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UNIT NUMBER

6.1

COMPLEX NUMBERS 1

(Definitions and algebra)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.1.1

6.1.2

6.1.3

6.1.4

The algebra of complex numbers

Exercises

Answers to exercises

6.1.1 THE DEFINITION OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

Students who are already familiar with the Differential Calculus may appreciate that equations of the form

a

d2 y

dy

+b

+ cy = f (x),

2

dx

dx

which are called Differential Equations, have wide-reaching applications in science and

engineering. They are particularly applicable to problems involving either electrical circuits

or mechanical vibrations.

It is possible to show that, in order to determine a formula (without derivatives) giving the

variable y in terms of the variable x, one method is to solve, first, the quadratic equation

whose coefficents are a, b and c and whose solutions are therefore

b

b2 4ac

.

2a

Note:

Students who are not already familiar with the Differential Calculus should consider only

the quadratic equation whose coefficients are a, b and c, ignoring references to differential

equations.

ILLUSTRATION

One method of solving the differential equation

d2 y

dy

6

+ 13 = 2 sin x

2

dx

dx

would be to solve, first, the quadratic equation whose coefficients are 1, 6 and 13.

Its solutions are

36 52

6 16

=

2

2

which clearly do not exist since we cannot find the square root of a negative number in

elementary arithmetic.

6

However, if we assume that the differential equation represents a genuine scientific problem

with a genuine scientific solution, we cannot simply dismiss the result obtained from the

quadratic formula.

The difficulty seems to be, not so much with the 16 but with the minus sign in front of the

16. We shall therefore write the solutions in the form

6 4 1

= 3 2 1.

2

Notes:

by j in order to avoid confusion with other quantities (eg. electric current) which could be

denoted by the same symbol.

equation, those solutions will always be of the form a + bj (or a + jb), where a and b are

ordinary numbers of elementary arithmetic.

DEFINITIONS

1. The term complex number is used to denote any expression of the form a + bj or

a + jb where a and b are ordinary numbers

of elementary arithmetic (including zero)

2. If the value a happens to be zero, then the complex number a + bj or a + jb is called

purely imaginary and is written bj or jb.

3. If the value b happens to be zero, then the complex number a + bj or a + jb is defined

to be the same as the number a and is called real. That is a + j0 = a + 0j = a.

4. For the complex number a + bj or a + jb, the value a is called the real part and the

value b is called the imaginary part. Notice that the imaginary part is b and not

jb.

5. The complex numbers a bj are said to form a pair of complex conjugates and

similarly a jb form a pair of complex conjugates. Alternatively, we may say, for

instance, that a jb is the complex conjugate of a + jb and a + jb is the complex

conjugate of a jb.

Note:

In some work on complex numbers, especially where many complex numbers may be under

2

discussion at the same time, it is convenient to denote real and imaginary parts by the

symbols x and y respectively, rather than a and b. It is also convenient, on some occasions,

to denote the whole complex number x + jy by the symbol z in which case the conjugate,

x jy, will be denoted by z.

6.1.2 THE ALGEBRA OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

INTRODUCTION

An Algebra (coming from the Arabic word AL-JABR) refers to any mathematical system

which uses the concepts of equality, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. For

example, the algebra of real numbers is what we normally call arithmetic; but algebraical

concepts can be applied to other mathematical systems of which the system of complex

numbers is one.

In meeting a new mathematical system for the first time, the concepts of equality, addition,

subtraction, multiplication and division need to be properly defined, and that is the purpose

of the present section. In some cases, the definitions are fairly obvious, but need to be made

without contradicting ideas already established in the system of real numbers which complex

numbers include.

(a) EQUALITY

Unlike a real number, a complex number does not have a value; and so the word equality

must take on a meaning, here, which is different from that used in elementary arithmetic.

In fact two complex numbers are defined to be equal if they have the same real part and the

same imaginary part.

That is

a + jb = c + jd if and only if a = c and b = d

EXAMPLE

Determine x and y such that

(2x 3y) + j(x + 5y) = 11 j14.

Solution

From the definition of equality, we may

EQUATE REAL AND IMAGINARY PARTS.

Thus,

2x 3y = 11,

x + 5y = 14

(b) ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

These two concepts are very easily defined. We simply add (or subtract) the real parts and

the imaginary parts of the two complex numbers whose sum (or difference) is required.

That is,

(a + jb) + (c + jd) = (a + c) + j(b + d)

and

(a + jb) (c + jd) = (a c) + j(b d).

EXAMPLE

(7 + j2) + (10 j5) = 3 j3 = 3(1 j)

and

(7 + j2) (10 j5) = 17 + j7.

(c) MULTIPLICATION

The definition of multiplication essentially treats j in the same way as any other algebraic

symbol, but uses the fact that j 2 = 1.

Thus,

(a + jb)(c + jd) = (ac bd) + j(bc + ad);

but this is not so much a formula to be learned off-by-heart as a technique to be applied in

future examples.

EXAMPLES

1.

(5 + j9)(2 + j6) = (10 54) + j(18 + 30) = 44 + j48.

2.

(3 j8)(1 + j4) = (3 + 32) + j(8 + 12) = 35 + j4.

3.

(a + jb)(a jb) = a2 + b2 .

Note:

The third example above will be useful in the next section. It shows that the product of

a complex number and its complex conjugate is always a real number consisting

of the sum of the squares of the real and imaginary parts.

(d) DIVISION

The objective here is to make a definition which provides the real and imaginary parts of

the complex expression

a + jb

.

c + jd

Once again, we make this definition in accordance with what would be obtained algebraically

by treating j in the same way as any other algebraic symbol, but using the fact that j 2 = 1.

5

The method is to multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the complex ratio

by the conjugate of the denominator giving

a + jb c jd

(ac + bd) + j(bc ad)

.

=

.

c + jd c jd

c2 + d2

The required definition is thus

a + jb

(ac + bd) + j(bc ad)

=

,

c + jd

c2 + d2

which, again, is not so much a formula to be learned off-by-heart as a technique to be applied

in future examples.

EXAMPLES

1.

5 + j3

5 + j3 2 j7

=

.

2 + j7

2 + j7 2 j7

=

Hence, the real part is

31

53

31 j29

=

.

2

2

2 +7

53

.

53

2.

6+j

6 + j j2 4

=

.

j2 4

j2 4 j2 4

22 j16

=

.

2

2

(2) + (4)

20

= 11

and the imaginary part is 16

= 45 .

20

10

20

6.1.3 EXERCISES

1. Simplify the following:

(a) j 3 ; (b) j 4 ; (c) j 5 ; (d) j 15 ; (e) j 22 .

2. If z1 = 2 j5, z2 = 1 + j7 and z3 = 3 j4, determine the following in the form a + jb:

(a)

z1 z2 + z3 ;

(b)

2z1 + z2 z3 ;

(c)

z1 (4z2 z3 );

(d)

z1

;

z2

(e)

z2

;

z3

(f)

z3

.

z1

3. Determine the values of x and y such that

(3x 5y) + j(x + 3y) = 20 + j2.

4. Determine the real and imaginary parts of the expression

(1 j3)2 + j(2 + j5)

3(4 j)

.

1j

x and y such that

4zz 3(z z) = 2 + j.

1. (a) j; (b) 1; (c) j; (d) j; (e) 1.

2. (a)

4 j16;

(b)

8 + j;

(c)

5 j37;

(d)

0.66 j0.38;

(e)

1.24 j0.68;

(f)

0.48 j0.79

3.

x = 5 and y = 1.

4. The real part = 20.5; the imaginary part = 8.5

5.

x=

1

1

and y = .

2

2

UNIT NUMBER

6.2

COMPLEX NUMBERS 2

(The Argand Diagram)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.2.1

6.2.2

6.2.3

6.2.4

6.2.5

6.2.6

Introduction

Graphical addition and subtraction

Multiplication by j

Modulus and argument

Exercises

Answers to exercises

THE ARGAND DIAGRAM

6.2.1 INTRODUCTION

It may be observed that a complex number x + jy is completely specified if we know the

values of x and y in the correct order. But the same is true for the cartesian co-ordinates,

(x, y), of a point in two dimesions. There is therefore a one-to-one correspondence

between the complex number x + jy and the point with co-ordinates (x, y).

Hence it is possible to represent the complex number x+jy by the point (x, y) in a geometrical

diagram called the Argand Diagram:

y

6

......................... (x, y)

..

.

..

.

..

. -x

O

DEFINITIONS:

1. The x-axis is called the real axis since the points on it represent real numbers.

2. The y-axis is called the imaginary axis since the points on it represent purely

imaginary numbers.

6.2.2 GRAPHICAL ADDITON AND SUBTRACTION

If two complex numbers, z1 = x1 + jy1 and z2 = x2 + jy2 , are represented in the Argand

Diagram by the points P1 (x1 , y1 ) and P2 (x2 , y2 ) respectively, then the sum, z1 + z2 , of the

complex numbers will be represented by the point Q(x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 ).

If O is the origin, it is possible to show that Q is the fourth vertex of the parallelogram

having OP1 and OP2 as adjacent sides.

1

y

Q

P1

S

1

P2

- x

O

6

In the diagram, the triangle ORP1 has exactly the same shape as the triangle P2 SQ. Hence,

the co-ordinates of Q must be (x1 + x2 , y1 + y2 ).

Note:

The difference z1 z2 of the two complex numbers may similarly be found by completing the

parallelogram of which two adjacent sides are the straight line segments joining the origin

to the points with co-ordinates (x1 , y1 ) and (x2 , y2 ).

6.2.3 MULTIPLICATION BY j OF A COMPLEX NUMBER

Given any complex number z = x + jy, we observe that

jz = j(x + jy) = y + jx.

Thus, if z is represented in the Argand Diagram by the point with co-ordinates A(x, y), then

jz is represented by the point with co-ordinates B(y, x).

6

A

A

A

A

A

A

AO

-x

a counter-clockwise direction.

We conclude that, in the Argand Diagram, multiplication by j of a complex number rotates,

through 90 in a counter-clockwise direction, the straight line segment joining the origin to

the point representing the complex number.

6.2.4 MODULUS AND ARGUMENT

P(x, y)

*

r

-x

O

6

(a) Modulus

If a complex number, z = x + jy is represented in the Argand Diagram by the point, P,

3

with cartesian co-ordinates (x, y) then the distance, r, of P from the origin is called the

modulus of z and is denoted by either |z| or |x + jy|.

Using the theorem of Pythagoras in the diagram, we conclude that

r = |z| = |x + jy| =

x2 + y 2 .

Note:

This definition of modulus is consistent with the definition of modulus for real numbers

(which are included in the system of complex numbers). For any real number x, we may say

that

|x| = |x + j0| =

x2 + 02 =

x2 ,

ILLUSTRATIONS

1.

|3 j4| =

32 + (4)2 =

25 = 5.

2.

|1 + j| =

12 + 12 =

2.

3.

|j7| = |0 + j7| =

02 + 72 =

49 = 7.

Note:

The result of the last example above is obvious from the Argand Diagram since the point on

the y-axis representing j7 is a distance of exactly 7 units from the origin. In the same way,

a real number is represented by a point on the x-axis whose distance from the origin is the

numerical value of the real number.

(b) Argument

The argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, z, is defined to be the angle, ,

which the straight line segment OP makes with the positive real axis (measuring positively

from this axis in a counter-clockwise sense).

4

In the diagram,

tan =

y

y

; that is, = tan1 .

x

x

Note:

For a given complex number, there will be infinitely many possible values of the argument,

any two of which will differ by a whole multiple of 360 . The complete set of possible values

is denoted by Argz, using an upper-case A.

The particular value of the argument which lies in the interval 180 < 180 is called

the principal value of the argument and is denoted by arg z using a lower-case a. The

particular value, 180 , in preference to 180 , represents the principal value of the argument

of a negative real number.

ILLUSTRATIONS

1.

1

Arg( 3 + j) = tan1

3

= 30 + k360 ,

arg( 3 + j) = 30 only.

2.

Arg(1 + j) = tan1 (1) = 135 + k360

but not 45 + k360 , since the complex number 1 + j is represented by a point in

the second quadrant of the Argand Diagram.

We note also that

arg(1 + j) = 135 only.

3.

Arg(1 j) = tan1 (1) = 225 + k360 or 135 + k360

but not 45 + k360 since the complex number 1 j is represented by a point in the

third quadrant of the Argand Diagram.

We note also that

arg(1 j) = 135 only.

Note:

It is worth mentioning here that, in the Argand Diagram, the directed straight line segment

described from the point P1 (representing the complex number z1 = x1 + jy1 ) to the point

P2 (representing the complex number z2 = x2 + jy2 ) has length, r, equal to |z2 z1 |, and is

inclined to the positive direction of the real axis at an angle, , equal to arg(z2 z1 ). This

follows from the relationship

z2 z1 = (x2 x1 ) + j(y2 y1 )

in which x2 x1 and y2 y1 are the distances separating the two points, parallel to the real

axis and the imaginary axis respectively.

P2

y2 y1

-x

O

P1

x2 x1

6.2.5 EXERCISES

1. Determine the modulus (in decimals, where appropriate, correct to three significant

figures) and the principal value of the argument (in degrees, correct to the nearest

degree) of the following complex numbers:

(a)

1 j;

(b)

3 + j4;

(c)

2 j 2;

6

(d)

1

3

j

;

2

2

(e)

7 j9.

2. If z = 4 j5, verify that jz has the same modulus as z but that the principal value of

the argument of jz is greater, by 90 than the principal value of the argument of z.

3. Illustrate the following statements in the Argand Diagram:

(a)

(6 j11) + (5 + j3) = 11 j8;

(b)

(6 j11) (5 + j3) = 1 j14.

6.2.6 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

1. (a) 1.41 and 45 ;

(b) 5 and 127 ;

(c) 2 and 135 ;

(d) 1 and 60 ;

(e) 11.4 and 128 .

51 ;

3. Construct the graphical sum and difference of the two complex numbers.

UNIT NUMBER

6.3

COMPLEX NUMBERS 3

(The polar & exponential forms)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.3.1

6.3.2

6.3.3

6.3.4

6.3.5

The exponential form

Products and quotients in polar form

Exercises

Answers to exercises

THE POLAR AND EXPONENTIAL FORMS

6.3.1 THE POLAR FORM

P(x, y)

*

r

O

-x

x

y

= cos and

= sin .

r

r

Hence, the relationship between x, y, r and may also be stated in the form

x = r cos ,

y = r sin ,

which means that the complex number x + jy may be written as r cos + jr sin . In other

words,

x + jy = r(cos + j sin ).

The left-hand-side of this relationship is called the rectangular form or cartesian

form of the complex number while the right-hand-side is called the polar form.

1

Note:

For convenience, the polar form may be abbreviated to r6 , where may be positive, negative

or zero and may be expressed in either degrees or radians.

EXAMPLES

1. Express the complex number z =

3 + j in polar form.

Solution

|z| = r =

3+1=2

and

1

Argz = = tan1 = 30 + k360 ,

3

where k may be any integer.

Alternatively, using radians,

Argz =

+ k2,

6

Hence, in polar form,

z = 2(cos[30 + k360 ] + j sin[30 + k360 ]) = 26 [30 + k360 ]

or

z = 2 cos

+ k2 + j sin

+ k2

6

6

= 26

+ k2 .

6

Solution

|z| = r = 1 + 1 = 2

and

Argz = = tan1 (1) = 135 + k360 ,

where k may be any integer.

2

Alternatively,

Argz =

3

+ k2,

4

Hence, in polar form,

z=

26 [135 + k360 ]

or

3

3

3

6

z = 2 cos

+ k2 + j sin

+ k2 = 2

+ k2 .

4

4

4

Note:

If it is required that the polar form should contain only the principal value of the argument,

, then, provided 180 < 180 or < , the component k360 or k2 of the

result is simply omitted.

6.3.2 THE EXPONENTIAL FORM

Using some theory from the differential calculus of complex variables (not included here) it

is possible to show that, for any complex number, z,

ez = 1 +

z

z2 z3 z4

+

+

+

+ ...,

1! 2!

3!

4!

sin z = z

z3 z5 z7

+

+ ...

3!

5!

7!

cos z = 1

z2 z4 z6

+

+ ...

2!

4!

6!

and

These are, in fact, taken as the definitions of the functions ez , sin z and cos z.

Students who are already familiar with the differential calculus of a real variable, x, may

recognise similarities between the above formulae and the MacLaurin Series for the functions ex , sin x and cos x. In the case of the series for sin x and cos x, the value, x, must be

expressed in radians and not degrees.

A useful deduction can be made from the three formulae if we make the substitution z = j

into the first one, obtaining:

3

ej = 1 +

+

+

+

+ ...

1!

2!

3!

4!

2

3 4

e =1+j

j +

+ ...

1! 2!

3!

4!

j

On regrouping this into real and imaginary parts, then using the sine and cosine series, we

obtain

ej = cos + j sin ,

provided is expressed in radians and not degrees.

The complex number x+jy, having modulus r and argument +k2, may thus be expressed

not only in polar form but also in

the exponential form, rej .

ILLUSTRATIONS

Using the examples of the previous section

1.

3 + j = 2ej ( 6 +k2) .

2.

1 + j =

2ej ( 4 +k2) .

3.

1 j =

2ej ( 4 +k2) .

Note:

If it is required that the exponential form should contain only the principal value of the

argument, , then, provided < , the component k2 of the result is simply omitted.

4

Let us suppose that two complex numbers z1 and z2 have already been expressed in polar

form, so that

z1 = r1 (cos 1 + j sin 1 ) = r1 6 1

and

z2 = r2 (cos 2 + j sin 2 ) = r2 6 2 .

It is then possible to establish very simple rules for determining both the product and the

quotient of the two complex numbers. The explanation is as follows:

(a) The Product

z1 .z2 = r1 .r2 (cos 1 + j sin 1 ).(cos 2 + j sin 2 ).

That is,

z1 .z2 = r1 .r2 ([cos 1 . cos 2 sin 1 . sin 2 ] + j[sin 1 . cos 2 + cos 1 . sin 2 ]).

Using trigonometric identities, this reduces to

z1 .z2 = r1 .r2 (cos[1 + 2 ] + j sin[1 + 2 ]) = r1 .r2 6 [1 + 2 ].

We have shown that, to determine the product of two complex numbers in polar form, we

construct the product of their modulus values and the sum of their argument values.

(b) The Quotient

z1

r1 (cos 1 + j sin 1 )

=

.

z2

r2 (cos 2 + j sin 2 )

On multiplying the numerator and denominator by cos 2 j sin 2 , we obtain

5

r1

z1

= ([cos 1 . cos 2 + sin 1 . sin 2 ] + j[sin 1 . cos 2 cos 1 . sin 2 ]).

z2

r2

Using trigonometric identities, this reduces to

z1

r1

r1

= (cos[1 2 ] + j sin[1 2 ]) = 6 [1 2 ].

z2

r2

r2

We have shown that, to determine the quotient of two complex numbers in polar form, we

construct the quotient of their modulus values and the difference of their argument values.

ILLUSTRATIONS

Using results from earlier examples:

1.

We notice that, for all of the complex numbers in this example, including the result,

the argument appears as the principal value.

2.

3+j

26 30

=

=

26 165 .

1 j

26 (135 )

Again, for all of the complex numbers in this example, including the result, the argument

appears as the principal value.

Note:

It will not always turn out that the argument of a product or quotient of two complex

numbers appears as the principal value. For instance,

3.

which must be converted to 2 26 (75 ) if the principal value of the argument is required.

6.3.4 EXERCISES

In the following cases, express the complex numbers z1 and z2 in

(a) the polar form, r6

and

(b) the exponential form, rej

using only the principal value of .

(c) For each case, determine also the product, z1 .z2 , and the quotient,

only the principal value of the argument.

1.

z1 = 1 + j, z2 =

3 j.

2.

z1 = 2 + j 2, z2 = 3 j4.

3.

z1 = 4 j5, z2 = 7 j9.

6.3.5 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

1. (a)

z1 =

26 45 z2 = 26 (30 );

(b)

z1 =

2ej 4 z2 = 2ej 6 ;

(c)

z1

2

6 75 .

z1 .z2 = 2 26 15

=

z2

2

2. (a)

z1 = 26 (135 ) z2 = 56 (127 );

7

z1

,

z2

(b)

z1 = 2ej

3

4

z2 = 5ej2.22 ;

(c)

z1 .z2 = 106 8

z1

2

= 6 (98 ).

z2

5

3. (a)

z1 = 6.406 (128.66 ) z2 = 11.406 (55.13 );

(b)

z1 = 6.40ej2.25 z2 = 11.40ej0.96 ;

(c)

z1 .z2 = 72.966 176.21

z1

= 0.566 (73.53 ).

z2

UNIT NUMBER

6.4

COMPLEX NUMBERS 4

(Powers of complex numbers)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.4.1

6.4.2

6.4.3

6.4.4

6.4.5

Negative whole number powers

Fractional powers & De Moivres Theorem

Exercises

Answers to exercises

POWERS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS

6.4.1 POSITIVE WHOLE NUMBER POWERS

As an application of the rule for multiplying together complex numbers in polar form, it is

a simple matter to multiply a complex number by itself any desired number of times.

Suppose that

z = r6 .

Then,

z 2 = r.r6 ( + ) = r2 6 2;

z 3 = z.z 2 = r.r2 6 ( + 2) = r3 6 3;

and, by continuing this process,

z n = rn 6 n.

This result is due to De Moivre, but other aspects of it will need to be discussed before we

may formalise what is called De Moivres Theorem.

EXAMPLE

1

1

+ j

2

2

!19

19

) = 16

4

(16

19

= 16

4

If n is a negative whole number, we shall suppose that

n = m,

where m is a positive whole number.

Thus, if z = r6 ,

1

3

1

1

= + j .

4

2

2

z n = z m =

1

1

= m

.

m

6

z

r m

In more detail,

zn =

1

,

rm (cos m + j sin m)

giving

zn =

1 (cos m j sin m)

.

= rm (cos[m] + j sin[m]).

rm cos2 m + sin2 m

But m = n, and so

z n = rn (cos n + j sin n) = rn 6 n,

showing that the result of the previous section remains true for negative whole number

powers.

EXAMPLE

1

j

( 3 + j)3 = (26 30 )3 = 6 (90 ) = .

8

8

6.4.3 FRACTIONAL POWERS AND DE MOIVRES THEOREM

To begin with, here, we consider the complex number

1

zn,

where n is a positive whole number and z = r6 .

1

We define z n to be any complex number which gives z itself when raised to the power n.

Such a complex number is called an n-th root of z.

,

n

rn6

But the general expression for z is given by

z = r6 ( + k360 ),

1

where k may be any integer; and this suggests other possibilities for z n , namely

1

n6

+ k360

.

n

However, this set of n-th roots is not an infinite set because the roots which are given by

k = 0, 1, 2, 3............n 1 are also given by k = n, n + 1, n + 2, n + 3, ......., 2n 1, 2n,

2n + 1, 2n + 2, 2n + 3, ..... and so on, respectively.

We conclude that there are precisely n n-th roots given by k = 0, 1, 2, 3........., n 1.

EXAMPLE

Determine the cube roots (i.e. 3rd roots) of the complex number j8.

Solution

We first write

j8 = 86 (90 + k360 ).

Hence,

1

3

(j8) = 8

1

36

(90 + k360 )

,

3

where k = 0, 1, 2

26 30 , 26 150 and 26 270 = 26 (90 ).

They all have the same modulus of 2 but their arguments are spaced around the Argand

= 120 .

3

Notes:

(i) In general, the n-th roots of a complex number will all have the same modulus, but their

.

n

(ii) Assuming that 180 < 180 ; that is, assuming that the polar form of z uses the

principal value of the argument, then the particular n-th root of z which is given by k = 0

is called the principal n-th root.

(iii) If

m

n

m

zn

to be either z n

m

or (z m ) n both of which turn out to give the same set of n distinct results.

The discussion, so far, on powers of complex numbers leads us to the following statement:

DE MOIVRES THEOREM

If z = r6 , then, for any rational number n, one value of z n is rn 6 n.

6.4.4 EXERCISES

1. Determine the following in the form a + jb, expressing a and b in decimals correct to

four significant figures:

(a)

(1 + j 3)10 ;

(b)

(2 j5)4 .

2. Determine the fourth roots of j81 in exponential form rej where r > 0 and < .

3. Determine the fifth roots of the complex number 4 + j4 in the form a + jb expressing

a and b in decimals, where appropriate, correct to two places. State also which root is

the principal root.

4

3

(3 + j4) 2

in polar form.

6.4.5 ANSWERS TO EXERCISES

1. (a)

(b)

(2 j5)4 = 5.796 j1.188

2. The fourth roots are

3e 8 , 3e 8 , 3e 8 , 3e 8 .

3. The fifth roots are

1.26 + j0.64,

0.22 + j1.40,

1.40 + j0.22,

0.64 j1.26, 1 j.

4. There are two values, namely

11.186 79.695 and 11.186 (100.305 ).

UNIT NUMBER

6.5

COMPLEX NUMBERS 5

(Applications to trigonometric identities)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.5.1 Introduction

6.5.2 Expressions for cos n, sin n in terms of cos , sin

6.5.3 Expressions for cosn and sinn in terms of sines and

cosines of whole multiples of x

6.5.4 Exercises

6.5.5 Answers to exercises

APPLICATIONS TO TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

6.5.1 INTRODUCTION

It will be useful for the purposes of this section to restate the result known as Pascals

Triangle previously discussed in Unit 2.2.

If n is a positive whole number, the diagram

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

1

3

1

4

provides the coefficients in the expansion of (A + B)n which contains the sequence of terms

An , An1 B, An2 B 2 , An3 B 3 , ........., B n .

6.5.2 EXPRESSIONS FOR cos n AND sin n IN TERMS OF cos AND sin .

From De Moivres Theorem

(cos + j sin )n cos n + j sin n,

from which we may deduce that, in the expansion of the left-hand-side, using Pascals Triangle, the real part will coincide with cos n and the imaginary part will coincide with sin n.

EXAMPLE

(cos + j sin )3 cos3 + 3cos2 .(j sin ) + 3 cos .(j sin )2 + (j sin )3 .

That is,

cos 3 cos3 3 cos .sin2 or 4cos3 3 cos ,

1

and

sin 3 3cos2 . sin sin3 or 3 sin 4sin3 ,

using cos2 1 sin2 .

6.5.3 EXPRESSIONS FOR cosn AND sinn IN TERMS OF SINES AND COSINES

OF WHOLE MULTIPLES OF .

The technique described here is particularly useful in calculus problems when we are required

to integrate an integer power of a sine function or a cosine function. It does stand, however,

as a self-contained application to trigonometry of complex numbers.

Suppose

z cos + j sin

(1)

1

cos j sin

z

(2).

Adding (1) and (2) together, then subtracting (2) from (1), we obtain

z+

1

z

2 cos

1

z

j2 sin

z n cos n + j sin n

(3)

1

cos n j sin n

zn

(4).

and

Adding (3) and (4) together, then subtracting (4) from (3), we obtain

zn +

1

zn

zn

2 cos n

1

zn

j2 sin n

We are now in a position to discuss some examples on finding trigonometric identities for

whole number powers of sin or cos .

EXAMPLES

1. Determine an identity for sin3 .

Solution

We use the result

j 3 23 sin3 z

1

z

3

That is,

2

1

1

j8sin3 z 3 3z 2 . + 3z.

z

z

1

z3

3

1

1

1

j8sin z 3z + 3 z 3 3 3 z

,

z z

z

z

3

which gives

j8sin3 j2 sin 3 j6 sin .

Hence,

sin3

1

(3 sin sin 3) .

4

Solution

We use the result

1

2 cos z +

z

4

4

That is,

2

1

1

16cos4 z 4 + 4z 3 . + 6z 2 .

z

z

3

+ 4z.

1

z

4

1

z

4

1

1

1

16cos z + 4z + 6 + 2 + 4 z 4 + 4 + 4 z 2 + 2 + 6,

z

z

z

z

4

which gives

16cos4 2 cos 4 + 8 cos 2 + 6.

Hence,

cos4

1

(cos 4 + 4 cos 2 + 3)

8

6.5.4 EXERCISES

1. Use a complex number method to determine identities for cos 4 and sin 4 in terms of

sin and cos .

2. Use a complex number method to determine an identity for sin5 in terms of sines of

whole multiples of .

3. Use a complex number method to deternine an identity for cos6 in terms of cosines of

whole multiples of .

1.

cos 4 cos4 6cos2 .sin2

and

sin 4 4cos3 . sin 4 cos .sin3 .

2.

sin5

1

(sin 5 5 sin 3 + 10 sin ].

16

3.

cos6

1

(cos 6 + 6 cos 4 + 15 cos 2 + 10).

32

UNIT NUMBER

6.6

COMPLEX NUMBERS 6

(Complex loci)

by

A.J.Hobson

6.6.1

6.6.2

6.6.3

6.6.4

6.6.5

6.6.6

Introduction

The circle

The half-straight-line

More general loci

Exercises

Answers to exercises

COMPLEX LOCI

6.6.1 INTRODUCTION

In Unit 6.2, it was mentioned that the directed line segment joining the point representing

a complex number z1 to the point representing a complex number z2 is of length equal

to |z2 z1 | and is inclined to the positive direction of the real axis at an angle equal to

arg(z2 z1 ).

This observation now has significance when discussing variable complex numbers which are

constrained to move along a certain path (or locus) in the Argand Diagram. For many

practical applications, such paths (or loci) will normally be either straight lines or circles

and two standard types of example appear in what follows.

In both types, we shall assume that z = x + jy denotes a variable complex number (represented by the point (x, y) in the Argand Diagram), while z0 = x0 + jy0 denotes a fixed

complex number (represented by the point (x0 , y0 ) in the Argand Diagram).

6.6.2 THE CIRCLE

Suppose that the moving point representing z moves on a circle, with radius a, whose centre

is at the fixed point representing z0 .

z0

Then the distance between these two points will always be equal to a. In other words,

|z z0 | = a

and this is the standard equation of the circle in terms of complex numbers.

Note:

By substituting z = x + jy and z0 = x0 + jy0 in the above equation, we may obtain the

equivalent equation in terms of cartesian co-ordinates, namely,

|(x x0 ) + j(y y0 )| = a.

That is,

(x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 = a2 .

ILLUSTRATION

The equation

|z 3 + j4| = 7

represents a circle, with radius 7, whose centre is the point representing the complex number

3 j4.

In cartesian co-ordinates, it is the circle with equation

(x 3)2 + (y + 4)2 = 49.

6.6.3 THE HALF-STRAIGHT-LINE

Suppose now that the directed straight line segment described from the fixed point

representing z0 to the moving point representing z is inclined at an angle to the positive

direction of the real axis.

Then,

arg(z z0 ) =

and this equation is satisfied by all of the values of z for which the inclination of the directed

line segment is genuinely and not 180 . The latter angle would correspond to points

on the other half of the straight line joining the two points.

6

*

-x

O

z0

Note:

If we substitute z = x + jy and z0 = x0 + jy0 , we obtain

arg([x x0 ] + j[y y0 ]) = .

That is,

tan1

y y0

=

x x0

or

y y0 = tan (x x0 ),

which is certainly the equation of a straight line with gradient tan passing through the

point (x0 , y0 ); but it represents only that half of the straight line for which x x0 and y y0

correspond, in sign as well as value, to the real and imaginary parts of a complex number

whose argument is genuinely and not 180 .

3

ILLUSTRATION

The equation

arg(z + 1 j5) =

point representing z = x + jy and inclined to the positive direction of the real axis at an

angle of 6 .

y

z0P

6

PP

PP

P

PP

q

P

-x

6

in which it must be true that x + 1 > 0 and y 5 < 0 in order that the argument of

[x + 1] + j[y 5] may be a negative acute angle.

We thus have the half-straight-line with equation

y 5 = tan

1

(x + 1) = (x + 1)

6

3

which lies to the right of, and below the point (1, 5).

Certain types of locus problem may be encountered which cannot be identified with either

of the two standard types discussed above. The secret, in such problems is to substitute

z = x + jy in order to obtain the cartesian equation of the locus. We have already seen that

this method is applicable to the two standard types anyway.

ILLUSTRATIONS

1. The equation

1

= 3

z + 2

may be written

|z 1| =

3 |z + 2|.

That is,

(x 1)2 + y 2 = 3[(x + 2)2 + y 2 ],

which simplifies to

2x2 + 2y 2 + 14x + 13 = 0

or

7

x+

2

2

+ y2 =

23

,

4

23

.

4

2. The equation

arg

z3

=

z

4

may be written

arg(z 3) arg z =

.

4

That is,

arg([x 3] + jy) arg(x + jy) =

.

4

Taking tangents of both sides and using the trigonometric identity for tan(A B), we

obtain

y

xy

x3

y y = 1.

1 + x3

x

On simplification, the equation becomes

x2 + y 2 3x 3y = 0

or

3

x

2

2

3

+ y

2

3 3

,

2 2

2

9

= ,

2

and radius

3 .

2

In fact,

z3

,

z

unless its real and imaginary parts are both positive.

(x 3) + jy x jy

x(x 3) + y 2 + j3

z3

=

.

=

z

x + jy

x jy

x2 + y 2

which requires, therefore, that

x(x 3) + y 2 > 0.

That is,

x2 + y 2 3x > 0

or

3

x

2

2

9

+ y2 > .

4

Conclusion

The locus is that part of the circle with centre 32 , 23 and radius

the circle with centre

3

,0

2

and radius

3

.

2

3

2

y

6

this region

6.6.5 EXERCISES

1. Identify the loci whose equations are

(a)

|z 3| = 4;

(b)

|z 4 + j7| = 2.

2. Identify the loci whose equations are

(a)

arg(z + 1) =

;

3

(b)

arg(z 2 j3) =

3

.

2

(a)

z

z

+ j2

= 1;

j3

(b)

arg

z+j

= .

z1

4

1. (a) A circle with centre (3, 0) and radius 4;

(b) A circle with centre 4, 7) and radius 2.

2. (a) A half-straight-line to the right of, and above the point (1, 0) inclined at an angle

of 3 to the positive direction of the real axis;

(b) A half-straight-line below the point (2, 3) and perpendicular to the real axis.

3. (a) The straight line y = 12 ;

(b) That part of the circle x2 + y 2 = 1 which lies outside the circle with centre

and radius 12 and above the straight line whose equation is y = x 1.

1

, 12

2

Note:

Examples like No. 3(b) are often quite difficult and will not normally be included in the

more elementary first year courses in mathematics.

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