chain and logistics management has moved from adjusting expense decreases
with enhancing administration levels to one which perceives these exercises and parts to be
the makers and wellspring of focal point. The top supply chain stipulation confronting
organizations
over Qatar region is constrained arranging, demand estimating and planning capacities
prompting challenges with foreseeing demand precisely. This can prompt stock-outs that
adversely affect client administration and deals or overabundance stock that adds unnecessary
expense to a business. The second most elevated positioning obligation is the contracting and
maintenance of gifted supply chain assets. This adjusts to one of the top key business
demands being the absence of accessibility of talented human assets. This pattern is apparent
all through the report as a demand to working together in Qatar region. As saw in the business
goals, a dominant part of the overview respondents are looking to expand their operations. Be
that as it may, as noted by respondents, they are worried about their capacity to oversee
increased volumes and inefficiencies in their supply chain which will affect on the
achievement of their extension plans. Respondents are also worried about their existing
numerous, divided IT frameworks, numerous of which fail to offer the abilities to backing the
management of their supply chains, and they perceive the need to redesign and coordinate
them. There is a worldwide move far from immaculate data to business insights where all
data is taken a gander at comprehensively to give an incorporated perspective of business
action execution and patterns.
The top external obligation confronted by respondents over Qatar nations is the much of the
time changing transportation rates of administration suppliers. Due to fluctuating demand and
limit imperatives, transportation lines have eliminated certain courses and goals prompting an
increment in delivery cargo rates to specific goals. The second and third top requirements
positioned by respondents are the consistent change in government standards and regulations
and the conflicting exchange manages over Qatar. These are a reason for sympathy toward
organizations with regional operations. A distinction in understanding of the laws heads to
longer leeway and transportation times and influences the capacity of the organizations to
convey products to clients on time. Respondents highlighted difficulties, for example,
constrained days of capacity because of blockage and the constrained size of a few ports.
Notwithstanding, this issue is being tended to and Qatar nations are going to extraordinary
lengths to create world-class ports. The Doha Port in Qatar, one of the biggest and most
current activities of its kind in Qatar region, is also to be produced with an expected limit of
six million TEUs every year by 2030 and network to the mainland through an eight and a half
kilometre span.
The accessibility and maintenance of talented assets, especially in fact gifted staff is a key
business obligation for all supply chain foresight respondents. Respondents also highlighted
the test of aptitude maintenance because of the absence of reliability of workers who
movement occupations promptly when getting more lucrative open doors once they re
prepared and have the essential information. Organizations address the aptitudes deficiency in
the region by contracting staff from worldwide markets be that as it may with the dedication
over the GCC to expanding the livelihood level of nearby Nationals, this reliance will
decrease in the long haul.

6. Conclusions and Recommendations:


6.1 Conclusions:
To flourish in today's unpredictable worldwide commercial center organizations need to
consistently reinvent themselves to meet new difficulties and hold and addition a advantage.
This obliges them to be nimble, adaptable and responsive and drive ceaseless development in
their business and their supply chains. Organizations worldwide are confronting the
difficulties
of inconsistent orders and expanded desires of speedier throughput determined by quick
changing purchaser demand. They are also under consistent weight to lessen supply chain
expenses, adapt to higher introduction to characteristic and man-made risks and discover and
hold gifted individuals while also being all the more socially and environmentally mindful.
Sustainable supply chain management, which can be viewed as the enhanced management of
supply chains through the incorporation of natural, financial and social issues, has pulled in
noteworthy consideration both in the supply chain and natural management writing and also
among professionals in organizations around the world. The principle drivers for this move
have been the quick utilization and expanding contamination of characteristic assets due to
enormous financial advancement and uncontrolled urbanization. The inconceivable
ecological corruption has called forward the supportability guideline, transforming natural
angles into vital criteria in business choice making. This circumstance has at last brought
about tying natural enactment and weights forced by the inner and outside clients together
with the stakeholders. The supportable management of supply chains started by these drivers
has soon taken a deliberate way because of some essential returns, for example, expanded
effectiveness, diminished expenses, expanded interior and outside consumer loyalty,
expanded deals and piece of the pie together with a more successful risk management.
Despite the fact that Qatar is one of the littlest nations in the Middle East, its monetary riches
far exceeds its geographic size. The Qatari economy has seen a blast in the course of the most
recent 10 years, with GDP multiplying. Notwithstanding approximately 15 billion barrels of
oil stores, Qatar has demonstrated common gas stores of almost 26 trillion cubic meters,
which is around 14% of the world's absolute and is the third biggest national holds in the
world. These national assets have put Qatar at the top of the rundown for GDP every capita
salary on the planet, at $90,000 every individual as per the International Fiscal Fund (IMF).
The fruitful 2022 FIFA World Cup offer has absolutely served to place Qatar immovably
on the world stage, yet facilitating one of the world's generally imperative wearing occasions
is a piece of a much more extensive system. Perceiving that its noteworthy hydrocarbon
stores won't keep going forever, the Qatari government has set up a system for conveying
long haul conclusions for the nation in the 'Qatar National Vision'. By 2030, Qatar means to
be a progressed society, equipped for supporting its improvement and giving an exclusive
requirement of living for its kin for eras to come. Notwithstanding this, Qatar will, probably,
offer again to have the Olympic Games which this speculation will help. Accomplishment of
this vision will finish the voyage from a hydrocarbon economy to a "learning economy",

through the four mainstays of: Human Improvement; Social Development; Economic
Improvement; and Environmental Development. At the point when considered in the setting
of this vision, the 2022 FIFA World Cup has surely given a impetus for conveyance of the
Qatar National Vision. It's not pretty much the competition itself - the 2022 FIFA World
Cup will give a remarkable chance to convey an extraordinary legacy, the length of it is
deliberately arranged to guarantee a fitting harmony between the prerequisites of the
competition itself and the future utilization of the more extensive offices. And additionally
setting the system and scale to encourage improvement, the 2022 FIFA World Cup Qatar
also gives a settled, unchangeable due date that must be conveyed. However, it is a long way
to go for Qatar. They can draw inspiration from some world renowned organizations and try
to implement the strategies as their own.

Examples available internationally of sustainable supply chain management being a success


can be cited as:

The John Deere Company's utilization of SmartOps logistics management


programming has helped the equipment supplier build its on-time shipments to
merchants from 63% to 92%, while lessening its inventory by almost $1 billion.
Working with DHL Supply Chain, games footwear and attire goliath Nike actualized
radio-based item observing for warehousing and dispersion purposes and also
presented constant conveyance notice. The supply chain changes have been credited
with decreasing expenses and boosting effectiveness.
Since quite a while ago eminent for its supply chain management forms, Wal-Mart
consolidates condition of-the-craftsmanship engineering and system frameworks to
foresee demand, track inventory levels and arrangement proficient transportation
courses.
With many dispersion focuses overall handling a huge number of items, Amazon.com
should regularly tweak its supply chain. In 2012, for instance, the online retailer
reported it would purchase Kiva Systems Inc., a maker of robots and other robotized
engineering for circulation focuses.

6.2 Recommendations:
Qatar, the UAE and Saudi Arabia were positioned the most elevated among Qatar nations in
the World Economic Forums 2013-2014 Global Competitive Index in terms of essential
necessities: proficiency enhancers, development and complexity. This highlights the
development capability of these economies in giving an effective commercial center and
framework for empowering exchange. The Global Competitive Index is some piece of the
Global Competitive Report created by the World Economic Forum and surveys the
aggressiveness of 144 economies, giving knowledge into the drivers of their benefit and
thriving. In accordance with the Logistics Performance List evaluations, Qatar, Saudi Arabia
and the UAE were all appraised as having a solid aggressive standpoint.

According to Enrico Camerinelli (n.d):

The purpose and function of the supply chain comes down to a simple mantra: deliver the
right product or service in the right place, at the right time and in the right condition.
(Camerinelli, n.d, p. 2)
Some recommendations to ensure an effective and Sustainable Supply Chain Management
include:

Identification of partners in innovation: Supply chain supervisors must figure out


which of their suppliers have abilities they can take advantage of to help produce
developments in items, administrations or go-to-market methodologies, The
acquirement association ought to assume a key part, by getting to be to a lesser degree
a methodology killer and even more a procedure empowering influence and searching
for chances to enhance momentum forms by leveraging supplier capacities.
Segmentation of supply base: To recognize the right partenrs, division of suppliers
must turn into a "foundational" aptitude, An organization must have the capacity to
cut up the supply base in various courses regarding empowering development Most
associations have a solitary, customary approach to fragment their suppliers, however
they have to have the capacity to section them in various courses, around heaps of
diverse criteria.
Involving the employees: The employees need to be in sync with how and when to
impact a client. They must know the corporate responsibilities and objectives at all
channels.
Integration of Sales, Finance and Operations management: "Coordinate what Sales
arrangements to offer, what Operations arrangements to make and what Finance has
gauge into a solitary agreement driven arrangement, Sales and Operations Planning
gives the ideal harmony between client demand, generation limits and corporate
monetary execution.
Use technology at various levels and integrate them in the entire supply chain.
Analysis of consumer expectations and meeting them: Numerous management gurus
accept that the supply chain begins at the stockroom and finishes when items have
been conveyed to stores, This essentially isn't genuine and is symptomatic of the
delivery attitude that unenlightened retailers have. More essential than guaranteeing
items are supplied on the racks is that those items are attractive by your clients (or
considered so). So make sure to track which items your clients really need and which
ones they don't as a component of your supply chain management method.
Include marketing activities and expenses into supply chain: Incorporate promoting
uses, which incorporate expenses, asset cut off points and expected demand effect of
proposed advertising activities, into your supply chain plan to expand corporate
productivity By doing this, organizations recognize which promoting fights ought to
be actualized and which ought to be dodged, the ideal target clients, channels and
items for each one battle and the relating ideal acquirement, assembling and
dissemination prerequisites, all in light of supply chain costs, limits, administration
necessities and the max benefit objective.

In order to achieve these desired recommendations, an organization must first have:

Demand and Supply Planning .

Acquisition & Operations Management.


Shipping & Logistics Management.
Client Service and Returns Management.
Risk and International Trade Management.

The most effective way to accomplish these are through three stages:
Identificatio
n
Measureme
nt
Reorganizat
ion

Identification of key resources and requirements in the organization.


Measurement of the requirements of the resources and its availability.
Reorganization so that the demand for resources is met with the adequate supply.
Lessons can be drawn in from the pioneers of new age supply chain management
masters and pioneers at Toyota Motor Corp.
Toyota and other worldwide producers are trying different things with a mix of
innovation and new operations methods to help their lean worldwide supply
operations recuperate all the more rapidly from interruption. (Marchese, 2014)
In the result of the destroying 9.0 tremor that struck northern Japan in March 2011,
auto producing titan Toyota adapted firsthand the degree to which one characteristic
catastrophe can wreak devastation on a finely tuned worldwide supply chain.
(Marchese, 2014)
The organization had as of late accomplished the position of top rated automaker
around the world, much obliged to a limited extent to its hard overseen supply chain.
Toyota had worked perseveringly over numerous years to expel slack from its supply
operations by utilizing in the nick of time parts conveyance to keep inventories to a
base. However having pruned its supplier base extremely as a component of this

methodology to a solitary supplier for a few partsit got to be defenseless against


interruption. In the fallout of the 2011 seismic tremor, a couple of debilitated parts
producers in Japan acquired Toyota mechanical production systems China and North
America to an end. Worldwide generation plunged by 29.9 percent. Additionally, it
took six months for some suppliers to come back to prequake conveyance levels.
(Marchese, 2014)
Common debacles are one of numerous occasions that can disturb an organization's
vital supply chain operations. Whether its a spike in demand for a specific item in a
regional business sector, a demonstration of war or terrorism, an administrative
change, Toyota and different organizations working all inclusive are acknowledging
they must suit the startling in the event that they would like to flourish. (Marchese,
2014)
Stung by the experience, Toyota set out to change its supply chain in ways that would
make it conceivable to recuperate from future substantial scale interruptions in two
weeks or less. Figuring out how to activate all the more viably in the consequence of
calamity would not be sufficient. Toyota's whole supply framework needed to figure
out how to envision issues if not generally the cataclysmic occasion itself, then the
thump on impacts that would inexorably take after. Management left on a substantial
scale activity to uncover vulnerabilities and then worked inside with architects,
technologists, and business pioneers, and remotely with suppliers, to address them.
The consequences of this exertion are sweeping: Toyota now has an all the more
forward-looking, adaptable, and powerful supply chain. (Marchese, 2014)
Toyota's experience offers an amazing sample of a test numerous makers face.
Accordingly, the organization has created an answer others now need to recreate. The
operational and mechanical necessities for making expectant supply chains will
change from area to part and even organization to organization; on the other hand, a
couple of general standards may demonstrate extensively helpful: (Marchese, 2014)
Supply chain contemplations are fundamental to procedure. Customarily, the supply
chain group decided the best system for gathering item prerequisites once the
methodology had been set, which regularly brought about "unintentional supply
chains." Today, determined by more noteworthy worldwide intricacy, supply chain
contemplations are getting to be fundamental to method. (Marchese, 2014)
Supply chain associations require new initiative and ability. Planning and keeping up
the expectant supply chain will oblige pioneers who are both genuine trend-setters and
trained administrators officials who join worldwide involvement with inventive
critical thinking and scientific aptitudes. Effectively, numerous organizations are
giving more power and obligation to supply chain officials on the grounds that they
perceive that supply chains are essential to the eventual fate of the association.
(Marchese, 2014)
Supply chain change may advantage from expanded regionalization. In the new wave
of globalization, the basic exchange streams recognizable to most chiefs ease makers

in the East supplying items to rich customers in the Westare offering approach to
much more intricate examples. In parts of the world that have been places for minimal
effort producing, new riches is generally made and utilization is climbing quickly.
Partnerships spotting income development opportunities in these businesses are
scrambling to update supply systems to match demand and supply inside the same
region. (Marchese, 2014)
The Role of Technology
The vision of the expectant supply chain will probably take years to acknowledge
completely. At each venture along the way, in any case, the best associations will
probably apply heading edge innovation to upgrade their continuous understanding of
movement in intricate supply arranges, and to enhance the financial matters of having
generation limit closer to utilization. (Marchese, 2014)
As the Internet of Things (IOT) expands and organizations' examination ended up
more complex, prescient supply choice making will progressively get to be
mechanized. Sensors flagging disturbances or sudden action in remote corners of the
world will trigger fitting changes in the streams of materials. (Marchese, 2014)
Different innovations will reshape worldwide supply chains too. Added substance
fabricating, referred to famously as 3d printing, has the potential not just to change the
assembling procedure for a few merchandise, however to significantly decrease or
even take out the requirement for transportation these products crosswise over long
separations. A significant part of the fervor about this advancing innovation is focused
around the possibility of having the capacity to fabricate new parts as opposed to
needing to either stock huge mixed bags of them "in the event that something goes
wrong," or acquire deferrals while they are transported from unified distribution
centres. (Marchese, 2014)
Perpetually refined apply autonomy may make it workable for assembling timetables
to turn on a dime. In view of this potential, Apple is putting a reported $10.5 billion in
praiseworthy generation mechanization. The organization is striking arrangements
that will provide for it select access to advances for various undertakings, from
cleaning the colored plastic of iPhone 5c cell phone cases to laser-cutting the
aluminium collections of Mac book computers. (Marchese, 2014)

7. for Future Research:


Risk Management has now turned into a vital piece of each part of business operations.
Expanding danger because of terrorism, competition, eccentric climate, and shortage of
characteristic assets are significant attentiveness toward supply chain directors. So as to
protect business operations from eccentric, wild occasions that can possibly hamper material
supply, creation and dispersion, more supply chain directors are turning towards risk
management in SCM. New Zealand's dairy monster Fonterra, for instance, was as of late

gotten in the Chinese melamine milk scandal. Despite the fact that Fonterra thought about the
spoiled drain as right on time as August 2, it was not able to create confirm that its dairy
items were tainted with melamine until

September 10. The six-week defer in item review did a considerable measure of harm to the
Fonterra brand and made the organization obligated for indictment under EU laws. Our
examination study has demonstrated that regardless of becoming risks in every zone of
supply chain, right from acquisition to conveyance, mindfulness towards risk management
has not arrived at numerous zones of supply chain management. While a bit in excess of 85%
of respondents have actualized risk management in particular supply chain capacities, for
example, inventory and suppliers, IT security keeps on being a dismissed territory. We feel
that there is a huge open door for making mindfulness and helping associations in executing a
organized supply far reaching risk management structure. Information Quality is extremely
discriminating in guaranteeing that ideal risk management methods are set up. In the event
that organizations don't have a reasonable thought on the quantity of things or suppliers they
oversee, then it would be troublesome for them to make a decent risk management plan. A
substantial CPG producer had assessed that the organization was overseeing data on around
100,000 items; an information quality activity however demonstrated that the number was
just around 45,000. Notwithstanding risk management on inventory levels and suppliers,
associations should also center on other potential risk territories, for example, brand and
notoriety risk, administrative agreeability risk, risk because of common cataclysms and item
danger. Management of risk over the supply chain is key to business sustenance and
proceeded benefit. A percentage of the steps that organizations can take to secure vigorous
risk management methods over all capacities of their supply chains are:
Proactively recognize all potential risks inalienable in the supply chain

Establish viable control procedures went for overseeing risk

Set responsibility for both inner and outer stakeholders

Define execution measurements for supply chain risk management

IT infiltration in Supply Chain:

Today, IT is a crucial and basic business help base. An expansive number of organizations are
sending and utilizing diverse exchange transforming frameworks. In today's environment,
most organizations have actualized endeavor wide business bundles to run their everyday
business procedures like acquisition, inventory management, dispatch and monetary

management. Our examination substantiates this, as more than 80% of respondents have
executed IT frameworks for their supply chain.
Ranges of Technology Implementation notwithstanding, when we assessed these IT
frameworks focused around the reason for usage, it was discovered that a dominant part,
around 95%, of IT frameworks are value-based frameworks and the organization is restricted
to specific capacities like inventory, creation arranging, bookkeeping and shop floor. There is
enormous potential to expand the organization of IT frameworks to territories like logistics
and warehousing, deals and dispersion and in choice emotionally supportive networks like
APO.Supply chain engineering has advanced, and organizations worldwide are taking a
gander at more mind boggling undertakings, for example, process trustworthiness, exchange
unwavering quality, and insights or better choice making, information perceptibility and less
demanding mix with their supplier's supply chain. Organizations are also coordinating RFID
advances for enhanced inventory following. Organizations are considering cross-useful
coordination of supply chain innovations not just inside diverse utilitarian regions
additionally with various IT frameworks of their clients and suppliers. As the requirement for
correspondence and joining among diverse innovations emerges, organizations also look for
basic standards that would guarantee information straightforwardness and interoperability. A
percentage of the best practices in engineering, for example, Spend Management, are quick
getting to be general standards. Today, IT needs to be centered towards giving sagacity and
knowledge for preferred choice making rather over giving gigantic information from
ERP/SCM or other comparable frameworks that regularly overpowers clients however is not
of much useful utilization to them. Guaranteeing the accessibility of predictable data
crosswise over diverse applications is a major challenge. Numerous applications require
extensive ability. On-demand, facilitated administrations offer organizations financially savvy
arrangements with the privilege blend of engineering, methodologies and aptitude. They
guarantee that information is exact and composite.

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Appendices:

Appendix 1:

[Source: (Sarkis, 2003, p. 400)]

Appendix 2: Survey Sheet

1
How likely are you to find a Supply Chain Management expert in your organization?

Very
Unlikely

Unlikely

Neutral

Likely

Choose One
2
Availability of Skilled Personnel
o

Skilled Personnel are abundantly available

Skilled Personnel are rarely available

Skilled Personnel are hardly available

3
What is the quality of human resource available to your organization?
o

World Class resources available

Adequate quality resources not freely available

Resources available at a premium or internationally

4
Major Supply Chain management hindrances (Choose one or more)

Very
Likely

Fluctuating transportation rates owing to transporting limit

requirements
o

Unsteady government standards and regulations

Conflict in understanding of exchange related principles &

regulation crosswise over GCC nations


o

Cross fringe transportation in GCC

Constrained days of storage spaces allowed at ports

Accessibility of talented staff

Transportation of products between free zone and non free zone

territories
o

Port/ Airport foundation

Ground level difficulties (like adequate parking facilities at prime

areas)
o

Constrained accessibility of neighborhood supplier(s)

Constrained perceivability in our supply chain

Inaccessibility of industry level information to benchmark our supply

chain execution
5
Primary Supply Chain Management objectives of your organization
o

Enhancing administration levels to clients

Expanding operational productivity & enhancing supply chain

execution
o

Adjusting supply chain to the business technique

Enhancing supply chain adaptability, & responsiveness

Incorporating supply chain management with IT frameworks

Enhancing supply chain risk management

6
What are the Operational objectives in Supply Chain Management of your
organization?
o

Minimizing general supply chain costs

Deciding better sourcing areas/suppliers

Fortifying demand arranging and estimating capacities

Enhancing inbound/outbound transportation

Distribution center streamlining

Creating cooperation among supply chain partners

Diminishing interest in stock

Dealing with the expanded supply chain prerequisites because of

business development
o

Aptitudes preparing and training for supply chain particular abilities

Expanding time span of usability accessibility/lessening out-of-

stocks
o

Outsourcing exercises to oversee cost/profit

Shortening our Supply Chain (more neighborhood substance)

7
Major Constraints in your organizations Supply chain Management

Restricted arranging, anticipating and planning abilities

Our capacity to contract & hold gifted staff

Dealing with the expanded volume/ inefficiencies in our supply

chain
o

Incorporating our IT framework

Overseeing venture into new markets/ new items

Restricted abilities of existing IT framework

Discovering suitable outsourcing partner(s)

No restricted coordinated effort among the supply chain partner(s)

Overseeing reverse logistics

8
What is the understanding and (or) implementation of Supply Chain Management in
your organization?
o

Extremely incorporated with other management areas

Getting there/being planned and will see future results

Very Basic with little scope of improvement in the future

9
Additional Comments/ Areas of improving Supply chain management in your
organization:

THANK YOU FOR YOUR VALUABLE TIME