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Fiqh of Zakat Simplified

Table of Contents
The Chapter of Zakat .................................................................................................................................................3
Zakat Linguistically means Increase, Growth, and Purity. ...............................................................................3
Requirements of Obligation and Conditions of Fulfillment ......................................................................................3
Zakat on Silver ...........................................................................................................................................................4
Zakat on Gold ............................................................................................................................................................4
Zakat on Goods .........................................................................................................................................................4
Categories of Zakat Recipients .................................................................................................................................4
Those Who May Receive Zakat ........................................................................................................... 4
These, then, are eight categories: ........................................................................................................ 4
Causes Not Eligible for Receipt of Zakat ............................................................................................. 5
Relationships Making One Ineligible to Receive Zakat ........................................................................ 5
Miscellaneous Regulations................................................................................................................... 5
Q&A from Ahkame Shariyat (Aala Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza)..........................................................................6
Q&A from Seekers Guidance Website....................................................................................................................8
Zakat: How to Calculate & Whom to Give................................................................................................................8
Who Does One Pay Zakat To?.................................................................................................................................9
Eligible Zakat Recipients, Giving Locally vs. Abroad, Charity to a Mosque, and Proper Handling of Donations.9
Who can receive my zakat? ............................................................................................................... 10
Donating Locally ................................................................................................................................. 10
Giving Charity to a Mosque ................................................................................................................ 10
Someone Demanding Your Charity.................................................................................................... 11
Be Mindful of Who Handles Your Donations ...................................................................................... 11
Conclusion - The Prophetic Understanding of Charity ....................................................................... 11
Can I Give Zakat to Immediate Relatives or a Mosque?.......................................................................................11
Zakat & Long-Term Debts.......................................................................................................................................12
How Do I Pay Zakat On Money I Lent Out?...........................................................................................................13
Zakat on Gold of Different Carats ...........................................................................................................................13
How to Calculate Zakat When Paying or Receiving Loan Payments...................................................................14
The Wifes Responsibility to Pay Zakat, Paying Zakat When One Has Loan Payments, and Online Zakat
Calculators ...............................................................................................................................................................14
Can You Give Zakat to Your Mother-in-Law? ........................................................................................................15
Rulings Related to Zakat on Shares .......................................................................................................................16
Zakat on Land & Property .......................................................................................................................................16
Giving Zakat to Help Pay Off Debts........................................................................................................................17
Can We Host an Iftar and Distribute Food to Laborers Using Zakat Money?......................................................17

Can My Wife Give Zakat to My Parents? ...............................................................................................................18


How is Zakat Determined for Stocks? ....................................................................................................................19
How do I Calculate Zakat on Gold and Silver When the Value Increased After I Invested In It?........................19
How Do You Determine How Much You Pay for Zakat When You Constantly Receive New Wealth During the
Year? ........................................................................................................................................................................20
Can Zakat Money Be Given Out As a Loan?.........................................................................................................20
Is Zakat Due on Savings for Which Zakat was Paid the Previous Year?.............................................................20
Paying Zakat on Gold, Loans, and Gifts.................................................................................................................21
Zakat Questions: Resetting Start Date, Miscalculations, and Debt Deduction ....................................................22
Sadaqat-Al Fitr ............................................................................................................................................................24
What is Sadaqat al-Fitr (Zakat al-Fitr)?...................................................................................................................24
How Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr? .....................................................................................................................25
Who Must Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr? ..............................................................................................................................25
Does Ones Husband Pay For Ones Sadaqat al-Fitr? ........................................................................................26
Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr For Ones Children? .............................................................................................26
When Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr? ...................................................................................................................27
What If One Never Paid Sadaqat al-Fitr?...............................................................................................................27
What if Ones Wealth Diminishes After One is Obliged to Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr? .................................................27

The Chapter of Zakat


Zakat Linguistically means Increase, Growth, and Purity.
Zakat in the Shariah means a specific percentage of wealth taken from a specific type of
wealth when it reaches a particular sum spent in designated areas.

Requirements of Obligation and Conditions of Fulfillment


1. Zakat is obligatory on the free, adult sane Muslim when:
he possesses the nisab with complete possession
a lunar year has passed over it
2. Zakat is not obligatory on the following:
a child, nor an insane person, nor a mukatib (slave)
anyone who has a due debt encompassing his money. But, if his money is more than the
debt, he pays Zakat on the excess if it reaches nisab
3. If one advance-pays the Zakat before the year has passed over it, and he possesses nisab, it
is valid
4. Zakat is due on a yearly basis when a morally-responsible Muslim possesses the minimal
zakatable-amount (nisab) above and beyond his debts and immediate expenses, and a
complete lunar year passes over it. In calculating ones Zakat one calculates all his zakatable
assets together. Zakatable assets include:
Gold
Silver
Cash - whether in currency form or in the bank
Money Lent Out
Trade-goods
Stocks
freely-grazing livestock kept for milk, breeding or fattening : camels, cows, sheep and
goats
produce (excluding firewood, reeds and grass)
buried treasures and metals
5. After one calculates the above, one deducts:
Debts, and
Immediate expenses.
6. Zakat is not due on the following:
residential homes
body clothes
household furniture
riding-animals
slaves in service
weapons of use
7. Zakat is only valid if offered with an intention coinciding with the payment, or coinciding
with the setting-aside of the obligatory portion

8. If the nisab is complete at the two ends of the lunar year, then its dropping in between that
does not waive the Zakat

Zakat on Silver
1. There is no charity obligatory on any silver less than 200 dirhams (200 dirhams corresponds
to 19.69 troy oz and 612.36 grams)
2. Then, if it is 200 dirhams, and a lunar years passes over it, 5 dirhams are due for it

Zakat on Gold
1. There is no Zakat obligatory on any gold less than 20 mithqal (20 mithqal corresponds to
2.81 troy oz and 87.48g)
2. Then, if it is 20 mithqal, and a lunar year passes over it, then half a mithqal is due for it
3. There is Zakat due on raw gold and silver, as well as on jewelry and vessels made of them
Summarization of Various Matric Units and value of Silver and Gold reaching the Nisab
Metals Nisab

Troy Oz

Grams

Price as on 26 Jul 13

Nisab price
As on 26th Jul 2013

Silver

19.688

612.4

41438 per 1000 gr

25244.54

2.8125

87.48

27,820 per 10 gr

243369.4

Gold

200
dirhams
20 mithqal

Zakat on Goods
1. Zakat is obligatory on trade goods, whatever they may be, if their value reaches the nisab of
gold or silver; one assesses it based on whichever of the two is more beneficial for the poor
and destitute
2. The value of goods is added to gold and silver. Similarly, gold is added to silver in value in
order to reach the nisab, according to Abu Hanifah

Categories of Zakat Recipients


Those Who May Receive Zakat

Allah, the Exalted, says, (which means), Alms are only for the poor, the destitute, those who
collect them, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, for [mukatib] slaves, debtors, and in the
Path of Allah, and the wayfarer. An [ordained] obligation from Allah. And Allah is Knowing,
Wise [Quran, 9:60].
These, then, are eight categories:

1. The Poor: the one who has the least of things

2. The Destitute: the one who has nothing


3. Al-Muallafa Quloobuhum: those who are still not sure of Islam yet and this money is given
to them to soften their hearts towards Islam and Muslims
4. The [Zakat] Worker: is paid by the imam in proportion to his work, if he worked
5. Slaves: the mukatibun are assisted in freeing themselves
6. The Debtor: the one on whom a debt is incumbent
7. In the Path of Allah: are the stranded fighters
8. The Wayfarer: the one who has money in his homeland, but is in a place in which he has
nothing
One may divide the Zakat to each category, or he may restrict himself to one.
Causes Not Eligible for Receipt of Zakat

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

It is not permissible for one to give Zakat to a dhimmi (non-Muslim living in Muslim lands)
Nor may a mosque be built with it
Nor may a dead person be shrouded with it
Nor may a slave be bought with it to free
Nor may it be paid to a rich person
Nor may it be paid to a shareef (descendants of the Prophet, sallallahu alahi wa aalihi)

Relationships Making One Ineligible to Receive Zakat

1. Nor may the payer of Zakat pay it to his father, or his grandfather even if higher up in
ascendancy.
2. Nor to his child, nor his childs child, even if lower down in descendancy.
3. Nor to his wife. A woman may not pay her Zakat to her husband, according to Abu Hanifah.
4. One may not pay ones Zakat to ones mukatib or slave, nor to the slave of a wealthy
person, nor to the child of a wealthy person if he is a minor.
5. It may not be paid to Banu Hashim, and they are: the Household of `Ali, the Household of
`Abbas, the Household of Ja`far, the Household of Harith ibn `Abd al-Muttalib; nor to their
freed slaves.
Miscellaneous Regulations

1. If one pays Zakat to a man whom one thinks to be poor, and then it transpires that he is
rich, or Hashimi, or an unbeliever, or if one paid it in darkness to a poor person, and then it
transpired that he was his father or his son, then repeating it is not obligatory on him.
2. It is not permissible to pay Zakat to anyone who possesses the nisab of whatever type of
wealth it may be.
3. It is permissible to pay it to anyone who possesses less than that, even if he is healthy and
earning.
4. It is disliked to transfer Zakat from one land to another; rather the Zakat of each people
should be distributed amongst them, unless a person transfers it to his relatives, or to a
people who are more in need than the people of his land.

Q&A from Ahkame Shariyat (Aala Hazrat Imam Ahmed Raza)


Question: What is the ruling of the learned Ulama and the viceroys of the Prophets in the
following cases?
Q: Is the ruling for coins and notes the same, since notes are just paper and different from
gold and silver?
A: The same law cannot apply to notes and to coins. The coins are silver and thus have a selfvalue and money is just paper and is technically given value. However, for as long as it is in
circulation, it will be regarded as money as that too is only given a value.

Q: What is the amount to be paid for every hundred?


A: Zakaat is one fortieth portion of nisaab. According to the mazhab of the Sahibain, the
calculation of nisaab is very simple and beneficial for the needy. In other words one needs to
pay out two and a half rupees for every hundred rupees.
Q: What if a person does not have any money, but has gold and silver jewels that are for daily
use and they add up to the nisaab value, does he need to give zakaat on this as well?
A: Definitely
Q: If one gives zakaat for an amount which he has in the first year and the remainder after
paying zakaat stays the same for the second year, will one have to give zakaat on that money
again the following year even though it was already given on the same amount the year before?
A: Even if it is kept for ten years, zakaat is waajib every year until the amount does not become
less than the nisaab. If he did not pay in the first year, then the he is in debt and that amount
must be removed from the amount the following year and then the zakat should be calculated.
In the third year, the zakaat of the other two years is owed by him and then this too must be
removed from the amount and then zakaat calculated. In the same way the zakaat for all the
other years should be calculated in the same manner and only the amount remaining will be
zakaatable or of the remaining amount plus other zakaatable things are
added to make Nisaab, then he must give zakaat if not, there will be no zakaat.

Q: Is it waajib to give Fitrah for every person, whether he kept fast or not, or whether he or she
has reached puberty or not?
A: Ones own sadqa and that of ones na baaligh children (who have not reached puberty) is
waajib, even if they are only one day old. Now, if both the children that are already baaligh
(reached puberty) and the wife are Saahib-e-Nisaab, then they need to pay their own sadqa
(Fitra). If they do not have the amount, then there is no Sadqa (Fitra) on any of them. In other
words they are not responsible for this payment of fitra. However, one may pay their fitrah on
their behalf after attaining their permission to do so and this will be a good favour.

Q: Is there Zakaat on gold or silver jewellery that is for daily use or that which has been kept
away?
A: There is full zakaat on the jewellery, whether it is worn at all times, or it is not worn at all.

Q: Does the Nisaab of the Zakaat for jewellery remain as per the price of jewellery when it was
purchased or does this fluctuate as per the market value of the jewellery and thus will it be
calculated as per the price at the time of calculation for payment (of zakaat)?
Ans: If gold is given in place of gold and silver for silver, then there is no need to pay the market
related price. In doing so, one must give one fortieth of the weight of the said jewellery.
However, if one wishes to give silver in payment of gold and gold in payment of silver, then the
market related value will be used. The market related value at the time of making or purchasing
the jewellery and the current market value will not be taken into account if it is before or after
the year had come to an end, but the value taken into account will be after one complete year
according to the Arabic month and date that he became zakaatable. The payment of zakaat will
be according to the value at that particular time.
Q: What is the ruling regarding that money which is invested in business, such as money that
has been used to purchase material (cloth) or for rentable things etc? How does one give zakaat
on this?
Ans: At the end of the year, the market related value of the goods for business, will be used to
pay the zakaat on it, which is one fortieth (2 %) of its market related value.
Q: What is the Zakaat that needs to be paid per one hundred?
Ans: The easiest way, is to pay two and a half rupees on every one hundred rupees.
Q: Can one give the money of Zakaat to a Kaafir, mushrik, wahabi, raafdhi (shia) or qadiani etc?
Ans: It is haraam to give them Zakaat and if one does give them Zakaat, the zakaat will not be
discharged
Q: Who is it best to first give ones zakaat to? If ones brothers sisters or parents are not
zakaatable, can they be given zakaat or not?
Ans: He cannot give Zakaat to anyone in whose children he is, in other words, he cannot give
zakaat to his mother, father, paternal grandfather (Daada), paternal grandmother (Daadi),
maternal grandfather (Naana), maternal grandmother (Naani). He can also not give to any of his
children, such as his sons, daughters, his grandsons and granddaughters, both maternal and
paternal. If his brothers and sisters are not Saahib-e-Nisaab (if they themselves do not have to
pay zakaat), then it is best to give them Zakaat.

Q&A from Seekers Guidance Website


Zakat: How to Calculate & Whom to Give
Zakat is due on a yearly basis when a morally-responsible Muslim possesses the minimal
zakatable-amount (nisab) above and beyond his debts and immediate expenses, and a
complete lunar year passes over it. In calculating ones Zakat one calculates all his zakatable
assets together. Zakatable assets include:
(a) Cash - whether in currency form or in the bank,
(b) Gold and Silver,
(c) Money lent out,
(d) Trade goods,
(e) Stocks, and
(f) Agricultural produce.
After one calculates the above, one deducts:
(a) Debts, and
(b) Immediate expenses.

Some Illustrated Examples


It should be known that anyone who possesses a zakatable-minimum (nisab) the obligation to
pay Zakat will commence. As soon as one possesses this amount, ones Zakat year will start, and
he will be obligated to actually pay Zakat once a whole year has passed if he still possesses an
amount equal or more than the zakatable-minimum. The zakatable-minimum is equivalent to
the value of 87 grams of gold.
Example 1: The zakatable-minimum is $2000. One possess $1000 of cash, $1500 of gold and
silver, and $2500 in trade goods then his total zakatable assets amount to $5000 (supposing he
has no money lent out, stocks, or agricultural produce). However, he also has a debt of $500
and his immediate monthly expense amounts to $500 also, which will be subtracted. Thus, his
total zakatable wealth is $4000. This is above the zakatable-minimum, so the obligation to pay
Zakat will commence.
If one possessed this amount on the 1st of Rabi` al-Awwal then this is when his Zakat year
starts. If then, for example, he possesses $2500 on the 2nd of Rabi` al-Awwal of the next year,
he will have to pay 2.5% of $2500. Thus, what is taken into consideration is the amount one
possesses above the zakatable-minimum at the end of ones Zakat year. This is the amount
Zakat is due upon.
Fluctuations during the middle of the year are of no consequence, unless ones zakatable
amount reaches zero. Only the beginning and end of the year are taken into account. One has

to possess a zakatable-minimal both at the beginning and at the end of ones Zakat year for one
to pay Zakat.
Example 2: The zakatable-minimum is $2000. Ones zakatable assets amount to $3000.
However, one also has $500 of immediate expenses and a debt amounting to $2000. Thus, his
total zakatable wealth is $500. This does not reach the zakatable-minimum and so no Zakat is
due upon him. In such a case, ones zakat year does not even commence because one never
possessed a zakatable-minimum to begin with.
Example 3: The zakatable-minimum is $2000. Ones zakatable assets amount to $4000. One has
immediate expenses of $500 and a debt amounting to $1000. Thus, one subtracts this, and is
left with a total zakatable wealth of $2500. He possesses this amount on the 1st of Muharram.
Since it is over the zakatable-minimum, his Zakat year starts on this date. On the 2nd of
Muharram the following year his total zakatable wealth amounts to $1500, having decreased.
Since this is not equal to or more than the zakatable-minimum no Zakat will be due upon him.

Who Does One Pay Zakat To?


Zakat can be given to any legally poor or needy Muslim individual.
A legally poor Muslim is defined as anyone who does not possess the zakatable-minimum
himself.
An individual refers to an actual person who is given ownership of the wealth being given in
Zakat, as opposed to an institute. This can be anyone except ones wife, parents, and children.
One can give it to an institute if one is sure that they will disseminate the amount one is paying
in Zakat to a poor or needy Muslim individual.

Eligible Zakat Recipients, Giving Locally vs. Abroad, Charity to a Mosque, and
Proper Handling of Donations
Question: Who is better to give my zakat to: (1) a Muslim working on a project for an
impoverished nation, (2) an imam in an impoverished country building a mosque, (3) to a
mosque in an impoverished nation , or (4) to a friend who is extremely poor?
In regard to the Muslims project, he has a stronger conviction since the project is more
personal for him. He says 25% of my income would be sufficient. Our communication has
become strained due to my hesitance and often he throws insults my way.
Also, how can I give charity and avoid vanity?
Please advise me regarding these matters.
Introduction - General Conditions of Zakat

When it comes to zakat, the eligible recipients include: the poor, the indigent (who possess less
than the nisab), those with overwhelming debt, and travelers cut off from their wealth at home.

It cannot be given to non-Muslims, the wealthy, Hashimis (those from the Prophets clan), and
certain relatives (parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, and spouses). It also cannot be
used to pay off the debt of the deceased. [Shurunbulali, Ascent to Felicity]
One of the conditions of zakat is that it entails a transfer of ownership to an individual; as such,
we cannot use our zakat to pay for the construction or support of Islamic institutions. Rather,
this money goes specifically to the individuals listed above.
Who can receive my zakat?

You mention four possibilities: a) the Muslim working on a project, b) the Imam building a
mosque, c) an impoverished mosque, or d) a poor friend.
- For the first 2 (the Muslim and the Imam), zakat would only be permissible if you are giving
the money to them, and not their efforts (the project/mosque). You need to ensure that they
are poor or indigent, meaning they have less than the nisab.*
- For the third (the mosque), zakat is impermissible, so any money given to it will count as
sadaqa.
- For the fourth (the friend), zakat is permissible so long as that person is Muslim and possesses
less than the nisab amount.
If, after taking into account the above considerations, you still have more than one choice, then
you can give the zakat to whomever you please, and you can even split it between multiple
recipients.
Remember that the nisab does not include daily essentials (residence, clothing, furniture,
transportation, etc.)
Donating Locally

Although the choice is yours, I would specifically recommend that you give a good portion of
your zakat to local people and causes. Giving zakat in this manner fulfills local needs that would
otherwise not be met, and it also increases the bonds of brotherhood and love within the
Muslim community.
Assuming that your friend (option 4) is eligible for zakat, then that person would probably be
the most deserving of your zakat given the above considerations. Of course, this is a weighty
decision, so consider your options, pray istikhara, and then pay your zakat, and inshaAllah it
will be of maximum benefit both in this world and the next.
Giving Charity to a Mosque

As you mentioned, giving the money towards building a mosque is considered voluntary charity
(saqada) and not zakat. The amount you give is up to you, and remember that every dollar you
give carries with it a major reward. Indeed, the Prophet (peace be upon him) told us that The
believers shade on the Day of Resurrection will be his charity. [al-Tirmidhi]
If you fear vanity, find a way to give the money anonymously. If you cannot do that, then make
dua asking Allah for protection from vanity before you give it.

Someone Demanding Your Charity

If I understand this scenario correctly, you did not make any promises or guarantees to fund the
project, yet money is being demanded from you. If this is the case, then there is no
requirement for you to give to the project. The question of whether you helped the project in
the past is irrelevant. The money is under your possession, so only you have the final say as to
where it goes.
As for the person asking for the money, he has no right to demand money from you for this
project, and 25% is a very large portion to demand or expect from someone. Based on your
description of this person, I would actually advise against working with him. By insulting you
and demanding large portions of your money, he is displaying very poor adab (Islamic
etiquette). This casts doubt on his ability to handle your money in a proper manner as well.
Be Mindful of Who Handles Your Donations

I highly advise you to give your sadaqa (voluntary charity) to more reputable organizations and
products run by Muslims who are trustworthy and have good character. Only give what you are
comfortable in giving: 25% is a very large amount of ones income, and oftentimes that conflicts
with ones obligations to supporting themselves, their families, day to day needs, and
maintaining extra funds for emergencies.
I therefore encourage you to be generous, but in a manner that takes into account those other
financial necessities that you may have. Remember that the Prophet (peace be upon him)
advised us to tie our camel as well as to rely on God, meaning that we take the necessary
precautions to safeguard ourselves and our property while also realizing that all of it comes
from Allah. [Sunan al-Tirmidhi]
Conclusion - The Prophetic Understanding of Charity

After paying your required zakat to someone who is eligible, the amount of money you give in
charity, and who you give it to, is your choice. The sunnah is to give much in charity and to give
not just your money, but also your time and your sincere concern as well. He (peace be upon
him) said that even if you have no money to give, simply doing the good and refraining from the
evil can be considered a form of charity. [Sahih al-Bukhari]

Can I Give Zakat to Immediate Relatives or a Mosque?


Answered by Sidi Waseem Hussain
Question: Can i give zakat to my parents, husband, grandmother, granfather, children, sisters
of blood, uncle, auntie if each of them really needs it? Also, can i give zakat to build a masjid?
I hope you dont mind me asking you sheikh but i will ask you many more questions inshaAllah
in few days on many other things, since you are Hanafi and I am too and in our country our
community is still to small and we dont follow the same madhab.
Answer: Walaikum Salam Warahmatullah,
You can pay zakat to any relative who is not:

Your parent, grandparent and ascending

Your child, grandchild and descending

Your spouse

As for all other relatives then it is not only permissible, but better to pay zakat to them if they
are valid zakat-recipients.
With regards to giving zakat directly to a mosque then that is not valid, except if they are
collecting the funds to disburse to those zakat-eligible individuals
Zakat can only be given to an actual poor person who takes posession of the given zakat. a
virtuous project such as building a mosque is neither a person nor poor, and therefore one
cannot give zakat to build a mosque.

Zakat & Long-Term Debts


Answered by Sidi Waseem Hussain
Question: I have a considerable sum of gold. Unfortunately, I was not earning enough to be
able to pay zakat on it. I put aside some of the gold for zakat, and made note of the zakat
amounts which I still owed. Once I started earning, I put that money aside to make up for the
back-zakat. I also am unable to fast due to a medical condition, so I made note of fidya
amounts and also put that aside. I recently donated the above mentioned zakat and fidya,
alhamdulillah. But right after I donated, I learned that debts are to be deducted from my
zakatable assets. I have a very large student loan debt, and based on Islamic Reliefs zakat
calculator, I actually dont owe any zakat after all. Now that I have already donated, would it
be possible for me to view the amount of money I mistakenly donated towards zakat as the
fidya which I would owe for missed fasts in the future? My medical condition is such that I will
not be able to fast again for the rest of my life.
Answer: Assalamu Alaykum Warahmatullah,
The scholars differentiate between two types of debts:

Long-term debt: Which is a debt repaid on fixed installments for more than a year.
Mortgages from studying, buying a house, car and the like would be of this kind.

Short-term debt: Which is a debt immediately due within a year.

This differentiation is important when it comes to zakat, since one can only subtract the entire
amount if it is a short-term debt.
Long-term debts are not dedcutable, except for the immediate installment.
Consider the following example:
Assume the zakatable-minimum (nisab) is $2000.

Ones zakatable assets amount to &5000.


One has an outstanding mortgage of $50.000 with fixed monthly installments of $500. This
would be a long-term debt. As such one can only subtract the upcoming installment of $500,
and has to pay zakat on $4500.
A student-loan would be a long-term debt. Hence the entire debt is not deductible.
However, if you have started repaying the debt, then it would be possible to deduct the
upcoming installment.
Considering the above, the money you have donated has in fact been zakat.

How Do I Pay Zakat On Money I Lent Out?


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: How do I pay zakat on money lent out?
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
For money lent out, you may either:
(a) pay zakat on it each year while it is lent out (as you have been doing);
or alternatively:
(b) wait until you receive it back, at which time though you will have to pay zakat for the past
years in which it was lent out. If the loan is never repaid, you owe no zakat on it. [Ibn Nujaym,
al-Bahr al-Ra'iq]
You may want to choose the second option considering your financial situation.

Zakat on Gold of Different Carats


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: How do I calculate the zakat due for gold of different carats? Do we have to find
out how much per gram for 21 Carat, how much per gram for 22 Carat how much per gram
from 24 Carat? Or can we give an average of 22 Carat?
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith.
For gold, zakat is due on the market value of the amount of gold one owns at time of the zakat
due date.

Regarding your specific question, simply estimate the weight of actual gold for your jewellery
(you can be safe in your estimate by assuming slightly more than your estimate, but not by
too much lest it be excessive).
Dont use an average of 22 carat but rather do each carat amount independently (21 carat, 22
carat, 24 carat, etc).

How to Calculate Zakat When Paying or Receiving Loan Payments


Answered by Sidi Faraz A. Khan
Question: I have a question relating to the calculation of zakat when there is debt involved.
To sum up my situation, my father has loaned money to me to help me purchase a house.
When calculating the zakat due on my wealth, reading the Seekers Guidance answer, I believe
I only deduct the monthly amount. Please confirm.
Based on this ruling, my father also needs to know if he should include the total loaned
amount into his zakat calculations, or only on the repayments he receives.
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith.
(1) You are correct - for long term debts that one owes, only the monthly installment is
deducted when calculating zakat.
(2) With respect to your fathers zakat for the money he lent out, he does not have to pay zakat
on it while it is lent out, yet when he receives an installment, he must retrospectively pay zakat
on that installment for all the years it was lent out.
If he chooses instead to pay its zakat each year while it is lent out, before he receives it, then
that is valid.
[Ibn Nujaym, al-Bahr al-Ra'iq]

The Wifes Responsibility to Pay Zakat, Paying Zakat When One Has Loan
Payments, and Online Zakat Calculators
Answered by Sidi Faraz A. Khan
Question: Assalamu Alaikum,
My wife and I wish to understand the rules and responsibilities on paying with zakat. She has
gold jewelry, and earnings from property assets. I do not have any gold but have savings and
earnings in my bank. I also have a significant amount of outstanding loan that I am paying off.
My wife has a small loan as well. Questions we need your guidance/answers on:

1. Who is primarily responsible for paying Zakat on the wifes assets? By default the husband
or the wife?
2. If the answer to #1 is the wife should pay her own zakat, then who must pay Zakat if she is
a student and not working, hence unable to pay?
3. If the answer to #1 and #2 is husband, then how does the husband prioritize between Zakat
and loan?
4. What happens if the amount owed in loan is more than the Zakat that must be paid in a
given year?
5. What happens if the amount owed in loan is smaller than the Zakat that must be paid in a
given year?
4. Is there a reliable source online to calculate zakat based on total gold, asset, cash, vs. loan
(i.e. an online calculator)?
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
I pray this finds you in the best of health and faith.
(1) The default is that every person that is legally responsible (mukallaf)i.e., sane and adult
must pay his or her own zakat. However, your wife can make you her agent (wakil) to pay her
zakat. There is nothing wrong with that, and it is quite common in families.
(2) If she does not have the minimum amount (nisab), then zakat is not due.
If she does have nisabbased on cash, assets, gold, silver, etc.then she must pay zakat.
Please refer to a basic fiqh manual for details.
However, if the husband (or anyone else) agrees (and of course it is not an obligation on him),
he may pay from his own money with her consent, and it would be deemed a gift from him to
her, and then zakat.
That is, he may pay her zakat for her, from his own money, as long as she knows of it, in which
case it is as if he gifted her money which she herself used for her zakat. This is included in the
concept of him being her wakil.
(3), (4) and (5) A short-term debt has first priority, and so it is deducted before one sees if one
has the minimum quantum (nisab). For a long-term debt, the immediate [monthly] installment
can be deducted, but not more.

Can You Give Zakat to Your Mother-in-Law?


Answered By Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
Question:If your mother in law is divorced and only receives state support (about Euro 300 a
month + govt. flat) - can you give her your Zakat? More generally if someone is not above the
Nisaab but has a regular income do they qualify for zakat.
Answer: In the Name of Allah, the Benevolent, the Merciful

It is permissible to give ones zakat to a needy in-law. In fact, there is greater reward in doing so
than in giving zakat to strangers, as it also has the meaning of maintaining family ties (silat alrahim). [Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Ala' al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-`Ala'iyya]
It is only impermissible to give ones zakat to ones most immediate relations: (1) spouse; (2)
parents and their parents; (3) children and their children. (It isnt impermissible to give ones
zakat to ones siblings, though.) [ibid.]

Rulings Related to Zakat on Shares


Answered by Sidi Salman Younas
Question: Almost 20 years ago my father purchased shares for investment purposes.Overs the
years the value of shares has increased considerably and the company is paying good
dividends on them.3 years back he sold some of them to make up for the money he required
for purchasing land which he again did for investment purposes . Does my father have to pay
zakat on the market value of the shares he holds or only on the dividend he receives? Has he
to pay zakat on land also?Right now he has no intention of selling the shares but, on my
advise, intends to sell the entire land for the purpose of purchasing land at another place.
Answer: assalamu `alaykum
It is obligatory to pay Zakat on shares. However, there is some detail to this based on whether
the share was purchased for (a) capital gain or (b) to receive a dividend.
If the share was purchased for the purpose of capital gain, meaning one bought it with the
primary intention of selling it, then Zakat will be due on the market value of the share at the
time one is paying Zakat.
Example: An individual purchased a share for $10 with the primary intention of selling it in the
future. This is now considered a trade good and therefore Zakat will be due on it. On the day
Zakat is due, the value of the share is $20. Zakat will now be due on $20, not $10.
If the share was purchased in order to receive a dividend, then one pays Zakat on ones share in
accordance with the percentage of Zakatable-assets within the company.
Example: An individual purchased a share for $100 with the intention of receiving a dividend.
The company he has invested in has ten percent gold assets, twenty percent cash, and twenty
percent manufactured goods. The remaining fifty percent are non-Zakatable assets, such as
cars, furniture, land, and so forth. Here, the individual only has to pay Zakat on fifty percent of
the share, which here would be $50.

Zakat on Land & Property


As for land and property, then Zakat is only due on it if it falls under the category of being a
trade good. As indicated above, the condition for something to be considered a trade good is
that it be bought with the primary and firm intention of reselling it in the future. However, if he

does not have this intention, or is not firm on it (meaning he merely considers it one of many
options he has), or bought it for personal use but later changed his mind, Zakat will not be due
on the land.
One thing to take note of is that Zakat is due on the current market value of the land, not the
price the land was bought for.
[Ibn `Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

Giving Zakat to Help Pay Off Debts


Answered by Sidi Salman Younas
Question: I had a question regarding zakat. Would it be permissible to to give zakat for
someone to pay off a loan that keeps on charging interest when this women is old, has no
income, has children, and is not being supported by any family?
Answer: assalamu `alaykum
It is permissible to give ones Zakat to anyone who does not possess the zakatable-minimum
(nisab), namely someone legally considered poor, as long as they are not ones spouse,
parents, or children.
If you have strong reason to believe that the woman you describe is considered legally poor,
you may assist her by giving her your Zakat. If it turns out that she was in fact not eligible for
Zakat, your obligation will still be considered fulfilled. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah]
Finally, as a point of clarification, one cannot pay off anothers debt and consider their Zakat
fulfilled. Rather, one must intend to give Zakat to a Zakat-eligible individual while actually
transferring the wealth to them. Thereafter, they can use such wealth to pay off debts that they
have.

Can We Host an Iftar and Distribute Food to Laborers Using Zakat Money?
Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: I have question regarding zakat money, can we:
(1) arrange iftar in mosque from zakat money? or
(2) go personally to distribute food in labour camps in Dubai from zakat money? mostly they
are labours e.g gardeners,drivers,work in factories or people who are working in construction
etc.
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
(1) An iftar in the mosque would not be sufficient for zakat payment.
This is because zakat must be transfer of ownership (tamlik), that is, to give the recipient some
form of wealth such that the recipient thereafter owns it.

Hosting an iftar, however, entails allowing people to partake of the hosts food (ibaha), which is
different. The guests at the iftar do not at any point own the food that they eat, which is why
they cannot for example take food home without the hosts permission. The host remains
owner of the food.
(2) Food could be distributed to them as zakat payment, since in doing so you would be giving
each recipient ownership of the food (tamlik).
As always, one would need to be reasonably sure that the recipient owns less than nisab (aside
from basic personal needs).
[Tahtawi/Shurunbulali, Hashiya Tahtawi ala Maraqi Falah]

Can My Wife Give Zakat to My Parents?


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: My parents have run out of money and currently do not have any source of
income. They receive welfare in the form of food stamps and medicaid.
(1) Would my parents be eligible for zakat?
(2) My wife works and has her own income. Is it permissible for her to give her zakat to my
parents? Would this be considered disrespectful? She would give me the money and I would
deposit it into their account without mentioning it is zakat money.
(3) Also, is there a limit to how much can be given to one person in zakat? (i.e. the amount
given would bring them over the nisab amount).
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
(1) It would seem that your parents meet the criteria for receiving zakat, which is that one owns
less than the nisab (aside from basic personal needs).
(2) Yes she may give zakat to your parents. It could be called a gift so that its not offensive. Of
course, the intention of zakat must be there when she pays it [or when she gives it to you to
pay on her behalf].
(3) It is disliked to give a recipient an amount high enough that, after the completion of another
lunar year (i.e., after paying all the expenses of that upcoming year), they are no longer eligible
recipients. Considering the expenses of your parents and their financial state, this would not
seem to be a concern.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi l-Falah]

How is Zakat Determined for Stocks?


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: I understand that if one acquires an asset such as property e.g. an apartment for
the purposes of living in it, but not as an investment, then one does not pay Zakat on it. If it is
for investment with the intention of selling for a profit, one must pay Zakat on it every lunar
year that passes, even if the sale is not yet made. Please confirm for me if my understanding
is correct.
If so, I want to know if the same principle applies to stocks as well. Although an investment,
does ones knowledge of when they wish to sell it have any bearing on the payment of Zakat
on it at all? That is, is it relevant whether one intends to keep the stock for the long-run
without knowledge of when they want to sell it, or if they know they want to sell it at a
specified date in the near-future, say in three months?
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
Your understanding is correct: if an asset is purchased with a clear and firm intention for resale,
zakat is due on it every year before its resale; if purchased for other than resale or without a
clear intention for resale, then no zakat is due, until/unless it is sold, at which point zakat would
be due on the income generated from the sale (assuming one owns nisab). [Ibn Abidin/Haskafi,
Radd al-Muhtar ala Durr al-Mukhtar]
With respect to stocks, if one purchased it for resale, it is deemed trade merchandise and hence
zakat is due on it every year based on its market value that year.
If purchased not for resale but rather to receive annual dividends, then the stock itself is not
deemed an article of merchandise. Rather, one is deemed a co-owner of the company, based
on ones respective share. In that case, one pays zakat on all goods and monetary assets of the
company, yet may deduct those assets that are not zakatable, i.e., company assets for use and
not for sale, such as land, machinery, cars and the like.

How do I Calculate Zakat on Gold and Silver When the Value Increased After I
Invested In It?
Answered by Sidi Tabraze Azam
Question: I would like to know how to calculate the percentage of the annual zakat on an
investment in precious metals. Ive been investing in gold and silver bars for many months
now and in a few days I will have to give the zakat (2.5%?) on them. The problem is that the
value of gold and silver increased by around 20% (and will continue because of the
devaluation of the paper money and the upcoming great recession) and I dont know if I have
to calculate the percentage on the original value (1 year ago in Canadian Dollars) or on the
actual value (+20% in canadian dollars).
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

According to the Hanafi school, the basis is that we deal with actual gold and silver. Therefore,
one would pay with the current value of gold and silver. [Mawsili, al-Mukhtar lil Fatwa; Halabi,
Multaqa al-Abhur]
Practically, one would calculate based on the rate at the time ones zakat is due.

How Do You Determine How Much You Pay for Zakat When You Constantly
Receive New Wealth During the Year?
Answered by Sidi Tabraze Azam
Question: If one has to pay Zakat today for example, though has received more gold
throughout the year, does one give Zakat on the total of the gold at hand at the time of when
Zakat is due or does one calculate one year from the new gold is received?
Answer: Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,
According to the Hanafi school, one adds the wealth gained during the year to the wealth which
is already in ones possession. [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; ShaykhZada, Majma` al-Anhur]
What counts is what is in ones possession at the end of the lunar year (hawl). Practically, even
if one was gifted gold/silver, money or the like, the day before zakat was due, one would be
obligated to include it within ones zakat calculations (i.e. the next day).

Can Zakat Money Be Given Out As a Loan?


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: I would like to use some of my zakat money for a charitable loan with the intention
of whatever is returned will be given to someone else. Is it ok?
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
One cannot give out a loan from ones zakat money, as it will not count as zakat. One could do
so from ones remaining wealth, as regular charity (sadaqa).
Zakat is defined as granting ownership of a certain amount of wealth [2.5%], upon which one
lunar year has passed, to a deserving recipient.
As such, it is valid only if ownership is granted to the individualif it is given as a loan and then
taken back, then it would not fulfill ones zakat.
[Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Tahtawi/Shurunbulali, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi Falah]

Is Zakat Due on Savings for Which Zakat was Paid the Previous Year?
Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan

Question: Does one have to pay zakah on money or savings that he has already paid zakah on
from the previous year?
For example if last year i saved 30,000 dollars and paid the zakah which equaled 750 dollars.
And now this year I still have that 30,000 dollars saved and havent spent it from the previous
year, must I pay the zakah on that amount again this year? Jazak Allahu Khair.
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
Yes, zakat is due on savings for which one has already paid zakat on from the previous year.
The basic idea is as follows: once a person has the minimum zakatable amount (called nisab),
then that day is ones zakat due-date.
So after one lunar year, on that due-date, one sees if one still has nisab. If so, zakat is due on all
of ones monetary assets (cash, gold, silver, trade goods, etc.). If one does not have nisab, then
no zakat is due.
For each subsequent year, on that due-date, as long as one has nisab, one pays zakat on all of
ones monetary assets: whether saved from the previous year or acquired since.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Haskafi, Durr al-Mukhtar]

Paying Zakat on Gold, Loans, and Gifts


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Question: My questions relate to zakat. I own one house property in which I, my mother and
my family are residing. I have income from my salary but there are no savings in cash. My
wifes is using gold which is more that 7.5 tolas. We do not have any silver. I am paying
monthly installments of a study loan for my sons higher studies taken from Bank. Also I am
paying installments of a loan taken from my office society. Some amount is received on
account of sale of my sons motorcycle which is kept for the purpose of purchasing another
motorcycle. I do not have any bank balance and my GPG balance will be very minimum. Out
of the gold used by my wife some of it is from her father side and some of it is gifted by me. I
have only one motorcycle at present and no other vehicle in use. In such situation my
questions are.
1. How should i calculate my zakat?
2. The study loan taken from bank is a loan taken on interest which is repaid on monthly
installment basis and the installment also include a part of interest charged by the bank.
When taking loan on interest basis is not good in Islam then how this loan is deductible from
zakatable income?
3. Even if this loan is deductible what about the interest part being paid by me to bank every
month.
4. I could have avoided taking loan from bank but it was taken to improve the financial
position. It did not help to improve financial position but instead my financial position
became worse. In such a situation is the loan deductible.
5. Are loans taken for the purpose of building a house or purchasing flats when one has the
capacity to pay rent by staying in rented house deductible from zakatable assets.
6. When a person has sufficient income and he can manage his day to day needs from his

income after paying the loan installment then why the loan installment shall be deducted
from zakat assets.
7. Whether the zakt on the gold owned by my mother who is a widow shall be given by me.
The gold is purchased and given as gift by me.
8. Supposing I am not eligible to pay zakat on account of loans payable to bank still if I want
to pay zakat shall I pay it or I am defaulting because I am not availing the facility provided to
me.
Answer: Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,
(1) Calculating zakat is very simple: on your zakat due date, add up all the money you own including cash, market value of your gold and silver, and trade goods if you own a business and if it is greater than nisab, pay 2.5% of that amount.
You do not consider the house you live in nor the vehicle you use, as such things are from ones
basic personal needs, which are deducted.
Keep in mind that you owe your own zakat (if you have nisab) and your wife owes her own (if
she has nisab). So it is important to clarify who owns the gold/silver/jewelery/etc within the
family.
(2) through (6): Once you have taken out a loan - whether it has interest or not, and whether it
was needed or not - it is deductible for zakat purposes because it is now a real debt that you
owe.
For long term debts, you may deduct the next monthly installment, or up to one year of
payment.
(7) Once you give something as a gift, it is no longer owned by you. Therefore, your mother is
responsible for the zakat payment on her gold (if along with her other money, silver, etc. she
owns nisab).
(8) If zakat is not obligatory on you, then focus on repaying your debts since that is obligatory,
while any charity you would give - even in the name of zakat - would be voluntary.
Your debts have priority. Particularly in your case, I would strongly urge you to make tawba for
the interest-bearing loans you took, and do your best, within reasonable means, to pay them
off as soon as possible. But make sure you do not neglect the rights of yourself and your family
in the process.

Zakat Questions: Resetting Start Date, Miscalculations, and Debt Deduction


Answered by Shaykh Faraz A. Khan
Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullah,

I pray this finds you in the best of health and states.


(Q1) I converted to Islam on May 6, 2009. I already met the nisaab amount at the time.
However, as I did not know enough about zakat and Islam in general at the time, I set my
start date for the beginning of my first zakat year as the first date of Ramadan that year
(end of August, 2009). Is it permissible to do this, or should I have started on May 6th, 2009?
I paid zakat at the end of that first lunar year, and now I am calculating my zakat for the end
of my second lunar year. I am unfortunately already late paying my zakat (it should have
been paid at the beginning of Ramadan based on my calculation). So I am not sure how I
would go back and calculate zakat as of August 1, 2011?
Answer: You should have started on May 6, 2009, which based on a quick conversion I did
corresponds with [Wednesday 11 Jumaada al-awal 1430 A.H.] (please confirm on your
ownthere could be a difference of one day or so).
Try your best to ascertain how much zakatable wealth you owned after 1 lunar year from that
date, i.e., 11 Jumaada al-awal 1431 AH, and pay the difference if it is more than what you paid
on Ramadan 1, 1431AH (2010). A sincere educated guess/attempt is sufficient inshaAllah. From
now on, every year, use the Islamic date corresponding to May 6, 2009.
(Q2) In addition, I now realize I miscalculated my previous years zakat because I deducted
the full amount of a long term debt (student loan)so now I probably owe more zakat due to
this miscalculationbut it would be very difficult to piece together the numbers from back
then to calculate what I should have owedwhat should I do?
Answer: Again, try your best, estimate, and pay the difference. A sincere educated
guess/attempt is sufficient inshaAllah.
(Q3) This is my current situation:
I have a student loan and still owe $15,000 as of today. I must pay minimum monthly
installments of $320. However, I just went back to school as of August 2011 and am not
required to make mandatory payments while in school. But interest does still accrue on a
portion of the loan while I am in school. Also, I still plan to make monthly payments to pay off
the loan faster and not allow interest to accrue.
I now know I cannot subtract the entire value of my student loan when calculating zakatI
can only subtract the most immediate installment due because it is considered a long-term
debt. Does this mean I subtract the most immediate monthly installment, or the amount
expected to be paid over the course of the coming year? How does this work now that
technically my loan is deferred and as of August 2011, payments are technically not required?
(though interest would accumulate)
Answer: You may still deduct the installments since you are currently paying it back. It remains
a debt that you owe, even if they are not currently requiring payment. You should deduct the
upcoming monthly installment, but may at most deduct the entire year.
(Q4) Currently my main assets are everything in my bank accounts (which does exceed the
amount of the loanbut because I am now a PhD student, I know I will have major expenses
coming up, so I do not want to pay off the entire loan amount right now).
My gold jewelry, i.e. wedding rings, shouldnt count under assets because I do not think it
exceeds 87 grams of gold (as per my understanding of Hanafi fiqhI think Shafis/Malikis say

womens jewelery does not count at all and one does not pay zakat on itis this the correct
understanding?)
Answer: Because you have more than nisab in cash, you must also count all your gold and
silver, regardless of its amount. The 87g criteria is if one only has goldi.e., that is how much
gold equals nisab. But gold and cash are combined, along with silver: once nisab is reached by
any/all of these, then one counts all the cash/gold/silver one owns. So because you have nisab,
count all your gold and silver.
(Q5) I am confused about what expenses can be deducted. My immediate expenses would be
rent, utilities, food, and an overdue estimated tax payment that I still owe to the
government. Do I subtract a months worth of expenses for whatever the coming month is?
Years worth? None at all? And what about assets in terms of wages I expect to receive in the
coming month/year? Also, what about expenses that are not strictly necessities like
food/water, but which will be required of me for my current academic program (some
expenses for research abroad that are not covered by my fellowship, items I am required to
purchase, books, etc.)?
Answer: Normally, the only time one deducts expenses is if the bill has already come inthat is,
once it is due. Based on this, the tax payment that is overdue would be deducted. The entire
amount would be deducted since it is already overdue.
With regards to the other expenses you mention, contemporary scholars mention that one can
deduct known upcoming expenses for the monthor up to a year of known expenses (e.g.
medical bills, etc of significant expenses), but only doing this when there is financial difficulty
by not considering them.
Lastly, upcoming wages/assets are not given consideration in zakatall that matters is what you
own when the due date falls.
[Kasani, Bada`i al-Sana`i; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

Sadaqat-Al Fitr
What is Sadaqat al-Fitr (Zakat al-Fitr)?
1. Sadaqat al-Fitr is a required charity on the occasion of Eid al-Fitr given to the same poor
individuals who are allowed to receive zakat.
2. It is related by the Companion Abdullah ibn Umar and his father Umar ibn al-Khattab (Allah
be pleased with both) that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) obligated
(the payment) of zakat al-fitr in Ramadan (with) a sa of dates or a sa of barley upon every
free person and slave, (whether) man or woman, from the Muslims. [Bukhari; Muslim]
3. Sadaqat al-Fitr is wajeb on the free Muslim, if he is in possession of the quantity of nisab in
excess of his dwelling, clothing, furnishings, horse, weapons and service slaves.
4. He gives it out on behalf of himself, his minor children and his slaves.

5. The obligation of the fitrah is attached to the rise of the dawn on the Day of Eid al- Fitr. So,
whoever dies before that, his fitrah has not become wajib. Whoever accepts Islam, or is
born, after the rise of the dawn, his fitrah has not become wajib.

How Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?


1. The one who must pay sadaqat al-fitr gives one of the following:
a. half a sa* of wheat or similar food grains,
b. a full sa of dates, barley, raisins or similar food grains,
c. or the equivalent monetary value of either a or b.
2. It is actually better to pay the monetary value when the goods are widely available. If they
are not widely available, it is better to pay in the form of goods rather than by money.
3. *Half a sa is approximately 2 kilos (4.5 pounds). A full sa is approximately 4 kilos (9
pounds). [Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]
It is recommended for people to give out the fitrah on the Day of Fitr before going out to the
prayer place. If they advance-pay it before the Day of Fitr, it is valid. But, if they delayed it
beyond the Day of Fitr, it is not waived, and it is still an obligation on them to give it out.

Who Must Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?


Sadaqat al-fitr is necessary (wajib) upon:
any free Muslim, regardless if they are male, female, adult, child, sane, or not sane,
who possesses the zakatable minimum (nisab) in any form of wealth,
in excess of their immediate needs and debts,
on the morning Eid al-Fitr arrives (i.e. entering of Fajr),
regardless if an entire lunar year has passed upon this wealth or not.
For sadaqat al-fitr, the zakatable minimum (nisab) is the same as the annual zakat, which is 612
grams of silver or 87.48 grams of gold or their equivalent monetary value. However, for sadaqat
al-fitr, one calculates the nisab according to any form of wealth one owns beyond ones basic
needs and immediate debts. The details related to this difference are forthcoming.
Immediate needs refer to ones normal living expenses for oneself and ones dependents, such
as money for food, shelter, furniture, clothing, transportation, immediate debts, and books for
those who use them.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]

Does Ones Husband Pay For Ones Sadaqat al-Fitr?


No, ones husband is not obliged to pay ones sadaqat al-fitr. However, if he voluntarily decides
to do so out of his generosity, then it counts on ones behalf.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]

Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr For Ones Children?


Yes, if the child does not have the wealth to pay for sadaqat al-fitr and owes it, the father (or
legal guardian) pays for the child. If the father (or legal guardian) does not pay on behalf of the
needy child, the child does not owe this amount after reaching adulthood.
If the child has the wealth to pay for it, sadaqat al-fitr is paid from the childs wealth. If the
wealthy child does not pay it, the child still owes this amount to the poor after reaching
adulthood.
It should be noted that a child is someone who has not reached puberty. After reaching
puberty, each person is responsible for the payment of his/her sadaqat al-fitr. However, if an
adults legal guardian still pays for his/her sadaqat al-fitr, it counts on his/her behalf.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya; ibn Abidin, Radd alMuhtar]

How is the Calculation of the Nisab of Sadaqat al-Fitr Different From the
Annual Zakat?
Calculating the nisab of sadaqat al-fitr differs from calculating it for the annual zakat. With the
annual zakat, one must own the nisab by means of specific forms of wealth (like gold, silver,
cash, livestock, or trade goods) in excess of ones basic needs and a lunar year passes upon this
wealth.
With sadaqat al-fitr, the nisab is calculated by means of any form of wealth one has in excess of
ones basic needs and immediate debts, regardless if a lunar year passed upon this wealth or
not. If this excess wealth reaches the nisab on the morning of Eid al-Fitr (i.e. entering of Fajr),
then it is necessary (wajib) for one to pay sadaqat al-fitr. It is quite possible that someone may
not have to pay the annual zakat but at the same time be required to pay the sadaqat al-fitr.
For example, someone who does not have any zakatable items in his possession, like cash or
trade goods, does not have to pay zakat. But this same person owns other assets equal to the
value of the nisab and these assets are in excess of his personal needs, such as having a surplus
car, surplus televisions, or surplus computers. In this case, he does not pay the annual zakat but
he does pay sadaqat al-fitr.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]

When Does One Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?


It becomes necessary (wajib) to pay sadaqat al-fitr when Fajr enters on Eid al-Fitr (1st of
Shawwal).
It is recommended to pay sadaqat al-fitr after Fajr enters before heading to the Eid prayer area.
It is valid to pay sadaqat al-fitr before Fajr enters on Eid al-Fitr or after it.
[Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]

What If One Never Paid Sadaqat al-Fitr?


If one never paid sadaqat al-fitr in the past and was required to pay it, one still owes this
amount to the poor. The time for paying the sadaqat al-fitr is not limited to the day of Eid al-Fitr
itself; rather the time for payment is unconditioned. Thus, the obligation to pay is not lifted if
delayed, although there is dislikedness in delaying.
[ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar; Tahtawi, Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi; Shurunbulali, Maraqi al-Falah; alMaydani, al-Lubab]

What if Ones Wealth Diminishes After One is Obliged to Pay Sadaqat al-Fitr?
If ones wealth diminishes after it became obligatory for one to pay sadaqat al-fitr, the
obligation to pay is not lifted. This differs from the rulings on the annual zakat.
[Tahtawi, Hashiyyat al-Tahtawi; Ala al-Din Abidin, al-Hadiyya al-Alaiyya]

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