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FRACTIONAL

TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES


IN ELECTROMAGNETICS

Akhtar Hussain

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Electronics
Quaid-i-Azam University
Islamabad, Pakistan
2009

FRACTIONAL
TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES
IN ELECTROMAGNETICS

by

Akhtar Hussain

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements


for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Electronics
Quaid-i-Azam University
Islamabad, Pakistan
2009

ii
CERTIFICATE

It is to certify that Mr. Akhtar Hussain has carried out the work contained in
this dissertation under my supervision.

Dr. Qaisar Abbas Naqvi


Associate Professor
Department of Electronics
Quaid-i-Azam University
Islamabad, Pakistan

Submitted through

Dr. Qaisar Abbas Naqvi


Chairman
Department of Electronics
Quaid-i-Azam University
Islamabad, Pakistan

iii

Acknowledgments
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. Thanks to the
Almighty Allah Who blessed me with his countless blessings. I offer my praises to
Hazrat Muhammad (S. W. A.), Who taught us to unveil the truth behind the natural
phenomena which gave us motivation for research.
I would speak the role of my supervisor, Dr. Qaisar A. Naqvi, in the completion
of this work. He showed a remarkable patience and believed in my ability to complete
the task. His constant guidance, support and encouragement is highly acknowledged.
I would also thank National Center of Physics, Dr. Q. A. Naqvi and Electronics
Department for arranging the visit of Prof. Kohei Hongo (Toho university Japan)
and Prof. Masahiro Hashimoto (Osaka-Electrocommunication University Japan) to
Quaid-i-Azam university. Their visits proved to be a source of inspiration for me.
Thanks are due to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan which provided me
the opportunity by starting the programme of indigenous PhD scholarships. I am also
thankful to Prof. Nader Engheta (University of Pennsylvania USA) for introducing a
very interesting field of fractional paradigm in electromagnetism. His idea of fractional
curl is the main source of inspiration to start my research work. I also thank Prof.
Elder I. Veliev, chairman, 12th International Conference on Mathematical Methods
in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET08), Odessa, Ukraine for inviting me to present a
research paper in the conference.
I enjoyed the company of very joyful friends like Ahsan Ilahi, Amjad Imran, Fazli
Manan, Maj. Muhammad Naveed, Shakeel Ahmad, and Abdul Ghaffar in which
Amjad Imran was the most cheerful person. I found Ahsan Illahi the most cool and
caring towards his friends. I am thankful for his useful technical discussions and
software support when needed. I must thank my friends Muhammad Faryad and
Husnul Maab for their useful technical contribution in the field of my research.

iv
I think, my parents are the best teachers I have ever had. They taught me to
respect others and helped me to build what has brought me this far. They can take
all the credit for much of what I have achieved and what I will achieve in the future. I
pay thank to my beloved sisters and brothers who always showed their concern about
my studies.
Last but not the least, the never-ending understanding and encouragement from
my beloved wife is the main reason for keeping me optimistic in the face of many
hardships. My daughters Noor-ul-Huda and Imaan Akhtar have been praying for
the successful and timely completion of my research wok. Their affection and prays
are dually acknowledged. I want to acknowledge my wife specially, who gave me
the company and served me with delicious snacks during very long sittings for the
compilation of my research work.

Akhtar Hussain

To

My Family

vi

Abstract

Fractional curl operator has been utilized to derive the fractional dual solutions for
different planar boundaries. Perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance, and perfect
electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) planar boundaries have been investigated and the
behavior of fractional dual solutions is studied with respect to the fractional parameter.
The knowledge of fractional dual solutions has been extended by studying the fractional
parallel plate waveguides, fractional transmission lines and the fractional rectangular
waveguides. Fractional parallel plate waveguides with PEC, impedance, and PEMC
walls as original problems have been studied for the field distribution inside the guide
region and transverse impedance of the guide walls. The investigations have also been
given for the fractional parallel plate chiro waveguides. Fractional transmission lines
of symmetric and non-symmetric nature have been analyzed for their intermediate
behavior and the impedance matching condition has been derived in terms of the
fractional parameter. The fractional rectangular impedance waveguide has also been
investigated. The fractional dual solutions and impedance have been compared with
the reference results which have been found in good agreement for limiting values of
the fractional parameter.

vii

CONTENTS
Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
CHAPTER I: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1. Conditions for fractionalization of an operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2. Recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.3. Fractional curl operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.4. Fractional cross product operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.5. Fractional duality in electromagnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
CHAPTER II: Fractional Dual Solutions for Planar Boundaries . 15
2.1. Fractional dual solutions for a travelling plane wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2.2. Planar perfect electric conductor (PEC) interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.1 Normal incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.2.2 Oblique incidence on a planar PEC boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3. Reflection from a planar impedance boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2.3.1. Transverse electric (TEz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.3.2. Transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.4. Reflection from a planar perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC)
boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.4.1. Transverse electric (TEz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.4.2. Transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
CHAPTER III: Fractional Parallel Plate Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.1.General wave behavior along a guiding structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2. Fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
3.2.1. Behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC
waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

viii
3.2.2. Mode behavior for higher values of the fractional parameter 45
3.2.3. Transverse impedance of walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
3.3. Fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
3.4. Fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
CHAPTER IV: Fractional Chiro Waveguide and the Concept of
Fractional Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.1. Reflection from a chiral-achiral interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.2. Fractional parallel plate chiro waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
4.3. The concept of fractional transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4.3.1. Fractional symmetric transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
4.3.2. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.3.3. Multiple-sections fractional non-symmetric transmission line 74
CHAPTER V: Fractional Rectangular Impedance Waveguide . . . . 76
5.1. General theory of rectangular waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
5.2. Field formulation for the rectangular impedance waveguide . . . . . . . 78
5.3. Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
5.3.1. Behavior of fields inside the fractional rectangular
impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
5.3.2. Surface impedance of walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5.3.3. Power transferred through a cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
CHAPTER VI: Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

ix
List of Publications
[1] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator in chiral medium and
fractional nonsymmetric transmission line,Progress in Electromagnetic Research
PIER 59, pp: 199-213, 2006.
[2] A. Hussain, S. Ishfaq and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator and fractional
waveguides, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, PIER 63, pp: 319-335, 2006.
[3] S. A. Naqvi, Q. A. Naqvi, and A. Hussain, Modelling of transmission through a
chiral slab using fractional curl operator, Optics Communications, 266, pp: 404406, 2006.
[4] A. Hussain, M. Faryad, and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator and fractional
chiro-waveguide, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21,
No. 8, pp: 1119-1129, 2007.
[5] A. Hussain, Q. A. Naqvi, and M. Abbas, Fractional duality and perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC), Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 71,
pp: 85-94, 2007.
[6] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) and
fractional waveguide, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 73, pp: 6169, 2007.
[7] A. Hussain, M. Faryad and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional waveguides with impedance
walls, Progress in Electromagnetic Research C, PIERC 4, pp: 191-204, 2008.
[8] A. Hussain, M. Faryad, and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional dual parabolic cylindrical
reflector, 12th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory, Odessa, Ukraine, June 29-July 02, 2008.
[9] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 96, pp: 101-116, 2009.

CHAPTER I
Introduction
Fractional calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with operators having non-integer and/or complex order, e.g., fractional derivatives and fractional integrals. Fractional derivatives/integrals are mathematical operators involving differentiation/integration of arbitrary (non-integer) real or complex orders such as d f (x)/dx ,
where can be taken to be a non integer real or even complex number [1]. In a
sense, these operators effectively behave as the so-called intermediate cases between
the integer-order differentiation and integration. Fractional Fourier transform is one
of the examples of fractional operators and has many applications in the field of optics
and signal processing [2]. Indeed, recent advances of fractional calculus are dominated
by modern examples of applications in physics, signal processing, fluid mechanics, viscoelasticity, mathematical biology, and electrochemistry. For example, fractance as
a generalization of resistance and capacitance has been introduced in [3]. Fractance
represents the electrical element with fractional order impedance and can behave as
a fractional integrator of order 1/2. Another example in the area of control theory is
that all proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are special cases of the fractional proportional-integral-derivative (PI D ) controllers [4]. Numerous applications
have demonstrated that fractional PID-controllers (PI D controllers) perform sufficiently better for the control of fractional order dynamical systems than the classical
PID-controllers. Odhoham and Spanier [5] suggested the replacement of classical integer order Ficks law of diffusion, which describe the diffusion of electro-active species
towards electrodes, by the fractional order integral law for describing generalized diffusion problems ranging from electro-active species to the atmospheric pollutants. The
concept of fractional divergence as introduced in reactor description may in future
lead to the development of reactor criticality concept based on fractional geometrical
buckling [6]. This enables to describe the reactor flux profile more closely to actual

2
which can be utilized to maintain efficient correction and control. Fractional divergence may be used to describe several anomalous effects presently observed in diffusion
experiments, e.g., non-linearity effects and its explanation are the challenges which are
hard to meet through integer order theory or by probabilistic methods. According to
the scientists, fractional calculus can be the language of twenty first century for physical system description and controls [6]. The ifs and buts, related to this calculus
as today, is due to our own limitations and understanding. This will have a clearer
picture tomorrow when products based on this subject will be used in the industry.
Prof. Nader Engheta, University of Pennsylvania USA, initiated work on bringing
the tools of fractional derivatives/fractional integrals into the theory of electromagnetism [8-17]. He termed this special area of electromagnetics as fractional paradigm
in electromagnetic theory. He introduced the definition for fractional order multipoles
[10] of electric charge densities and proved that the fractional multipoles effectively
behave as intermediate sources bridging the gap between the cases of integer order
point multipoles such as point monopoles, point dipoles, and point quadrupoles etc.
He formulated the electrostatic potential distribution for the fractional multipoles in
front of the structures like dielectric spheres [8], perfectly conducting wedges and cones
[9] and termed the methods as fractional image methods. Using the fractional order
integral relation, fractional dual solutions to the scalar Helmholtz equation have been
derived and discussed in [11]. It has been determined that fractional dual solutions to
the scalar Helmholtz equation may represent the generalized solutions in between the
fields radiated by a two dimensional source (i.e., line source) and a one dimensional
source (i.e., plate source). Naqvi and Rizvi [25] used the fractional order integral relation for correlating the fractional solutions of [11] and determined the intermediate
solutions of the fractional solutions for a line source and a plate source. Lakhtakia [18]
derived a theorem which shows that the new set of solutions for time harmonic Faraday and Ampere Maxwell equations with sources can be obtained using a differential
operator which commutes with the curl operator.

3
During mathematical treatment in fractional paradigm, often in order to solve
a general problem, the canonical cases are solved first. Second step is to derive an
operator that can transform one canonical case into the other and then one may think
of the possibility of any solution between the two canonical cases. Schematically, this
concept has been shown in Figures 1.1a and 1.1b for a linear operator L.

Figure 1.1a.

A symbolic bock diagram representing a problem and its two canonical

cases

Figure 1.1b.

A bock diagram symbolizing the fractional paradigm

4
Figure 1.1a shows the block diagram of a classical electromagnetic problem in which
two canonical solutions of the problem are shown while fractional paradigm of the
problem is shown in Figure 1.1b which shows possible intermediate solutions of the
two canonical cases. The conditions for fractionalization of a linear operator and a
recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator has been discussed in [13-16] and also
given in the next subsections. The new fractionalized operator, which may symbolically
be denoted by L with the fractional parameter , under certain conditions, can be
used to obtain the intermediate cases between the canonical case 1 and case 2. The
two cases may be connected through the number of intermediate cases.
1.1 Conditions for fractionalization of an operator
A linear operator L may be a fractionalized operator (i.e. L ) that provides the
intermediate solutions to the original problems, if it satisfies the following properties:
I. For = 1, the fractional operator L should become the original operator L,
which provide us with case 2 when it is applied to case 1.
II. For = 0, the operator L should become the identity operator I and thus the
case 1 can be mapped onto itself.
III. For any two values 1 and 2 of the fractionalization parameter , L should
have the additive property in , i.e., L1 .L2 = L2 .L1 = L1 +2 .
IV. The operator L should commute with the operator involved in the mathematical
description of the original problem.
1.2 Recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator
Let us consider a class of linear operators (or mappings) where the domain and
range of any linear operator of this class are similar to each other and have the same

5
dimensions. In other words, any linear operator of this class, which can be generically
shown by L, should map an element from the space C n into generally another element
in the space C n . That is, L : C n C n where C n is a n-dimensional vector space over
the field of complex numbers. Once a linear operator such as L is given to us, a recipe
for constructing the fractional operator L can be described as follows [13]
1. One finds the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operator L in the space C n so
that L.Am = am Am where Am and am for m = 1, 2, 3, ..., n are the eigenvectors
and eigenvalues of the operator L in C n respectively.
2. Provided Am s form a complete orthogonal basis in the space C n , any vector in
this space can be expressed in terms of linear combination of Am s. Thus, an
arbitrary vector G in space C n can be written as
G=

n
X

gm Am

m=1

where gm s are the coefficients of expansion of G in terms of Am s.


3. Having obtained the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operator L, the fractional
operator L can be defined to have the same eigenvectors Am s, but with the
eigenvalues as (am ) , i.e.,
L .Am = (am ) Am
When this fractional operator L operates on an arbitrary vector G in the space
C n , one gets

L .G = L .

n
X
m=1

gm Am =

n
X

gm L . Am =

m=1

n
X

gm (am ) Am

m=1

The above equation essentially defines the fractional operator L from the knowledge
of operator L and its eigenvectors and eigenvalues. In next section, above recipe has
been applied to fractionalize the curl operator.

6
1.3 Fractional curl operator
The concept of fractional curl operator was introduced in 1998 by Engheta [13].
The curl operator falls in the class of linear operators defined earlier and hence can
be fractionalized. It may be noted that the curl operation becomes a cross product
operation in the Fourier domain as explained below:
Consider a three-dimensional vector field F as a function of three spatial variables
in (x, y, z) coordinate system. Curl of this vector can be written as

curl F =

Fy
Fz

y
z

+
x

Fz
Fx

z
x

+
y

Fx
Fy

x
y

(1.1)

, y
, and z
are
where Fx , Fy , and Fz are the Cartesian components of vector F, and x
the unit vectors in the space domain. The next step is to apply the spatial Fourier
transform, from the space domain (x, y, z) into the k-domain (kx , ky , kz ), on vectors F
and curl F. Assuming that the spatial Fourier transforms of these two vector functions
exist, the Fourier transform can be written as
x , ky , kz )
Fk {F(x, y, z)} = F(k
Z Z Z
=
F(x, y, z) exp (ikx x iky y ikz z)dx dy dz

(1.2)

Fk {curl F(x, y, z)} =

curl F(x, y, z) exp (ikx x iky y ikz z)dx dy dz

x , ky , kz )
= ik F(k

(1.3)

denotes the spatial Fourier transform of vector F.


where a tilde over the vector F
Hence in the k-domain, the curl operator can be written as a cross product of vector
It is suggested that, in order to fractionalize the curl operator,
ik with the vector F.
one should first fractionalize the cross product operator (ik) in the k-domain. Clearly
the cross product operator is an operator that gets two vectors as its inputs and gives
= W.
However, if one picks the first vector k, then
one vector as its output, e.g., k U

7
the operator (k) can be considered as a linear operator which takes one vector (e.g.,
as its input and gives out one vector (e.g., W)
as an output. Both vectors U
and W

U)
are three-dimensional vectors in the k-domain. Thus, the linear operator (k) belongs
to the class of linear operators mentioned earlier, and therefore it can be fractionalized.
Thus fractionalization of curl operator is equivalent to fractionalization of this cross
product operator. With the method described in section 1.2, fractionalization of the
cross product operator as (ik) can be proposed in the k-domain as explained in the
next section.
1.4 Fractional cross product operator
The procedure for fractionalization of a linear operator presented earlier can be
used here to obtain the fractionalized cross product operator shown by the symbol
(k) . For an illustrative example, let us take the case where the vector k in the opk . The eigenvalues
erator (k) is the unit vector along the z-axis in the k-domain, i.e., z
and (normalized) eigenvectors of the operator (
zk ) in the k-domain are obtained as
k i
x
y
k,
2
k + i
x
y
k,
A2 =
2
k ,
A3 = z
A1 =

a1 = i
a2 = i
a3 = 0

(1.4)

k, y
k , and z
k are the unit vectors in the k-domain.
where x
x x
y y
z z
= U
k + U
k + U
k upon which the fractional cross product
The vector U
operation has to be performed must be written in terms of eigen vectors of the operator
as
= g1 A1 + g2 A2 + g3 A3
U

(1.5)

where g1 , g2 , and g3 are the coefficients of expansion and can be written as


g1 =

x + iU

U
y,
2

g2 =

x iU

U
y,
2

z
g3 = U

8
Operation of cross product can be written as
= a1 g1 A1 + a2 g2 A2 + a3 g3 A3
(
zk )U

(1.6a)

Fractionalization of the cross product means fractionalization of the eigen values in


equation (1.6a) and hence can be expressed as
= (a1 ) g1 A1 + (a2 ) g2 A2 + (a3 ) g3 A3
(
zk ) U
x + iU
y )(
(U
x i
yk )
2

y )(
(Ux iU
x + i
yk )
z z
k
+ (0) U
+ (i)
2

= (+i)

(1.6b)

=x
k , equation (1.6b) becomes
For example, if one takes U

k i
k + i
1
x
yk
x
yk
1

k = (i)
(
zk ) x
+ (i)
2
2
2
2


k + sin
k
= cos
x
y
2
2

(1.7)

k . As observed
which provides the fractional cross product of (
zk ) acting on vector x
from equation (1.7), when = 1, one obtain the conventional (ordinary) cross product
k x
k = y
k . When = 0, one then obtains (
k = x
k = I.
z
zk )0 x
xk , i.e., the identity
k . For other values of between zero and unity, one gets the
operator operating on x
intermediate or fractional cases of cross product operation.
The above fractionalization of the cross product can then, in principle, be applied
in the k-domain. If the resulting expression can then be inverse
to the case of ik F
Fourier transformed back into the (x, y, z)-domain, the final result may be called the
fractional curl of vector F, i.e., curl F. In next section application of fractional curl
operator in electromagnetics is addressed.

9
1.5 Fractional duality in electromagnetics
One of the potential applications of fractional curl operator can be the fractionalization of the duality theorem in electromagnetism. Consider the source-free Maxwell
equations in vacuum (with permittivity and permeability ) for the harmonic time
dependence exp(it) as
curl H = iE
curl E = iH
div H = 0
div E = 0

(1.8)

Applying the spatial Fourier transform on both sides of the above equations leads to
i
1 h
= E

ik ( H)
ik
i
1 h

ik (E) = H
ik
=0
ik. ( H)
=0
ik. E
where =

(1.9)

x , ky , kz ) and H(k
x , ky , kz ) are the spatial Fourier
/, k = . E(k

transforms of the vectors E(x, y, z) and H(x, y, z) respectively.


Let us apply the fractional cross product operator

(ik) (ik)

on both sides of

the first two equations in (1.9). it gives


1
= 1 (ik) E

(ik)+1 ( H)
+1
(ik)
(ik)
1
= 1 (ik) ( H)

(ik)+1 E
+1
(ik)
(ik)

(1.10)

Since cross product operator holds the property of commutation, it can be shown that
(ik)+1 = (ik)1 (ik) = (ik) (ik)1 , and thus equation (1.10) can be rewritten

10
as

1
1
1

ik
(ik) ( H) =
(ik) E
ik
(ik)
(ik)

1
1
1

ik
(ik) E =
(ik) ( H)
ik
(ik)
(ik)

(1.11a)
(1.11b)

It can be shown that the following equations also hold

ik.
(ik) ( H) = 0
(ik)

1

ik.
(ik) E = 0
(ik)

(1.11c)
(1.11d)

x , ky , kz ) and
Comparing equation (1.11) with equation (1.9) reveals that, since E(k
x , ky , kz ) are solutions to the source-free Maxwell equations in the k-domain, the
H(k
fields defined by

1

(ik) E
(ik)

(ik) ( H)
=
(ik)

fd =
E
fd
H

(1.12a)
(1.12b)

are also a new set of solutions to the source-free Maxwell equations. Inverse Fourier
transforming these back into the (x, y, z)-domain, we obtain the new set of solutions
as

Efd
Hfd

=
curl E
(ik)

=
curl (H)
(ik)

(1.13a)
(1.13b)

From equations (1.13), it can be seen that

and

=0

Efd = E,

=1

Efd = H,

Hfd = H
Hfd = E

which shows that for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) gives the original solution while (Efd , Hfd )
gives dual to the original solution of the Maxwell equations for = 1. Therefore for

11
all values of between zero and unity, (Efd , Hfd ) provides the new set of solutions
which can effectively be regarded as the intermediate solutions between the original
solution and dual to the original solution. These solutions are also called the fractional
dual fields as expressed with the subscript fd for these fields.
Various investigations have been made in exploring the role of fractional duality in
electromagnetics. The study related to the fractional dual solutions to Maxwell equations in homogeneous chiral medium is given in [26]. Field decomposition approach
of [48] has been used and it is determined that orientation of the polarization ellipse
of fractional fields is rotated by an angle /2 with respect to the original solutions.
Study relating the fractional duality in metamaterials with negative permittivity and
permeability is given in [27] and it is proved that fractional dual solutions in double
negative (DNG) medium are similar to the ordinary or double positive (DPS) medium
with an additional multiplication factor of . Application of the complex and higher
order of the fractional curl operator in electromagnetics has been discussed in [28].
It has been found that the fractional dual solutions are periodic with respect the
fractional parameter and the period is 4. The period has four subranges and the
fractional solutions for any subrange act as original solution for the next subrange as
explained below:

Further it is concluded that transverse impedance is periodic with period 2 such that
if the fractional dual surface acts as an inductive surface in one subrange, it will act
as a capacitive surface in the next subrange. The study corresponding to the complex
value of the fractional parameter = 1 + i2 reveals that the fractional solutions

12
may be represented as fractional dual solutions only if 1 and 2 falls in two different
fractional ranges shown above. Hussain and Naqvi introduced the concept of fractional
transmission lines and fractional waveguides [29-35]. Recently Naqvi has extended the
investigations to fractional duality in the chiral medium having property of chiral
nihility [41-42].
Veliev and Engheta has addressed the problem of reflection from a fractional dual
boundary [19]. They obtained the fractional dual solutions in terms of fixed solutions
for oblique incidence on an impedance infinite surface and derived the reflection coefficients of the fractional boundary in terms of the original reflection coefficients. They
found that impedance of the fractional reflecting surface is anisotropic and gave the
impedance boundary conditions for the new boundary. The more generalized form of
these boundaries has been discussed and given in [21]. The fractional curl operator has
been applied to study the reflection from a bi-isotropic slab backed by a PEC surface
in [23] in which it is shown that order of the fractional curl operator can be used to
control the twist polarizer effect.
In view of the interesting role of fractional curl operator in illustrating the polarization of the propagating wave and effective impedance of the boundary in reflection
problems attracted me to investigate the role and utility of fractional curl operator
in microwave engineering. Fractional transmission lines and waveguides in electromagnetics has been chosen as the topic of research. In order to discuss fractional
transmission lines and fractional waveguides, the two canonical cases must be mentioned first. Discussion in this thesis deals with the two canonical cases which are
related through the principle of duality. That is, the two canonical cases are related
through the curl operator. So by fractionalizing the curl operator, one can get new set
of transmission lines and waveguides which may be regarded as intermediate step of
the two canonical cases related through the duality theorem. The transmission lines
and waveguides which are intermediate step of the two cases have been termed as

13
the fractional transmission lines and fractional waveguides. Answers to the following
questions are targeted: What would be the meaning of fractional transmission lines
and fractional waveguides in electromagnetics? How to derive the expressions which
govern fractional transmission lines and waveguides? What is the behavior of field
pattern inside the fractional waveguides? What is impedance of walls of the fractional
waveguides? How the power density is distributed across the cross section of the fractional waveguides? To answer these questions, the thesis has been organized in the
following manners:
In chapter II, The fractional dual solutions for the travelling plane wave in a
lossless, homogeneous, and isotropic medium are derived. Then the fractional dual
solutions for the standing waves in the presence of the reflecting boundaries have been
discussed. Planar boundaries of perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance, and
perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) have been considered. The fractional dual
solutions have been termed as the solutions of reflection from fractional PEC, fractional impedance, and fractional PEMC boundaries. Dependence of the impedance
of the fractional boundaries with respect to the fractional parameter has been studied. Transverse electric (TEz ) and transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidences have been
discussed separately.
Study related to the reflection of a plane wave from the planar boundaries has
been extended for the parallel plate waveguides and given in chapter III. The resulting
waveguides have been termed as the fractional parallel plate waveguides. Focus of this
chapter is to study the field distribution inside the fractional parallel plate waveguides.
Fractional parallel plate PEC, fractional parallel plate impedance, and fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguides have been investigated. Dependence of impedance of
walls of the fractional waveguides upon the fractional parameter has been discussed.
Chapter IV deals with the fractional dual solutions in the chiral medium. In this
chapter behavior of the chiral-achiral interface has been studied with respect to the

14
fractional parameter . Fractional parallel plate waveguides having PEC walls and
filled with a chiral medium has been investigated. The concept of fractional transmission lines has also been discussed in this chapter. Transmission lines of symmetric and
non-symmetric nature have been considered.
In chapter V, fractional rectangular impedance waveguides have been investigated.
The rectangular waveguide having impedance walls and filled with a homogenous,
lossless, and isotropic material has been considered. Field distribution in the transverse
plane of the waveguide, impedance of walls of the guide and power density distribution
in the cross sectional plane have been investigated. The special case of fractional
rectangular waveguide having PEC walls has also been discussed.
The thesis has been concluded in chapter VI.

15

CHAPTER II
Fractional Dual Solutions for Planar Boundaries
In this chapter, fractional dual solutions to the Maxwell equations for different
planar boundaries have been derived. Perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance,
and perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundaries have been considered for
discussion. The behavior of fractional dual solutions with respect to fractional parameter is studied and dependence of the impedance of fractional dual boundary on
fractional parameter has been noted. In each case, planar boundary is placed at y = 0
and the region y > 0 is occupied by a lossless, homogeneous, and isotropic medium
having permittivity and permeability .

2.1 Fractional dual solutions for a travelling plane wave


Let us consider an electromagnetic plane wave propagating in a direction described
+ kz z
. Generic expressions for the electric field E and the
by the wave vector k = ky y
magnetic field H corresponding to this wave can be written as
+ E0y y
+ E0z z
] exp(iky y + ikz z)
E = [E0x x

(2.1a)

+ H0y y
+ H0z z
] exp(iky y + ikz z)
H = [H0x x

(2.1b)

where k = = ky2 + kz2


As per recipe described in chapter I, in order to write fractional dual solutions between
(E, H) and (H, E), we need to write the field vectors in terms of eigen vectors of
= 1 (ky y
+ kz z
) as
the cross product operator k
k
E = [P1 A1 + P2 A2 + P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.2a)

H = [Q1 A1 + Q2 A2 + Q3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.2b)

16
where A1 , A2 , and A3 are the normalized eigen vectors of the cross product operator

k.
The normalized eigen vectors and the corresponding eigen values of the cross
are as given below
product operator k

1
i
(kz y
ky z
) ,
A1 = x
k
2

1
i
+ (kz y
ky z
) ,
A2 = x
k
2
i
+ kz z
),
A3 = (ky y
k

a1 = +i

(2.3a)

a2 = i

(2.3b)

a3 = 0

(2.3c)

In equation (2.2), quantities P1 , P2 , and P3 are the coefficients of expansion and are
given below

1
i
P1 = E0x + (kz E0y ky E0 z)
k
2

1
i
P2 = E0x (kz E0y ky E0z )
k
2

i
P3 = 2
(ky E0y + kz E0z )
k

(2.3d)
(2.3e)
(2.3f )

while Q1 , Q2 , and Q3 are required co-efficients for the magnetic field and may be
obtained by the symmetry.
Fractional dual solutions (Efd , Hfd ) to the Maxwell equations, corresponding
to the original field solutions given in equation (2.1), may be obtained by using the
following relations
E
Efd = (k)
= [(a1 ) P1 A1 + (a2 ) P2 A2 + (a3 ) P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.4a)

H
Hfd = (k)
= [(a1 ) Q1 A1 + (a2 ) Q2 A2 + (a3 ) Q3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.4b)

It may be noted that the fields in fractional dual solutions are also related through the
duality theorem, i.e.,

Hfd = (k)E
fd

(2.4c)

17
In order to give more insight to the fractional dual solutions of Maxwell equations,
=
let us consider a plane wave propagating in direction described by the vector k
1
k

+ kz z
). Associated electric and magnetic fields are given by
(ky y
exp(iky y + ikz z)
E=x

kz
ky
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
H =
y
k
k

(2.5a)
(2.5b)

Fractional dual solutions can be obtained using the following relations


1
Efd = [P1 (a1 ) A1 + P2 (a2 ) A2 + P3 (a3 ) A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)
2

Hfd = (k)Efd
where A1 A2 , and A3 are the eigen vectors and a1 , a2 , and a3 are the corresponding
=
eigen values of the operator k

k (ky y

). Quantities P1 , P2 , and P3 are


+ kz z

the coefficients of expansion. Hence the fractional dual solutions can be written as




kz
ky
+
+

Efd = cos
x
sin
y
sin
z
2
k
2
k
2

Hfd

exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz

ky

+
+

= sin
x
cos
y
cos
z
2
k
2
k
2

(2.6a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.6b)

It may be noted that for = 0 above set of expressions yield result (E, H) and for
= 1 it yields (H, E). For between zero and unity, fields given in equation (2.6)
can be regarded as fractional dual fields between the original and dual to the original
=
fields of the plane wave propagating in an oblique direction k

k (ky y

). It
+ kz z

may also be noted from equation (2.6) that fractional dual fields represent a plane
wave propagating in the same direction as the original wave. However its transverse
fields have been rotated by an angle (/2).
Now let us derive fractional solutions for the reflection of a plane wave from
different kinds of planar boundaries placed at y = 0.

18
2.2 Planar perfect electric conductor (PEC) interface
Consider a planar PEC interface which is placed at y = 0. Let us discuss the
fractional dual solutions for normal as well as oblique incidence of a plane wave at the
PEC interface.
2.2.1 Normal incidence
Assume that the PEC interface is excited by a normally incident unit amplitude
plane wave as shown in Figure 2.1.
kref
Hinc

Einc

Href
Eref

kinc

y
z
PEC boundary

Figure 2.1.

Normal incidence on a PEC plane

The electric and magnetic fields associated with the incident and reflected plane waves
are given below
exp(iky)
Einc = x

(2.7a)

exp(iky)
Hinc = z

(2.7b)

Eref =
x exp(iky)

(2.7c)

exp(iky)
Href = z

(2.7d)

Total fields in the region y > 0 can be written as a sum of the incident and reflected
fields and are given below
E =
x2i sin(ky)

(2.8a)

19
2 cos(ky)
H = z

(2.8b)

Fractional dual solutions for the incident wave can be written by using equation (2.4)
as
Einc
fd
Hinc
fd

h

i
+ sin
exp(iky)
= cos
x
z
2
2
h

i
+ cos
exp(iky)
= sin
x
z
2
2

(2.9a)
(2.9b)

Similarly fractional dual solutions for the reflected wave can be written as
h

i

exp(iky)
Eref
=

exp(i)
cos
x
+
sin
z
fd
2
2
h

i

exp(iky)
=
exp(i)

sin
x
+
cos
z
Href
fd
2
2

(2.10a)
(2.10b)

Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 can be written as sum of the incident and
reflected fields as
ref
Efd = Einc
fd + Efd
ref
Hfd = Hinc
fd + Hfd

which give
h

i

+ sin
2i sin ky +
Efd = exp i
cos
x
z
2
2
2
2
h

i

+ cos
2 cos ky +
Hfd = exp i
sin
x
z
2
2
2
2

(2.11a)
(2.11b)

It may be noted from equations (2.8) and (2.11) that for


=0
and = 1

(Efd , Hfd ) = (E, H)


(Efd , Hfd ) = (H, E)

This means that the fractional dual solutions given by equation (2.11) represent the
original field solution for = 0 while for = 1, equation (2.11) represents the solution

20
which is dual to the original solution. For the range 0 < < 1, equation (2.11)
gives the solutions which are intermediate step of the original solution and dual to the
original solution and hence may be called as fractional dual solutions.
Wave impedance is defined by the ratio of transverse components of corresponding
electric and magnetic fields as
Zfd

Efdz

Efdx
=
= i tan ky +
=
Hfdz
Hfdx
2

At y = 0, this becomes impedance of the new reflecting boundary called the fractional
dual boundary and can be written as
Zfd = i tan

(2.12)

From equation (2.12), it can be interpreted that for = 0, impedance of the fractional
dual boundary is Zfd = 0, i.e., PEC surface while for = 1, the impedance is Zfd = ,
i.e., PMC surface. For 0 < < 1, the reflecting surface behaves as an intermediate
step between PEC and PMC surface that depends upon fractional parameter .
2.2.2 Oblique incidence on a planar PEC boundary
Consider a unit amplitude plane wave propagating in direction described by the
inc =
vector k

k (ky y

) hits a planar PEC boundary placed at y = 0. Due to


+ kz z

the PEC boundary, reflected wave is produced in direction described by the vector
ref =
k

k (ky y

) as shown in Figure 2.2. In case of oblique incidence, the easy


+ kz z

way to solve Maxwell equations is to break the fields into perpendicular polarization
and parallel polarization components. For the field configuration shown in Figure 2.2,
perpendicular polarization can also be referred to as transverse electric polarization
to the z-direction (i.e., T E z polarization), while parallel polarization as transverse
magnetic polarization to the z-direction (i.e., T M z polarization). The fields of the two

21
polarizations are related through the duality theorem. Let us study T E z and T M z
polarizations separately.

Figure 2.2 Oblique incidence on a PEC plane


Case 1: Transverse electric (T E z ) polarization
Let us first consider an incident wave having transverse electric polarization as
shown in Figure 2.2. The electric and magnetic fields for the incident and reflected
waves can be written as
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Einc = x

ky
kz
inc
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
y
H =
k
k

(2.13a)

Eref =
x exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz
ky
ref
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
H = y
k
k

(2.13c)

(2.13b)

(2.13d)

Fractional dual solutions for the incident wave are same as given in equation (2.6), i.e.,




kz
ky
inc
+
+

Efd = cos
x
sin
y
sin
z
2
k
2
k
2
exp(iky y + ikz z)



kz
ky
+
+

= sin
x
cos
y
cos
z
2
k
2
k
2

(2.14a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.14b)

Hinc
fd

22
Fractional dual solutions corresponding to the reflected fields may be obtained using
equation (2.4), i.e.,
Efd = [(a1 ) P1 A1 + (a2 ) P2 A2 + (a3 ) P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hfd = (k)E
fd
where A1 A2 , and A3 are the eigen vectors and a1 , a2 , and a3 are the corresponding
ref =
eigen values of the operator k

k (ky y

). Quantities P1 , P2 , and P3 are


+ kz z

the coefficients of expansion. Therefore, we can write




kz
ky
ref
+

Efd = exp(i) cos


x
sin
y
sin
z
2
k
2
k
2
exp(iky y + ikz z)



kz
ky

= exp(i) sin
x
cos
y
cos
z
2
k
2
k
2

(2.14c)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.14d)

Href
fd

Fractional dual solutions corresponding to the fields in the region y > 0 can be written
as sum of the incident and the reflected fields as


kz

+ S cos ky y +

Efd = 2 iC sin ky y +
x
y
2
k
2

h
ky

i
exp i kz z +
i S sin ky y +
z
k
2
2

kz

i C sin ky y +

Hfd = 2 S cos ky y +
x
y
2
k
2

h
ky

i
exp i kz z +
+ C cos ky y +
z
k
2
2

(2.15a)

(2.15b)

where
C = cos
S = sin


2

2

The fields given in equation (2.15) have been plotted in Figure 2.3 for different values
of at an observation point (ky y, kz z) = (/4, /4).

23

Figure 2.3

Plots of fractional dual T E z polarized fields at a point (ky y, kz z) =

(/4, /4) (a) real parts

(b) imaginary parts

24
From Figure 2.3, it can be seen that fractional dual fields satisfy the principle of duality,
i.e., for = 0
Efdx = Ex ,

Hfdx = Hx

Efdy = Ey ,

Hfdy = Hy

Efdz = Ez ,

Hfdz = Hz

and for = 1
Efdx = Hx ,

Hfdx = Ex

Efdy = Hy ,

Hfdy = Ey

Efdz = Hz ,

Hfdz = Ez

Wave impedance is defined by ratio of the transverse components of the electric


and magnetic fields as

Efdx
k

= i tan ky y +
Hfdz
ky
2

ky

Efdz
= i tan ky y +
=
Hfdx
k
2

Zfdxz =
Zfdzx

At y = 0, these impedances become impedance of the new reflecting boundary called


the fractional dual boundary and can be written in terms of normalized impedance
zfd = Zfd / as given below

z fd

k
ky
TE
=
x

z+
zx
zfd
ky
k

(2.16)

where
TE
zfd
= i tan

for 0 1

It may be noted that


zfdxz =

k TE
z ,
ky fd

zfdzx =

ky TE
z
k fd

Since zfdxz 6= zfdzx , so it can be interpreted that impedance of the fractional dual PEC
boundary for oblique incidence is anisotropic in nature.

25
Case 2: Transverse magnetic (TMz ) polarization
Plane wave reflection geometry for the transverse magnetic polarization from PEC
plane placed at y = 0 is shown in Figure 2.4.

Figure 2.4 Oblique incidence on PEC plane (T M z polarization case)


Electric and magnetic fields shown in the figure can be written as

kz
ky
inc
z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
E = y
k
k
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Hinc = x

kz
ky
ref
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
E = y
k
k
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Href = x

(2.17a)
(2.17b)
(2.17c)
(2.17d)

Using the similar procedure as in the above section, fractional dual solutions for the
fields in the region y > 0 may be obtained as

kz


C cos ky y +

Efd = 2 iS sin ky y +
x
y
2
k
2

h
ky

i
exp i kz z +
+i C sin ky y +
z
k
2
2

kz

i S sin ky y +

Hfd = 2 C cos ky y +
x
y
2
k
2

(2.18a)

26

h
ky

i
exp i kz z +
+ S cos ky y +
z
k
2
2

(2.18b)

It may be noted from equation (2.18), that the fractional dual fields satisfy the duality
theorem, i.e.,

=0

(Efd , Hfd ) = (E, H)

and = 1

(Efd , Hfd ) = (H, E)

Using the field components given in equation (2.18), impedance of the fractional
dual surface can be written as

z fd

k
ky
TM
=
x

z+
zx
zfd
ky
k

(2.19)

where
TM
zfd

= i tan

for 0 1

Comparing equation(16) and (19), it can be deduced that transverse impedance of


the fractional dual PEC surface is anisotropic and dependance of the impedance on
fractional parameter is same for T E z and T M z polarizations.

2.3 Reflection from a planar impedance boundary


Let the planar interface is placed at y = 0 and has a finite nonzero impedance Z.
By developing the fractional dual solutions of Maxwell equations for the geometry, it
is of interest to see the behavior of the fractional dual impedance boundary. Transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences are discussed separately in different
subsections.

27
2.3.1 Transverse electric (T E z ) incidence
Consider a plane wave with T E z polarization incident on an impedance planar
boundary having the normalized impedance zb = Z/ and placed at y = 0. The
incident and reflected fields can be written as
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Einc = x

kz
ky
inc
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
H =
y
k
k

(2.20a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)
Eref = te x

ky
kz
ref
z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
H = te
y
k
k

(2.20c)

(2.20b)

(2.20d)

where te is the reflection coefficient as given below


te =

ky
k
ky
zb k

1 zb
1+

(2.21)

Now fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 can be written as


Efd

Hfd

h
n


o
C exp iky y i
= x
+ te exp iky y + i
2
2

kz n

o
S
+y
exp iky y i
te exp iky y + i
k
2
2

ky

o
S
+z
exp iky y i
+ te exp iky y + i
k
2
2
h
i
exp i kz z +
2
h
n


o
=
xS exp iky y i
te exp iky y + i
2
2

kz n

o
C
+y
exp iky y i
+ te exp iky y + i
k
2
2

ky

o
C
+z
exp iky y i
te exp iky y + i
k
2
2
h
i
exp i kz z +
2

Tangential fields at the boundary y = 0 may be written as


Et = Efdx x
+ Efdz
z
Ht = Hfdx x
+ Hfdz
z

(2.22a)

(2.22b)

28
Plots of these tangential fields are given in Figure 2.5 for two values of normalized
impedance that is, zb = 0 and zb = 100. It may be noted that normalized impedance
zb = 0 gives PEC case while zb = 100 gives PMC case. Solid lines show the plots of
tangential electric fields while dashed lines are for the corresponding magnetic fields.
In Figure 2.5, zero values of the electric field for (, zb ) = (0, 0) and (, zb ) = (1, 100)
show the boundary conditions for the PEC surface while zero values of the magnetic
field for (, zb ) = (1, 0) and (, zb ) = (0, 100) show the boundary conditions for the
PMC. For any value of the normalized impedance zb between 0 and , the dual to
the impedance boundary will be an admittance boundary and fractional dual of the
boundary would be an intermediate step between the impedance boundary and the
admittance boundary and hence may be called fractional impedance boundary.

Figure 2.5 Fractional dual tangential fields for T E z polarization in the presence of
an impedance boundary

29
Impedance of the fractional dual surface can be written as

z fd

k
ky
TE
=
x

z+
zx
zfd
ky
k

(2.23)

where

TE
zfd


+ i tan
2

=
,

ky

1 + zb k i tan 2
zb

ky
k

for 0 1

2.3.2 Transverse magnetic (T M z ) incidence


Now consider the case of T M z -polarized wave incident on an impedance boundary
having normalized impedance zb . The incident and reflected electric and magnetic
fields for this polarization can be written as

kz
ky
z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
= y
k
k

inc

exp(iky y + ikz z)
Hinc = x

ky
kz
ref
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
E = tm y
k
k
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Href = tm x

(2.24a)
(2.24b)
(2.24c)
(2.24d)

where tm is the reflection coefficient given by


tm =

ky
k
ky
k

zb
+ zb

(2.25)

Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 for this case can be written by applying
the duality on the fields of equation (2.22) subject to the replacement of the reflection
coefficient te by tm and hence can be written as
h
n

o

S exp iky y i
tm exp iky y + i
Efd = x
2
2

kz n

o
C
y
exp iky y i
+ tm exp iky y + i
k
2
2

ky n

o
C
z
exp iky y i
tm exp iky y + i
k
2
2

30
h
i
exp i kz z +
2
o

h
n


C exp iky y i
Hfd = x
+ tm exp iky y + i
2
2

kz n

o
S
+y
exp iky y i
tm exp iky y + i
k
2
2

ky n

o
S
+z
exp iky y i
+ tm exp iky y + i
k
2
2
h
i
exp i kz z +
2

(2.26a)

(2.26b)

In order to validate the fields given in equation (2.26), tangential components at


y = 0 have been plotted in Figure 2.6. In contrast to Figure 2.5, Figure 2.6 shows
that the fractional dual solutions given by equation(2.26) satisfy the conditions of
fractional dual impedance boundary. That means for (, zb ) = (0, 0) and (, zb ) =
(1, 100), boundary conditions for PEC surface are satisfied while for (, zb ) = (1, 0)
and (, zb ) = (0, 100), boundary conditions for PMC surface are satisfied.

Figure 2.6 Fractional dual tangential fields for T M z polarization

31
Impedance of the fractional dual impedance surface can be written as

z fd

k
ky
TM
=
x

z+
zx
zfd
ky
k

(2.27)

where

TM
zfd


+ i tan
2

=

,
1 + zb kky i tan
2
zb

k
ky

for 0 1

(2.27a)

It may be noted that in case of T M z polarization, impedance of the fractional dual


impedance surface is different from T E z polarization. To show the difference, impedances given in equation (2.27a) and (2.23a) have been plotted as shown in the Figure 2.7.
From the figure it can further be noted that for normalized impedance zb = 0, behaviors
TE
TM
for the two polarizations become same, i.e., zfd
= zfd
which is as for the case of

fractional dual PEC boundary discussed earlier.

Figure 2.7

Behavior of impedance of the fractional dual impedance surface with

respect to for T E z and T M z polarizations

32
2.4 Reflection from a planar perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC)
boundary
Perfect electric conductor (PEC) and perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) are basic
concepts in electromagnetics. Lindell has recently introduced the concept of perfect
electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) as generalization of PEC and PMC [44]. It is well
known that PEC boundary may be defined by the conditions
n E = 0,

n.B = 0

While PMC boundary may be defined by the boundary conditions


n H = 0,

n.D = 0

The PEMC boundary conditions are of the more general form


n (H + M E) = 0,

n.(D M B) = 0

(2.28)

where M denotes the admittance of the PEMC boundary. It is obvious that PMC
corresponds to M = 0, while PEC corresponds to M = . It may be noted that
PEMC boundary is non-reciprocal. Non-reciprocity of the PEMC boundary can be
demonstrated by showing that the polarization of the plane wave reflected from PEMC
surface is rotated. Problems involving PEMC boundaries with the admittance parameter M and air or other isotropic medium can be transformed to problems involving
PEC or PMC boundaries using duality transformation [45]. The incident wave fields
may be transformed using the following duality transformation

Einc
d
Hinc
d

M
=
1

Einc
Hinc

where is the impedance of the medium facing the PEMC boundary.

(2.29)

33
ref
The reflected fields (Eref
d , Hd ) corresponding the transformed incident fields
inc
(Einc
d , Hd ) can be written using the PEC boundary conditions and finally the inverse

transformation [45] may be used to get the fields reflected from the PEMC surface as

ref
ref
1
M

E
Ed
=
(2.30)
1
ref
2
M
H
Href
(M ) + 1

d
Another generalization of PEC and PMC reveals from the concept of fractional curl
operator, i.e., () . The boundary is known as fractional dual interface with PEC
and PMC as the two special situations of the fractional dual interface [13]. In this
section, intermediate situations between the PEMC boundary and dual to the PEMC
boundary (DPEMC) using the idea of fractional curl operator would be discussed.
Behavior of the impedance dealing with intermediate situations is of interest.
2.4.1 Transverse electric (T E z ) incidence
Consider a plane wave with T E z -polarization is incident upon a PEMC boundary
plane placed at y = 0. Electric and magnetic fields for the incident wave are similar
to as equation (2.13), i.e.,
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Einc = x

ky
kz
inc
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
y
H =
k
k
Applying the transformation given in equation (2.29), duality transformed fields corresponding to the incident fields can be written as

ky
kz
inc
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Ed = M
x+ y
k
k

kz
ky
inc
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Hd =
x + M y
k
k

(2.31a)
(2.31b)

Fields reflected from the planar PEC boundary, when the incident wave defined by
the fields given in equation (2.31) hits the boundary, can be written as

h
ky i
kz
ref
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Ed = M
x+ y
k
k

h
kz
ky i
ref
+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
Hd =
x + M y
k
k

(2.32a)
(2.32b)

34
The fields reflected from the PEMC boundary can be written by applying the inverse
transformation given in equation (2.30) and are given below

1 (M )2
2M
kz
ky
ref

+ z
exp(iky y + ikz z) (2.33a)
x
y
E =
1 + (M )2
1 + (M )2
k
k
ref Eref
Href = k
(2.33b)
where
ref = 1 (ky y
+ kz z
)
k
k
The quantity M can be represented in terms of angle as M = tan , where = /2
represents M = 0, that is PEC boundary and = 0 represents M = , that is
PMC boundary. Hence equation (2.33) may be written in alternate form as

kz
ky
ref
z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
y
E = cos(2)
x + sin(2)
k
k

kz
ky
ref
z
exp(iky y + ikz z)
H = sin(2)
x + cos(2)
y
k
k

(2.34a)
(2.34b)

Total fields in the region y > 0 can be written as sum of the incident and reflected
fields and are given below
h n
o
2
2
E = exp(ikz z) 2
x cos(ky y) sin () i sin(ky y) cos ()

n
o
kz
sin(2) cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)
y
+
k

n
o
ky
sin(2) cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)

z
k
h
n
o
H = exp(ikz z) sin(2)
x cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)
n
o
kz
+
2
y cos(ky y) cos2 () i sin(ky y) sin2 ()
k
n
o
ky
2
2
+
2
z cos(ky y) sin () i sin(ky y) cos ()
k

(2.35a)

(2.35b)

At = /2, above equations reduce as


E = 2i exp(ikz z)
x sin(ky y)

kz
ky
cos(ky y) i
sin(ky y)
H = 2 exp(ikz z)
y
z
k
k

(2.36a)
(2.36b)

35
which are the relations for the PEC boundary. It may also be noted that at y = 0
equation (2.35) satisfies the PEMC boundary conditions, i.e.,
(H + tan E) = 0
y
Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 can be written as
h
i
Efd = exp i kz z +
2

h n

o
(C + C ) cos ky y +
x
+ (C C ) i sin ky y +
2
2
n

o
kz

+
y
(S + S ) cos ky y +
+ (S S ) i sin ky y +
k
2
2
n

ky

z
(2.37a)
(S S ) cos ky y +
+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +
k
2
2
h
i
0 Hfd = exp i kz z +
2
h
n

x (S + S ) cos ky y +
+ (S S ) i sin ky y +
2
2
n

kz

o
+
y
(C + C ) cos ky y +
+ (C C ) i sin ky y +
k
2
2
n

ky

z
(C C ) cos ky y +
+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +
(2.37b)
k
2
2
where


C = cos 2
2


S = sin 2
2
Normalized impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface may be obtained from the
ratio of the fields at y = 0 as

k TE
ky T E
z fd =
z
x

z + zfdzx
zx
,
ky fdxz
k

01

(2.38)

where

TE
zfdxz
TE
zfdzx

C (C + C ) + iS (C C )
=
C (C C ) + iS (C + C )

C (S S ) + iS (S + S )
=
C (S + S ) + iS (S S )

(2.38a)
(2.38b)

This shows that both the components of the normalized impedance of the fractional
dual PEMC boundary have different behavior with respect to the fractional parameter.

36
2.4.2 Transverse magnetic (T M z ) incidence
Consider a plane wave with T M z -polarization is incident upon a PEMC boundary
plane placed at y = 0. Following the treatment similar to the last section, fields
reflected from the PEMC surface can be written as

ref

Href

kz
ky
+ z
sin(2)
x exp(iky y + ikz z)
= cos(2) y
k
k

kz
ky
z
cos(2)
= sin(2)
y
x exp(iky y + ikz z)
k
k

(2.39a)
(2.39b)

Fractional dual solutions for the problem can be written as


Efd

Hfd

h
i
= exp i kz z +
2
h
n

x (S S ) cos ky y +
+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +
2
2
n

kz

o
+
y
(C C ) cos ky y +
+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +
k
2
2
n

ky

z
(C + C ) cos ky y +
+ (C C ) i sin ky y +
(2.40a)
k
2
2
h
i
= exp i kz z +
2
h
n

x (C C ) cos ky y +
+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +
2
2
n

kz

o

y
(S S ) cos ky y +
+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +
k
2
2
n

ky

o
+
z
(S + S ) cos ky y +
+ (S S ) i sin ky y +
(2.40b)
k
2
2

Normalized impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface may be obtained as

z fd

k TM
ky TM
=
z
x

z + zfdzx
zx
,
ky fdxz
k

01

(2.41)

where

TM
zfdxz
TM
zfdzx

C (S S ) + iS (S + S )
=
C (S + S ) + iS (S S )

C (C + C ) + iS (C C )
=
C (C C ) + iS (C + C )

(2.41a)
(2.41b)

37
It may be noted here that
TM
TE
zfdxz
= zfdzx
, and

TM
TE
zfdzx
= zfdxz

Plots of these impedances are given in Figure (2.8). Figure 2.8a shows variation along
the axis while Figure 2.8b shows the variation of the impedance components with
the admittance parameter . Figure 2.8a shows that for values of between /2 and
0, the impedance component zfdxz changes from 1 to tan2 while zfdzx changes from
cot2 to 1 as the value of the fractional parameter changes from 0 to 1. Further
we can see from the figure that for = /2, impedance of the fractional dual PEMC
boundary represents the fractional dual PEC boundary. Behavior of the impedance of
fractional dual PEMC boundary along the admittance axis as seen from Figure 2.8b,
for values of between /2 and 0, can be described as
=0

(zfdxz , zfdzx ) = (1, cot2 )

= 0.5

(zfdxz , zfdzx ) = (1, 1)

=1

(zfdxz , zfdzx ) = (tan2 , 1)

That means at = 0, impedance component zfdxz becomes independent of the admittance parameter and the same is true for zfdzx at = 1. For = 0.5, impedance of
the fractional dual PEMC boundary becomes independent of the admittance parameter . As the admittance parameter approaches the limiting values of /2 and 0, the
two impedance components approach the same values equal to the case of PEC surface
and PMC surface respectively. Hence Figure 2.8b shows that for (, ) = (0, /2) and
(, ) = (1, 0), the PEMC surface behaves as a PEC surface and for (, ) = (1, /2)
and (, ) = (0, 0), the PEMC surface behaves as a PMC surface. This is also in
accordance with the published literature.

38

Figure 2.8a Transverse impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface versus

Figure 2.8b Transverse impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface versus

39

CHAPTER III
Fractional Parallel Plate Waveguides
In this chapter, discussion of previous chapters has been extended to parallel plate
waveguides with PEC, impedance, and PEMC walls. Parallel plate waveguides with
fractional dual solutions have been termed as the fractional parallel plate waveguides.
The effect of fractional parameter on field distribution inside the guide is discussed.
Transverse impedance of the walls of fractional guide has been determined.
3.1. General wave behavior along a parallel plate guiding structure
Consider a waveguide consisting of two parallel plates separated by a dielectric
medium with constitutive parameters and . One plate is located at y = 0, while
other plate is located at y = b as shown in Figure 3.1. The plates are assumed to be
of infinite extent and the direction of propagation is considered as positive z-axis.

Figure 3.1.

Geometry of parallel plate waveguide

40
Electric and magnetic fields in the source free dielectric region must satisfy the following
homogeneous vector Helmholtz equations

where 2 =

2
x2

2
y 2

2 E(x, y, z) + k 2 E(x, y, z) = 0

(3.1a)

2 H(x, y, z) + k 2 H(x, y, z) = 0

(3.1b)

2
z 2

is the Laplacian operator and k = is the wave

number. Taking z-dependance as exp(iz), equation (3.1) can be reduced to two


dimensional vector Helmholtz equation as
2xy E(x, y) + h2 E(x, y) = 0

(3.2a)

2xy H(x, y) + h2 H(x, y) = 0

(3.2b)

where h2 = k 2 2 , is the propagation constant.


Since propagation is along z-direction and the waveguide dimensions are considered infinite in xz-plane. So x-dependence can be ignored in the above equations.
Under this condition, equation (3.2) becomes ordinary second order differential equation as
d2 E(y)
+ h2 E(y) = 0
2
dy
2
d H(y)
+ h2 H(y) = 0
dy 2

(3.3a)
(3.3b)

As a general procedure to solve waveguide problems, the Helmholtz equation is solved


for the axial field components only. The transverse field components may be obtained
using the axial components of the fields and Maxwell equations. So scalar Helmholtz
equations for the axial components can be written as
d2 Ez
+ h2 Ez = 0
dy 2
d 2 Hz
+ h 2 Hz = 0
dy 2

(3.3c)
(3.3d)

41
General solution of the above equations is
Ez = An cos(hy) + Bn sin(hy)

(3.3e)

Hz = Cn cos(hy) + Dn sin(hy)

(3.3f )

where An , Bn , Cn , and Dn are constants and can be found from the boundary conditions.
Using Maxwell curl equations, the transverse components can be expressed in
terms of longitudinal components (Ez , Hz ), that is

1
Ez
Hz
Ex = 2 i
+ ik
h
x
y

1
Ez
Hz
Ey = 2 i
ik
h
y
x

1
Hz
ik Ez
Hx = 2 i

h
x
y

1
Hz
ik Ez
Hy = 2 i
+
h
y
x

(3.4a)
(3.4b)
(3.4c)
(3.4d)

where
r
=

is impedence of the medium inside the guide

In the proceeding part of this chapter, parallel plate waveguides with PEC, impedance,
and PEMC walls have been considered and the fractional dual solutions have been
determined and analyzed.
3.2. Fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide
In this section, parallel plate waveguide with PEC walls is the one problem while
parallel plate waveguide with PMC walls is the other problem. According to Maxwell
equations, these two problems are related through the curl operator. Using fractional
curl operator, the waveguide which may be regarded as intermediate step of the waveguides with PEC walls and PMC walls has been studied. T M z and T E z cases have
been discussed separately.

42
Case 1: Transverse magnetic (T M z ) mode solution
Suppose a transverse magnetic (T M z ) mode is propagating inside the waveguide
shown in Figure 3.1. Let plates of the waveguide are perfect electric conductor (PEC)
and z-axis is the direction of propagation. Axial component of the electric field is given
by the solution of equation (3.3e) for PEC boundaries as
Ez (y, z) = z
An sin (hy) exp(iz)
z
=
z
where h =

n
b

An
[exp(ihy + iz) exp(ihy + iz)]
2i

(3.5a)

and An ia an arbitrary constant that depends upon initial conditions.

Using (3.4), the corresponding transverse components of the fields can be written
as
i
An cos (hy) exp(iz)
h
i An

=y
[exp(ihy + iz) + exp(ihy + iz)]
h 2
ik
Hx (y, z) =
x
x An cos (hy) exp(iz)
h
ik An
[exp(ihy + iz) + exp(ihy + iz)]
=
x
h 2
Ey (y, z) = y

(3.5b)

(3.5c)

Fields inside the waveguide may be considered as combination of two TEM plane waves
bouncing back and forth obliquely between the two conducting plates, i.e.,
E = E1 + E2
H = H1 + H2

(3.6a)
(3.6b)

where (E1 , H1 ) are the electric and magnetic fields associated with one plane wave
and are given below

i
exp(ihy + iz)
i
z+ y
h
ik An
H1 =
x
exp(ihy + iz)
h 2
An
E1 =
2

(3.7a)
(3.7b)

43
while (E2 , H2 ) are the electric and magnetic fields associated with the second plane
wave and are given below

i
exp(ihy + iz)
i
z+ y
h
ik An
H2 =
x
exp(ihy + iz)
h 2
An
E2 =
2

(3.8a)
(3.8b)

Propagation through the parallel plate waveguide in terms of two TEM plane waves
is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Plane wave representation of the fields inside the waveguide
Comparing equation (3.7) and (3.8) with (2.17), it may be noted that the fields

ik An
(E1 , H1 ) =
(Einc , Hinc )
h 2
and

ik An
(Eref , Href )
(E2 , H2 ) =
h 2
provided that h = ky and = kz .
This means that solution of the parallel plate PEC waveguide is proportional to
the solution of the reflection problem in the region y > 0 for a planar PEC boundary

44
at y = 0 . Hence from the knowledge of chapter 2, fractional dual solutions inside the
parallel plate PEC waveguide can be written as
Efd

Hfd



ik

C cos hy +

= An iS sin hy +
x
y
h
2
k
2

h
h

i
exp i z +
+i C sin hy +
z
k
2
2

ik

i S sin hy +

= An C cos hy +
x
y
h
2
k
2

h
h

i
exp i z +
+ S cos hy +
z
k
2
2

(3.9a)

(3.9b)

where
C = cos
S = sin


2

2

3.2.1 Behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide
In order to study the behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC
waveguide, electric and magnetic field lines are plotted in the yz-plane and are shown
in Figure 3.3. These plots are for the mode propagating through the guide at an angle
/6 so that /k = cos(/6), h/k = sin(/6). Solid lines show the electric field plots
while magnetic fields are shown by dashed lines. From the figure we see that field lines
are partially parallel and partially perpendicular to the guide walls for non-integer
values of . This shows that walls of the waveguide can be considered as intermediate
step between the PEC and PMC walls. For limiting values of , the behavior is as
follows: For = 0, electric field lines are perpendicular to the guide walls and there
are no magnetic field lines in the yz-plane which shows that the walls are PEC and
the mode is transverse magnetic. For = 1, it can be seen that magnetic field lines
are perpendicular to the guide walls while there are no electric field lines which shows

45
that the walls are PMC and the propagating mode is the transverse electric. These
patterns are also in accordance with [47].

Figure 3.3

Field lines in yz-plane at different values of ; solid lines are for the

electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field
3.2.2 Mode behavior for higher values of the fractional parameter
Let us note the modal configuration for higher order values of the fractional parameter . It may be noted from equation (3.9) and (3.6) that
=0

Efd = E,

Hfd = H,

Efdz 6= 0,
=1

Efd = H,

Efd = E,

zfd = 0

(3.10a)

Hfd = E,

Efdz = 0,
=2

Hfdz = 0,

Hfdz 6= 0,

Hfd = H,

zfd =

(3.10b)

46
Efdz 6= 0,
=3

Efd = H,

Hfdz = 0,

Efd = E,

(3.10c)

zfd =

(3.10d)

Hfd = E,

Efdz = 0,
=4

zfd = 0

Hfdz 6= 0,

Hfd = H,

Efdz 6= 0,

Hfdz = 0,

zfd = 0

(3.10e)

In above equations, zfd represents transverse impedance of plates of the fractional


guide. These behaviors are shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Dependence of modal configuration and guide walls nature upon
(a) = 0 (b) = 1 (c) = 2 (d) = 3

47
From the figure, it can be interpreted that if one starts with a transverse magnetic
mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide with PEC walls, = 1 gives the
solution for a transverse electric mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide
with PMC walls. Increasing value of from 1 to 2 further gives the rotation of /2
in the field configuration which represents the transverse magnetic mode and walls of
the waveguide are also become PMC. These changes in the behavior continue with
increasing integer values of and the field configuration is repeated at = 4. Hence
it may be deduced that behavior of solutions with respect to the fractional parameter
is periodic with period 4.
3.2.3 Transverse impedance of walls
It has been seen that the fields inside the parallel plate PEC waveguide are proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 in the presence of a planar PEC boundary
at y = 0. Therefore transverse impedance of the walls of the fractional parallel plate
PEC waveguide would be same as the planar PEC reflecting boundary discussed in
chapter 2.
Case 2: Transverse electric (T E z ) mode solution
Solution for the transverse electric mode propagating through a parallel plate
PEC waveguide may be obtained by solving the equation (3.3f) for Hz while Ez = 0
for this case. Field solutions may be obtained by using PEC boundary conditions and
equation (3.4) so that the electric and magnetic fields may be considered as the fields
of two TEM plane waves bouncing back and forth between the two conducting plates.
Similar to the transverse magnetic case, fields in the transverse electric case are also
proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 for the problem of a transverse electric

reflection from the planar PEC boundary placed at y = 0 with ik


C
as the constant
n
h

48
of proportionality. Hence fractional dual solutions have the same proportionality, i.e.,
Efd

Hfd

ik


+ S cos hy +

= Cn iC sin hy +
x
y
h
2
k
2

h
h

i
exp i z +
i S sin hy +
z
(3.11a)
k
2
2

ik


i C sin hy +

= Cn S cos hy +
x
y
h
2
k
2

h
h

i
exp i z +
+ C cos hy +
z
(3.11b)
k
2
2

where Cn is an arbitrary constant and depends upon the initial conditions. These
fields have been plotted in Figure 3.5 which shows the behavior of field lines in the
yz-plane. The simulation data is same as of Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.5 T E z field lines in yz-plane at different values of ; solid lines are for the
electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field

49
3.3 Fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide
In the last section, it is seen that the fractional fields inside a parallel plate waveguide are proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 in the presence of a reflecting
PEC boundary at y = 0. A parallel plate waveguide with impedance walls represented by the fractional dual solutions can be termed as the fractional parallel plate
impedance waveguide. In order to study the behavior of fields inside the fractional
parallel plate impedance waveguide, let us consider a transverse magnetic mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide whose walls have finite impedance Zw .
Geometry of the waveguide under consideration is same as shown in Figure 3.1. The
electric and magnetic fields inside the impedance waveguide must satisfy the impedance
boundary conditions as given below
Ez |(y=0) = Zw Hx |(y=0)

(3.12a)

Ez |(y=b) = Zw Hx |(y=b)

(3.12b)

Solution for the electric and magnetic fields inside the parallel plate impedance waveguide can be written by using the impedance boundary conditions. Similar to the case of
parallel plate PEC waveguide, the fields may be represented in terms of two travelling
plane waves bouncing back and forth between the two plates. Fields inside the parallel plate impedance waveguide are also related to the fields given in equation (2.24)
through the constant of proportionality given as

C=

k An

h 2

(F + i)

where

k
F = izw
h
Zw
zw =

50
Hence the fractional dual solutions for the T M z mode can be written as

Efd

Hfd

h
n

=B
iS F cos hy +
+ sin hy +
x
2
2
n

+
C F sin hy +
cos hy +
y
k
2
2
n

ih

o

+
C F cos hy +
+ sin hy +
z
k
2
2
h
i
exp i z +
(3.13a)
2

o
k h

x
cos hy +
=B
iC F sin hy +
h
2
2
n

+
S F cos hy +
+ sin hy +
y
k
2
2
n


o i
ih

S F sin hy +
z

cos hy +
k
2
2
h
i
exp i z +
(3.13b)
2
ik
h

Since the fields inside the fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide are proportional to the fractional dual fields (T M z case )in the region y > 0 in the presence
of a planar impedance boundary at y = 0, so the transverse impedance is same as
given in equation (2.27).
The electric and magnetic field line plots for the fractional parallel plate impedance
waveguide in the yz-plane have been shown in Figure 3.6. The plots are for the normalized impedance zw = 0 and zw = 2, other parameters of the simulation are same as
for Figure 3.5. It can be seen from the figure that for zw = 0, field patterns match with
the patterns of fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide. As the normalized impedance
of the wall changes from the zero value, the field lines have both the components parallel as well as perpendicular to walls of the guide even for = 0. Further the shift in
the field patterns with is similar as in the case of PEC guide.

51

Figure 3.6 Field lines in the yz-plane at different values of for zw = 0 and zw = 2;
solid lines are for the electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field

3.4 Fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide


Let us consider a parallel plate waveguide whose walls are of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC). Geometry of the Figure 3.1 may be considered subject to the
condition that its walls are PEMC having admittance M . Parallel plate PEMC waveguide with fractional dual solutions may be termed as fractional parallel plate PEMC
waveguide. Solutions for the PEMC waveguide may be obtained from the general
solutions given in equation (3.3) and (3.4) by using the PEMC boundary conditions.

52
The PEMC boundary conditions are given below
h
i
n H + tan E = 0,

h
i
n. D tan B = 0

(3.14)

where
tan = M
It may be noted that = /2 corresponds to the PEC boundary and = 0 corresponds
to the PMC boundary. As discussed in chapter 2, solutions of a PEMC boundary can
be written by applying the transformation given in equations (2.28) and (2.29) to
the solutions of a PEC boundary. Similarly fields inside a fractional parallel plate
PEMC waveguide can be written from the fields inside a fractional parallel plate PEC
waveguide using the same transformation. Therefore relation between the fields inside
a fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide and the fractional dual solutions in the
region y > 0 for a planar PEMC boundary is same as for the case of parallel plate
PEC waveguide and the planar PEC boundary.
Let us consider a T M z mode solution for a parallel plate PEC waveguide as
given in equation (3.9). The fields inside the fractional PEMC waveguide must be
proportional to the fractional dual solutions of the T M z polarized wave in the presence
of a PEMC boundary through the same constant of proportionality, i.e.,

C=

ik
An
h

Hence the fractional dual solutions (transformed from the T M z mode solution) inside
the parallel plate PEMC waveguide can be written as
Efd

ik
= An
h
h
n

x (S S ) cos hy +
+ (S + S ) i sin hy +
2
2

53

Hfd


o
+
y
(C C ) cos hy +
+ (C + C ) i sin hy +
k
2
2
n

z
(C + C ) cos hy +
+ (C C ) i sin hy +
k
2
2
h
i
exp i z +
(3.15a)
2

ik
= An
h
h
n

x (C C ) cos hy +
+ (C + C ) i sin hy +
2
2
n

y
(S S ) cos hy +
+ (S + S ) i sin hy +
k
2
2
n

o
+
z
(S + S ) cos hy +
+ (S S ) i sin hy +
k
2
2
h
i
exp i z +
(3.15b)
2

where


C = cos 2
2


S = sin 2
2
Since the fields inside a fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide are proportional
to the fractional dual solutions for T M z mode in the region y > 0 in the presence
of a PEMC boundary at y = 0, so the transverse impedance is same as given in
equation (2.59).
Plots of electric and magnetic field lines for the fractional parallel plate PEMC
waveguide in the yz-plane have been shown in Figure 3.7. The plots are for the fields
inside the PEMC waveguide having admittance of the walls as = /2 and = /3,
other parameters of the simulation are same as for the Figure 3.3. It can be seen from
the figure that for = /2, the field patterns match with the fractional parallel plate
PEC waveguide. It may be noted that in fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide,
the electric and magnetic fields have their both components parallel and perpendicular
to the guide plates in the yz plane for all the values of .

54

Figure 3.7

Field lines in the yz-plane at different values of for = /2 and

= /3; solid lines are for the electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic
field

55

CHAPTER IV
Fractional Chiro Waveguide and
the Concept of Fractional Transmission Lines
In chapter II, fractional duality has been studied for different planar boundaries
while chapter III contains the same discussion for different parallel plate waveguides. In
present chapter, fractional dual solutions for a planar chiral-achiral interface have been
derived when it is excited by a uniform plane wave. Secondly fractional dual solutions
for a parallel plate PEC waveguide filled with a chiral medium are determined. The
concept of fractional transmission lines is also addressed.
4.1 Reflection from a chiral-achiral interface
Consider a chiral-achiral interface located at z = 0 as shown in Figure 4.1. The
region z < 0 is a lossless, isotropic, and reciprocal chiral medium while region z > 0
consists of a simple dielectric medium. The interface is excited by a uniform plane

Figure 4.1 Reflection from a chiral-achiral interface

56
wave. According to field decomposition approach [48], electric field E and the magnetic
field H may be pictured as consisting of two parts, i.e., ( E+ , H+ ) and (E , H ). The
two parts are termed as wavefields. Simple expressions for the wavefields can be written
as
1
(E + iH)
2
1
E = (E iH)
2

i
1
H E
H+ =
2

1
i
H =
H+ E
2

E+ =

The electric and magnetic fields corresponding to two wavefields for the incident
wave can be written as
inc
Einc
(z) = E (0) exp(ik z)
inc
z Einc
Hinc
(z) = iE (z)
(z) =

(4.1a)
(4.1b)

where k = k(1 r ) are wave numbers for the two wavefields. k = is the net
wave number and r is the relative chirality parameter. The wavefields vectors may
be defined for the propagation along positive z-direction as

i
x
y
inc
inc
E (0) = E (0)
2
This means that each wavefield sees chiral medium as achiral medium with equivalent
constitutive parameters (+ , + ) and ( , ). Medium parameters of the equivalent isotropic media are related to the parameters of chiral medium by the following
relations
= (1 r )
= (1 r )
r

=
=

57
Upon reflection from the chiral-achiral interface, left circularly polarized (LCP) wave
with wave number k becomes right circularly polarized (RCP) wave with wave number k+ and vice versa. Hence the reflected fields corresponding to the incident wavefields can be written as
inc
Eref
(z) = R E (0) exp(ik z)
inc
Href
(z) = iR E (0) exp(ik z)

(4.2a)
(4.2b)

where R are the reflection co-efficients for positive and negative incident wavefields. For a reciprocal chiral medium (intrinsic impedance ) interface with any
other isotropic medium(intrinsic impedance 1 ), the reflection co-efficient becomes
R = R =

1
1 + .

inc
Since the wavefields (Einc
, H ) represent two independent plane waves prop-

agating in positive z-direction, the fractional dual solutions can be written as


inc
Einc
z) Einc
fd = (
= (i) E

(4.3a)

inc
Einc
Hinc
fd = i(i) E
fd = z

(4.3b)

Similarly fractional dual solutions for the reflected wave can be written in terms of the
two wavefields as
ref
Eref
z) Eref
fd = (
= (i) E

(4.3c)

ref
Href
z Eref
fd =
fd = i(i) E

(4.3d)

Fractional dual solutions in the region z < 0 may be written by adding the fractional
dual fields for incident and the reflected waves as

inc
Efd (z) = Einc
+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)
h
n
n
o
oi
exp i kz +
+ R exp i kz +
2
2
inc

Hfd (z) = i E+ (0) exp(ikr z) + Einc


(0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)
n
h
n
oi
o
R exp i kz +
exp i kz +
2
2

(4.4a)

(4.4b)

58
For the special case, when the achiral medium is a PEC then R = 1. Hence the
fractional fields given in equation (4.4) take the following form as

inc
Efd (z) = 2i Einc
+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)


sin kz +
(4.5a)
2

inc
Hfd (z) = 2i Einc
+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)


cos kz +
(4.5b)
2
Wave impedance can be defined by taking ratio of the field components as
Zfdxy
Zfdyx

Exfd

=
= i tan kz +
Hyfd
2


Eyfd
= i tan kz +
=
Hxfd
2

Normalized impedance of the chiral-PEC interface can be obtained by putting z = 0


as
z fd = [zfdxz x

z + zfdzx
zx
] ,

01

(4.6)

where
zfdxz = zfdzx = i tan

(4.6a)

which is same as for the achiral-PEC interface discussed in chapter II.


4.2. Fractional parallel plate chiro waveguide
A parallel plate waveguide having PEC walls and filled with a lossless, isotropic,
and reciprocal chiral medium is termed as parallel plate chiro waveguide [46]. Hence
the chiro waveguide with fractional dual solutions may be termed as fractional parallel
plate chiro waveguide. Consider a parallel plate waveguide consisting of two perfect
electric conducting plates separated by a distance b. Geometry of the Figure 3.1 may

59
be considered with the difference that the medium inside the guide is considered as
chiral instead of ordinary dielectric. Other parameters are same as for chapter III, The
medium inside the waveguide may be described by the constitutive relations as given
below

D = E + ic B

(4.7a)

H = ic E + B/

(4.7b)

where , and c are called permittivity, permeability, and cross susceptibility of the
medium respectively.
It is well known that in conventional parallel plate waveguide filled with homogenous achiral material, the field configuration can be obtained by superposing two plane
waves in a suitable manners. These waves propagate with the same bulk wave number. In achiral waveguides, there are only two component waves and the direction
of these waves depend upon the frequency and the dimension b. In parallel plate
chirowaveguide, however, due to the fact that chiral medium supports double mode
propagation (k+ and k ), there are four component waves. Two of the waves are right
circularly polarized (RCP) propagating with a wave number k+ and the other two
are left circularly polarized (LCP) propagating with a wave number k as shown in
Figure 4.2. Component waves means the modes of propagation.
Consider R1 , R2 , L1 , and L2 to be the amplitudes of the component waves
ER1 , ER2 , EL1 , and EL2 respectively. These waves can be expressed as follows [46]
ER1 = R1 exp[ik+ (z cos + y sin )]eR1

(4.8a)

ER2 = R2 exp[ik+ (z cos y sin )]eR2

(4.8b)

EL1 = L1 exp[ik (z cos + y sin )]eL1

(4.8c)

EL2 = L2 exp[ik (z cos y sin )]eL2

(4.8d)

60
where eR1 , eR2 , eL1 , and eL2 are the circular basis unit vectors for the right and left
circularly waves in the direction of and as shown in Figure 4.2. Since the guided
wave propagates in the z direction with the propagation constant , the z component
of the bulk mode wave numbers must be equal to , i.e.,
k+ cos = k cos =

(4.9a)

Figure 4.2 Schematics of propagation through a parallel plate chiro-waveguide


Now let
k+ sin = h+ ,

k sin = h

(4.9b)

Using equation (4.9), field expressions in (4.8) can be written as


ER1 = R1 exp[i(z + h+ y)]eR1

(4.10a)

ER2 = R2 exp[i(z h+ y)]eR2

(4.10b)

EL1 = L1 exp[i(z + h y)]eL1

(4.10c)

EL2 = L2 exp[i(z h y)]eL2

(4.10d)

61
where the direction vectors are as given below
eR1 =
eR2 =
eL1 =
eL2 =

h+
x
+i y
i
z
k+
k+
2

h+
1

x
+i y
+i
z
k+
k+
2

h
x
i y
+i
z
k
k
2

h
x
i y
i
z
k
k
2

(4.11a)
(4.11b)
(4.11c)
(4.11d)

Magnetic fields corresponding to the electric fields given in equation (4.10) can be
written using the duality theorem as
R(1,2) ER(1,2) = (i)ER(1,2)
HR(1,2) = k

(4.12a)

L(1,2) EL(1,2) = (i)EL(1,2)


HL(1,2) = k

(4.12b)

where

h+

y
+

z
k+
k+

h+

= y
+

z
k+
k+

=
y
+

z
k
k

= y
+

z
k
k

R1 =
k

(4.13a)

R2
k

(4.13b)

L1
k
L2
k

(4.13c)
(4.13d)

It may be noted that


R1 | = |k
R2 | = |k
L1 | = |k
L2 | = 1
|k
Hence using equation (4.10), equations for total electric and magnetic fields can be
written as
E = ER1 + EL1 + ER2 + EL2

(4.14a)

H = HR1 + HL1 + HR2 + HL2


= i(ER1 EL1 + ER2 EL2 )

(4.14b)

62
As it has been seen that the field inside the parallel plate chiro waveguide can be represented in terms of four independent plane waves. Hence the fractional dual solutions
(Eifd , Hifd ) inside the waveguide may be obtained by using the following relations
1
i ) Ei
[() Ei ] = (k

(ik)
1
i ) H ,
=
[() Hi ] = (k
i

(ik)

Eifd =
Hifd

(15a)
i = R1, R2, L1, L2

(15b)

which give
ER(1,2)fd = (i) ER(1,2)

(4.16a)

EL(1,2)fd = (i) EL(1,2)

(4.16b)

It may be noted that both the right circular components and the left circular components have been rotated by an angle

in the counterclockwise direction. Fractional

dual solutions (Efd , Hfd ) corresponding to the total fields (E, H) may be obtained
by the linear combination of (Eifd , Hifd ), that is
Efd = ER1fd + EL1fd + ER2fd + EL2fd
= (i) ER1 + (i) EL1 + (i) ER2 + (i) EL2
Hfd = HR1fd + HL1fd + HR2fd + HL2fd
h
i
= i (i) ER1 (i) EL1 + (i) ER2 (i) EL2

(4.17a)

(4.17b)

It can be seen from equation (4.14) and (4.17) that


=0

Efd = E,

Hfd = H

=1

Efd = H,

Hfd = E

which shows that the fields given in equation (4.17) satisfy the duality principle for
the limiting values of , that is for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) yields an original field solution
and for = 1, (Efd , Hfd ) yields dual to the original field solution. Hence it may be

63
deduce that for intermediate values 0 < < 1, fields given in equation (4.17) are the
fractional dual solutions.
Using equation (4.10), the fractional dual solutions given in (4.17) can be written
as
Efd = exp(iz)
h
n
n
o
o
R1 exp i h+ y
eR1 + L1 exp i h y +
eL1
2
2
n
n
i
o
o
+R2 exp i h+ y +
eR2 + L2 exp i h y
eL2 (4.18a)
2
2
Hfd = (i) exp(iz)
h
n
n
o
o
R1 exp i h+ y
eR1 L1 exp i h y +
eL1
2
2
n
o
n

o
+ R2 exp i h+ y +
eR2 L2 exp i h y
eL2 (4.18b)
2
2
In order to meet the boundary conditions, the relation between the amplitudes of the
component waves should be as
R2 = L1 ,

L2 = R1

Using these relations in equation (4.18) and re-arranging in a suitable manners gives
Efd = exp (iz) L1
h
n
n
i
o
o
eL1 exp i h+ y +
eR2
exp i h y +
2
2
+ exp (iz) R1 exp (i)
h
n
n
i
o
o
exp i h+ y +
eR1 exp i h y +
eL2
2
2

(4.19a)

Hfd = (i) exp (iz) L1


n
i
h
n
o
o
eL1 + exp i h+ y +
eR2
exp i h y +
2
2
+ (i) exp (iz) R1 exp (i)
h
n
n
i
o
o
exp i h+ y +
eR1 + exp i h y +
eL2
2
2

(4.19b)

64
Now since
k = k(1 r ),

h = h(1 r ),

so
h+
h
h
=
=
k+
k
k
Using this fact in equation (4.19), the fractional dual solutions can be written in terms
of x, y, z co-ordinates as


Efd = i 2 exp(iz) sin hy +
2
h
i
L1 exp(ihr y) + exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y) x

1
+ exp(iz)
2


i
i
L1 exp(ihr y)
+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
k
k+
n
o
exp i hy +

2
i
i
+ L1 exp(ihr y)
+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
k+
k
n
oi
exp i hy +
y

ih

i 2 exp(iz)
sin hy +
k
2
h
i
L1 exp(ihr y) exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
z
(4.20a)


Hfd = (i) 2 exp(iz) cos hy +
2
h
i
L1 exp(ihr y) exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y) x

1
i exp(iz)
2



i
i
L1 exp(ihr y)
+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
k
k+
n
o
exp i hy +

2
i
i
+ L1 exp(ihr y)
+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
k+
k
n
oi
y

exp i hy +
2

65

(i) 2 exp(iz)

ih
k


cos hy +
2
h
i
L1 exp(ihr y) + exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)
z (4.20b)

The transverse impedance can be found by using the transverse components of the
fraction dual fields as
Zfdxz
Zfdzx

Exfd
k
=
= i tan hy +
Hzfd
2 h

Ezfd
h
=
= i tan hy +
Hxfd
2 k

Normalized impedance of the walls of fractional chiro-waveguide can be represented


by putting y = 0 as

h
k
zfdxz x

z + zfdzx
zx
,
=
h
k

z fd

01

(4.21)

where
zfdxz = zfdzx = i tan

(4.21a)

which is similar to the case of parallel plate PEC waveguide filled with an ordinary
dielectric medium.
4.3. The concept of fractional transmission lines
When a plane electromagnetic wave of any polarization propagates through a
plane parallel structure (propagating medium and a plane reflecting boundary), the
propagation defined by Maxwell equations in the medium can be analyzed using the
theory of transmission lines. If the medium of propagation is an isotropic simple
medium, the propagation can be analyzed as a single scalar transmission line also called
a symmetric transmission line. A plane wave propagating through a plane-parallel
structure of bi-isotropic medium can be analyzed in terms of two non-interacting

66
scalar transmission lines with two eigen waves much in the same way as simple isotropic
medium. Since in this case propagation constant of the incident and reflected wave are
different to each other, the line is called non-symmetric transmission line. In this part
of the chapter, fractional dual solutions for the symmetric and non-symmetric transmission lines have been derived. The transmission lines described by their fractional
dual solutions may be regarded as the fractional transmission lines. The fractional
transmission lines may be considered as generalization of the short circuit lines and
the open circuit transmission lines. Condition for impedance matching of the fractional
transmission lines network is also given in terms of the fractional parameter.
4.3.1. Fractional symmetric transmission line
Consider a uniform transmission line having characteristic impedance Zc and terminated at a load ZL as shown in Figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3 Terminated transmission line


z-axis has been considered as direction of propagation of voltage wave and current wave
along the transmission line. The differential equations describing the propagation of

67
voltage and current wave may be written as
1 d
V = Zc I
i dz
1 d
Zc I = V
i dz

(4.22a)
(4.22b)

where L and C are the inductance and capacitance per unit length along the line. The
p

operating frequency is , = LC is the propagation constant, and Zc = L/C is


the intrinsic impedance of the medium.
The coupled differential equations given in equations (4.22) can be decoupled to
give rise to second order differential equations as
1 d2
V (z) = V (z)
(i)2 dz 2
1 d2
I(z) = I(z)
(i)2 dz 2

(4.23a)
(4.23b)

Solutions of these differential equations may be written as


V (z) = V + [exp(iz) + exp(iz)]

(4.24a)

Zc I(z) = V + [exp(iz) exp(iz)]

(4.24b)

where
=

ZL Z
ZL + Z

and V + is the amplitude of the voltage wave travelling in the positive z-direction.
Input impedance of this line at any point along the line can be defined as

V (z)
ZL + iZc tan(z)
Z (z) =
= Zc
I(z)
Zc + iZL tan(z)
in

(4.25)

Let us derive fractional dual solutions of the voltage and current wave equations.
The transmission line represented by these fractional dual solutions may be regarded

68
as fractional transmission line. As can be seen from equations (4.22) (V, Zc I) and
(Zc I, V ), are two solutions of the transmission line equations. It may be noted that
one solution is dual to the other one. let us Operate
equations (4.22) as

1
d2
(i)2 dz 2

on both sides of

1
d2 1 d
1
d2
V =
Zc I
(4.26a)
(i)2 dz 2 i dz
(i)2 dz 2

1
d2 1 d
1
d2
Zc I =
V
(4.26b)
(i)2 dz 2 i dz
(i)2 dz 2
h
i
1
d2
d
Since the differential operator (i)2 dz2 and dz
has the property of commutation so
equations (4.26) can be written as

1 d
1
d2
1
d2
V =
Zc I
i dz (i)2 dz 2
(i)2 dz 2

1 d
1
d2
1
d2
Zc I =
V
i dz (i)2 dz 2
(i)2 dz 2

(4.27a)
(4.27b)

Hence the new set of solutions that satisfies the differential equations governing the
transmission line can be written as
1
d2
V
(i)2 dz 2
d2
1
Zc I
=
(i)2 dz 2

Vfd =
Zc Ifd

(4.28a)
(4.28b)

It can be seen from the above equation that for = 0, original solution (V, Zc I) is
obtained and for = 1/2, dual to the original solution (Zc I, V ) of the transmission
line is obtained. This mean that for 0 < < 1/2, solution set (Vfd , Zc Ifd ) may be
regarded as intermediate step between the original solution and dual to the original
solution. Solution set (Vfd , Zc Ifd ) may also be termed as fractional dual solutions of
the transmission line.
Using equation (4.24) in equation (4.28), fractional dual solutions of the transmission line can be written as
V+
[exp(iz + i) + exp(iz i)]
i2
V+
= 2 [exp(iz + i) exp(iz i)]
i

Vfd =
Zc Ifd

(4.29a)
(4.29b)

69
Values of the fractional dual voltage and current wave have been plotted versus fractional parameter for resistive load of zL = 3 as shown in Figure 4.4.

Figure 4.4 Absolute values of voltage and current at load versus ; zL = 3, z = /4


From the figure, it may be deduced that at the limiting values of , duality principle
is satisfied, i.e.,
=0
= 1/2

Vfd = V,
Vfd = Zc I,

Zc Ifd = Zc I
Zc Ifd = V

The input impedance at any point along the fractional transmission line is given below
Vfd (z)
Ifd (z)
ZL + iZc tan(z + )
= Zc
Zc + iZL tan(z + )

in
Zfd
(z) =

For = 0, above equation becomes


in
Zfd
= Zc

ZL + iZc tan(z)
Zc + iZL tan(z)

(4.30)

70
which is the relation for input impedance at any point for original transmission line.
Now for =

1
2
in
Zfd
= Zc

ZL + iZc cot(z)
Zc + iZL cot(z)

which is the relation for input admittance at any point for dual to the original transmission line. So, = 0 represents the original transmission line and =
the dual to the original transmission line, while 0 < <

1
2

1
2

represents

represents the fractional

dual transmission line.


Normalized load impedance of the fractional dual transmission line can be defined
by putting z=0 in equation (4.16) as
zLfd =

zL + i tan()
,
1 + izL tan()

0 1/2

(4.31)

Plot of the fractional dual load impedance versus has been given for different values
of the original load impedance as shown in Figure 4.5 which shows that dual of a
transmission line with impedance load is a line terminated at an admittance load and
vice versa. As a particular case, for a short circuited transmission line (zL = 0), dual
line is an open circuited line (zL = ) while fractional dual transmission line is the
line which has been terminated by a load which is intermediate between these two
limiting cases as shown in the Figure 4.5.
4.3.2. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line
As it is seen in section 4.1 that solution of the Maxwell equations in a chiral
medium gives rise to two circularly polarized waves. One of the waves is right circularly
polarized (RCP) while the other is left circularly polarized (LCP). These RCP and LCP
components move with different phase velocities and may be represented in terms of
wave numbers k+ and k respectively.

71

Figure 4.5 Load impedance versus for a fractional dual transmission line
For the two circularly polarized TEM eigen waves depending only upon z-coordinate, the source free Maxwell equations can be written as:
E0 (z) = i H (z)
z

(4.32a)

H0 (z) = i E (z)
z

(4.32b)

where the primes denote differentiation with respect to z. In terms of circular polar u = iu , the two wavefields can be
ization (CP) unit vectors u satisfying z
written as
E0 = u E
H0 = u H
where u+ and u are the unit vectors showing directions of the right circular and left
circular polarization respectively. Using these values, scalar form of equation (4.32)

72
can be written as
E 0 (z) = i {iH (z)}
iH 0 (z) = i E (z)

(4.33a)
(4.33b)

They resemble the transmission line equations (4.22), so that if one identify the electric
field with voltage V = E , the current must be recognized as I = iH [43]. The
positive and negative wave-fields are represented by their respective voltage and current
components.
The mathematical model of the transmission line equivalent of equations (4.33)
may be written as
V (z) = V (0) exp(i z) + V (0) exp(i z)

(4.34a)

Zc I (z) = V (0) exp(i z) V (0) exp(i z)

(4.24b)

where
=

ZL Z
ZL + Z

is the reflection coefficient and is the wave number corresponding to the two wavefields. Now voltage and current for the total field can be written as
V (z) =V+ (0){exp(i+ z) + exp(i z)}+
V (0){exp(i z) + exp(i+ z)}
= V1 + V2 + V3 + V4

(4.35a)

ZI(z) =V+ (0){exp(i+ z) exp(i z)}+


V (0){exp(i z) exp(i+ z)}
= ZI1 + ZI2 + ZI3 + ZI4

(4.35b)

73
The non-symmetric transmission lines represented by the fractional dual solutions can
be regarded as the fractional non-symmetric transmission line. The fractional dual
solutions of voltage and current equations (4.35) can be written using (4.28) as
Vfd (z) = exp(i)V+ (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} + exp{i( z + )}]
+ exp(i)V (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} + exp{i(+ z + )}] (4.36a)
ZIfd (z) = exp(i)V+ (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} exp{i( z + )}]
+ exp(i)V (0)[exp{i( z + )} exp{i(+ z + )}] (4.36b)
For = 0 above equation gives original solution (V, Zc I), for = 1/2 it gives dual to
the original solution (Zc I, V ) and the solutions for 0 < < 1/2 may be regarded as
fractional dual solutions.
Similar to the case of symmetric transmission line, input impedance of the fractional non-symmetric transmission line can be defined as
Zfd =

Vfd (z)
If d (z)

Using the following relations


+ = + r

= r

equation (4.36) can be written as


Vfd (z) =

1
exp(i){V+ (0) exp(ir z) + V (0) exp(ir z)}
(ZL + Zc )
2 cos(z + ){ZL + iZc tan(z + )}

ZIfd (z) =

(4.37a)

1
exp(i){V+ (0) exp(ir z) + V (0) exp(ir z)}
(ZL + Z)
2 cos(z + ){iZL tan(z + ) + Z}

(4.37b)

Hence input impedance of the fractional dual line can be written as


in
Zfd
=Z

ZL + iZ tan(z + )
,
Z + iZL tan(z + )

0 1/2

(4.38a)

74
Normalized load impedance zLfd of the fractional line can be obtained in terms of normalized load impedance zL =

ZL
Zc

of the original line by putting z=0 in equation (4.38a)

as
zLfd =

zL + i tan()
,
1 + izL tan()

0 1/2

(4.38b)

which is same as the case of uniform symmetric transmission line, i.e., dual of a transmission line with impedance load is a line terminated at an admittance load and vice
versa.
4.3.3. Multiple-sections fractional non-symmetric line
Let us consider a transmission line that is connected to another transmission line
of length L which is terminated by a load ZL . Let Z1 and Z2 are intrinsic impedances
of line-1 and line-2 respectively while Z2in is the input impedance of line-2 at the
junction of two lines. Input impedance of the whole transmission line network can be
written as
Zin = Z1

Z2in + iZ1 tan(1 z)


Z1 + iZ2in tan(1 z)

(4.39a)

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L)
Z2 + iZL tan(2 L)

(4.39b)

where
Z2in = Z2

Using the same treatment as done in in the last section, input impedance of the
fractional transmission line network can be written as
Zinfd = Z1

Z2infd + iZ1 tan(1 z + )


Z1 + iZ2infd tan(1 z + )

(4.40a)

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L + )
Z2 + iZL tan(2 L + )

(4.40b)

where
Z2infd = Z2

Condition for impedance matching of the transmission line network described by (4.40)
is
Z2infd = Z2

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L + )
= Z1
Z2 + iZL tan(2 L + )

(4.41a)

75
The value of fractional parameter , in terms of the impedances, required for the
impedance matching is given below

1
Z 2(Z1 Zl )
=
2 L arctan

i(Z22 Z1 ZL )
Hence for =

2 L
,

(4.41b)

equation (4.40) represents the input impedance of the circuit, as if

there is no transmission line having characteristic impedance Z2 . Therefore =

2 L

is

the condition of impedance matching for the network of fractional transmission lines.

76

CHAPTER V
Fractional Rectangular Impedance Waveguide
This chapter deals with the fractional impedance rectangular waveguide. The rectangular waveguide has impedance walls and filled with an ordinary dielectric medium.
Variations of field distribution inside the guide and impedance of the walls of the fractional waveguide with respect to fractional parameter have been studied. Variations in
power density distribution in the transverse plane with respect to fractional parameter
is also the matter of interest.
5.1. General theory of rectangular waveguide
Consider a waveguide having a rectangular cross section of size a b in xy-plane
as shown in Figure 5.1. The medium inside the guide is a lossless, homogeneous, and
isotropic having permittivity and permeability . The guide is considered infinitely
long along z-axis.

Figure 5.1.

Geometry of the rectangular wave guide

For the sack of simplicity, Walls of the guide are considered to have anisotropic
impedance under special conditions so that the modal solution exist. The general

77
impedance matrix for our geometry is

Z1
Z3

Z2
Z4

[Ex /Hz ]y=0,b


=
[Ez /Hy ]x=0,a

[Ez /Hx ]y=0,b


[Ey /Hz ]x=0,a

(5.1)

The compatibility relation for the modal solution is as below [52]


Z1 Z3 Z2 Z3 + Z2 Z4 = 0

(5.1a)

Alternately, equation (5.1a) can be written as


Z3
Z2 Z3
Z2

+
=0
Z4
Z1 Z4
Z1

(5.1b)

Let us consider a special case where the impedance matrix is of the form

Z1
Z3

Z2
Z4

=
Zw

Zw

(5.2)

so that T M z (Hz = 0) mode propagation through the guide is possible. As discussed in


the previous chapters, it is required to solve Helmholtz equations for axial components
only. The transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields can be found using
Maxwell equations. Scalar Helmholtz equation for the axial component of the electric
field may be written as
2 Ez (x, y) 2 Ez (x, y)
+
+ kc2 Ez (x, y) = 0
2
2
x
y

where kc2 = k 2 2 , k = is the wave number, is angular frequency, and is


the propagation constant. Using method of separation of variables, axial component
of the electric field may be written as
Ez (x, y) = X(x)Y (y)

(5.3)

X(x) = Am sin(kx x) + Bm cos(kx x)

(5.3a)

Y (y) = An sin(ky y) + Bn cos(ky y)

(5.3b)

where

78
where Am , Bm , An , and Bn are constants and can be found from the boundary
conditions. Once axial component of electric field is found, other field components can
be written using Maxwell curl equations as

0
1
Ez (x, y)
i
Ex (x, y) = 2 i
= 2 Y (y)X (x)
kc
x
kc

0
1
Ez (x, y)
i
Ey (x, y) = 2 i
= 2 X(x)Y (y)
kc
y
k

c
0
1 ik
1 ik Ez (x, y)
= 2 X(x)Y (y)
Hx (x, y) = 2
kc
y
kc

0
1 ik
1 ik Ez (x, y)
= 2 Y (y)X (x)
Hy (x, y) = 2
kc
x
kc

(5.4a)
(5.4b)
(5.4c)
(5.4d)

Using boundary conditions on the general solutions given by equations (5.3) and (5.4),
particular solutions for the rectangular waveguide have been derived in the next section.
5.2 Field formulation for the rectangular impedance waveguide
For a T M z mode propagating through the impedance rectangular waveguide,
particular solution for the axial component corresponding to the general solution given
in equation (5.3) can be written using the impedance boundary condition given in
equation (5.2) as
Ez (x, y) =

o
Amn hn
(1 Fx Fy )Cxy (Fx Fy )iSxy
2
n
oi
(1 + Fx Fy )Cx+y (Fx + Fy )iSx+y

where Amn are constants that depend upon initial conditions and

kkx
Zw
Fx = zw
,
zw =
2
k

c
kky
Fy = zw
kc2
Cxy = cos(kx x ky y)
Cx+y = cos(kx x + ky y)
Sxy = sin(kx x ky y)
Sx+y = sin(kx x + ky y)

(5.5)

79
while dispersion relations for the possible values of
i tan(kx a) =

2Fx
,
1 + Fx2

kx
kc

and

i tan(ky b) =

ky
kc

can be written as

2Fy
1 + Fy2

Now equation (5.4) can be used to write the transverse electric and magnetic field
components as
Amn
Ex (x, y) =
2

Ey (x, y) =

Hx (x, y) =

Hy (x, y) =

Amn
2

Amn
2

Amn
2

hn
o
(1 Fx Fy )iSxy + (Fx Fy )Cxy
n
oi
+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o
ky hn
(1

F
F
)iS

(F

F
)C
x y
xy
x
y
xy
kc2
n
oi
+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o
kky hn
(1

F
F
)iS

(F

F
)C
x y
xy
x
y
xy
kc2
n
oi
+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o
kky hn
(1

F
F
)iS

(F

F
)C
x y
xy
x
y
xy
kc2
n
oi
(1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y
kx
kc2

(5.6a)

(5.6b)

(5.6c)

(5.6d)

Components of electric and magnetic field which are tangential to the walls of the
guide plate at x = 0 and x = a can be written as
Et = Ey (x, y)
y + Ez (x, y)
z

(5.7a)

Ht = Hy (x, y)
y

(5.7b)

In order to validate the fields given in equation (5.6), fields of equation (5.7) have been
plotted for different values of the normalized impedance zw as shown in Figure 5.2.
Simulation data is for the mode propagating through the guide at an angle z =

/6 /k = cos(/6), kc /k = sin(/6) with z-axis in the yz-pane and angle x =

/4 kx /kc = cos(/4), ky /kc = sin(/4) with the x-axis in the xy-plane. The plots
are along the line of observation (kx x, ky y, kz z) = (kx x, /4, /4) in the transverse
xy-plane for the square guide with a = b = /2. Figure 5.2a shows the electric field
plots while magnetic fields are shown in Figure 5.2b. Field values may be noted at
kx x = 0 and kx x = , which represent the locations of the plates at x = 0

80

(a)

(b)
Figure 5.2.

Plots of fields tangential to the plates at x = 0 and x = a taking

ky y = /4, z = /4, /k = cos(/6), kc /k = sin(/6), kx /kc = cos(/4), ky /kc =


sin(/4); (a) electric field (b) magnetic field

81
and x = a. It can be seen that, at = 0, the tangential electric field is zero for
zw = 0 (i.e., PEC plates) while magnetic field is zero for zw >> 0, e.g., zw = 100
(i.e., PMC plates). Hence equation (5.6) represents the fields inside the guide having
impedance walls with normalized impedance zw , which may be converted to PEC and
PMC waveguide solution for the limiting values of zw .
5.3 Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide
Fractional rectangular waveguide can be modelled by determining the fractional
dual solutions inside the rectangular impedance waveguide. Fields given in equation (5.6) can be written in terms of four independent plane waves. Re-introducing
the z-dependance (eiz ), electric and magnetic fields of the four plane waves can be
written as
E1 =
E2 =
E3 =
E4 =
H1 =
H2 =
H3 =
H4 =

n
o

Amn
2

z
exp
i(k
x

k
y
+
z)
B
k
x

k
y

k
x
y
1
x
y
c
4kc2
n
o

Amn
2

z
exp
i(k
x
+
k
y
+
z)
B
k
x

k
y
+
k
x
y
2
x
y
c
4kc2
n
o

Amn
2

z
exp
i(k
x

k
y
+
z)
B
k
x
+
k
y

k
x
y
3
x
y
c
4kc2
n
o

Amn
2

z
exp
i(k
x
+
k
y
+
z)
B
k
x
+
k
y

k
x
y
4
x
y
c
4kc2
n
o
kAmn

B
(k
x
+
k
y
)
exp
i(k
x

k
y
+
z)
1
y
x
x
y
4kc2
n
o
kAmn

B
(k
x

k
y
)
exp
i(k
x
+
k
y
+
z)
2
y
x
x
y
4kc2
n
o
kAmn

B
(k
x
+
k
y
)
exp
i(k
x

k
y
+
z)
3
y
x
x
y
4kc2
n
o
kAmn
kx y
) exp i(kx x + ky y + z)
B4 (ky x
4kc2

(5.8a)
(5.8b)
(5.8c)
(5.8d)
(5.8e)
(5.8f )
(5.8g)
(5.8h)

where
B1 = 1 + Fx Fy + Fx + Fy

(5.9a)

B2 = 1 Fx Fy + Fx Fy

(5.9b)

82
B3 = 1 Fx Fy Fx + Fy

(5.9c)

B4 = 1 + Fx Fy Fx Fy

(5.9d)

Using eigen values and eigen vectors of the cross product operators of the propagation
direction vectors, fractional dual solutions (Eifd , Hifd ) corresponding to the four plane
waves can be written as
Amn
E1fd =
B1 exp(iz)
4kc2
h
n
o
n
oi
2
ky y
kc )
kkx y

cos
kx x
z + sin
kky x
2
2
h
i
h
i

exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10a)
2
2
Amn
E2fd =
B2 exp(iz)
4kc2
h
n
o
n
oi
ky y
+ kc2 )
+ kkx y

cos
kx x
z sin
kky x
2
h
h2
i
i
exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10b)
2
2
Amn
B3 exp(iz)
E3fd =
4kc2
h
n
o
n
oi
2
+ ky y
kc )
+ kkx y

cos
kx x
z + sin
kky x
2
2
h
i
h
i

exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10c)
2
2
Amn
B4 exp(iz)
E4fd =
4kc2
h
n
o
n
oi
+ ky y
kc2 )
kkx y

cos
kx x
z sin
kky x
2
h
h2
i
i
exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10d)
2
2
Amn
H1fd =
B1 exp(iz)
4kc2
h n
o
n
oi
2
ky y
kc )
kkx y

sin
kx x
z cos
kky x
2
2
h
i
h
i

exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10e)
2
2
Amn
H2fd =
B2 exp(iz)
4kc2
h
n
o
n
oi
ky y
+ kc2 )
+ kkx y

sin
kx x
z cos
kky x
2
2
h
h
i
i
exp i ky y +
(5.10f )
exp i kx x +
2
2

83
Amn
H3fd =
B3 exp(iz)
4kc2
h n
o
n
oi
ky y
+ kc2 )
+ kkx y

sin
kx x
z + cos
kky x
2
h
h2
i
i
exp i kx x +
exp i ky y +
(5.10g)
2
2
Amn
H4fd =
B4 exp(iz)
4kc2
h n
o
n
oi
+ ky y
kc2 )
kkx y

sin
kx x
z + cos
kky x
2
h 2
h
i
i
exp i ky y +
(5.10h)
exp i kx x +
2
2
Fractional dual solutions of the total electric and magnetic field inside the guide can
be written as
Efd = E1fd + E2fd + E3fd + E4fd
Hfd = H1fd + H2fd + H3fd + H4fd
which give
n
o
Amn
exp(iz)
k
C

kk
S
x

kc2
h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )
n
o
Amn
= 2 exp(iz) ky C + kkx S
kc
h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

Efdx =

Efdy

Efdz = Amn exp(iz)C


h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )
n
o
Amn
Hfdx = 2 exp(iz) kx S + kky C
kc
h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )
n
o
Amn
Hfdy = 2 exp(iz) ky S kkx C
kc
h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )
Hfdz = Amn S exp(iz)
h
i
(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

(5.11a)

(5.11b)

(5.11c)

(5.11d)

(5.11e)

(5.11f )

84
where


Cx+ = cos kx x +
2


Sx+ = sin kx x +
2


Cy+ = cos ky y +
2


Sy+ = sin ky y +
2
The fields given in equation (5.11) have been plotted in Figure 5.3. Validity of the
fractional fields defined by equations (5.11) may be noted from Figure 5.3 which shows
that fractional dual fields satisfy the principle of duality for the limiting values of ,
i.e., for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) represents the original solution and for = 1, (Efd , Hfd )
represents dual to the original solution. For the range 0 < < 1, (Efd , Hfd ) are the
intermediate step between the original and dual to the original solutions and hence
may be called as the fractional dual solutions. Further from Figure 5.3, we see that
for = 0, Ez 6= 0 and Hz = 0 which shows the transverse magnetic mode, while for
= 1, Ez = 0 and Hz 6= 0 which shows the transverse electric mode.
In order to validate the dependance on impedance of the walls (i.e., zw = Zw /),
tangential electric and magnetic fields at the wall at x = 0 of the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide have been plotted versus for different values of the
original impedance of walls, i.e., (zw = 0, 1, 2, 100) as shown in Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4a

shows the plots for tangential electric fields at an observation point (kx x, ky y, z) =

(0, /4, /4) and the corresponding magnetic fields are shown in Figure 5.4b. It can

be seen from the figures that tangential electric field is zero only at (, zw ) = (0, 0)

or (, zw ) = (1, 100) , i.e., PEC walls while tangential magnetic field is zero at

(, zw ) = (1, 0) or (, zw ) = (0, 100) , i.e., PMC walls case.

85

Figure 5.3 Fractional fields versus at (kx x, ky y, z) = (/4, /4, /4), other parameters are same as in Figure 5.2

86

(a)

(b)
Figure 5.4.

Plots of tangential fractional dual fields, (a) electric field (b) magnetic

field, taking x = 0 and other parameters are same as in Figure (5.2)

87
5.3.1 Behavior of fields inside the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide
In order to study the behavior of field lines inside the fractional rectangular waveguide, the field plots are given in the transverse xy-plane as shown in Figure 5.5. Solid
lines show the electric field while magnetic field is shown by the dashed lines.

Figure 5.5

Field lines ; solid lines show electric field and dashed lines show the

magnetic field. Simulation parameters are same as in Figure 5.2


From these figures, it can be seen that electric field lines are perpendicular and magnetic
field lines are parallel to the guide plates when the walls meet the conditions of PEC, i.e,

(, zw ) = (0, 0) or at (, zw ) = (1, 10) while magnetic field lines are perpendicular

88
and electric field lines are parallel to the guide walls when the walls meet the conditions

of PMC, i.e., (, zw ) = (0, 10) or at (, zw ) = (1, 0) . This is also in accordance with


[36].
5.3.2 Surface impedance of walls
Surface impedance matrix given in equation (5.1) for the fractional impedance
rectangular waveguide can be found using ratios of the fractional dual fields of equation (5.11). That is


z1fd
z2fd
[Efdx /Hfdz ]y=0,b
=
z3fd
z4fd
[Efdz /Hfdy ]x=0,a

[Efdz /Hfdx ]y=0,b


[Efdy /Hfdz ]x=0,a

(5.12)

For the limiting values of the fractional parameter, equation (5.12) may be written as;

z1fd
z2fd

zw
=0
=
(5.12a)
z3fd
z4fd
zw

z1fd
z2fd
1/zw
0
and = 1
=
(5.12b)
z3fd
z4fd
0
1/zw
It may be noted that the compatibility relation is satisfied for both the cases such that
= 0 represents the transverse magnetic mode solution while = 1 represents the
transverse electric mode solution. For intermediate values of the fractional parameter
, the impedance matrix has all the four components with non zero finite values
and hence represents the coupled mode solutions. Further it may be noted that for
zw = 0, equation (5.12a) represents the T M z mode propagating through the PEC
waveguide while equation (5.12b) represents the T E z mode propagating through the
PMC waveguide which is also in accordance with the published literature.
5.3.3 Power transferred through a cross section
The time averaged power density at any point of the transverse plane (i.e., xyplane) of the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide can be obtained using the
Poynting vector theorem as
Pav (x, y, z) =

1
Re[Efdx Hfdy Efdy Hfdx ]
2

(5.13)

89

where Hfdy
shows the complex conjugate of Hfdy and so on. Contour plots for the

power density given by equation (5.13) have been plotted for different values of the
fractional parameter as shown in Figure 5.6. Variation in the power distribution at
the transverse plane may be noted.

Figure 5.6

Time averaged Power distribution over the cross section for different

values of
Time averaged power density at the center point of the cross sectional face has been
plotted in Figure 5.7 which shows the relative maxima at = 0.5. This shows that
one may use the fractional curl operator to illustrate the pattern of transmitted power
through the waveguide. The average power density at the cross sectional plane can

90
be obtained by integrating the local power density given in equation (5.13) over the
whole cross section as
Z

P(z) =
0

Re[Efdx Hfdy
Efdy Hfdx
]d(kx x)d(ky y)
2

(5.14)

This power density has been plotted for the entire range of as in Figure 5.8 which
shows that the average power density through the cross sectional plane remains fairly
constant for the whole range of the fractional parameter.

Figure 5.7 Time averaged power density at the center of the transverse plane, i.e.,
at (kx x, ky y) = (/2, /2)

91

Figure 5.8 Average power density at the transverse plane

92

CHAPTER VI
Conclusions
The research work carried out in the thesis has been concluded and summarized
as follows:
By selecting order of the fractional curl operator, impedance of the reflecting
boundary as well as polarization of the incident wave can be illustrated. For the case
of a planar PEC surface as an original surface, impedance of the fractional dual surface
is isotropic for normal incidence while it is anisotropic for the case of oblique incidence.
The impedance of the fractional dual surface is a function of the fractional parameter
so that fractional dual is a surface whose impedance is the intermediate step of the
PEC and PMC surface. Further this impedance is same for transverse electric (TEz )
and transverse magnetic (TMz ) polarizations, that is, independent of the polarization
of incident field.
When the original reflecting surface is an impedance surface, the fractional dual
surface has anisotropic impedance which is a function of impedance of the original surface, the fractional parameter, and type of polarization of the incident wave.
Impedance of the fractional impedance surface is complex and behavior of both components is same with respect to . When the original reflecting surface is a PEMC
surface, the fractional dual PEMC surface has anisotropic impedance such that behaviors of the two components are different with respect to .
Fractional parallel plate waveguide model represents that if TMz mode is propagating through a waveguide with impedance walls then its dual solution means a
TEz mode propagating through the waveguide with admittance walls. The fractional
waveguides means a hybrid mode propagation through the waveguide having the walls
whose impedance is an intermediate step between the impedance walls and the admittance walls. Field behavior inside the fractional parallel plate PEC waveguides,

93
impedance waveguides, and PEMC waveguides are same as the field in the region
y > 0 in presence of the corresponding fractional reflecting boundary planes placed at
y = 0. Fractional dual solutions in the chiral region for a chiral-achiral interface yields
the result similar to the ordinary dielectric-dielectric region. Similar is the relation
between a parallel plate chiro waveguide and the parallel plate dielectric waveguide.
Fractional transmission lines can be modelled using the fractional order differential operator. Fractional transmission line model is a generalization of the transmission
line having input impedance which is intermediate step of the input impedance of the
original line and input admittance of the original line. As a special case, when the
original line is a short circuit line, the fractional line has a complex load and it is an
intermediate step of the short circuit transmission line and the open circuit transmission line. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line shows the behavior similar to
the fractional symmetric transmission line.
In case of rectangular waveguide, It has been seen that the relative power density
distribution at the the cross sectional plane changes with varying . For example, at
center of the cross sectional plane, the relative power density distribution is maximum
at = 0.5. However the average power density at the cross sectional plane remains
fairly constant for all values of between 0 and 1. Hence it may be concluded that
the fractional curl operator may be used to control the power distribution pattern over
the cross section of the guide.

94
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