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IN ELECTROMAGNETICS

Akhtar Hussain

for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Electronics

Quaid-i-Azam University

Islamabad, Pakistan

2009

FRACTIONAL

TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES

IN ELECTROMAGNETICS

by

Akhtar Hussain

for the Degree of

Doctor of Philosophy

Department of Electronics

Quaid-i-Azam University

Islamabad, Pakistan

2009

ii

CERTIFICATE

It is to certify that Mr. Akhtar Hussain has carried out the work contained in

this dissertation under my supervision.

Associate Professor

Department of Electronics

Quaid-i-Azam University

Islamabad, Pakistan

Submitted through

Chairman

Department of Electronics

Quaid-i-Azam University

Islamabad, Pakistan

iii

Acknowledgments

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and the Most Merciful. Thanks to the

Almighty Allah Who blessed me with his countless blessings. I offer my praises to

Hazrat Muhammad (S. W. A.), Who taught us to unveil the truth behind the natural

phenomena which gave us motivation for research.

I would speak the role of my supervisor, Dr. Qaisar A. Naqvi, in the completion

of this work. He showed a remarkable patience and believed in my ability to complete

the task. His constant guidance, support and encouragement is highly acknowledged.

I would also thank National Center of Physics, Dr. Q. A. Naqvi and Electronics

Department for arranging the visit of Prof. Kohei Hongo (Toho university Japan)

and Prof. Masahiro Hashimoto (Osaka-Electrocommunication University Japan) to

Quaid-i-Azam university. Their visits proved to be a source of inspiration for me.

Thanks are due to the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan which provided me

the opportunity by starting the programme of indigenous PhD scholarships. I am also

thankful to Prof. Nader Engheta (University of Pennsylvania USA) for introducing a

very interesting field of fractional paradigm in electromagnetism. His idea of fractional

curl is the main source of inspiration to start my research work. I also thank Prof.

Elder I. Veliev, chairman, 12th International Conference on Mathematical Methods

in Electromagnetic Theory (MMET08), Odessa, Ukraine for inviting me to present a

research paper in the conference.

I enjoyed the company of very joyful friends like Ahsan Ilahi, Amjad Imran, Fazli

Manan, Maj. Muhammad Naveed, Shakeel Ahmad, and Abdul Ghaffar in which

Amjad Imran was the most cheerful person. I found Ahsan Illahi the most cool and

caring towards his friends. I am thankful for his useful technical discussions and

software support when needed. I must thank my friends Muhammad Faryad and

Husnul Maab for their useful technical contribution in the field of my research.

iv

I think, my parents are the best teachers I have ever had. They taught me to

respect others and helped me to build what has brought me this far. They can take

all the credit for much of what I have achieved and what I will achieve in the future. I

pay thank to my beloved sisters and brothers who always showed their concern about

my studies.

Last but not the least, the never-ending understanding and encouragement from

my beloved wife is the main reason for keeping me optimistic in the face of many

hardships. My daughters Noor-ul-Huda and Imaan Akhtar have been praying for

the successful and timely completion of my research wok. Their affection and prays

are dually acknowledged. I want to acknowledge my wife specially, who gave me

the company and served me with delicious snacks during very long sittings for the

compilation of my research work.

Akhtar Hussain

To

My Family

vi

Abstract

Fractional curl operator has been utilized to derive the fractional dual solutions for

different planar boundaries. Perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance, and perfect

electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) planar boundaries have been investigated and the

behavior of fractional dual solutions is studied with respect to the fractional parameter.

The knowledge of fractional dual solutions has been extended by studying the fractional

parallel plate waveguides, fractional transmission lines and the fractional rectangular

waveguides. Fractional parallel plate waveguides with PEC, impedance, and PEMC

walls as original problems have been studied for the field distribution inside the guide

region and transverse impedance of the guide walls. The investigations have also been

given for the fractional parallel plate chiro waveguides. Fractional transmission lines

of symmetric and non-symmetric nature have been analyzed for their intermediate

behavior and the impedance matching condition has been derived in terms of the

fractional parameter. The fractional rectangular impedance waveguide has also been

investigated. The fractional dual solutions and impedance have been compared with

the reference results which have been found in good agreement for limiting values of

the fractional parameter.

vii

CONTENTS

Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii

Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

CHAPTER I: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1. Conditions for fractionalization of an operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2. Recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.3. Fractional curl operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.4. Fractional cross product operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.5. Fractional duality in electromagnetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

CHAPTER II: Fractional Dual Solutions for Planar Boundaries . 15

2.1. Fractional dual solutions for a travelling plane wave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.2. Planar perfect electric conductor (PEC) interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.2.1 Normal incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

2.2.2 Oblique incidence on a planar PEC boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.3. Reflection from a planar impedance boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

2.3.1. Transverse electric (TEz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

2.3.2. Transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

2.4. Reflection from a planar perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC)

boundary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

2.4.1. Transverse electric (TEz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

2.4.2. Transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

CHAPTER III: Fractional Parallel Plate Waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.1.General wave behavior along a guiding structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

3.2. Fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

3.2.1. Behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC

waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

viii

3.2.2. Mode behavior for higher values of the fractional parameter 45

3.2.3. Transverse impedance of walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

3.3. Fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

3.4. Fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

CHAPTER IV: Fractional Chiro Waveguide and the Concept of

Fractional Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.1. Reflection from a chiral-achiral interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

4.2. Fractional parallel plate chiro waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.3. The concept of fractional transmission lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

4.3.1. Fractional symmetric transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

4.3.2. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

4.3.3. Multiple-sections fractional non-symmetric transmission line 74

CHAPTER V: Fractional Rectangular Impedance Waveguide . . . . 76

5.1. General theory of rectangular waveguides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

5.2. Field formulation for the rectangular impedance waveguide . . . . . . . 78

5.3. Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

5.3.1. Behavior of fields inside the fractional rectangular

impedance waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

5.3.2. Surface impedance of walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

5.3.3. Power transferred through a cross section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

CHAPTER VI: Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

ix

List of Publications

[1] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator in chiral medium and

fractional nonsymmetric transmission line,Progress in Electromagnetic Research

PIER 59, pp: 199-213, 2006.

[2] A. Hussain, S. Ishfaq and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator and fractional

waveguides, Progress in Electromagnetic Research, PIER 63, pp: 319-335, 2006.

[3] S. A. Naqvi, Q. A. Naqvi, and A. Hussain, Modelling of transmission through a

chiral slab using fractional curl operator, Optics Communications, 266, pp: 404406, 2006.

[4] A. Hussain, M. Faryad, and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional curl operator and fractional

chiro-waveguide, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 21,

No. 8, pp: 1119-1129, 2007.

[5] A. Hussain, Q. A. Naqvi, and M. Abbas, Fractional duality and perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC), Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 71,

pp: 85-94, 2007.

[6] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) and

fractional waveguide, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 73, pp: 6169, 2007.

[7] A. Hussain, M. Faryad and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional waveguides with impedance

walls, Progress in Electromagnetic Research C, PIERC 4, pp: 191-204, 2008.

[8] A. Hussain, M. Faryad, and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional dual parabolic cylindrical

reflector, 12th International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Electromagnetic Theory, Odessa, Ukraine, June 29-July 02, 2008.

[9] A. Hussain and Q. A. Naqvi, Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 96, pp: 101-116, 2009.

CHAPTER I

Introduction

Fractional calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with operators having non-integer and/or complex order, e.g., fractional derivatives and fractional integrals. Fractional derivatives/integrals are mathematical operators involving differentiation/integration of arbitrary (non-integer) real or complex orders such as d f (x)/dx ,

where can be taken to be a non integer real or even complex number [1]. In a

sense, these operators effectively behave as the so-called intermediate cases between

the integer-order differentiation and integration. Fractional Fourier transform is one

of the examples of fractional operators and has many applications in the field of optics

and signal processing [2]. Indeed, recent advances of fractional calculus are dominated

by modern examples of applications in physics, signal processing, fluid mechanics, viscoelasticity, mathematical biology, and electrochemistry. For example, fractance as

a generalization of resistance and capacitance has been introduced in [3]. Fractance

represents the electrical element with fractional order impedance and can behave as

a fractional integrator of order 1/2. Another example in the area of control theory is

that all proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers are special cases of the fractional proportional-integral-derivative (PI D ) controllers [4]. Numerous applications

have demonstrated that fractional PID-controllers (PI D controllers) perform sufficiently better for the control of fractional order dynamical systems than the classical

PID-controllers. Odhoham and Spanier [5] suggested the replacement of classical integer order Ficks law of diffusion, which describe the diffusion of electro-active species

towards electrodes, by the fractional order integral law for describing generalized diffusion problems ranging from electro-active species to the atmospheric pollutants. The

concept of fractional divergence as introduced in reactor description may in future

lead to the development of reactor criticality concept based on fractional geometrical

buckling [6]. This enables to describe the reactor flux profile more closely to actual

2

which can be utilized to maintain efficient correction and control. Fractional divergence may be used to describe several anomalous effects presently observed in diffusion

experiments, e.g., non-linearity effects and its explanation are the challenges which are

hard to meet through integer order theory or by probabilistic methods. According to

the scientists, fractional calculus can be the language of twenty first century for physical system description and controls [6]. The ifs and buts, related to this calculus

as today, is due to our own limitations and understanding. This will have a clearer

picture tomorrow when products based on this subject will be used in the industry.

Prof. Nader Engheta, University of Pennsylvania USA, initiated work on bringing

the tools of fractional derivatives/fractional integrals into the theory of electromagnetism [8-17]. He termed this special area of electromagnetics as fractional paradigm

in electromagnetic theory. He introduced the definition for fractional order multipoles

[10] of electric charge densities and proved that the fractional multipoles effectively

behave as intermediate sources bridging the gap between the cases of integer order

point multipoles such as point monopoles, point dipoles, and point quadrupoles etc.

He formulated the electrostatic potential distribution for the fractional multipoles in

front of the structures like dielectric spheres [8], perfectly conducting wedges and cones

[9] and termed the methods as fractional image methods. Using the fractional order

integral relation, fractional dual solutions to the scalar Helmholtz equation have been

derived and discussed in [11]. It has been determined that fractional dual solutions to

the scalar Helmholtz equation may represent the generalized solutions in between the

fields radiated by a two dimensional source (i.e., line source) and a one dimensional

source (i.e., plate source). Naqvi and Rizvi [25] used the fractional order integral relation for correlating the fractional solutions of [11] and determined the intermediate

solutions of the fractional solutions for a line source and a plate source. Lakhtakia [18]

derived a theorem which shows that the new set of solutions for time harmonic Faraday and Ampere Maxwell equations with sources can be obtained using a differential

operator which commutes with the curl operator.

3

During mathematical treatment in fractional paradigm, often in order to solve

a general problem, the canonical cases are solved first. Second step is to derive an

operator that can transform one canonical case into the other and then one may think

of the possibility of any solution between the two canonical cases. Schematically, this

concept has been shown in Figures 1.1a and 1.1b for a linear operator L.

Figure 1.1a.

cases

Figure 1.1b.

4

Figure 1.1a shows the block diagram of a classical electromagnetic problem in which

two canonical solutions of the problem are shown while fractional paradigm of the

problem is shown in Figure 1.1b which shows possible intermediate solutions of the

two canonical cases. The conditions for fractionalization of a linear operator and a

recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator has been discussed in [13-16] and also

given in the next subsections. The new fractionalized operator, which may symbolically

be denoted by L with the fractional parameter , under certain conditions, can be

used to obtain the intermediate cases between the canonical case 1 and case 2. The

two cases may be connected through the number of intermediate cases.

1.1 Conditions for fractionalization of an operator

A linear operator L may be a fractionalized operator (i.e. L ) that provides the

intermediate solutions to the original problems, if it satisfies the following properties:

I. For = 1, the fractional operator L should become the original operator L,

which provide us with case 2 when it is applied to case 1.

II. For = 0, the operator L should become the identity operator I and thus the

case 1 can be mapped onto itself.

III. For any two values 1 and 2 of the fractionalization parameter , L should

have the additive property in , i.e., L1 .L2 = L2 .L1 = L1 +2 .

IV. The operator L should commute with the operator involved in the mathematical

description of the original problem.

1.2 Recipe for fractionalization of a linear operator

Let us consider a class of linear operators (or mappings) where the domain and

range of any linear operator of this class are similar to each other and have the same

5

dimensions. In other words, any linear operator of this class, which can be generically

shown by L, should map an element from the space C n into generally another element

in the space C n . That is, L : C n C n where C n is a n-dimensional vector space over

the field of complex numbers. Once a linear operator such as L is given to us, a recipe

for constructing the fractional operator L can be described as follows [13]

1. One finds the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operator L in the space C n so

that L.Am = am Am where Am and am for m = 1, 2, 3, ..., n are the eigenvectors

and eigenvalues of the operator L in C n respectively.

2. Provided Am s form a complete orthogonal basis in the space C n , any vector in

this space can be expressed in terms of linear combination of Am s. Thus, an

arbitrary vector G in space C n can be written as

G=

n

X

gm Am

m=1

3. Having obtained the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the operator L, the fractional

operator L can be defined to have the same eigenvectors Am s, but with the

eigenvalues as (am ) , i.e.,

L .Am = (am ) Am

When this fractional operator L operates on an arbitrary vector G in the space

C n , one gets

L .G = L .

n

X

m=1

gm Am =

n

X

gm L . Am =

m=1

n

X

gm (am ) Am

m=1

The above equation essentially defines the fractional operator L from the knowledge

of operator L and its eigenvectors and eigenvalues. In next section, above recipe has

been applied to fractionalize the curl operator.

6

1.3 Fractional curl operator

The concept of fractional curl operator was introduced in 1998 by Engheta [13].

The curl operator falls in the class of linear operators defined earlier and hence can

be fractionalized. It may be noted that the curl operation becomes a cross product

operation in the Fourier domain as explained below:

Consider a three-dimensional vector field F as a function of three spatial variables

in (x, y, z) coordinate system. Curl of this vector can be written as

curl F =

Fy

Fz

y

z

+

x

Fz

Fx

z

x

+

y

Fx

Fy

x

y

(1.1)

, y

, and z

are

where Fx , Fy , and Fz are the Cartesian components of vector F, and x

the unit vectors in the space domain. The next step is to apply the spatial Fourier

transform, from the space domain (x, y, z) into the k-domain (kx , ky , kz ), on vectors F

and curl F. Assuming that the spatial Fourier transforms of these two vector functions

exist, the Fourier transform can be written as

x , ky , kz )

Fk {F(x, y, z)} = F(k

Z Z Z

=

F(x, y, z) exp (ikx x iky y ikz z)dx dy dz

(1.2)

x , ky , kz )

= ik F(k

(1.3)

where a tilde over the vector F

Hence in the k-domain, the curl operator can be written as a cross product of vector

It is suggested that, in order to fractionalize the curl operator,

ik with the vector F.

one should first fractionalize the cross product operator (ik) in the k-domain. Clearly

the cross product operator is an operator that gets two vectors as its inputs and gives

= W.

However, if one picks the first vector k, then

one vector as its output, e.g., k U

7

the operator (k) can be considered as a linear operator which takes one vector (e.g.,

as its input and gives out one vector (e.g., W)

as an output. Both vectors U

and W

U)

are three-dimensional vectors in the k-domain. Thus, the linear operator (k) belongs

to the class of linear operators mentioned earlier, and therefore it can be fractionalized.

Thus fractionalization of curl operator is equivalent to fractionalization of this cross

product operator. With the method described in section 1.2, fractionalization of the

cross product operator as (ik) can be proposed in the k-domain as explained in the

next section.

1.4 Fractional cross product operator

The procedure for fractionalization of a linear operator presented earlier can be

used here to obtain the fractionalized cross product operator shown by the symbol

(k) . For an illustrative example, let us take the case where the vector k in the opk . The eigenvalues

erator (k) is the unit vector along the z-axis in the k-domain, i.e., z

and (normalized) eigenvectors of the operator (

zk ) in the k-domain are obtained as

k i

x

y

k,

2

k + i

x

y

k,

A2 =

2

k ,

A3 = z

A1 =

a1 = i

a2 = i

a3 = 0

(1.4)

k, y

k , and z

k are the unit vectors in the k-domain.

where x

x x

y y

z z

= U

k + U

k + U

k upon which the fractional cross product

The vector U

operation has to be performed must be written in terms of eigen vectors of the operator

as

= g1 A1 + g2 A2 + g3 A3

U

(1.5)

g1 =

x + iU

U

y,

2

g2 =

x iU

U

y,

2

z

g3 = U

8

Operation of cross product can be written as

= a1 g1 A1 + a2 g2 A2 + a3 g3 A3

(

zk )U

(1.6a)

equation (1.6a) and hence can be expressed as

= (a1 ) g1 A1 + (a2 ) g2 A2 + (a3 ) g3 A3

(

zk ) U

x + iU

y )(

(U

x i

yk )

2

y )(

(Ux iU

x + i

yk )

z z

k

+ (0) U

+ (i)

2

= (+i)

(1.6b)

=x

k , equation (1.6b) becomes

For example, if one takes U

k i

k + i

1

x

yk

x

yk

1

k = (i)

(

zk ) x

+ (i)

2

2

2

2

k + sin

k

= cos

x

y

2

2

(1.7)

k . As observed

which provides the fractional cross product of (

zk ) acting on vector x

from equation (1.7), when = 1, one obtain the conventional (ordinary) cross product

k x

k = y

k . When = 0, one then obtains (

k = x

k = I.

z

zk )0 x

xk , i.e., the identity

k . For other values of between zero and unity, one gets the

operator operating on x

intermediate or fractional cases of cross product operation.

The above fractionalization of the cross product can then, in principle, be applied

in the k-domain. If the resulting expression can then be inverse

to the case of ik F

Fourier transformed back into the (x, y, z)-domain, the final result may be called the

fractional curl of vector F, i.e., curl F. In next section application of fractional curl

operator in electromagnetics is addressed.

9

1.5 Fractional duality in electromagnetics

One of the potential applications of fractional curl operator can be the fractionalization of the duality theorem in electromagnetism. Consider the source-free Maxwell

equations in vacuum (with permittivity and permeability ) for the harmonic time

dependence exp(it) as

curl H = iE

curl E = iH

div H = 0

div E = 0

(1.8)

Applying the spatial Fourier transform on both sides of the above equations leads to

i

1 h

= E

ik ( H)

ik

i

1 h

ik (E) = H

ik

=0

ik. ( H)

=0

ik. E

where =

(1.9)

x , ky , kz ) and H(k

x , ky , kz ) are the spatial Fourier

/, k = . E(k

Let us apply the fractional cross product operator

(ik) (ik)

on both sides of

1

= 1 (ik) E

(ik)+1 ( H)

+1

(ik)

(ik)

1

= 1 (ik) ( H)

(ik)+1 E

+1

(ik)

(ik)

(1.10)

Since cross product operator holds the property of commutation, it can be shown that

(ik)+1 = (ik)1 (ik) = (ik) (ik)1 , and thus equation (1.10) can be rewritten

10

as

1

1

1

ik

(ik) ( H) =

(ik) E

ik

(ik)

(ik)

1

1

1

ik

(ik) E =

(ik) ( H)

ik

(ik)

(ik)

(1.11a)

(1.11b)

ik.

(ik) ( H) = 0

(ik)

1

ik.

(ik) E = 0

(ik)

(1.11c)

(1.11d)

x , ky , kz ) and

Comparing equation (1.11) with equation (1.9) reveals that, since E(k

x , ky , kz ) are solutions to the source-free Maxwell equations in the k-domain, the

H(k

fields defined by

1

(ik) E

(ik)

(ik) ( H)

=

(ik)

fd =

E

fd

H

(1.12a)

(1.12b)

are also a new set of solutions to the source-free Maxwell equations. Inverse Fourier

transforming these back into the (x, y, z)-domain, we obtain the new set of solutions

as

Efd

Hfd

=

curl E

(ik)

=

curl (H)

(ik)

(1.13a)

(1.13b)

and

=0

Efd = E,

=1

Efd = H,

Hfd = H

Hfd = E

which shows that for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) gives the original solution while (Efd , Hfd )

gives dual to the original solution of the Maxwell equations for = 1. Therefore for

11

all values of between zero and unity, (Efd , Hfd ) provides the new set of solutions

which can effectively be regarded as the intermediate solutions between the original

solution and dual to the original solution. These solutions are also called the fractional

dual fields as expressed with the subscript fd for these fields.

Various investigations have been made in exploring the role of fractional duality in

electromagnetics. The study related to the fractional dual solutions to Maxwell equations in homogeneous chiral medium is given in [26]. Field decomposition approach

of [48] has been used and it is determined that orientation of the polarization ellipse

of fractional fields is rotated by an angle /2 with respect to the original solutions.

Study relating the fractional duality in metamaterials with negative permittivity and

permeability is given in [27] and it is proved that fractional dual solutions in double

negative (DNG) medium are similar to the ordinary or double positive (DPS) medium

with an additional multiplication factor of . Application of the complex and higher

order of the fractional curl operator in electromagnetics has been discussed in [28].

It has been found that the fractional dual solutions are periodic with respect the

fractional parameter and the period is 4. The period has four subranges and the

fractional solutions for any subrange act as original solution for the next subrange as

explained below:

Further it is concluded that transverse impedance is periodic with period 2 such that

if the fractional dual surface acts as an inductive surface in one subrange, it will act

as a capacitive surface in the next subrange. The study corresponding to the complex

value of the fractional parameter = 1 + i2 reveals that the fractional solutions

12

may be represented as fractional dual solutions only if 1 and 2 falls in two different

fractional ranges shown above. Hussain and Naqvi introduced the concept of fractional

transmission lines and fractional waveguides [29-35]. Recently Naqvi has extended the

investigations to fractional duality in the chiral medium having property of chiral

nihility [41-42].

Veliev and Engheta has addressed the problem of reflection from a fractional dual

boundary [19]. They obtained the fractional dual solutions in terms of fixed solutions

for oblique incidence on an impedance infinite surface and derived the reflection coefficients of the fractional boundary in terms of the original reflection coefficients. They

found that impedance of the fractional reflecting surface is anisotropic and gave the

impedance boundary conditions for the new boundary. The more generalized form of

these boundaries has been discussed and given in [21]. The fractional curl operator has

been applied to study the reflection from a bi-isotropic slab backed by a PEC surface

in [23] in which it is shown that order of the fractional curl operator can be used to

control the twist polarizer effect.

In view of the interesting role of fractional curl operator in illustrating the polarization of the propagating wave and effective impedance of the boundary in reflection

problems attracted me to investigate the role and utility of fractional curl operator

in microwave engineering. Fractional transmission lines and waveguides in electromagnetics has been chosen as the topic of research. In order to discuss fractional

transmission lines and fractional waveguides, the two canonical cases must be mentioned first. Discussion in this thesis deals with the two canonical cases which are

related through the principle of duality. That is, the two canonical cases are related

through the curl operator. So by fractionalizing the curl operator, one can get new set

of transmission lines and waveguides which may be regarded as intermediate step of

the two canonical cases related through the duality theorem. The transmission lines

and waveguides which are intermediate step of the two cases have been termed as

13

the fractional transmission lines and fractional waveguides. Answers to the following

questions are targeted: What would be the meaning of fractional transmission lines

and fractional waveguides in electromagnetics? How to derive the expressions which

govern fractional transmission lines and waveguides? What is the behavior of field

pattern inside the fractional waveguides? What is impedance of walls of the fractional

waveguides? How the power density is distributed across the cross section of the fractional waveguides? To answer these questions, the thesis has been organized in the

following manners:

In chapter II, The fractional dual solutions for the travelling plane wave in a

lossless, homogeneous, and isotropic medium are derived. Then the fractional dual

solutions for the standing waves in the presence of the reflecting boundaries have been

discussed. Planar boundaries of perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance, and

perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) have been considered. The fractional dual

solutions have been termed as the solutions of reflection from fractional PEC, fractional impedance, and fractional PEMC boundaries. Dependence of the impedance

of the fractional boundaries with respect to the fractional parameter has been studied. Transverse electric (TEz ) and transverse magnetic (TMz ) incidences have been

discussed separately.

Study related to the reflection of a plane wave from the planar boundaries has

been extended for the parallel plate waveguides and given in chapter III. The resulting

waveguides have been termed as the fractional parallel plate waveguides. Focus of this

chapter is to study the field distribution inside the fractional parallel plate waveguides.

Fractional parallel plate PEC, fractional parallel plate impedance, and fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguides have been investigated. Dependence of impedance of

walls of the fractional waveguides upon the fractional parameter has been discussed.

Chapter IV deals with the fractional dual solutions in the chiral medium. In this

chapter behavior of the chiral-achiral interface has been studied with respect to the

14

fractional parameter . Fractional parallel plate waveguides having PEC walls and

filled with a chiral medium has been investigated. The concept of fractional transmission lines has also been discussed in this chapter. Transmission lines of symmetric and

non-symmetric nature have been considered.

In chapter V, fractional rectangular impedance waveguides have been investigated.

The rectangular waveguide having impedance walls and filled with a homogenous,

lossless, and isotropic material has been considered. Field distribution in the transverse

plane of the waveguide, impedance of walls of the guide and power density distribution

in the cross sectional plane have been investigated. The special case of fractional

rectangular waveguide having PEC walls has also been discussed.

The thesis has been concluded in chapter VI.

15

CHAPTER II

Fractional Dual Solutions for Planar Boundaries

In this chapter, fractional dual solutions to the Maxwell equations for different

planar boundaries have been derived. Perfect electric conductor (PEC), impedance,

and perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) boundaries have been considered for

discussion. The behavior of fractional dual solutions with respect to fractional parameter is studied and dependence of the impedance of fractional dual boundary on

fractional parameter has been noted. In each case, planar boundary is placed at y = 0

and the region y > 0 is occupied by a lossless, homogeneous, and isotropic medium

having permittivity and permeability .

Let us consider an electromagnetic plane wave propagating in a direction described

+ kz z

. Generic expressions for the electric field E and the

by the wave vector k = ky y

magnetic field H corresponding to this wave can be written as

+ E0y y

+ E0z z

] exp(iky y + ikz z)

E = [E0x x

(2.1a)

+ H0y y

+ H0z z

] exp(iky y + ikz z)

H = [H0x x

(2.1b)

As per recipe described in chapter I, in order to write fractional dual solutions between

(E, H) and (H, E), we need to write the field vectors in terms of eigen vectors of

= 1 (ky y

+ kz z

) as

the cross product operator k

k

E = [P1 A1 + P2 A2 + P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.2a)

(2.2b)

16

where A1 , A2 , and A3 are the normalized eigen vectors of the cross product operator

k.

The normalized eigen vectors and the corresponding eigen values of the cross

are as given below

product operator k

1

i

(kz y

ky z

) ,

A1 = x

k

2

1

i

+ (kz y

ky z

) ,

A2 = x

k

2

i

+ kz z

),

A3 = (ky y

k

a1 = +i

(2.3a)

a2 = i

(2.3b)

a3 = 0

(2.3c)

In equation (2.2), quantities P1 , P2 , and P3 are the coefficients of expansion and are

given below

1

i

P1 = E0x + (kz E0y ky E0 z)

k

2

1

i

P2 = E0x (kz E0y ky E0z )

k

2

i

P3 = 2

(ky E0y + kz E0z )

k

(2.3d)

(2.3e)

(2.3f )

while Q1 , Q2 , and Q3 are required co-efficients for the magnetic field and may be

obtained by the symmetry.

Fractional dual solutions (Efd , Hfd ) to the Maxwell equations, corresponding

to the original field solutions given in equation (2.1), may be obtained by using the

following relations

E

Efd = (k)

= [(a1 ) P1 A1 + (a2 ) P2 A2 + (a3 ) P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.4a)

H

Hfd = (k)

= [(a1 ) Q1 A1 + (a2 ) Q2 A2 + (a3 ) Q3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.4b)

It may be noted that the fields in fractional dual solutions are also related through the

duality theorem, i.e.,

Hfd = (k)E

fd

(2.4c)

17

In order to give more insight to the fractional dual solutions of Maxwell equations,

=

let us consider a plane wave propagating in direction described by the vector k

1

k

+ kz z

). Associated electric and magnetic fields are given by

(ky y

exp(iky y + ikz z)

E=x

kz

ky

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

H =

y

k

k

(2.5a)

(2.5b)

1

Efd = [P1 (a1 ) A1 + P2 (a2 ) A2 + P3 (a3 ) A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

2

Hfd = (k)Efd

where A1 A2 , and A3 are the eigen vectors and a1 , a2 , and a3 are the corresponding

=

eigen values of the operator k

k (ky y

+ kz z

the coefficients of expansion. Hence the fractional dual solutions can be written as

kz

ky

+

+

Efd = cos

x

sin

y

sin

z

2

k

2

k

2

Hfd

exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz

ky

+

+

= sin

x

cos

y

cos

z

2

k

2

k

2

(2.6a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.6b)

It may be noted that for = 0 above set of expressions yield result (E, H) and for

= 1 it yields (H, E). For between zero and unity, fields given in equation (2.6)

can be regarded as fractional dual fields between the original and dual to the original

=

fields of the plane wave propagating in an oblique direction k

k (ky y

). It

+ kz z

may also be noted from equation (2.6) that fractional dual fields represent a plane

wave propagating in the same direction as the original wave. However its transverse

fields have been rotated by an angle (/2).

Now let us derive fractional solutions for the reflection of a plane wave from

different kinds of planar boundaries placed at y = 0.

18

2.2 Planar perfect electric conductor (PEC) interface

Consider a planar PEC interface which is placed at y = 0. Let us discuss the

fractional dual solutions for normal as well as oblique incidence of a plane wave at the

PEC interface.

2.2.1 Normal incidence

Assume that the PEC interface is excited by a normally incident unit amplitude

plane wave as shown in Figure 2.1.

kref

Hinc

Einc

Href

Eref

kinc

y

z

PEC boundary

Figure 2.1.

The electric and magnetic fields associated with the incident and reflected plane waves

are given below

exp(iky)

Einc = x

(2.7a)

exp(iky)

Hinc = z

(2.7b)

Eref =

x exp(iky)

(2.7c)

exp(iky)

Href = z

(2.7d)

Total fields in the region y > 0 can be written as a sum of the incident and reflected

fields and are given below

E =

x2i sin(ky)

(2.8a)

19

2 cos(ky)

H = z

(2.8b)

Fractional dual solutions for the incident wave can be written by using equation (2.4)

as

Einc

fd

Hinc

fd

h

i

+ sin

exp(iky)

= cos

x

z

2

2

h

i

+ cos

exp(iky)

= sin

x

z

2

2

(2.9a)

(2.9b)

Similarly fractional dual solutions for the reflected wave can be written as

h

i

exp(iky)

Eref

=

exp(i)

cos

x

+

sin

z

fd

2

2

h

i

exp(iky)

=

exp(i)

sin

x

+

cos

z

Href

fd

2

2

(2.10a)

(2.10b)

Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 can be written as sum of the incident and

reflected fields as

ref

Efd = Einc

fd + Efd

ref

Hfd = Hinc

fd + Hfd

which give

h

i

+ sin

2i sin ky +

Efd = exp i

cos

x

z

2

2

2

2

h

i

+ cos

2 cos ky +

Hfd = exp i

sin

x

z

2

2

2

2

(2.11a)

(2.11b)

=0

and = 1

(Efd , Hfd ) = (H, E)

This means that the fractional dual solutions given by equation (2.11) represent the

original field solution for = 0 while for = 1, equation (2.11) represents the solution

20

which is dual to the original solution. For the range 0 < < 1, equation (2.11)

gives the solutions which are intermediate step of the original solution and dual to the

original solution and hence may be called as fractional dual solutions.

Wave impedance is defined by the ratio of transverse components of corresponding

electric and magnetic fields as

Zfd

Efdz

Efdx

=

= i tan ky +

=

Hfdz

Hfdx

2

At y = 0, this becomes impedance of the new reflecting boundary called the fractional

dual boundary and can be written as

Zfd = i tan

(2.12)

From equation (2.12), it can be interpreted that for = 0, impedance of the fractional

dual boundary is Zfd = 0, i.e., PEC surface while for = 1, the impedance is Zfd = ,

i.e., PMC surface. For 0 < < 1, the reflecting surface behaves as an intermediate

step between PEC and PMC surface that depends upon fractional parameter .

2.2.2 Oblique incidence on a planar PEC boundary

Consider a unit amplitude plane wave propagating in direction described by the

inc =

vector k

k (ky y

+ kz z

the PEC boundary, reflected wave is produced in direction described by the vector

ref =

k

k (ky y

+ kz z

way to solve Maxwell equations is to break the fields into perpendicular polarization

and parallel polarization components. For the field configuration shown in Figure 2.2,

perpendicular polarization can also be referred to as transverse electric polarization

to the z-direction (i.e., T E z polarization), while parallel polarization as transverse

magnetic polarization to the z-direction (i.e., T M z polarization). The fields of the two

21

polarizations are related through the duality theorem. Let us study T E z and T M z

polarizations separately.

Case 1: Transverse electric (T E z ) polarization

Let us first consider an incident wave having transverse electric polarization as

shown in Figure 2.2. The electric and magnetic fields for the incident and reflected

waves can be written as

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Einc = x

ky

kz

inc

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

y

H =

k

k

(2.13a)

Eref =

x exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz

ky

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

H = y

k

k

(2.13c)

(2.13b)

(2.13d)

Fractional dual solutions for the incident wave are same as given in equation (2.6), i.e.,

kz

ky

inc

+

+

Efd = cos

x

sin

y

sin

z

2

k

2

k

2

exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz

ky

+

+

= sin

x

cos

y

cos

z

2

k

2

k

2

(2.14a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.14b)

Hinc

fd

22

Fractional dual solutions corresponding to the reflected fields may be obtained using

equation (2.4), i.e.,

Efd = [(a1 ) P1 A1 + (a2 ) P2 A2 + (a3 ) P3 A3 ] exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hfd = (k)E

fd

where A1 A2 , and A3 are the eigen vectors and a1 , a2 , and a3 are the corresponding

ref =

eigen values of the operator k

k (ky y

+ kz z

kz

ky

ref

+

x

sin

y

sin

z

2

k

2

k

2

exp(iky y + ikz z)

kz

ky

= exp(i) sin

x

cos

y

cos

z

2

k

2

k

2

(2.14c)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

(2.14d)

Href

fd

Fractional dual solutions corresponding to the fields in the region y > 0 can be written

as sum of the incident and the reflected fields as

kz

+ S cos ky y +

Efd = 2 iC sin ky y +

x

y

2

k

2

h

ky

i

exp i kz z +

i S sin ky y +

z

k

2

2

kz

i C sin ky y +

Hfd = 2 S cos ky y +

x

y

2

k

2

h

ky

i

exp i kz z +

+ C cos ky y +

z

k

2

2

(2.15a)

(2.15b)

where

C = cos

S = sin

2

2

The fields given in equation (2.15) have been plotted in Figure 2.3 for different values

of at an observation point (ky y, kz z) = (/4, /4).

23

Figure 2.3

24

From Figure 2.3, it can be seen that fractional dual fields satisfy the principle of duality,

i.e., for = 0

Efdx = Ex ,

Hfdx = Hx

Efdy = Ey ,

Hfdy = Hy

Efdz = Ez ,

Hfdz = Hz

and for = 1

Efdx = Hx ,

Hfdx = Ex

Efdy = Hy ,

Hfdy = Ey

Efdz = Hz ,

Hfdz = Ez

and magnetic fields as

Efdx

k

= i tan ky y +

Hfdz

ky

2

ky

Efdz

= i tan ky y +

=

Hfdx

k

2

Zfdxz =

Zfdzx

the fractional dual boundary and can be written in terms of normalized impedance

zfd = Zfd / as given below

z fd

k

ky

TE

=

x

z+

zx

zfd

ky

k

(2.16)

where

TE

zfd

= i tan

for 0 1

zfdxz =

k TE

z ,

ky fd

zfdzx =

ky TE

z

k fd

Since zfdxz 6= zfdzx , so it can be interpreted that impedance of the fractional dual PEC

boundary for oblique incidence is anisotropic in nature.

25

Case 2: Transverse magnetic (TMz ) polarization

Plane wave reflection geometry for the transverse magnetic polarization from PEC

plane placed at y = 0 is shown in Figure 2.4.

Electric and magnetic fields shown in the figure can be written as

kz

ky

inc

z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

E = y

k

k

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hinc = x

kz

ky

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

E = y

k

k

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Href = x

(2.17a)

(2.17b)

(2.17c)

(2.17d)

Using the similar procedure as in the above section, fractional dual solutions for the

fields in the region y > 0 may be obtained as

kz

C cos ky y +

Efd = 2 iS sin ky y +

x

y

2

k

2

h

ky

i

exp i kz z +

+i C sin ky y +

z

k

2

2

kz

i S sin ky y +

Hfd = 2 C cos ky y +

x

y

2

k

2

(2.18a)

26

h

ky

i

exp i kz z +

+ S cos ky y +

z

k

2

2

(2.18b)

It may be noted from equation (2.18), that the fractional dual fields satisfy the duality

theorem, i.e.,

=0

and = 1

Using the field components given in equation (2.18), impedance of the fractional

dual surface can be written as

z fd

k

ky

TM

=

x

z+

zx

zfd

ky

k

(2.19)

where

TM

zfd

= i tan

for 0 1

the fractional dual PEC surface is anisotropic and dependance of the impedance on

fractional parameter is same for T E z and T M z polarizations.

Let the planar interface is placed at y = 0 and has a finite nonzero impedance Z.

By developing the fractional dual solutions of Maxwell equations for the geometry, it

is of interest to see the behavior of the fractional dual impedance boundary. Transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences are discussed separately in different

subsections.

27

2.3.1 Transverse electric (T E z ) incidence

Consider a plane wave with T E z polarization incident on an impedance planar

boundary having the normalized impedance zb = Z/ and placed at y = 0. The

incident and reflected fields can be written as

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Einc = x

kz

ky

inc

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

H =

y

k

k

(2.20a)

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Eref = te x

ky

kz

ref

z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

H = te

y

k

k

(2.20c)

(2.20b)

(2.20d)

te =

ky

k

ky

zb k

1 zb

1+

(2.21)

Efd

Hfd

h

n

o

C exp iky y i

= x

+ te exp iky y + i

2

2

kz n

o

S

+y

exp iky y i

te exp iky y + i

k

2

2

ky

o

S

+z

exp iky y i

+ te exp iky y + i

k

2

2

h

i

exp i kz z +

2

h

n

o

=

xS exp iky y i

te exp iky y + i

2

2

kz n

o

C

+y

exp iky y i

+ te exp iky y + i

k

2

2

ky

o

C

+z

exp iky y i

te exp iky y + i

k

2

2

h

i

exp i kz z +

2

Et = Efdx x

+ Efdz

z

Ht = Hfdx x

+ Hfdz

z

(2.22a)

(2.22b)

28

Plots of these tangential fields are given in Figure 2.5 for two values of normalized

impedance that is, zb = 0 and zb = 100. It may be noted that normalized impedance

zb = 0 gives PEC case while zb = 100 gives PMC case. Solid lines show the plots of

tangential electric fields while dashed lines are for the corresponding magnetic fields.

In Figure 2.5, zero values of the electric field for (, zb ) = (0, 0) and (, zb ) = (1, 100)

show the boundary conditions for the PEC surface while zero values of the magnetic

field for (, zb ) = (1, 0) and (, zb ) = (0, 100) show the boundary conditions for the

PMC. For any value of the normalized impedance zb between 0 and , the dual to

the impedance boundary will be an admittance boundary and fractional dual of the

boundary would be an intermediate step between the impedance boundary and the

admittance boundary and hence may be called fractional impedance boundary.

Figure 2.5 Fractional dual tangential fields for T E z polarization in the presence of

an impedance boundary

29

Impedance of the fractional dual surface can be written as

z fd

k

ky

TE

=

x

z+

zx

zfd

ky

k

(2.23)

where

TE

zfd

+ i tan

2

=

,

ky

1 + zb k i tan 2

zb

ky

k

for 0 1

Now consider the case of T M z -polarized wave incident on an impedance boundary

having normalized impedance zb . The incident and reflected electric and magnetic

fields for this polarization can be written as

kz

ky

z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

= y

k

k

inc

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hinc = x

ky

kz

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

E = tm y

k

k

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Href = tm x

(2.24a)

(2.24b)

(2.24c)

(2.24d)

tm =

ky

k

ky

k

zb

+ zb

(2.25)

Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 for this case can be written by applying

the duality on the fields of equation (2.22) subject to the replacement of the reflection

coefficient te by tm and hence can be written as

h

n

o

S exp iky y i

tm exp iky y + i

Efd = x

2

2

kz n

o

C

y

exp iky y i

+ tm exp iky y + i

k

2

2

ky n

o

C

z

exp iky y i

tm exp iky y + i

k

2

2

30

h

i

exp i kz z +

2

o

h

n

C exp iky y i

Hfd = x

+ tm exp iky y + i

2

2

kz n

o

S

+y

exp iky y i

tm exp iky y + i

k

2

2

ky n

o

S

+z

exp iky y i

+ tm exp iky y + i

k

2

2

h

i

exp i kz z +

2

(2.26a)

(2.26b)

y = 0 have been plotted in Figure 2.6. In contrast to Figure 2.5, Figure 2.6 shows

that the fractional dual solutions given by equation(2.26) satisfy the conditions of

fractional dual impedance boundary. That means for (, zb ) = (0, 0) and (, zb ) =

(1, 100), boundary conditions for PEC surface are satisfied while for (, zb ) = (1, 0)

and (, zb ) = (0, 100), boundary conditions for PMC surface are satisfied.

31

Impedance of the fractional dual impedance surface can be written as

z fd

k

ky

TM

=

x

z+

zx

zfd

ky

k

(2.27)

where

TM

zfd

+ i tan

2

=

,

1 + zb kky i tan

2

zb

k

ky

for 0 1

(2.27a)

impedance surface is different from T E z polarization. To show the difference, impedances given in equation (2.27a) and (2.23a) have been plotted as shown in the Figure 2.7.

From the figure it can further be noted that for normalized impedance zb = 0, behaviors

TE

TM

for the two polarizations become same, i.e., zfd

= zfd

which is as for the case of

Figure 2.7

32

2.4 Reflection from a planar perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC)

boundary

Perfect electric conductor (PEC) and perfect magnetic conductor (PMC) are basic

concepts in electromagnetics. Lindell has recently introduced the concept of perfect

electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) as generalization of PEC and PMC [44]. It is well

known that PEC boundary may be defined by the conditions

n E = 0,

n.B = 0

n H = 0,

n.D = 0

n (H + M E) = 0,

n.(D M B) = 0

(2.28)

where M denotes the admittance of the PEMC boundary. It is obvious that PMC

corresponds to M = 0, while PEC corresponds to M = . It may be noted that

PEMC boundary is non-reciprocal. Non-reciprocity of the PEMC boundary can be

demonstrated by showing that the polarization of the plane wave reflected from PEMC

surface is rotated. Problems involving PEMC boundaries with the admittance parameter M and air or other isotropic medium can be transformed to problems involving

PEC or PMC boundaries using duality transformation [45]. The incident wave fields

may be transformed using the following duality transformation

Einc

d

Hinc

d

M

=

1

Einc

Hinc

(2.29)

33

ref

The reflected fields (Eref

d , Hd ) corresponding the transformed incident fields

inc

(Einc

d , Hd ) can be written using the PEC boundary conditions and finally the inverse

transformation [45] may be used to get the fields reflected from the PEMC surface as

ref

ref

1

M

E

Ed

=

(2.30)

1

ref

2

M

H

Href

(M ) + 1

d

Another generalization of PEC and PMC reveals from the concept of fractional curl

operator, i.e., () . The boundary is known as fractional dual interface with PEC

and PMC as the two special situations of the fractional dual interface [13]. In this

section, intermediate situations between the PEMC boundary and dual to the PEMC

boundary (DPEMC) using the idea of fractional curl operator would be discussed.

Behavior of the impedance dealing with intermediate situations is of interest.

2.4.1 Transverse electric (T E z ) incidence

Consider a plane wave with T E z -polarization is incident upon a PEMC boundary

plane placed at y = 0. Electric and magnetic fields for the incident wave are similar

to as equation (2.13), i.e.,

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Einc = x

ky

kz

inc

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

y

H =

k

k

Applying the transformation given in equation (2.29), duality transformed fields corresponding to the incident fields can be written as

ky

kz

inc

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Ed = M

x+ y

k

k

kz

ky

inc

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hd =

x + M y

k

k

(2.31a)

(2.31b)

Fields reflected from the planar PEC boundary, when the incident wave defined by

the fields given in equation (2.31) hits the boundary, can be written as

h

ky i

kz

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Ed = M

x+ y

k

k

h

kz

ky i

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

Hd =

x + M y

k

k

(2.32a)

(2.32b)

34

The fields reflected from the PEMC boundary can be written by applying the inverse

transformation given in equation (2.30) and are given below

1 (M )2

2M

kz

ky

ref

+ z

exp(iky y + ikz z) (2.33a)

x

y

E =

1 + (M )2

1 + (M )2

k

k

ref Eref

Href = k

(2.33b)

where

ref = 1 (ky y

+ kz z

)

k

k

The quantity M can be represented in terms of angle as M = tan , where = /2

represents M = 0, that is PEC boundary and = 0 represents M = , that is

PMC boundary. Hence equation (2.33) may be written in alternate form as

kz

ky

ref

z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

y

E = cos(2)

x + sin(2)

k

k

kz

ky

ref

z

exp(iky y + ikz z)

H = sin(2)

x + cos(2)

y

k

k

(2.34a)

(2.34b)

Total fields in the region y > 0 can be written as sum of the incident and reflected

fields and are given below

h n

o

2

2

E = exp(ikz z) 2

x cos(ky y) sin () i sin(ky y) cos ()

n

o

kz

sin(2) cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)

y

+

k

n

o

ky

sin(2) cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)

z

k

h

n

o

H = exp(ikz z) sin(2)

x cos(ky y) + i sin(ky y)

n

o

kz

+

2

y cos(ky y) cos2 () i sin(ky y) sin2 ()

k

n

o

ky

2

2

+

2

z cos(ky y) sin () i sin(ky y) cos ()

k

(2.35a)

(2.35b)

E = 2i exp(ikz z)

x sin(ky y)

kz

ky

cos(ky y) i

sin(ky y)

H = 2 exp(ikz z)

y

z

k

k

(2.36a)

(2.36b)

35

which are the relations for the PEC boundary. It may also be noted that at y = 0

equation (2.35) satisfies the PEMC boundary conditions, i.e.,

(H + tan E) = 0

y

Fractional dual solutions in the region y > 0 can be written as

h

i

Efd = exp i kz z +

2

h n

o

(C + C ) cos ky y +

x

+ (C C ) i sin ky y +

2

2

n

o

kz

+

y

(S + S ) cos ky y +

+ (S S ) i sin ky y +

k

2

2

n

ky

z

(2.37a)

(S S ) cos ky y +

+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +

k

2

2

h

i

0 Hfd = exp i kz z +

2

h

n

x (S + S ) cos ky y +

+ (S S ) i sin ky y +

2

2

n

kz

o

+

y

(C + C ) cos ky y +

+ (C C ) i sin ky y +

k

2

2

n

ky

z

(C C ) cos ky y +

+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +

(2.37b)

k

2

2

where

C = cos 2

2

S = sin 2

2

Normalized impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface may be obtained from the

ratio of the fields at y = 0 as

k TE

ky T E

z fd =

z

x

z + zfdzx

zx

,

ky fdxz

k

01

(2.38)

where

TE

zfdxz

TE

zfdzx

C (C + C ) + iS (C C )

=

C (C C ) + iS (C + C )

C (S S ) + iS (S + S )

=

C (S + S ) + iS (S S )

(2.38a)

(2.38b)

This shows that both the components of the normalized impedance of the fractional

dual PEMC boundary have different behavior with respect to the fractional parameter.

36

2.4.2 Transverse magnetic (T M z ) incidence

Consider a plane wave with T M z -polarization is incident upon a PEMC boundary

plane placed at y = 0. Following the treatment similar to the last section, fields

reflected from the PEMC surface can be written as

ref

Href

kz

ky

+ z

sin(2)

x exp(iky y + ikz z)

= cos(2) y

k

k

kz

ky

z

cos(2)

= sin(2)

y

x exp(iky y + ikz z)

k

k

(2.39a)

(2.39b)

Efd

Hfd

h

i

= exp i kz z +

2

h

n

x (S S ) cos ky y +

+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +

2

2

n

kz

o

+

y

(C C ) cos ky y +

+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +

k

2

2

n

ky

z

(C + C ) cos ky y +

+ (C C ) i sin ky y +

(2.40a)

k

2

2

h

i

= exp i kz z +

2

h

n

x (C C ) cos ky y +

+ (C + C ) i sin ky y +

2

2

n

kz

o

y

(S S ) cos ky y +

+ (S + S ) i sin ky y +

k

2

2

n

ky

o

+

z

(S + S ) cos ky y +

+ (S S ) i sin ky y +

(2.40b)

k

2

2

z fd

k TM

ky TM

=

z

x

z + zfdzx

zx

,

ky fdxz

k

01

(2.41)

where

TM

zfdxz

TM

zfdzx

C (S S ) + iS (S + S )

=

C (S + S ) + iS (S S )

C (C + C ) + iS (C C )

=

C (C C ) + iS (C + C )

(2.41a)

(2.41b)

37

It may be noted here that

TM

TE

zfdxz

= zfdzx

, and

TM

TE

zfdzx

= zfdxz

Plots of these impedances are given in Figure (2.8). Figure 2.8a shows variation along

the axis while Figure 2.8b shows the variation of the impedance components with

the admittance parameter . Figure 2.8a shows that for values of between /2 and

0, the impedance component zfdxz changes from 1 to tan2 while zfdzx changes from

cot2 to 1 as the value of the fractional parameter changes from 0 to 1. Further

we can see from the figure that for = /2, impedance of the fractional dual PEMC

boundary represents the fractional dual PEC boundary. Behavior of the impedance of

fractional dual PEMC boundary along the admittance axis as seen from Figure 2.8b,

for values of between /2 and 0, can be described as

=0

= 0.5

=1

That means at = 0, impedance component zfdxz becomes independent of the admittance parameter and the same is true for zfdzx at = 1. For = 0.5, impedance of

the fractional dual PEMC boundary becomes independent of the admittance parameter . As the admittance parameter approaches the limiting values of /2 and 0, the

two impedance components approach the same values equal to the case of PEC surface

and PMC surface respectively. Hence Figure 2.8b shows that for (, ) = (0, /2) and

(, ) = (1, 0), the PEMC surface behaves as a PEC surface and for (, ) = (1, /2)

and (, ) = (0, 0), the PEMC surface behaves as a PMC surface. This is also in

accordance with the published literature.

38

Figure 2.8a Transverse impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface versus

Figure 2.8b Transverse impedance of the fractional dual PEMC surface versus

39

CHAPTER III

Fractional Parallel Plate Waveguides

In this chapter, discussion of previous chapters has been extended to parallel plate

waveguides with PEC, impedance, and PEMC walls. Parallel plate waveguides with

fractional dual solutions have been termed as the fractional parallel plate waveguides.

The effect of fractional parameter on field distribution inside the guide is discussed.

Transverse impedance of the walls of fractional guide has been determined.

3.1. General wave behavior along a parallel plate guiding structure

Consider a waveguide consisting of two parallel plates separated by a dielectric

medium with constitutive parameters and . One plate is located at y = 0, while

other plate is located at y = b as shown in Figure 3.1. The plates are assumed to be

of infinite extent and the direction of propagation is considered as positive z-axis.

Figure 3.1.

40

Electric and magnetic fields in the source free dielectric region must satisfy the following

homogeneous vector Helmholtz equations

where 2 =

2

x2

2

y 2

2 E(x, y, z) + k 2 E(x, y, z) = 0

(3.1a)

2 H(x, y, z) + k 2 H(x, y, z) = 0

(3.1b)

2

z 2

dimensional vector Helmholtz equation as

2xy E(x, y) + h2 E(x, y) = 0

(3.2a)

(3.2b)

Since propagation is along z-direction and the waveguide dimensions are considered infinite in xz-plane. So x-dependence can be ignored in the above equations.

Under this condition, equation (3.2) becomes ordinary second order differential equation as

d2 E(y)

+ h2 E(y) = 0

2

dy

2

d H(y)

+ h2 H(y) = 0

dy 2

(3.3a)

(3.3b)

for the axial field components only. The transverse field components may be obtained

using the axial components of the fields and Maxwell equations. So scalar Helmholtz

equations for the axial components can be written as

d2 Ez

+ h2 Ez = 0

dy 2

d 2 Hz

+ h 2 Hz = 0

dy 2

(3.3c)

(3.3d)

41

General solution of the above equations is

Ez = An cos(hy) + Bn sin(hy)

(3.3e)

Hz = Cn cos(hy) + Dn sin(hy)

(3.3f )

where An , Bn , Cn , and Dn are constants and can be found from the boundary conditions.

Using Maxwell curl equations, the transverse components can be expressed in

terms of longitudinal components (Ez , Hz ), that is

1

Ez

Hz

Ex = 2 i

+ ik

h

x

y

1

Ez

Hz

Ey = 2 i

ik

h

y

x

1

Hz

ik Ez

Hx = 2 i

h

x

y

1

Hz

ik Ez

Hy = 2 i

+

h

y

x

(3.4a)

(3.4b)

(3.4c)

(3.4d)

where

r

=

In the proceeding part of this chapter, parallel plate waveguides with PEC, impedance,

and PEMC walls have been considered and the fractional dual solutions have been

determined and analyzed.

3.2. Fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide

In this section, parallel plate waveguide with PEC walls is the one problem while

parallel plate waveguide with PMC walls is the other problem. According to Maxwell

equations, these two problems are related through the curl operator. Using fractional

curl operator, the waveguide which may be regarded as intermediate step of the waveguides with PEC walls and PMC walls has been studied. T M z and T E z cases have

been discussed separately.

42

Case 1: Transverse magnetic (T M z ) mode solution

Suppose a transverse magnetic (T M z ) mode is propagating inside the waveguide

shown in Figure 3.1. Let plates of the waveguide are perfect electric conductor (PEC)

and z-axis is the direction of propagation. Axial component of the electric field is given

by the solution of equation (3.3e) for PEC boundaries as

Ez (y, z) = z

An sin (hy) exp(iz)

z

=

z

where h =

n

b

An

[exp(ihy + iz) exp(ihy + iz)]

2i

(3.5a)

Using (3.4), the corresponding transverse components of the fields can be written

as

i

An cos (hy) exp(iz)

h

i An

=y

[exp(ihy + iz) + exp(ihy + iz)]

h 2

ik

Hx (y, z) =

x

x An cos (hy) exp(iz)

h

ik An

[exp(ihy + iz) + exp(ihy + iz)]

=

x

h 2

Ey (y, z) = y

(3.5b)

(3.5c)

Fields inside the waveguide may be considered as combination of two TEM plane waves

bouncing back and forth obliquely between the two conducting plates, i.e.,

E = E1 + E2

H = H1 + H2

(3.6a)

(3.6b)

where (E1 , H1 ) are the electric and magnetic fields associated with one plane wave

and are given below

i

exp(ihy + iz)

i

z+ y

h

ik An

H1 =

x

exp(ihy + iz)

h 2

An

E1 =

2

(3.7a)

(3.7b)

43

while (E2 , H2 ) are the electric and magnetic fields associated with the second plane

wave and are given below

i

exp(ihy + iz)

i

z+ y

h

ik An

H2 =

x

exp(ihy + iz)

h 2

An

E2 =

2

(3.8a)

(3.8b)

Propagation through the parallel plate waveguide in terms of two TEM plane waves

is shown in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Plane wave representation of the fields inside the waveguide

Comparing equation (3.7) and (3.8) with (2.17), it may be noted that the fields

ik An

(E1 , H1 ) =

(Einc , Hinc )

h 2

and

ik An

(Eref , Href )

(E2 , H2 ) =

h 2

provided that h = ky and = kz .

This means that solution of the parallel plate PEC waveguide is proportional to

the solution of the reflection problem in the region y > 0 for a planar PEC boundary

44

at y = 0 . Hence from the knowledge of chapter 2, fractional dual solutions inside the

parallel plate PEC waveguide can be written as

Efd

Hfd

ik

C cos hy +

= An iS sin hy +

x

y

h

2

k

2

h

h

i

exp i z +

+i C sin hy +

z

k

2

2

ik

i S sin hy +

= An C cos hy +

x

y

h

2

k

2

h

h

i

exp i z +

+ S cos hy +

z

k

2

2

(3.9a)

(3.9b)

where

C = cos

S = sin

2

2

3.2.1 Behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide

In order to study the behavior of fields inside the fractional parallel plate PEC

waveguide, electric and magnetic field lines are plotted in the yz-plane and are shown

in Figure 3.3. These plots are for the mode propagating through the guide at an angle

/6 so that /k = cos(/6), h/k = sin(/6). Solid lines show the electric field plots

while magnetic fields are shown by dashed lines. From the figure we see that field lines

are partially parallel and partially perpendicular to the guide walls for non-integer

values of . This shows that walls of the waveguide can be considered as intermediate

step between the PEC and PMC walls. For limiting values of , the behavior is as

follows: For = 0, electric field lines are perpendicular to the guide walls and there

are no magnetic field lines in the yz-plane which shows that the walls are PEC and

the mode is transverse magnetic. For = 1, it can be seen that magnetic field lines

are perpendicular to the guide walls while there are no electric field lines which shows

45

that the walls are PMC and the propagating mode is the transverse electric. These

patterns are also in accordance with [47].

Figure 3.3

Field lines in yz-plane at different values of ; solid lines are for the

electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field

3.2.2 Mode behavior for higher values of the fractional parameter

Let us note the modal configuration for higher order values of the fractional parameter . It may be noted from equation (3.9) and (3.6) that

=0

Efd = E,

Hfd = H,

Efdz 6= 0,

=1

Efd = H,

Efd = E,

zfd = 0

(3.10a)

Hfd = E,

Efdz = 0,

=2

Hfdz = 0,

Hfdz 6= 0,

Hfd = H,

zfd =

(3.10b)

46

Efdz 6= 0,

=3

Efd = H,

Hfdz = 0,

Efd = E,

(3.10c)

zfd =

(3.10d)

Hfd = E,

Efdz = 0,

=4

zfd = 0

Hfdz 6= 0,

Hfd = H,

Efdz 6= 0,

Hfdz = 0,

zfd = 0

(3.10e)

guide. These behaviors are shown in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Dependence of modal configuration and guide walls nature upon

(a) = 0 (b) = 1 (c) = 2 (d) = 3

47

From the figure, it can be interpreted that if one starts with a transverse magnetic

mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide with PEC walls, = 1 gives the

solution for a transverse electric mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide

with PMC walls. Increasing value of from 1 to 2 further gives the rotation of /2

in the field configuration which represents the transverse magnetic mode and walls of

the waveguide are also become PMC. These changes in the behavior continue with

increasing integer values of and the field configuration is repeated at = 4. Hence

it may be deduced that behavior of solutions with respect to the fractional parameter

is periodic with period 4.

3.2.3 Transverse impedance of walls

It has been seen that the fields inside the parallel plate PEC waveguide are proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 in the presence of a planar PEC boundary

at y = 0. Therefore transverse impedance of the walls of the fractional parallel plate

PEC waveguide would be same as the planar PEC reflecting boundary discussed in

chapter 2.

Case 2: Transverse electric (T E z ) mode solution

Solution for the transverse electric mode propagating through a parallel plate

PEC waveguide may be obtained by solving the equation (3.3f) for Hz while Ez = 0

for this case. Field solutions may be obtained by using PEC boundary conditions and

equation (3.4) so that the electric and magnetic fields may be considered as the fields

of two TEM plane waves bouncing back and forth between the two conducting plates.

Similar to the transverse magnetic case, fields in the transverse electric case are also

proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 for the problem of a transverse electric

C

as the constant

n

h

48

of proportionality. Hence fractional dual solutions have the same proportionality, i.e.,

Efd

Hfd

ik

+ S cos hy +

= Cn iC sin hy +

x

y

h

2

k

2

h

h

i

exp i z +

i S sin hy +

z

(3.11a)

k

2

2

ik

i C sin hy +

= Cn S cos hy +

x

y

h

2

k

2

h

h

i

exp i z +

+ C cos hy +

z

(3.11b)

k

2

2

where Cn is an arbitrary constant and depends upon the initial conditions. These

fields have been plotted in Figure 3.5 which shows the behavior of field lines in the

yz-plane. The simulation data is same as of Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.5 T E z field lines in yz-plane at different values of ; solid lines are for the

electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field

49

3.3 Fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide

In the last section, it is seen that the fractional fields inside a parallel plate waveguide are proportional to the fields in the region y > 0 in the presence of a reflecting

PEC boundary at y = 0. A parallel plate waveguide with impedance walls represented by the fractional dual solutions can be termed as the fractional parallel plate

impedance waveguide. In order to study the behavior of fields inside the fractional

parallel plate impedance waveguide, let us consider a transverse magnetic mode propagating through a parallel plate waveguide whose walls have finite impedance Zw .

Geometry of the waveguide under consideration is same as shown in Figure 3.1. The

electric and magnetic fields inside the impedance waveguide must satisfy the impedance

boundary conditions as given below

Ez |(y=0) = Zw Hx |(y=0)

(3.12a)

Ez |(y=b) = Zw Hx |(y=b)

(3.12b)

Solution for the electric and magnetic fields inside the parallel plate impedance waveguide can be written by using the impedance boundary conditions. Similar to the case of

parallel plate PEC waveguide, the fields may be represented in terms of two travelling

plane waves bouncing back and forth between the two plates. Fields inside the parallel plate impedance waveguide are also related to the fields given in equation (2.24)

through the constant of proportionality given as

C=

k An

h 2

(F + i)

where

k

F = izw

h

Zw

zw =

50

Hence the fractional dual solutions for the T M z mode can be written as

Efd

Hfd

h

n

=B

iS F cos hy +

+ sin hy +

x

2

2

n

+

C F sin hy +

cos hy +

y

k

2

2

n

ih

o

+

C F cos hy +

+ sin hy +

z

k

2

2

h

i

exp i z +

(3.13a)

2

o

k h

x

cos hy +

=B

iC F sin hy +

h

2

2

n

+

S F cos hy +

+ sin hy +

y

k

2

2

n

o i

ih

S F sin hy +

z

cos hy +

k

2

2

h

i

exp i z +

(3.13b)

2

ik

h

Since the fields inside the fractional parallel plate impedance waveguide are proportional to the fractional dual fields (T M z case )in the region y > 0 in the presence

of a planar impedance boundary at y = 0, so the transverse impedance is same as

given in equation (2.27).

The electric and magnetic field line plots for the fractional parallel plate impedance

waveguide in the yz-plane have been shown in Figure 3.6. The plots are for the normalized impedance zw = 0 and zw = 2, other parameters of the simulation are same as

for Figure 3.5. It can be seen from the figure that for zw = 0, field patterns match with

the patterns of fractional parallel plate PEC waveguide. As the normalized impedance

of the wall changes from the zero value, the field lines have both the components parallel as well as perpendicular to walls of the guide even for = 0. Further the shift in

the field patterns with is similar as in the case of PEC guide.

51

Figure 3.6 Field lines in the yz-plane at different values of for zw = 0 and zw = 2;

solid lines are for the electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic field

Let us consider a parallel plate waveguide whose walls are of perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC). Geometry of the Figure 3.1 may be considered subject to the

condition that its walls are PEMC having admittance M . Parallel plate PEMC waveguide with fractional dual solutions may be termed as fractional parallel plate PEMC

waveguide. Solutions for the PEMC waveguide may be obtained from the general

solutions given in equation (3.3) and (3.4) by using the PEMC boundary conditions.

52

The PEMC boundary conditions are given below

h

i

n H + tan E = 0,

h

i

n. D tan B = 0

(3.14)

where

tan = M

It may be noted that = /2 corresponds to the PEC boundary and = 0 corresponds

to the PMC boundary. As discussed in chapter 2, solutions of a PEMC boundary can

be written by applying the transformation given in equations (2.28) and (2.29) to

the solutions of a PEC boundary. Similarly fields inside a fractional parallel plate

PEMC waveguide can be written from the fields inside a fractional parallel plate PEC

waveguide using the same transformation. Therefore relation between the fields inside

a fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide and the fractional dual solutions in the

region y > 0 for a planar PEMC boundary is same as for the case of parallel plate

PEC waveguide and the planar PEC boundary.

Let us consider a T M z mode solution for a parallel plate PEC waveguide as

given in equation (3.9). The fields inside the fractional PEMC waveguide must be

proportional to the fractional dual solutions of the T M z polarized wave in the presence

of a PEMC boundary through the same constant of proportionality, i.e.,

C=

ik

An

h

Hence the fractional dual solutions (transformed from the T M z mode solution) inside

the parallel plate PEMC waveguide can be written as

Efd

ik

= An

h

h

n

x (S S ) cos hy +

+ (S + S ) i sin hy +

2

2

53

Hfd

o

+

y

(C C ) cos hy +

+ (C + C ) i sin hy +

k

2

2

n

z

(C + C ) cos hy +

+ (C C ) i sin hy +

k

2

2

h

i

exp i z +

(3.15a)

2

ik

= An

h

h

n

x (C C ) cos hy +

+ (C + C ) i sin hy +

2

2

n

y

(S S ) cos hy +

+ (S + S ) i sin hy +

k

2

2

n

o

+

z

(S + S ) cos hy +

+ (S S ) i sin hy +

k

2

2

h

i

exp i z +

(3.15b)

2

where

C = cos 2

2

S = sin 2

2

Since the fields inside a fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide are proportional

to the fractional dual solutions for T M z mode in the region y > 0 in the presence

of a PEMC boundary at y = 0, so the transverse impedance is same as given in

equation (2.59).

Plots of electric and magnetic field lines for the fractional parallel plate PEMC

waveguide in the yz-plane have been shown in Figure 3.7. The plots are for the fields

inside the PEMC waveguide having admittance of the walls as = /2 and = /3,

other parameters of the simulation are same as for the Figure 3.3. It can be seen from

the figure that for = /2, the field patterns match with the fractional parallel plate

PEC waveguide. It may be noted that in fractional parallel plate PEMC waveguide,

the electric and magnetic fields have their both components parallel and perpendicular

to the guide plates in the yz plane for all the values of .

54

Figure 3.7

= /3; solid lines are for the electric field while dashed lines are for the magnetic

field

55

CHAPTER IV

Fractional Chiro Waveguide and

the Concept of Fractional Transmission Lines

In chapter II, fractional duality has been studied for different planar boundaries

while chapter III contains the same discussion for different parallel plate waveguides. In

present chapter, fractional dual solutions for a planar chiral-achiral interface have been

derived when it is excited by a uniform plane wave. Secondly fractional dual solutions

for a parallel plate PEC waveguide filled with a chiral medium are determined. The

concept of fractional transmission lines is also addressed.

4.1 Reflection from a chiral-achiral interface

Consider a chiral-achiral interface located at z = 0 as shown in Figure 4.1. The

region z < 0 is a lossless, isotropic, and reciprocal chiral medium while region z > 0

consists of a simple dielectric medium. The interface is excited by a uniform plane

56

wave. According to field decomposition approach [48], electric field E and the magnetic

field H may be pictured as consisting of two parts, i.e., ( E+ , H+ ) and (E , H ). The

two parts are termed as wavefields. Simple expressions for the wavefields can be written

as

1

(E + iH)

2

1

E = (E iH)

2

i

1

H E

H+ =

2

1

i

H =

H+ E

2

E+ =

The electric and magnetic fields corresponding to two wavefields for the incident

wave can be written as

inc

Einc

(z) = E (0) exp(ik z)

inc

z Einc

Hinc

(z) = iE (z)

(z) =

(4.1a)

(4.1b)

where k = k(1 r ) are wave numbers for the two wavefields. k = is the net

wave number and r is the relative chirality parameter. The wavefields vectors may

be defined for the propagation along positive z-direction as

i

x

y

inc

inc

E (0) = E (0)

2

This means that each wavefield sees chiral medium as achiral medium with equivalent

constitutive parameters (+ , + ) and ( , ). Medium parameters of the equivalent isotropic media are related to the parameters of chiral medium by the following

relations

= (1 r )

= (1 r )

r

=

=

57

Upon reflection from the chiral-achiral interface, left circularly polarized (LCP) wave

with wave number k becomes right circularly polarized (RCP) wave with wave number k+ and vice versa. Hence the reflected fields corresponding to the incident wavefields can be written as

inc

Eref

(z) = R E (0) exp(ik z)

inc

Href

(z) = iR E (0) exp(ik z)

(4.2a)

(4.2b)

where R are the reflection co-efficients for positive and negative incident wavefields. For a reciprocal chiral medium (intrinsic impedance ) interface with any

other isotropic medium(intrinsic impedance 1 ), the reflection co-efficient becomes

R = R =

1

1 + .

inc

Since the wavefields (Einc

, H ) represent two independent plane waves prop-

inc

Einc

z) Einc

fd = (

= (i) E

(4.3a)

inc

Einc

Hinc

fd = i(i) E

fd = z

(4.3b)

Similarly fractional dual solutions for the reflected wave can be written in terms of the

two wavefields as

ref

Eref

z) Eref

fd = (

= (i) E

(4.3c)

ref

Href

z Eref

fd =

fd = i(i) E

(4.3d)

Fractional dual solutions in the region z < 0 may be written by adding the fractional

dual fields for incident and the reflected waves as

inc

Efd (z) = Einc

+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)

h

n

n

o

oi

exp i kz +

+ R exp i kz +

2

2

inc

(0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)

n

h

n

oi

o

R exp i kz +

exp i kz +

2

2

(4.4a)

(4.4b)

58

For the special case, when the achiral medium is a PEC then R = 1. Hence the

fractional fields given in equation (4.4) take the following form as

inc

Efd (z) = 2i Einc

+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)

sin kz +

(4.5a)

2

inc

Hfd (z) = 2i Einc

+ (0) exp(ikr z) + E (0) exp (i) exp(ikr z)

cos kz +

(4.5b)

2

Wave impedance can be defined by taking ratio of the field components as

Zfdxy

Zfdyx

Exfd

=

= i tan kz +

Hyfd

2

Eyfd

= i tan kz +

=

Hxfd

2

as

z fd = [zfdxz x

z + zfdzx

zx

] ,

01

(4.6)

where

zfdxz = zfdzx = i tan

(4.6a)

4.2. Fractional parallel plate chiro waveguide

A parallel plate waveguide having PEC walls and filled with a lossless, isotropic,

and reciprocal chiral medium is termed as parallel plate chiro waveguide [46]. Hence

the chiro waveguide with fractional dual solutions may be termed as fractional parallel

plate chiro waveguide. Consider a parallel plate waveguide consisting of two perfect

electric conducting plates separated by a distance b. Geometry of the Figure 3.1 may

59

be considered with the difference that the medium inside the guide is considered as

chiral instead of ordinary dielectric. Other parameters are same as for chapter III, The

medium inside the waveguide may be described by the constitutive relations as given

below

D = E + ic B

(4.7a)

H = ic E + B/

(4.7b)

where , and c are called permittivity, permeability, and cross susceptibility of the

medium respectively.

It is well known that in conventional parallel plate waveguide filled with homogenous achiral material, the field configuration can be obtained by superposing two plane

waves in a suitable manners. These waves propagate with the same bulk wave number. In achiral waveguides, there are only two component waves and the direction

of these waves depend upon the frequency and the dimension b. In parallel plate

chirowaveguide, however, due to the fact that chiral medium supports double mode

propagation (k+ and k ), there are four component waves. Two of the waves are right

circularly polarized (RCP) propagating with a wave number k+ and the other two

are left circularly polarized (LCP) propagating with a wave number k as shown in

Figure 4.2. Component waves means the modes of propagation.

Consider R1 , R2 , L1 , and L2 to be the amplitudes of the component waves

ER1 , ER2 , EL1 , and EL2 respectively. These waves can be expressed as follows [46]

ER1 = R1 exp[ik+ (z cos + y sin )]eR1

(4.8a)

(4.8b)

(4.8c)

(4.8d)

60

where eR1 , eR2 , eL1 , and eL2 are the circular basis unit vectors for the right and left

circularly waves in the direction of and as shown in Figure 4.2. Since the guided

wave propagates in the z direction with the propagation constant , the z component

of the bulk mode wave numbers must be equal to , i.e.,

k+ cos = k cos =

(4.9a)

Now let

k+ sin = h+ ,

k sin = h

(4.9b)

ER1 = R1 exp[i(z + h+ y)]eR1

(4.10a)

(4.10b)

(4.10c)

(4.10d)

61

where the direction vectors are as given below

eR1 =

eR2 =

eL1 =

eL2 =

h+

x

+i y

i

z

k+

k+

2

h+

1

x

+i y

+i

z

k+

k+

2

h

x

i y

+i

z

k

k

2

h

x

i y

i

z

k

k

2

(4.11a)

(4.11b)

(4.11c)

(4.11d)

Magnetic fields corresponding to the electric fields given in equation (4.10) can be

written using the duality theorem as

R(1,2) ER(1,2) = (i)ER(1,2)

HR(1,2) = k

(4.12a)

HL(1,2) = k

(4.12b)

where

h+

y

+

z

k+

k+

h+

= y

+

z

k+

k+

=

y

+

z

k

k

= y

+

z

k

k

R1 =

k

(4.13a)

R2

k

(4.13b)

L1

k

L2

k

(4.13c)

(4.13d)

R1 | = |k

R2 | = |k

L1 | = |k

L2 | = 1

|k

Hence using equation (4.10), equations for total electric and magnetic fields can be

written as

E = ER1 + EL1 + ER2 + EL2

(4.14a)

= i(ER1 EL1 + ER2 EL2 )

(4.14b)

62

As it has been seen that the field inside the parallel plate chiro waveguide can be represented in terms of four independent plane waves. Hence the fractional dual solutions

(Eifd , Hifd ) inside the waveguide may be obtained by using the following relations

1

i ) Ei

[() Ei ] = (k

(ik)

1

i ) H ,

=

[() Hi ] = (k

i

(ik)

Eifd =

Hifd

(15a)

i = R1, R2, L1, L2

(15b)

which give

ER(1,2)fd = (i) ER(1,2)

(4.16a)

(4.16b)

It may be noted that both the right circular components and the left circular components have been rotated by an angle

dual solutions (Efd , Hfd ) corresponding to the total fields (E, H) may be obtained

by the linear combination of (Eifd , Hifd ), that is

Efd = ER1fd + EL1fd + ER2fd + EL2fd

= (i) ER1 + (i) EL1 + (i) ER2 + (i) EL2

Hfd = HR1fd + HL1fd + HR2fd + HL2fd

h

i

= i (i) ER1 (i) EL1 + (i) ER2 (i) EL2

(4.17a)

(4.17b)

=0

Efd = E,

Hfd = H

=1

Efd = H,

Hfd = E

which shows that the fields given in equation (4.17) satisfy the duality principle for

the limiting values of , that is for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) yields an original field solution

and for = 1, (Efd , Hfd ) yields dual to the original field solution. Hence it may be

63

deduce that for intermediate values 0 < < 1, fields given in equation (4.17) are the

fractional dual solutions.

Using equation (4.10), the fractional dual solutions given in (4.17) can be written

as

Efd = exp(iz)

h

n

n

o

o

R1 exp i h+ y

eR1 + L1 exp i h y +

eL1

2

2

n

n

i

o

o

+R2 exp i h+ y +

eR2 + L2 exp i h y

eL2 (4.18a)

2

2

Hfd = (i) exp(iz)

h

n

n

o

o

R1 exp i h+ y

eR1 L1 exp i h y +

eL1

2

2

n

o

n

o

+ R2 exp i h+ y +

eR2 L2 exp i h y

eL2 (4.18b)

2

2

In order to meet the boundary conditions, the relation between the amplitudes of the

component waves should be as

R2 = L1 ,

L2 = R1

Using these relations in equation (4.18) and re-arranging in a suitable manners gives

Efd = exp (iz) L1

h

n

n

i

o

o

eL1 exp i h+ y +

eR2

exp i h y +

2

2

+ exp (iz) R1 exp (i)

h

n

n

i

o

o

exp i h+ y +

eR1 exp i h y +

eL2

2

2

(4.19a)

n

i

h

n

o

o

eL1 + exp i h+ y +

eR2

exp i h y +

2

2

+ (i) exp (iz) R1 exp (i)

h

n

n

i

o

o

exp i h+ y +

eR1 + exp i h y +

eL2

2

2

(4.19b)

64

Now since

k = k(1 r ),

h = h(1 r ),

so

h+

h

h

=

=

k+

k

k

Using this fact in equation (4.19), the fractional dual solutions can be written in terms

of x, y, z co-ordinates as

Efd = i 2 exp(iz) sin hy +

2

h

i

L1 exp(ihr y) + exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y) x

1

+ exp(iz)

2

i

i

L1 exp(ihr y)

+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

k

k+

n

o

exp i hy +

2

i

i

+ L1 exp(ihr y)

+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

k+

k

n

oi

exp i hy +

y

ih

i 2 exp(iz)

sin hy +

k

2

h

i

L1 exp(ihr y) exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

z

(4.20a)

Hfd = (i) 2 exp(iz) cos hy +

2

h

i

L1 exp(ihr y) exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y) x

1

i exp(iz)

2

i

i

L1 exp(ihr y)

+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

k

k+

n

o

exp i hy +

2

i

i

+ L1 exp(ihr y)

+ exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

k+

k

n

oi

y

exp i hy +

2

65

(i) 2 exp(iz)

ih

k

cos hy +

2

h

i

L1 exp(ihr y) + exp(i)R1 exp(ihr y)

z (4.20b)

The transverse impedance can be found by using the transverse components of the

fraction dual fields as

Zfdxz

Zfdzx

Exfd

k

=

= i tan hy +

Hzfd

2 h

Ezfd

h

=

= i tan hy +

Hxfd

2 k

by putting y = 0 as

h

k

zfdxz x

z + zfdzx

zx

,

=

h

k

z fd

01

(4.21)

where

zfdxz = zfdzx = i tan

(4.21a)

which is similar to the case of parallel plate PEC waveguide filled with an ordinary

dielectric medium.

4.3. The concept of fractional transmission lines

When a plane electromagnetic wave of any polarization propagates through a

plane parallel structure (propagating medium and a plane reflecting boundary), the

propagation defined by Maxwell equations in the medium can be analyzed using the

theory of transmission lines. If the medium of propagation is an isotropic simple

medium, the propagation can be analyzed as a single scalar transmission line also called

a symmetric transmission line. A plane wave propagating through a plane-parallel

structure of bi-isotropic medium can be analyzed in terms of two non-interacting

66

scalar transmission lines with two eigen waves much in the same way as simple isotropic

medium. Since in this case propagation constant of the incident and reflected wave are

different to each other, the line is called non-symmetric transmission line. In this part

of the chapter, fractional dual solutions for the symmetric and non-symmetric transmission lines have been derived. The transmission lines described by their fractional

dual solutions may be regarded as the fractional transmission lines. The fractional

transmission lines may be considered as generalization of the short circuit lines and

the open circuit transmission lines. Condition for impedance matching of the fractional

transmission lines network is also given in terms of the fractional parameter.

4.3.1. Fractional symmetric transmission line

Consider a uniform transmission line having characteristic impedance Zc and terminated at a load ZL as shown in Figure 4.3.

z-axis has been considered as direction of propagation of voltage wave and current wave

along the transmission line. The differential equations describing the propagation of

67

voltage and current wave may be written as

1 d

V = Zc I

i dz

1 d

Zc I = V

i dz

(4.22a)

(4.22b)

where L and C are the inductance and capacitance per unit length along the line. The

p

the intrinsic impedance of the medium.

The coupled differential equations given in equations (4.22) can be decoupled to

give rise to second order differential equations as

1 d2

V (z) = V (z)

(i)2 dz 2

1 d2

I(z) = I(z)

(i)2 dz 2

(4.23a)

(4.23b)

V (z) = V + [exp(iz) + exp(iz)]

(4.24a)

(4.24b)

where

=

ZL Z

ZL + Z

and V + is the amplitude of the voltage wave travelling in the positive z-direction.

Input impedance of this line at any point along the line can be defined as

V (z)

ZL + iZc tan(z)

Z (z) =

= Zc

I(z)

Zc + iZL tan(z)

in

(4.25)

Let us derive fractional dual solutions of the voltage and current wave equations.

The transmission line represented by these fractional dual solutions may be regarded

68

as fractional transmission line. As can be seen from equations (4.22) (V, Zc I) and

(Zc I, V ), are two solutions of the transmission line equations. It may be noted that

one solution is dual to the other one. let us Operate

equations (4.22) as

1

d2

(i)2 dz 2

on both sides of

1

d2 1 d

1

d2

V =

Zc I

(4.26a)

(i)2 dz 2 i dz

(i)2 dz 2

1

d2 1 d

1

d2

Zc I =

V

(4.26b)

(i)2 dz 2 i dz

(i)2 dz 2

h

i

1

d2

d

Since the differential operator (i)2 dz2 and dz

has the property of commutation so

equations (4.26) can be written as

1 d

1

d2

1

d2

V =

Zc I

i dz (i)2 dz 2

(i)2 dz 2

1 d

1

d2

1

d2

Zc I =

V

i dz (i)2 dz 2

(i)2 dz 2

(4.27a)

(4.27b)

Hence the new set of solutions that satisfies the differential equations governing the

transmission line can be written as

1

d2

V

(i)2 dz 2

d2

1

Zc I

=

(i)2 dz 2

Vfd =

Zc Ifd

(4.28a)

(4.28b)

It can be seen from the above equation that for = 0, original solution (V, Zc I) is

obtained and for = 1/2, dual to the original solution (Zc I, V ) of the transmission

line is obtained. This mean that for 0 < < 1/2, solution set (Vfd , Zc Ifd ) may be

regarded as intermediate step between the original solution and dual to the original

solution. Solution set (Vfd , Zc Ifd ) may also be termed as fractional dual solutions of

the transmission line.

Using equation (4.24) in equation (4.28), fractional dual solutions of the transmission line can be written as

V+

[exp(iz + i) + exp(iz i)]

i2

V+

= 2 [exp(iz + i) exp(iz i)]

i

Vfd =

Zc Ifd

(4.29a)

(4.29b)

69

Values of the fractional dual voltage and current wave have been plotted versus fractional parameter for resistive load of zL = 3 as shown in Figure 4.4.

From the figure, it may be deduced that at the limiting values of , duality principle

is satisfied, i.e.,

=0

= 1/2

Vfd = V,

Vfd = Zc I,

Zc Ifd = Zc I

Zc Ifd = V

The input impedance at any point along the fractional transmission line is given below

Vfd (z)

Ifd (z)

ZL + iZc tan(z + )

= Zc

Zc + iZL tan(z + )

in

Zfd

(z) =

in

Zfd

= Zc

ZL + iZc tan(z)

Zc + iZL tan(z)

(4.30)

70

which is the relation for input impedance at any point for original transmission line.

Now for =

1

2

in

Zfd

= Zc

ZL + iZc cot(z)

Zc + iZL cot(z)

which is the relation for input admittance at any point for dual to the original transmission line. So, = 0 represents the original transmission line and =

the dual to the original transmission line, while 0 < <

1

2

1

2

represents

Normalized load impedance of the fractional dual transmission line can be defined

by putting z=0 in equation (4.16) as

zLfd =

zL + i tan()

,

1 + izL tan()

0 1/2

(4.31)

Plot of the fractional dual load impedance versus has been given for different values

of the original load impedance as shown in Figure 4.5 which shows that dual of a

transmission line with impedance load is a line terminated at an admittance load and

vice versa. As a particular case, for a short circuited transmission line (zL = 0), dual

line is an open circuited line (zL = ) while fractional dual transmission line is the

line which has been terminated by a load which is intermediate between these two

limiting cases as shown in the Figure 4.5.

4.3.2. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line

As it is seen in section 4.1 that solution of the Maxwell equations in a chiral

medium gives rise to two circularly polarized waves. One of the waves is right circularly

polarized (RCP) while the other is left circularly polarized (LCP). These RCP and LCP

components move with different phase velocities and may be represented in terms of

wave numbers k+ and k respectively.

71

Figure 4.5 Load impedance versus for a fractional dual transmission line

For the two circularly polarized TEM eigen waves depending only upon z-coordinate, the source free Maxwell equations can be written as:

E0 (z) = i H (z)

z

(4.32a)

H0 (z) = i E (z)

z

(4.32b)

where the primes denote differentiation with respect to z. In terms of circular polar u = iu , the two wavefields can be

ization (CP) unit vectors u satisfying z

written as

E0 = u E

H0 = u H

where u+ and u are the unit vectors showing directions of the right circular and left

circular polarization respectively. Using these values, scalar form of equation (4.32)

72

can be written as

E 0 (z) = i {iH (z)}

iH 0 (z) = i E (z)

(4.33a)

(4.33b)

They resemble the transmission line equations (4.22), so that if one identify the electric

field with voltage V = E , the current must be recognized as I = iH [43]. The

positive and negative wave-fields are represented by their respective voltage and current

components.

The mathematical model of the transmission line equivalent of equations (4.33)

may be written as

V (z) = V (0) exp(i z) + V (0) exp(i z)

(4.34a)

(4.24b)

where

=

ZL Z

ZL + Z

is the reflection coefficient and is the wave number corresponding to the two wavefields. Now voltage and current for the total field can be written as

V (z) =V+ (0){exp(i+ z) + exp(i z)}+

V (0){exp(i z) + exp(i+ z)}

= V1 + V2 + V3 + V4

(4.35a)

V (0){exp(i z) exp(i+ z)}

= ZI1 + ZI2 + ZI3 + ZI4

(4.35b)

73

The non-symmetric transmission lines represented by the fractional dual solutions can

be regarded as the fractional non-symmetric transmission line. The fractional dual

solutions of voltage and current equations (4.35) can be written using (4.28) as

Vfd (z) = exp(i)V+ (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} + exp{i( z + )}]

+ exp(i)V (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} + exp{i(+ z + )}] (4.36a)

ZIfd (z) = exp(i)V+ (0)[exp{i(+ z + )} exp{i( z + )}]

+ exp(i)V (0)[exp{i( z + )} exp{i(+ z + )}] (4.36b)

For = 0 above equation gives original solution (V, Zc I), for = 1/2 it gives dual to

the original solution (Zc I, V ) and the solutions for 0 < < 1/2 may be regarded as

fractional dual solutions.

Similar to the case of symmetric transmission line, input impedance of the fractional non-symmetric transmission line can be defined as

Zfd =

Vfd (z)

If d (z)

+ = + r

= r

Vfd (z) =

1

exp(i){V+ (0) exp(ir z) + V (0) exp(ir z)}

(ZL + Zc )

2 cos(z + ){ZL + iZc tan(z + )}

ZIfd (z) =

(4.37a)

1

exp(i){V+ (0) exp(ir z) + V (0) exp(ir z)}

(ZL + Z)

2 cos(z + ){iZL tan(z + ) + Z}

(4.37b)

in

Zfd

=Z

ZL + iZ tan(z + )

,

Z + iZL tan(z + )

0 1/2

(4.38a)

74

Normalized load impedance zLfd of the fractional line can be obtained in terms of normalized load impedance zL =

ZL

Zc

as

zLfd =

zL + i tan()

,

1 + izL tan()

0 1/2

(4.38b)

which is same as the case of uniform symmetric transmission line, i.e., dual of a transmission line with impedance load is a line terminated at an admittance load and vice

versa.

4.3.3. Multiple-sections fractional non-symmetric line

Let us consider a transmission line that is connected to another transmission line

of length L which is terminated by a load ZL . Let Z1 and Z2 are intrinsic impedances

of line-1 and line-2 respectively while Z2in is the input impedance of line-2 at the

junction of two lines. Input impedance of the whole transmission line network can be

written as

Zin = Z1

Z1 + iZ2in tan(1 z)

(4.39a)

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L)

Z2 + iZL tan(2 L)

(4.39b)

where

Z2in = Z2

Using the same treatment as done in in the last section, input impedance of the

fractional transmission line network can be written as

Zinfd = Z1

Z1 + iZ2infd tan(1 z + )

(4.40a)

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L + )

Z2 + iZL tan(2 L + )

(4.40b)

where

Z2infd = Z2

Condition for impedance matching of the transmission line network described by (4.40)

is

Z2infd = Z2

ZL + iZ2 tan(2 L + )

= Z1

Z2 + iZL tan(2 L + )

(4.41a)

75

The value of fractional parameter , in terms of the impedances, required for the

impedance matching is given below

1

Z 2(Z1 Zl )

=

2 L arctan

i(Z22 Z1 ZL )

Hence for =

2 L

,

(4.41b)

2 L

is

the condition of impedance matching for the network of fractional transmission lines.

76

CHAPTER V

Fractional Rectangular Impedance Waveguide

This chapter deals with the fractional impedance rectangular waveguide. The rectangular waveguide has impedance walls and filled with an ordinary dielectric medium.

Variations of field distribution inside the guide and impedance of the walls of the fractional waveguide with respect to fractional parameter have been studied. Variations in

power density distribution in the transverse plane with respect to fractional parameter

is also the matter of interest.

5.1. General theory of rectangular waveguide

Consider a waveguide having a rectangular cross section of size a b in xy-plane

as shown in Figure 5.1. The medium inside the guide is a lossless, homogeneous, and

isotropic having permittivity and permeability . The guide is considered infinitely

long along z-axis.

Figure 5.1.

For the sack of simplicity, Walls of the guide are considered to have anisotropic

impedance under special conditions so that the modal solution exist. The general

77

impedance matrix for our geometry is

Z1

Z3

Z2

Z4

=

[Ez /Hy ]x=0,a

[Ey /Hz ]x=0,a

(5.1)

Z1 Z3 Z2 Z3 + Z2 Z4 = 0

(5.1a)

Z3

Z2 Z3

Z2

+

=0

Z4

Z1 Z4

Z1

(5.1b)

Let us consider a special case where the impedance matrix is of the form

Z1

Z3

Z2

Z4

=

Zw

Zw

(5.2)

the previous chapters, it is required to solve Helmholtz equations for axial components

only. The transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields can be found using

Maxwell equations. Scalar Helmholtz equation for the axial component of the electric

field may be written as

2 Ez (x, y) 2 Ez (x, y)

+

+ kc2 Ez (x, y) = 0

2

2

x

y

the propagation constant. Using method of separation of variables, axial component

of the electric field may be written as

Ez (x, y) = X(x)Y (y)

(5.3)

(5.3a)

(5.3b)

where

78

where Am , Bm , An , and Bn are constants and can be found from the boundary

conditions. Once axial component of electric field is found, other field components can

be written using Maxwell curl equations as

0

1

Ez (x, y)

i

Ex (x, y) = 2 i

= 2 Y (y)X (x)

kc

x

kc

0

1

Ez (x, y)

i

Ey (x, y) = 2 i

= 2 X(x)Y (y)

kc

y

k

c

0

1 ik

1 ik Ez (x, y)

= 2 X(x)Y (y)

Hx (x, y) = 2

kc

y

kc

0

1 ik

1 ik Ez (x, y)

= 2 Y (y)X (x)

Hy (x, y) = 2

kc

x

kc

(5.4a)

(5.4b)

(5.4c)

(5.4d)

Using boundary conditions on the general solutions given by equations (5.3) and (5.4),

particular solutions for the rectangular waveguide have been derived in the next section.

5.2 Field formulation for the rectangular impedance waveguide

For a T M z mode propagating through the impedance rectangular waveguide,

particular solution for the axial component corresponding to the general solution given

in equation (5.3) can be written using the impedance boundary condition given in

equation (5.2) as

Ez (x, y) =

o

Amn hn

(1 Fx Fy )Cxy (Fx Fy )iSxy

2

n

oi

(1 + Fx Fy )Cx+y (Fx + Fy )iSx+y

where Amn are constants that depend upon initial conditions and

kkx

Zw

Fx = zw

,

zw =

2

k

c

kky

Fy = zw

kc2

Cxy = cos(kx x ky y)

Cx+y = cos(kx x + ky y)

Sxy = sin(kx x ky y)

Sx+y = sin(kx x + ky y)

(5.5)

79

while dispersion relations for the possible values of

i tan(kx a) =

2Fx

,

1 + Fx2

kx

kc

and

i tan(ky b) =

ky

kc

can be written as

2Fy

1 + Fy2

Now equation (5.4) can be used to write the transverse electric and magnetic field

components as

Amn

Ex (x, y) =

2

Ey (x, y) =

Hx (x, y) =

Hy (x, y) =

Amn

2

Amn

2

Amn

2

hn

o

(1 Fx Fy )iSxy + (Fx Fy )Cxy

n

oi

+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o

ky hn

(1

F

F

)iS

(F

F

)C

x y

xy

x

y

xy

kc2

n

oi

+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o

kky hn

(1

F

F

)iS

(F

F

)C

x y

xy

x

y

xy

kc2

n

oi

+ (1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

o

kky hn

(1

F

F

)iS

(F

F

)C

x y

xy

x

y

xy

kc2

n

oi

(1 + Fx Fy )iSx+y (Fx + Fy )Cx+y

kx

kc2

(5.6a)

(5.6b)

(5.6c)

(5.6d)

Components of electric and magnetic field which are tangential to the walls of the

guide plate at x = 0 and x = a can be written as

Et = Ey (x, y)

y + Ez (x, y)

z

(5.7a)

Ht = Hy (x, y)

y

(5.7b)

In order to validate the fields given in equation (5.6), fields of equation (5.7) have been

plotted for different values of the normalized impedance zw as shown in Figure 5.2.

Simulation data is for the mode propagating through the guide at an angle z =

/4 kx /kc = cos(/4), ky /kc = sin(/4) with the x-axis in the xy-plane. The plots

are along the line of observation (kx x, ky y, kz z) = (kx x, /4, /4) in the transverse

xy-plane for the square guide with a = b = /2. Figure 5.2a shows the electric field

plots while magnetic fields are shown in Figure 5.2b. Field values may be noted at

kx x = 0 and kx x = , which represent the locations of the plates at x = 0

80

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.2.

sin(/4); (a) electric field (b) magnetic field

81

and x = a. It can be seen that, at = 0, the tangential electric field is zero for

zw = 0 (i.e., PEC plates) while magnetic field is zero for zw >> 0, e.g., zw = 100

(i.e., PMC plates). Hence equation (5.6) represents the fields inside the guide having

impedance walls with normalized impedance zw , which may be converted to PEC and

PMC waveguide solution for the limiting values of zw .

5.3 Fractional rectangular impedance waveguide

Fractional rectangular waveguide can be modelled by determining the fractional

dual solutions inside the rectangular impedance waveguide. Fields given in equation (5.6) can be written in terms of four independent plane waves. Re-introducing

the z-dependance (eiz ), electric and magnetic fields of the four plane waves can be

written as

E1 =

E2 =

E3 =

E4 =

H1 =

H2 =

H3 =

H4 =

n

o

Amn

2

z

exp

i(k

x

k

y

+

z)

B

k

x

k

y

k

x

y

1

x

y

c

4kc2

n

o

Amn

2

z

exp

i(k

x

+

k

y

+

z)

B

k

x

k

y

+

k

x

y

2

x

y

c

4kc2

n

o

Amn

2

z

exp

i(k

x

k

y

+

z)

B

k

x

+

k

y

k

x

y

3

x

y

c

4kc2

n

o

Amn

2

z

exp

i(k

x

+

k

y

+

z)

B

k

x

+

k

y

k

x

y

4

x

y

c

4kc2

n

o

kAmn

B

(k

x

+

k

y

)

exp

i(k

x

k

y

+

z)

1

y

x

x

y

4kc2

n

o

kAmn

B

(k

x

k

y

)

exp

i(k

x

+

k

y

+

z)

2

y

x

x

y

4kc2

n

o

kAmn

B

(k

x

+

k

y

)

exp

i(k

x

k

y

+

z)

3

y

x

x

y

4kc2

n

o

kAmn

kx y

) exp i(kx x + ky y + z)

B4 (ky x

4kc2

(5.8a)

(5.8b)

(5.8c)

(5.8d)

(5.8e)

(5.8f )

(5.8g)

(5.8h)

where

B1 = 1 + Fx Fy + Fx + Fy

(5.9a)

B2 = 1 Fx Fy + Fx Fy

(5.9b)

82

B3 = 1 Fx Fy Fx + Fy

(5.9c)

B4 = 1 + Fx Fy Fx Fy

(5.9d)

Using eigen values and eigen vectors of the cross product operators of the propagation

direction vectors, fractional dual solutions (Eifd , Hifd ) corresponding to the four plane

waves can be written as

Amn

E1fd =

B1 exp(iz)

4kc2

h

n

o

n

oi

2

ky y

kc )

kkx y

cos

kx x

z + sin

kky x

2

2

h

i

h

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10a)

2

2

Amn

E2fd =

B2 exp(iz)

4kc2

h

n

o

n

oi

ky y

+ kc2 )

+ kkx y

cos

kx x

z sin

kky x

2

h

h2

i

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10b)

2

2

Amn

B3 exp(iz)

E3fd =

4kc2

h

n

o

n

oi

2

+ ky y

kc )

+ kkx y

cos

kx x

z + sin

kky x

2

2

h

i

h

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10c)

2

2

Amn

B4 exp(iz)

E4fd =

4kc2

h

n

o

n

oi

+ ky y

kc2 )

kkx y

cos

kx x

z sin

kky x

2

h

h2

i

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10d)

2

2

Amn

H1fd =

B1 exp(iz)

4kc2

h n

o

n

oi

2

ky y

kc )

kkx y

sin

kx x

z cos

kky x

2

2

h

i

h

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10e)

2

2

Amn

H2fd =

B2 exp(iz)

4kc2

h

n

o

n

oi

ky y

+ kc2 )

+ kkx y

sin

kx x

z cos

kky x

2

2

h

h

i

i

exp i ky y +

(5.10f )

exp i kx x +

2

2

83

Amn

H3fd =

B3 exp(iz)

4kc2

h n

o

n

oi

ky y

+ kc2 )

+ kkx y

sin

kx x

z + cos

kky x

2

h

h2

i

i

exp i kx x +

exp i ky y +

(5.10g)

2

2

Amn

H4fd =

B4 exp(iz)

4kc2

h n

o

n

oi

+ ky y

kc2 )

kkx y

sin

kx x

z + cos

kky x

2

h 2

h

i

i

exp i ky y +

(5.10h)

exp i kx x +

2

2

Fractional dual solutions of the total electric and magnetic field inside the guide can

be written as

Efd = E1fd + E2fd + E3fd + E4fd

Hfd = H1fd + H2fd + H3fd + H4fd

which give

n

o

Amn

exp(iz)

k

C

kk

S

x

kc2

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

n

o

Amn

= 2 exp(iz) ky C + kkx S

kc

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

Efdx =

Efdy

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

n

o

Amn

Hfdx = 2 exp(iz) kx S + kky C

kc

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

n

o

Amn

Hfdy = 2 exp(iz) ky S kkx C

kc

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

Hfdz = Amn S exp(iz)

h

i

(Cy+ Fx iSy+ )(Cx+ Fy iSx+ )

(5.11a)

(5.11b)

(5.11c)

(5.11d)

(5.11e)

(5.11f )

84

where

Cx+ = cos kx x +

2

Sx+ = sin kx x +

2

Cy+ = cos ky y +

2

Sy+ = sin ky y +

2

The fields given in equation (5.11) have been plotted in Figure 5.3. Validity of the

fractional fields defined by equations (5.11) may be noted from Figure 5.3 which shows

that fractional dual fields satisfy the principle of duality for the limiting values of ,

i.e., for = 0, (Efd , Hfd ) represents the original solution and for = 1, (Efd , Hfd )

represents dual to the original solution. For the range 0 < < 1, (Efd , Hfd ) are the

intermediate step between the original and dual to the original solutions and hence

may be called as the fractional dual solutions. Further from Figure 5.3, we see that

for = 0, Ez 6= 0 and Hz = 0 which shows the transverse magnetic mode, while for

= 1, Ez = 0 and Hz 6= 0 which shows the transverse electric mode.

In order to validate the dependance on impedance of the walls (i.e., zw = Zw /),

tangential electric and magnetic fields at the wall at x = 0 of the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide have been plotted versus for different values of the

original impedance of walls, i.e., (zw = 0, 1, 2, 100) as shown in Figure 5.4. Figure 5.4a

shows the plots for tangential electric fields at an observation point (kx x, ky y, z) =

(0, /4, /4) and the corresponding magnetic fields are shown in Figure 5.4b. It can

be seen from the figures that tangential electric field is zero only at (, zw ) = (0, 0)

or (, zw ) = (1, 100) , i.e., PEC walls while tangential magnetic field is zero at

85

Figure 5.3 Fractional fields versus at (kx x, ky y, z) = (/4, /4, /4), other parameters are same as in Figure 5.2

86

(a)

(b)

Figure 5.4.

Plots of tangential fractional dual fields, (a) electric field (b) magnetic

87

5.3.1 Behavior of fields inside the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide

In order to study the behavior of field lines inside the fractional rectangular waveguide, the field plots are given in the transverse xy-plane as shown in Figure 5.5. Solid

lines show the electric field while magnetic field is shown by the dashed lines.

Figure 5.5

Field lines ; solid lines show electric field and dashed lines show the

From these figures, it can be seen that electric field lines are perpendicular and magnetic

field lines are parallel to the guide plates when the walls meet the conditions of PEC, i.e,

88

and electric field lines are parallel to the guide walls when the walls meet the conditions

[36].

5.3.2 Surface impedance of walls

Surface impedance matrix given in equation (5.1) for the fractional impedance

rectangular waveguide can be found using ratios of the fractional dual fields of equation (5.11). That is

z1fd

z2fd

[Efdx /Hfdz ]y=0,b

=

z3fd

z4fd

[Efdz /Hfdy ]x=0,a

[Efdy /Hfdz ]x=0,a

(5.12)

For the limiting values of the fractional parameter, equation (5.12) may be written as;

z1fd

z2fd

zw

=0

=

(5.12a)

z3fd

z4fd

zw

z1fd

z2fd

1/zw

0

and = 1

=

(5.12b)

z3fd

z4fd

0

1/zw

It may be noted that the compatibility relation is satisfied for both the cases such that

= 0 represents the transverse magnetic mode solution while = 1 represents the

transverse electric mode solution. For intermediate values of the fractional parameter

, the impedance matrix has all the four components with non zero finite values

and hence represents the coupled mode solutions. Further it may be noted that for

zw = 0, equation (5.12a) represents the T M z mode propagating through the PEC

waveguide while equation (5.12b) represents the T E z mode propagating through the

PMC waveguide which is also in accordance with the published literature.

5.3.3 Power transferred through a cross section

The time averaged power density at any point of the transverse plane (i.e., xyplane) of the fractional rectangular impedance waveguide can be obtained using the

Poynting vector theorem as

Pav (x, y, z) =

1

Re[Efdx Hfdy Efdy Hfdx ]

2

(5.13)

89

where Hfdy

shows the complex conjugate of Hfdy and so on. Contour plots for the

power density given by equation (5.13) have been plotted for different values of the

fractional parameter as shown in Figure 5.6. Variation in the power distribution at

the transverse plane may be noted.

Figure 5.6

Time averaged Power distribution over the cross section for different

values of

Time averaged power density at the center point of the cross sectional face has been

plotted in Figure 5.7 which shows the relative maxima at = 0.5. This shows that

one may use the fractional curl operator to illustrate the pattern of transmitted power

through the waveguide. The average power density at the cross sectional plane can

90

be obtained by integrating the local power density given in equation (5.13) over the

whole cross section as

Z

P(z) =

0

Re[Efdx Hfdy

Efdy Hfdx

]d(kx x)d(ky y)

2

(5.14)

This power density has been plotted for the entire range of as in Figure 5.8 which

shows that the average power density through the cross sectional plane remains fairly

constant for the whole range of the fractional parameter.

Figure 5.7 Time averaged power density at the center of the transverse plane, i.e.,

at (kx x, ky y) = (/2, /2)

91

92

CHAPTER VI

Conclusions

The research work carried out in the thesis has been concluded and summarized

as follows:

By selecting order of the fractional curl operator, impedance of the reflecting

boundary as well as polarization of the incident wave can be illustrated. For the case

of a planar PEC surface as an original surface, impedance of the fractional dual surface

is isotropic for normal incidence while it is anisotropic for the case of oblique incidence.

The impedance of the fractional dual surface is a function of the fractional parameter

so that fractional dual is a surface whose impedance is the intermediate step of the

PEC and PMC surface. Further this impedance is same for transverse electric (TEz )

and transverse magnetic (TMz ) polarizations, that is, independent of the polarization

of incident field.

When the original reflecting surface is an impedance surface, the fractional dual

surface has anisotropic impedance which is a function of impedance of the original surface, the fractional parameter, and type of polarization of the incident wave.

Impedance of the fractional impedance surface is complex and behavior of both components is same with respect to . When the original reflecting surface is a PEMC

surface, the fractional dual PEMC surface has anisotropic impedance such that behaviors of the two components are different with respect to .

Fractional parallel plate waveguide model represents that if TMz mode is propagating through a waveguide with impedance walls then its dual solution means a

TEz mode propagating through the waveguide with admittance walls. The fractional

waveguides means a hybrid mode propagation through the waveguide having the walls

whose impedance is an intermediate step between the impedance walls and the admittance walls. Field behavior inside the fractional parallel plate PEC waveguides,

93

impedance waveguides, and PEMC waveguides are same as the field in the region

y > 0 in presence of the corresponding fractional reflecting boundary planes placed at

y = 0. Fractional dual solutions in the chiral region for a chiral-achiral interface yields

the result similar to the ordinary dielectric-dielectric region. Similar is the relation

between a parallel plate chiro waveguide and the parallel plate dielectric waveguide.

Fractional transmission lines can be modelled using the fractional order differential operator. Fractional transmission line model is a generalization of the transmission

line having input impedance which is intermediate step of the input impedance of the

original line and input admittance of the original line. As a special case, when the

original line is a short circuit line, the fractional line has a complex load and it is an

intermediate step of the short circuit transmission line and the open circuit transmission line. Fractional non-symmetric transmission line shows the behavior similar to

the fractional symmetric transmission line.

In case of rectangular waveguide, It has been seen that the relative power density

distribution at the the cross sectional plane changes with varying . For example, at

center of the cross sectional plane, the relative power density distribution is maximum

at = 0.5. However the average power density at the cross sectional plane remains

fairly constant for all values of between 0 and 1. Hence it may be concluded that

the fractional curl operator may be used to control the power distribution pattern over

the cross section of the guide.

94

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