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# PHYSICS

PROJECT
REPORT

LOGICANDGATE

Name:
Class:12
RollNo.

INDEX
S.No. Topic
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Acknowledgement
Certificate
Introduction
BasicTerminology
BasicGates
ANDGate
DigitalCircuitConsistingANDGate
WorkingofANDGate
Bibliography

ACKNOWLEDGEMNT

CERTIFICATE

INTRODUCTIN

## A logic gate can be defined as digital circuit which either allows a

signaltopassthroughorstopsit.ThesegatesarerelatedtoBoolean
Algebra.Thesegatesallowsignalstopassthroughthemonlywhen
somelogicissatisfied.

Asemiconductordiode(PNjunction)actsasaclosedswitchwhenit
isforwardbiased,i.e.itallowscurrenttopassthroughit.Itactsas
anopencircuitwhenitisreversedbiased,i.e.itallowsverylittleor
no current to pass through it. This unique property of diode is
employedinthedesignoflogicgatesandthecircuits.

BASICTERMINOLOGY

Signal
Information converted in electrical form and suitable for
transmissioniscalledasignal.Therearetwotypesofsignals:
i) Analogsignal
ii) Digitalsignal

Analogsignal
Analog signals are continuous variation of voltage or current.
Theyareessentiallysinglevaluedfunctionoftime.Sinewaveis
fundamentalanalogsignal.

Digitalsignal
Digital signal are those which can take only discrete step wise
values. Binary system that is extensively used in digital
electronicsemploysjusttwolevelsofasignal.Ocorresponds
to low level and 1 corresponds to high level of voltage or
current.

Digitalcircuit
The electrical circuit which uses only digital signals is called
digitalcircuit.

Logicgate

iscalledagate.
When such gate allows the signal to pass through only when
some logical condition is satisfied, they are called logic gates.
Each logic gate follows certain logical relationship between
inputandoutputvoltage.Itisusedincalculators,etc.

BASICGATES
There are three basic logic gates. They are combined together to
formseveralotherlogicgate.
Theselogicgatesarethebuildingblockofdigitalcircuit.
Thebasiclogicgatesare:
1. ORGATE
2. ANDGATE
3. NOTGATE
The logic gates are represented with specific symbols in digital
circuit.

TruthTable

Itisatablethatshowsallpossibleinputcombinationsandthe
correspondingoutputcombinationforalogicgate.

1. ORGATE
The symbolic diagram of OR GATE with two inputs and the
truthtableisshown:

2. NOTGATE
ThesymbolicdiagramofNOTGATEwithoneinputandthe
truthtableisshown:

ANDGATE
ThesymbolicdiagramofANDGATEwithtwoinputsandthe
truthtableisshown:

TheBooleanexpressionforANDGATEisY=A.Bthegateonly
givesoutputwhenboththeswitchesAandBareclosed.

ThesimplifiedANDgateshownabovehastwoinputs,switch
AandB.ThebulbQwillonlylightifbothswitchesareclosed.
Thiswillallowcurrenttoflowthroughthebulb,illuminating
thefilament.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. NCERTClass12thphysicsTextbook
2. ConceptofPhysicsbyResnickandHalliday
3. ConceptofPhysicsbyHCVerma