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Phrasal Verbs 1-100


abide by


accede to
act out

To accept and obey the law, rule, etc., e.g. We

have to abide by the law even if we dont agree
with it.
To reluctantly agree to a demand, etc.
To perform a past event;
To express ones feelings through ones

act up
(Children) to behave badly.


add in

(Machine, etc.) does not work in the way it

To include something with something else.

add on

To enlarge something, especially a building, e.g.

They added on an extension to the museum to
house the fossil collection.

add to

To increase the amount, cost, or degree of


To increase by small amounts to reach a total.

add up
To calculate the total of something, e.g. toadd
up ones points, marks, scores, etc.
To total up.

add up to


adhere to


admit of


agree with

To combine small amounts to find out the total,

e.g. When the service charges are taken in, the
bill adds up to an amount greater than expected.
To conduct oneself in accordance to a particular
rule, etc.
To accept something as capable of existing or
To have the same view as someone else.


aim at

aim at


allow for

To try to achieve an outcome, e.g. She aims

atlosing 10 kg by the end of the year.

To point something such as a weapon, camera,

etc. at a target, e.g. He aims his camera at his
group of friends.
To design something for a specific class or
group of people, e.g. The new radio
stationaims most of its programs at a teenage
To consider all factors involved so the problem
can be resolved, e.g. If we allow for inevitable
wastage, the amount of material needed will be
greater to meet the production quota.

To show that something is likely


allow of
allude to
amount to


angle for


answer for


To refer to someone or something

To equal to something, e.g. The loss through
pilferage amounts to at least 3 % of production
To have same effect as something else, e.g. Her
remark amounts to an insult.
To request something in an indirect way, e.g.
Quite obviously, hes angling for a date with
To explain ones wrong deed or to explain on
behalf of someone, e.g. The coach mustanswer
for the teams poor performance.

To explain something, especially having done

something wrong, to someone, e.g.
Heanswers directly to the Chief Engineer.
answer to
appertain to
To belong to or concern something
arse around/about To waste time, e.g. He has been warned not
to arse about in the park.
ascribe to
To accept that an event comes about because of
someone or something, e.g. They ascribethe
high unemployment rate to the governments
mismanagement of the economy.


ask for

To say that one wants something, e.g.

Weasked at the counter for free gift vouchers
but got none because we have not spent enough.
To show something as requested, e.g. I
wasasked for my identity card which I had not
brought along, so I was not allowed into the

ask out

attend to


attribute to


average out


awake to


awaken to


back away

To invite someone out, e.g. This is the tenth and

maybe last time Ill ask her out after nine
unsuccessful attempts.
To deal with something or help someone, e.g.
He had to attend to more emergency cases
today than any other days.
To say a situation is caused by something, e.g.
The residents attribute the increase in burglary
cases to lack of regular patrol of the streets by
the police.
To say that someone is responsible for
something, e.g. They attribute the short
stories to him without having any clear evidence
that he wrote them.
To calculate the usual number of times a thing
To be aware of something and its possible
effects, e.g. People are starting to awake tothe
therapeutic value of herbs.
To make someone aware of something and its
To move backwards;
To become uninterested or cease participation in

back down
To concede defeat or stop being confrontational,
e.g. The workers planned to go on strike,
but backed down when the employers threaten
to sake them.

To move away from someone or something,

back off

usually because of danger or to avoid injury, e.g.

He was warned to back off, but he refused and a
fight ensued.

back onto

(Building, etc.) To have its back facing a

particular area.

back up
To make a copy of data on a computer program
or disc., e.g. He has cultivated a good habit
ofbacking up every piece of work he does.

back up

To provide evidence to support ones statement,

claim, etc., e.g. Jack backed up his claim of
winning the jackpot by producing a photocopy
of his cheque for the winning amount.
To move or move a vehicle in the reverse
direction, e.g. I backed up my car a little in the
parking lot between two cars so we could get


bag up
bail out

To support someone in a situation by agreeing

with them or doing something to help them, e.g.
He is doing it not just for himself, so
Illback him up.
To put small items into bags.
To deposit money for someone to be out of
prison while awaiting court trial.


ball up
band together
bandy about


bang on

To help someone or a financial institution ut of

financial problem by providing money.
To complicate matters.
To unite in order to achieve something.
To flaunt or say something repeatedly with
intention to impress.
To talk incessantly in a boring manner.

bang out

To sing a song or play a tune loudly and badly.

bang up
bank on

To wreck something.
To rely on someone or something to produce an



bargain for


barge in



To be prepared for something adverse that may

happen to ones plan.
To go or dash in uninvited.

barge in on
To interrupt rudely.
base on/upon To use something as basis for development of a
course of action.
bash away at
To continue working or hitting hard at
bash on
To persist in an activity or process in order to
complete something.
bat around
To engage in a discussion about something.
bawl out
To scold someone for the wrong they have done.
bear down
To appear threatening to someone in the way
one behaves.
bear down
To apply pressure on something.
bear out
To deal successfully with a difficult person or
To use something to testify to the existence or
truth of something else.
bear up
To be undaunted by adverse conditions.
bear with


beat down

To ask someone to be patient while you are

engaged with something. To exercise patience
with a difficult person.
(Sunlight, rain, etc.) to come down in large

beat down
beat off
beat out

To bargain for or persuade someone to offer a

lower price.
To frighten or drive someone or something
To extinguish a fire by beating;

beat out
To beat out a rhythm on a drum.
beat up
To defeat a competition rival.
To cause injury to someone by physical assault,
e.g. Members of the public caught up with the
pickpocket and beat him up until he pleaded for


beaver away
bed down


beef up


beg off
believe in

To be doing some difficult, tiring work.
To make person or an animal comfortable for
the night.
To make something better, e.g. Control in the
prison was beefed up after the riot.
To say you cannot do something as agreed.
To feel sure or accept that something exists,
either good or bad, e.g. He just doesntbelieve
in Nessie.
To feel someone can be trusted, e.g. The
children always believe in their father despite
adverse rumours being spread about him.


belly out
belong to


belt out

To have ones views about something, e.g.

Webelieve in the equality of the sexes in the
To become larger, greater or full.
To be the property or a member of a group or
To sing out loud or play a loud tune from a
musical instrument.

belt up

bind somebody
bite back

To instruct someone bluntly to keep quiet.

To restrain someone from causing trouble under
threat of legal punishment.
To retaliate.

bite into

To cut against a surface.

To start using up something, especially ones
personal savings.

bite off


black out

blank out

To use the teeth to cut off a piece from a main

part, e.g. He bit off a piece of a pizza and
strangely spat it out.
To faint, e.g. He blacks out whenever he sees
too much blood.
(City, etc.) to turn off all the lights in a wide
To cover or erase something so it cannot be seen
or recall.


blast off
blend in


block in/out

(Rocket, etc.) to leave the ground.

To mix or combine something with its
To make a drawing of something that gives a
general idea but is not exact.
To completely close a place such as a road, etc.

block off
To prevent light passing through.
block out

blot out
blot up


blow away

To erase, especially a bitter memory.

To cover or hide something completely.
To wipe surface dry with a cloth or other
absorbent material.
To shoot someone to death.
To be carried away by the wind, e.g. I put some
comic books outside and the wind blew away a
couple of them into the drain.

To cause something to drop on the ground,

usually by the wind.
blow down

To blow air into something with our mouth.

blow in

blow off

To treat someone or something as unimportant,

e.g. He blew off his overseas assignments by not
accepting them.

To put out a flame by blowing, e.g. A strong

gust of wind blew out all the candles in the
temple when the keeper opened a window.
blow out

(Car) to blow a tyre, e.g. He just couldnt figure

out what caused a tyreof his car to blow out.
To cease to function, e.g. An electric bulbblew
out suddenly while I was reading.

(Storm) to come to an end, e.g. After a few

hours the storm blew itself out.
(Electricity) to suddenly stop working, e.g. The
fuse of a piece of electrical equipment blows
out causing it to stop working.
To destroy or damage something, e.g. The
explosion blew the shelves right out of the wall.

To be destroyed by an explosion, e.g. A bomb

planted by a saboteur exploded, blowing up a
power station.
To make something bigger by forcing air into it,
e.g. He blew up a balloon but it couldnt get
bigger because it has a tiny hole.

blow up


blurt out
board out

To make a photograph, picture, etc. larger, e.g.

She blew her photograph up so that the mole on
her left cheek is more noticeable.
To become very angry with someone or
something, e.g. Jills father immediately blew
up when he read the amount on the telephone
To say something suddenly without thinking.
To pay and arrange for an animal to stay with

board up

bog down

To cover, e.g. a window, with wooden boards

To be too deeply involved in something to have
time to do other thing.

To tell someone to go away.


bog off
boil away

boil down

To heat liquid so much until it evaporates.

To reduce the quantity of food or liquid due to

To edit information so that unnecessary detail is

not included.

boil down to

To be concerned only with the significant or

essential element, e.g. Her wish to continue
living with him despite his abusive
behaviourboils down to her fear of loneliness.

boil over
To overflow.

boil up

bomb out
bone up
book in
book on


boot out


boot up
border on


bottle out

To start losing ones temper.

To completely destroy a structure.
To study hard for an examination.
To check in a hotel.
To make arrangements for someone to travel on
a plane or train.
To dismiss or expel someone, especially from a
job or organization.
To get a computer ready for use.
To be on the verge of, especially on the verge of
To withdraw suddenly from an activity you are
engaged in.

bottle up

bottom out
bounce back


bow down

bow out

To hide ones feelings.

To stop getting worse, especially prices.
To get better or recover, especially from bad
To lower your head slightly by bending top part
of body forward to show respect.
To withdraw from an activity, etc. which one
has been engaged in for a long time.

To accede to a request or demand.

bow to



bowl along

To move very quickly, especially in a vehicle.

bowl out

To accidentally knock someone down while

To feel you cannot act or move freely.

box in
box off


branch off


brave out


brazen out


break away

To separate a smaller area from a larger one by

partitioning or erecting walls around it.
(Road, river, etc.) to separate from another and
go in a different direction.
To talk something else which is not related to
what is being discussed, conversed, etc.
To deal bravely with something that causes fear
or problem.
To deal confidently with a difficult or
embarrassing situation.
To leave a group or political party, usually due
to disagreement, to form their own.

To cry, e.g. He broke down instantly when

informed that his terminally ill mother had
passed away in the hospital.
break down
To gain entry, e.g. Firemen had to break the
door down to rescue an elderly occupant from
the fire.
(Vehicle, machine, etc.) To stop working, e.g. A
couple of cars broke down in the midst of a
traffic jam, aggravating the situation.
(Negotiation) to fail, e.g. The negotiation for the
exchange of prisoners broke downbecause one
side remains uncompromising in its demands.
(Total amount) to separate into individual items
or amounts.

break for

To leave whatever you are doing for lunch, etc.

To forcibly enter a place such as a building for

an illegal purpose, e.g. Thieves broke into an

office building by breaking a window.
break in/into

To discontinue a relationship, diplomatic

relations, etc., e.g. Both countries broke
offdiplomatic relations after one accused the
others embassy staff of involvement in
break off
To separate, especially a piece from a larger
one, e.g. He broke off a piece of bun and threw
it into a pond to feed the fishes.

To escape from a place, e.g. After he broke

out of jail once, he was transferred to a
maximum security prison.

break out
To forcibly go through something, etc., e.g. The
burglars broke through a wall to gain entry to
the bank safe.

break through
To stop a fight, e.g. They use pails and buckets
full of water, and hose to splash and spray water
to break up a fight between two dogs.
To separate a gathering, e.g. Police appeared as
usual to break up a peaceful demonstration as
break up
To end a romantic relationship, e.g. Their
relationship broke up after they accused each
other of being selfish.


breathe in


breathe out
breeze through

To cause something to separate into many small

pieces, e.g. Someone broke my mug up, but no
one owns up.
To take in air; to inhale.
To send air out from the lungs
To finish or complete something easily, e.g. a


brew up
brick off


brick up
brighten up


brighten up
brim over


bring about

To make a drink of tea.

To separate an area from a bigger one by
building a wall of bricks.
To fill or close a space by building a wall of
bricks in it.
(Sky) to become brighter.
To make something more beautiful or colourful.
(A box, container, etc.) to be overfilled until it
cannot be covered.
To cause something to happen, or introduce new

bring around
To make someone regain consciousness.
To persuade someone to agree.
bring back
To revive something that was used previously,
e.g. More and more people are clamouring for
capital punishment to be brought back.
To return with something, especially from
abroad or shop, e.g. He went to a pet shop
and brought back a couple of terrapins.
To make one remember or recall something, e.g.
Listening to these songs brings back fond

To bring bird, plane, etc. down by shooting.

bring down
To stop a government from continuing,
To bring anything high up such as a kite,
helicopter, etc. down to the ground.

To cause something bad to happen to someone,

especially financial ruin.
bring ... down on

To display something or make it visible.

bring forth
To make something happen sooner rather than
bring forward

bring in

To receive an income or earning, e.g. He works

for a large company and brings in a handsome
To include or invite someone to participate in a
discussion, etc.
To involve someone in something.

To cause something bad to happen to someone,

e.g. heavy rain had brought onlandslides.
bring ... on/upon

To produce something;
To make a person display his best/worst quality.
bring out

To move someone or something from where

they are to where one is, e.g. She is bringingher
sister over tonight for a game of cards.
bring over

To help someone endure a difficult period of

bring ... through
To assemble two or more people for a particular
bring ... together
To raise a question, subject, etc. at a meeting.
birng ... up


bristle with
broaden out
bruit abroad
brush aside

To care for a child until he/she is a grown-up.

To have a lot of or be full of something.
To become wider.
To spread a report or rumour widely.
To deliberately ignore something.

brush down

To clean clothes or pet animals with a bush.

brush off

To refuse to consider someones idea, opinion,

etc. by ignoring them or passing unkind remark,
e.g. The police head brushed the whole
thing off when informed that some people are
planning a bank robbery right in the city centre.

brush up on


buck for


buck up
bucket down
build in/into

To quickly reread work done previously that one

has forgotten or to improve ones knowledge, or
to practise and improve on an activity, e.g. I
think Id better brush up on my singing and
resume my singing career.
To attempt at achieving something.
To make or become more cheerful.
To rain heavily.
To make or include something as a permanent
part of something else, e.g. He had a safe built
into the wall of his house.

To add an extension to a building in order to

enlarge it.
build on


bulk out


bump into


To improve on something or carry out more

development on it
To treat a product so that it becomes or appears
thicker or bigger or its quantity appears greater
than it is, e.g. I added some potatoes to the stew
to bulk it out.
To laze about doing nothing.
To meet someone you know by chance, e.g. I
found it amazing when I bumped into my
neighbour in a shopping centre despite it being
packed to capacity.

To accidentally knock into someone or

something, e.g. I hurried round the corner of a
corridor and accidentally bumped into a woman
carrying drinks on a tray, knocking them all over
the floor.
To murder someone.
bump off


bump up
bundle off

To make something larger or appear to be larger.

To send someone somewhere in a hurry, e.g. He

was handcuffed and bundled off in a police car.

To dress in warm clothes.

bundle up

bung up


bunk off


burn away

burn down

To tie things together to form a bundle.

To block something up such as putting
something in a hole.
To leave early and secretly from a place such as
school or work.
To be completely destroyed or greatly damaged
by fire, e.g. The fire burned away all his
valuable personal possessions.
To be destroyed by fire, e.g. The whole factory
was burned down after an explosion.
(Fire) to become weaker, e.g. The fire burns
down as its flame has become weaker and
produced less heat.

burn off
To get rid of something by burning it, e.g.
Sheburnt off all his photos.

burn out

To become exhausted through overwork, e.g.

He burned himself out by working three full
days with very little rest and sleep.
To be partially destroyed by fire, e.g. The
fireburnt out the kitchen and the adjoining

(Fire) to stop burning, e.g. After three hours, the
fire burnt itself out.

burn up

burn up

To be completely destroyed by fire or physical

exercises, etc. e.g. The whole building was
completely burned up; physical exercises burn
up fat, calories, etc.

To make someone very angry, e.g. It

reallyburned her up when the boss disapproved
her application for a long leave.

To be entirely possessed by (a desire or

burst in on/upon To interrupt something at an embarrassing
burst into
To intrude into a place suddenly without
be burning with


To suddenly start to cry or burn, e.g. burst

into tears; burst into flames.
To appear suddenly in a location.

burst onto
To explode outward.

burst out


bust out

To suddenly begin to cry, laugh, or say

something in an assertive manner, e.g. The
audience burst out laughing when the clowns
trousers suddenly dropped revealing a pair of
yellow shorts with red polka dots.
To escape from a place, especially a prison.

bust up

To separate as lovers, partners, friends etc;

bust up

butt in

To disrupt something or prevent it from

continuing; to damage or break up something.
To interrupt or intrude rudely on a conversation
or activity, e.g. Whenever Jack talked to a girl at
the party, Jill would butt in.


butt out
butter up
buy in

To tell someone to stop interfering.

To flatter someone.
To buy something in bulk.

buy in

To withdraw something at auction because it

fails to reach the reserve price.

buy into

To make partial purchase of a business with aim

to control it; to accept or believe an idea.

To pay someone money to stop them causing

trouble or threatening you.
buy off

To pay someone to give up ownership, interest,

or share of a business.
buy out

buy up

To pay for ones release from the armed


To buy as much and as quickly as you can of


2. Phrasal Verbs 101-200


buzz off

To go away or to tell someone to go away.

be buzzing

To have an air of excitement or purposeful activity.


calculate on


call at
call back

To depend on an essential element in ones plans to

(Train, coach, etc.) to stop at a station.
To return a telephone call received earlier in ones
absence, e.g. She didnt leave her number, so I
couldnt call back.
To be asked to return, e.g. I was on leave but my
boss called me back for some urgent matter.

call by

call for

To visit someone when you happen to be in the

same area.

To appeal or demand publicly for something,

especially equal rights.

call forth
To evoke a quality so that it can be used.

call in
To telephone a place to inform about something,
e.g. A rescue team was called in to reach the
trapped miners.
To telephone ones working place to inform one is
call ... in
To ask someone to see you for a particular purpose,
e.g. The villagers are consideringcalling the game
warden in to deal with the elephants which have
been trampling and destroying their crops.

call off

To decide officially that something should be

stopped after it has already started, e.g. to call off a
football match due to heavy rain.

To pay a brief visit to someone.

call on/uppm

To request someone to do something for you.

call up

To select someone to play in the national sports

team, e.g. He was called up for the game against
To call someone by telephone, e.g.
He calledme up at midnight to wish me happy new


To officially order someone to join the armed

services, e.g. He was called up for training for a
possible war against a neighbouring country.
calm down To make or become tranquil and quiet, e.g. The
doctor had to inject her with tranquilizer in order to
calm her down.


camp out
cancel out


capitalize on


care for


(get) carried

(Situation) to become less confused or violent, e.g.

The sea calmed down when the weather ceased to
be windy after a heavy shower.
To sleep outdoors in a tent.
To neutralize or negate the effect of something so
that it remains the same.
To take the chance to gain as much advantage as
you can
To look after and provide for the needs of someone
who is not able to look after themselves, e.g. His
wife has been caring forhim since his discharge
from the hospital.
To like to have something, e.g. care for a coffee?
To lose self-control.
To move figures to the next page in accounts.


To keep something to use or deal with at a later


To do something difficult successfully.

carry off
To forcibly take someone away.

carry on

To continue an activity or task despite the

difficulty, e.g. She finds it hard to accept the fact
that her husband has left her for another woman,
but she still managed to carry on with her life
To continue moving in the same direction, e.g. Its
of great urgency that they carry straight onthe
highway to reach their destination by tonight.
To behave in an overemotional way, e.g.
Shecarried on complaining in a bad-tempered way
despite her spouses apologies and his insistence
that he didnt mean what she thought he meant.
To be engaged in a love affair with someone.

To perform a planned operation or a task that needs

to be done, e.g. They carried out his instructions to
draw up plans for the next phase.

carry ... out

To move or transport someone or something from

one place to another, e.g. They carriedthe injured
player out of the playing area.

To extend beyond the normal or original area of


To be used or dealt with in a new context;

To bring something forward; postpone.
carry over
To complete something successfully.
carry ... over

carry ...




cart off
carve out

To take someone or something away.

To develop a career, reputation, etc. through
painstaking effort.

carve ... up

To divide up something ruthlessly into separate

parts for sharing.

cash in

To recklessly overtake another driver.

To take advantage of or exploit a situation.

cash in

To convert an insurance policy, savings account,

etc. into money; to take advantage of or exploit a

cash up

To total up the days takings received in a shop for

To search far and wide.

cast about
cast aside

To get rid of something or someone whom you no

longer like or who are of no more use.

To be stranded after a shipwreck.

be cast away

To feel depressed.
be cast down

To get rid of something or someone.

cast off/cast ...
To free a boat or ship from its moorings.
To take the last stitches off the needle in knitting.
To let loose a hunting hound or hawk.

To make the first row of a specified number of

loops on the needle.
cast on

To force something or someone to go away, e.g. an

exorcist who casts out demons.
cast ... out

To bring something (by the sea) onto the shore.


cast ... up
catch at
catch on

To try to take hold of something.

(A practice or fashion) to become popular, e.g. A
style may catch on in some countries or areas, but
not in others.
To begin to understand something, e.g. When one
understands something better, it is easier to catch

catch out

To discover that someone is lying or has done

something wrong.
To put someone in a difficult position because they
are not ready to deal with it.

catch up

To improve so much that you are now on a par with

other people in your class, group, etc., e.g. After a
long absence from class due to illness, he finds it
hard to catch up.
To do what needs to be done because you have not
done it earlier.

To meet up with someone whom one has not seen

for some time.
catch up with


cater for/to

To finally find someone who has done something

wrong and on the run.
To provide with what is needed or required.


cater to
cave in

To satisfy a need or demand.

To fall inwards or collapse; to give in.



centre around

To have something as a major concern or interest.

centre in

To occur mainly in or around something.

centre on/upon To pay more attention on someone or something

more than on someone or something else.
chalk up
To succeed in getting something, e.g. points in a
game; to record something.
To find something or meet someone by accident or
change around To shift things from one position to another.

To engage a lower/higher gear in a vehicle.

To become something different.


change into
chase up


chat up


cheat on


check in
check in

To tell someone do something more quickly

because it has been taking too long.
To talk to someone in a way that demonstrates
sexual attraction.
To be unfaithful to ones spouse by secretly
engaging in sexual activities with someone else,
e.g. Jill threw Jack out of her house after she
discovered Jack cheating on her.
To act dishonestly to gain a personal advantage,
e.g. He was suspended from the exam after he was
caught cheating on it.
To arrive and register at a hotel or airport.
To return a book to a library; to have ones baggage

To register ones arrival at a hotel.

check into

check ... off

check on

To mark an item on a list to show that it has been

dealt with.

To monitor and make sure something is accurate or

properly done, or that someone is safe and well.

check out

To find out the truth of something, e.g. Wechecked

out a couple of restaurants and confirm their
services are reasonably good and prices reasonable.
To settle ones hotel bill and leave, e.g. Wecheck
out before noon.
To pay for ones items to the cashier, e.g. I decided
not to buy my one item because of the long queues
waiting to check out.

check ... out

To find out if someone or something is suitable for

a particular purpose, e.g. They
routinelychecked applicants out before accepting

To examine or look closely at someone or

something to ensure they are acceptable.
check ... over
To ascertain the suitability, accuracy or truth of
someone or something.
check up on
To ensure that someone or something is safe and


check on
cheer up

To become or make someone less unhappy.

cheer up

To make or become less miserable.

cheer on

To shout encouragement in support of a person or

team in a race or competition.
To think about something carefully for a long time.

chew on
chew out

To express strong disapproval to someone of what

they have done.

To consider carefully about something for a period

chew... over

of time.

chew ... up

To bite repeatedly on something, especially to

facilitate swallowing.


chicken out


chill out
chip away

To be too scared to do something, e.g. He was

invited to speak at the annual dinner, but
hechickened out.
To calm down and relax completely.
To remove something little by little,.

chip away at

chip in




To gradually and relentlessly make something

smaller, weaker or less effective.

To interrupt a conversation to add in more

information or detail; to contribute ones share in a

To remove something in small pieces,

e.g.chipping old paint off the door.
chip ... off
choke back To suppress ones emotions, e.g. choke backthe
choke down
To eat with difficulty.
choke off
To prevent someone from doing something or stop
something happening.

To be very unhappy or worried about something.

choke up
chop down To fell a tree by cutting it.
chop off

To separate something from another by cutting it.

chop up

To cut into small pieces, e.g. They chop upsome

firewood to make a fire.
To eat.
To throw something away.

chow down

To give up or stop doing something, e.g. chuck

chuck in

ones job in.

chuck out

To expel someone from a place, e.g. gotchucked

out of the club.

To vomit.
chuck up

churn out

To produce something in large quantities without

caring about quality.
To damage the surface of something.

churn up
To make someone upset, nervous or angry.

churn ... up
clam up
clamp down


claw at


claw ... back

clean out

To suddenly stop talking because of some reason.

To take firm action to prevent something
To scratch or tear at someone or something with the
claws or fingernails.

To gradually regain something by working very

To make a place tidy and free from dirt, e.g.
We cleaned our new house out thoroughly before
we moved in.
To steal all the contents from a place, e.g. Burglars
completely cleaned our glass cases outof all the
antique jewellery.
To cause someone to spend all their money, e.g. My
medical bill really cleaned me out.

To take all of someones money or possessions.

clean up
To make something completely clean and tidy.


clear away

To make a substantial gain or profit.

To make a place look tidy by removing remains of
a meal from the table or putting things back where

they belong.

clear off

To go away quickly from a place.

clear out

To leave a place quickly, e.g.

Police clearedpeople out of the cinema after
receiving a call that a bomb had been planted

clear out
To tidy a place by disposing of something, e.g. We
havent cleared the storeroom out for ages.

clear up

(Something) to get better or disappear, e.g. when

weather clears up, it gets better or if an illness
clears up, it disappears.

clear ... up

To make a place tidy by removing unwanted items,

e.g. The child has been warned repeatedly
to clear his toys up after his father stepped on one
and broke it into pieces.
To explain something that is hard to understand,
e.g. Most find the instructions difficult to
understand, but further
explanations cleared everything up.
To cure something such as an infection, etc., e.g.
The regular intake of medicine has clearedmy sore
throat up.


cleave to
click on


climb down

(Weather) to become clear, e.g. The sky had been

full of dark clouds since morning, but by afternoon
it cleared up,
To still regard a belief, etc. as true when it is not.
To begin a computer operation by pressing on the
computer mouse button.
To make an ignominious withdrawal from a
position taken up.


cling to
clock in/out

To hold tightly to a belief, idea, etc.

To record on a special card using an automatic
recording clock ones time of arrival at or departure
from work.

clock up

To reach a particular number or amount, especially

the number of flight hours a pilot has attained to
To be become blocked, e.g. The drain was
soclogged up that water and material inside flows
over its edges.
To stop broadcasting (television station at the end
of the day), or doing business permanently (shop,
company, etc.)


clog up


close down




close in

To move closer to someone or something, e.g. the

police close in to make an arrest or a pack of
wolves closing in to kill their prey.

close off

To close a place for a specified reason, e.g. a road

is closed off for repair.

To be closed to the public temporarily, e.g. a

building closes up for a particular reason.
(Sky) to become full of clouds or black clouds.
To share the cost of something by combining with
others to collect a sum of money.
clue in
To inform someone about something.
clump together To form a group or solid mass.
clutch at
To seize something eagerly or in desperation,
especially at an idea or when one is in a dangerous
To quickly make or assemble something that is
useful but not perfect, e.g. cobbled together a
ceasefire agreement; cobbled together a tent from
some pieces of strings and a big sheet.
cock up
To spoil or ruin something.
comb out
To search for pieces of information, e.g.
Policemen comb out the entire area looking for
close up
cloud over
club together

To make hair straight and smooth by combing; to

exclude unwanted members from a group.


To search through a wide area or a lot of objects for

comb through information, e.g. policemen comb through the
field looking for the murder weapon.
come about
To happen, e.g. How does it come about that he
was once my good friend, but now ignores me
(Ship) to change direction.

come across

To meet or find by accident or by chance, e.g.

While making a boat trip up the river, we came
across a hippopotamus.
To exude an emotion or quality, e.g. He comes
across as being boastful.

come after
To go in search of someone, e.g. the police
arecoming after him for having involved in a

come along
To follow someone, e.g. I will come along with
To want to go with someone, e.g. Can I come
along with you?

come apart
To break or separate into pieces or parts, e.g. They
forgot to staple my papers and when the wind blew
them off my hand, they came apartand flew in
different directions.

come around

To make a visit to someone, e.g. You can come

around in the evening;

To regain consciousness, e.g. He came

aroundthree hours after the accident.

To approach someone in a threatening manner.

come at

come away

To be left with a specified feeling, e.g. Hecame

away feeling satisfied. To become separated from
something, e.g. The lens came away from the

To reply in a quick and forceful way, e.g. I am

not coming back!
come back
To return to where one comes from, e.g. Some of
the tourists vowed to come back to this beautiful
resort in the near future.
(Physical condition) to recur, e.g. He could hardly
sleep at night as his backache has come back.
To become popular again, e.g. Rumour has it that
bell-bottoms will come back in the next season.

To appear before a person or group in authority,

e.g. He feels nervous when hecomes before the
come before
To avoid something from disturbing, e.g. I do not
allow anything to come between my study and me.
come between
To obtain something that is hard to get, e.g. I
havent found a job which is hard to come bythese
come by
To get lower, e.g. Prices once go up, hardlycome

come down
To punish or criticize someone severely, e.g. The
police have pledged to come down hard onthose
who park their cars illegally.
come down on
To amount to, e.g. Getting along with peoplecomes
down to having a give-and-take attitude.
To get from higher to lower level or from North to
come down to South, e.g. He is unable to come down tostay with
his parents this Christmas due to some personal

To become afflicted with an illness, e.g. The

weather has caused many residents in the area
to come down with influenza.
come down
To arrive to collect someone or something, e.g.
Ive come for my books which I left behind this

come for

To volunteer oneself for something such as to be a

vigilante, etc.

To be from a place where one was born or is/was

comb forward
To be a source from which something originates.

come from

To arrive, e.g. The ten oclock train came inten

minutes earlier.
To enter, e.g. As soon as they arrived

theycame straight in.

To attain a particular position, e.g. She came infirst
in the race this morning.
come in
(Tide) to rise, e.g. Lets go to the beach, the tide
is coming in.
To be available when needed, e.g. The tool kit
has come in handy before, lets not forget it.

To receive a reaction such as criticism, etc., e.g.

The head of police comes in for some criticism for
the way the police conducted the investigation.

To inherit money or property.

come in for

To result from something, e.g. The police combed

the entire area but nothing came oftheir attempts to
find the murder weapon.
come into

come of

To separate oneself or itself from something, e.g.

The sole came off one of my shoes.
To produce a good or bad result, e.g. The trip
didnt come off the way we expected.

come off

(Something) to take place or happen, e.g. The

whole city has been plunged into darkness and the
residents are still waiting for the light tocome on.
To meet or discover someone or something by
chance, e.g. We came upon a couple of our former
classmates whom we have not seen for a long time.
To begin a television or radio program, e.g. What
time does that television documentarycome on? I
want to watch it.

come on/upon To feel an illness, etc. happening, e.g. I can feel a

sore throat coming on as my throat is getting itchier
by the minute.
To use it to encourage or correct someone, to hurry
them up or tell them not to lie, e.g.Come on, you
can do better than that. / Come on, surely you dont
believe the Earth is flat. /Come on, the train is not
going to wait for you. / Come on, dont bullshit.
To enquire ones position, well-being, progress, etc.
e.g. How is your journalism course coming on?

To make sexual advances towards someone, e.g.

Jack always comes on to Jill whenever he sees her,
and Jill deeply resents it.

To leave a place such as a house, room, etc., e.g.

She came out of the room and surprised everyone
who thought she had gone out.
(Facts, information, etc.) to become known to the
public, e.g. When the report came out, many were
surprised that it laid the blame on the engineer for
the collapse of the bridge.
come on to

To make something such as a book, musical

recording, movie, etc. available to the public, e.g. A
paperback edition of the book will come out at the
end of this month.
To remove dirt and stains, e.g. Stains on his shirt
easily came out when he used some detergent.

come out
To attain a placing in an examination.
To say publicly one is for or against something, e.g.
More and more people have come out insupport of
the ban on smoking in restaurants.
(Sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.) to make their
appearance in the sky.

(Skin) to break out in spots, rash, etc.

To suddenly or unexpectedly pass a rude comment.

To make a visit to someones house, e.g. They

usually come over to grannys house on weekend.
come out in
(Someone) to move to where I am from where they
are, e.g. Almost every weekend he comes over to
my place and we go out together.
To suddenly experience a strong feeling, e.g. I have
this strange feeling coming over me that violent
argument will erupt in the meeting tomorrow.
To migrate from another country, e.g. Their
grandparents came over from the East.

come out with To visit someone, e.g. They regularly come

round to a neighbours house for a game of cards.
(Event) to recur, e.g. New Years day is coming
round again.
come over

To change ones point of view and become

agreeable to something.
To regain consciousness, e.g. He coughs slightly,
and the others are delighted he iscoming round.

(News, information, etc.) to become known, e.g.

News of the snowstorm comes throughregularly
and people expect the worst as they tune in to it.
To live through a dangerous situation, e.g. The bus
he was traveling in swerved into a ravine killing
some passengers but he came throughcompletely
To be waiting to receive an important document,
approval, etc., e.g. The big cheque we have been

come round

waiting for has finally come through.

To regain consciousness, e.g. He came to hours

after he was admitted to the hospital.
To reach a total amount, e.g. The total of these
items comes to $60.60.
To have an idea, thought, etc., e.g. The ideacame
to me when I was in the shower.

come through

To be attacked or shot at, e.g. As soon as the group

of commandos landed on the beach, theycame
under attack from enemy fire.
To fall within a particular article, section of the law,
etc., e.g. the offence comes underSection 34(B) of
the penal code.

To approach someone, e.g. A stranger came upto

me and asked for the time.
To draw near, e.g. The annual fun fair is coming
up soon.
(Sun, moon, etc.) To rise, e.g. The sun wascoming
up by the time I woke up.
come to

To move northward, e.g. They come up all the way

to Alaska to visit me.
To move up the social ladder, e.g. He has
reallycome up from his early days as an office
clerk to his present position as marketing director.
(Something such as a problem, difficulty, etc.) to
happen suddenly, e.g. He couldnt attend the longawaited annual dinner because something important
has suddenly come up.

come under
To cope with opposition, difficulty, problems, etc.,

e.g. Their chances of winning the next round are

not good, having to come up againstsuch a strong

come up

To produce idea, suggestion, answer, etc., e.g. He

was the only one who could come up withall the
correct answers to the questions.

come up


come up with
complain of


con into

To express that one is suffering physically or from

an illness.
To trick or deceive someone into doing something,
e.g. He was conned into paying excessively for a
watch which was a cheap imitation.


To deceive someone to give one something, e.g.

He conned a number of old people out of large
sums of money.
con ... out
concentrate on To focus all your attention on something.
condole with To express sympathy for someone.
conduce to
To help to produce a particular quality or state.
cone off
To close part of a road by using traffic cones.
confide in
To tell someone about a personal secret or private
matter in confidence.
To entrust something to the care of someone.


confide ... to
conjure up

To bring an image to ones mind.


To call upon a spirit to appear by means of a magic

conk out
(Car, macine, etc.) to break down.
connect up To join something to something else, e.g. the
telephone is connected to the telephone network.
consist in
To be based on or depend on something.


consist of
contend for


To be composed of.
To engage in a struggle or campaign to achieve

contend with


contract in

To deal with difficulties or an unpleasant situation.

To choose to be involved in.

contract out

To choose not to take part in something.

contract out To arrange for work to be done by a person or

company outside your own organization.
cook up
To prepare a quick meal; to invent a clever or
devious story or excuse.
cool down
To become cool or cooler.
cool off

To return to normal temperature after being hot,

e.g. It usually cools off in the evening.
To make someone or something cooler, e.g. He had
a cold shower to cool off his body.
To become calm after being angry, e.g. His temper
should have cooled off by now.


coop up
cop off

To confine someone in a small space.

To meet and start a sexual relationship with

cop out
cop to


copy out


cordon off


cotton on
cotton to


cough up
count as

count down

To avoid doing something that one is supposed to

To accept or admit to something.
To write exactly the same thing as it is written
somewhere else.
To seal off an area to prevent access to it by the
To begin to understand.
To begin to like or have a liking for someone or
To give something, especially money, unwillingly.
To consider or regard someone or something in a
particular way.

To record the time passing until an important event


count ... in/out To include/not include someone in a planned


count on/upon
To depend on someone or something, e.g. He
is counting on his secretary to prepare a good
acceptance speech for him.

count ... out

To count up to ten seconds when a boxer is

knocked down to conclude defeat.
To put in or take out items one by one as you count
them for recording.

To determine the total of something or someone.

count ... up


couple with
cover for

To combine to produce a particular result

To temporarily take over the duties or role of

cover oneself
cover up

To take precautions against future blame or

To hide or protect something by putting something
on top of it, e.g. Look at the fly on the buns, why
are they not covered up?
To prevent a wrongful act or crime from being
known by denying or hiding the evidence, e.g. The
whole affair was covered up to protect certain
important people.

cover ... up


To wear thick clothing or use blanket to keep warm,

e.g. I need to buy an electric blanket
tocover me up in this cold weather.
crack down on To take stricter measures to deal with certain
problems, e.g. The local authority have decided to
crack down hard on illegal parking.

crack on

To work incessantly in order to complete a job.

crack up

To burst or cause someone to burst into laughter.


crank out

To become mentally disturbed.

To produce something regularly and routinely.


crank up
cream off


crease up
creep up on

To increase the intensity of something.

To choose and take away the best people or things
from a group.
To burst or make someone burst out laughing.
To surprise someone by appearing behind them
To seem to come sooner than expected, especially
an anniversary.
(A feeling for someone, idea, etc.) to gradually


crop out

increase when it creeps on you.

(Rock) to appear or be exposed at the surface of the

crop up

cross off


corss ... out

crowd out


crush up
cry off


cry out
cuddle up
culminate in


curl up
cuss out
cut across

To appear or occur suddenly and unexpectedly.

To delete an item on a list, e.g. Jill crossed a wrong
item off the shopping list and ended up short of one
vital ingredient.

To delete a word, etc. by drawing a line through it.

To take the place of someone or something by
forcing them out.
To squeeze with others into a small space
To break a promise to do something.
To shout out in pain or of fear.
To lie or sit very close to someone or something.
To reach a climax or the highest point of
To sit or lie with arms and legs bent close to body.
To swear and shout at someone out of anger.
To take the shortest way, e.g. If we cut acrossthis
terrain well arrive there before dusk.

cut away

To remove what is irrelevant or unnecessary, e.g.

Just cut away all those unnecessary details and
come to the point will you?

cut back

To reduce on something such as money, time, etc.,

e.g. We have to cut back on the number of days we
are away on holiday as it is getting more expensive.
To do or use something less, e.g. Jack was advised
to cut back the number of hours he spends at the
gym and concentrate more on his study.

To reduce ones consumption of something.

To bring down a tree, etc. by cutting, e.g. It should

cut down

be made compulsory to acquire an official permit

to cut down a tree.
To kill or injure someone with a sword or gun.
To shorten the length of something such as a piece
of writing, etc.
To reduce the importance of someone, e.g. Jack is a
self-important, pompous little man; lets think of a
way to cut him down to size.

To suddenly drive too closely into the space in front

of another vehicle.
To interrupt someone who is speaking.

cut in
To include someone in a deal with share of the

To block access to a place, e.g. Heavy snowfall

has cut off access to many areas in the countryside.
cut ... in

cut off/cut ...


To stop supply of something such as electricity,

water, etc., e.g. The electricity supply company has
sent me a warning to pay within a week, failing
which my electricity will be cut off.
To abruptly disconnect a telephone call.
To separate a piece from the main part by cutting,
e.g. She cut off a piece of cake for her guest.
To disinherit someone, e.g. My parents threatened
to cut me off their will unless I go to college.
To stop having a good relationship with someone
due to some reason, e.g. After she recovered from a
severe nervous breakdown, she cut herself off from
her circle of close friends.
To rudely interrupt someone, e.g. I was relating a

story to friends when he came in and cut meoff.

To remove something or someone, e.g. The

editor cut out an offending remark in a piece of
news report. / The parents decided to cut himout of
their will.
To remain healthy, e.g. He cuts sugary snacks and
fizzy drink out of his list of items for consumption

cut out/cut ...


To remove something by cutting, e.g. Hes

always cutting out articles from newspapers to
assist in his writing course.
(Engine) to suddenly stop working, e.g. The engine
of my car suddenly cut out when I stopped at the
traffic lights.

To cut something into smaller pieces, e.g. Jill

iscutting an apple up to feed her birds.
To sustain multiple injuries in a road accident.
To behave in an unruly manner.


cut up
dally with


To be involved in a casual romantic or sexual

relationship with someone.
damp up
To dam a river, etc.
damp down To make a fire burn less strongly.


dash off
dash off


To think but not seriously about something.

To control or reduce something such as a feeling.

To leave very quickly.

To write something hurriedly and without much

date from/back To have existed since a particular time.


dawn on

To realize something for the first time.

3. Phrasal Verbs 201-300

201. deal in

To buy and sell a particular product.

deal in

To bring in a new player in a card game.

deal out

To distribute something, e.g. deal out cards to

players in a card game.

deal with

To do business with someone, e.g. Ive

beendealing with him for the past several years.
To take appropriate measures to solve ones
problem, e.g. Im on medication to deal withmy
depression problem.

To deal with a particular subject, e.g. The

bookdeals wholly with acupuncture.
202. decide on
To select one thing from many, e.g. to decide on a
wedding date.
203. declare
To state publicly you support or oppose someone
or something.
204. defer to
To agree or accept someones opinion or decision.
205. delight in
To take great pleasure in something.
206. deliver up
To give or pass over something to someone.
207. delve into
To search for more evidence about someone or
208. depart from
To deviate from the normal or usual course of
209. depend on/upon To rely on others for their help and support.
210. deprive of
To prevent someone from having something they
want or need.
211. derogate from To reduce the worth or value of something so as to
make it seem less impressive.
212. descend from
To have developed from something or to be
related to someone who existed in the past.

To be able to feel or know when something

descend on/upon descends on you, e.g. when darkness descends, it

begins to get dark.

descend to

To pass by inheritance.

To behave in an unacceptable manner.

213. detract from
To underrate the value or importance of
214. devolve on/upon To entrust responsibility, duties, etc. to someone
at a lower level.

devolve to

215. die away

To entrust responsibility, duties, etc. to someone

at a lower level.
To transfer property to someone when the owner
To become weaker, less loud or strong, e.g. light,
sound, or wind.

die back

(Plant) to remain alive at the roots but dead above

the ground.

die down

To becomes less active, strong or loud.

die off

To become extinct.

die out

To become extinct

216. dig in

(Soldiers) to protect themselves by making a

trench; to begin eating;

To mix fertilizer with soil by digging.

dig into
To make use of what one has, e.g. to dig intoones

energy or strength.

To unearth something from the ground.

dig out

To find something that one has been searching for,

e.g. to dig out the photo one has been looking for.

To find something in the ground by digging.

dig up
217. dilate on/upon
218. din into
219. dine on/off

To discover something after investigating or

searching, e.g. to dig up information about
To write or speak fully or in detail about
To firmly instill in someones mind by continuous
To eat a particular kind of food, especially
expensive food.

dine out
To eat outside the home, e.g. at the restaurant.
dine out on

220. dip into

221. disagree with

222. discourse
223. dish out

224. dispense with

225. dispose of

226. dive in

To entertain friends and others at meal by telling

To put ones hand into a bag, container, etc. in
order to take something out.
To have to use something that one has such as
ones savings.
(Weather, seafood) to have a bad effect on
To make a long speech about something;
To serve food to people.
To distribute something indiscriminately.
To discontinue using something because it is no
longer required.
To get rid of something.
To deal effectively with a difficult problem or
To begin to take part in an activity with

227. divest of

To remove oneself of whatever clothing one is

To rid oneself of an interest or investment under

228. do away with

To deprive someone of power, rights, etc.

To get rid of something, e.g. Kissing the hand of
women should be done away with.
To kill someone, e.g. Some neighbours believe
she did away with her husband while others
believe he ran away.

do by
To treat or deal with something in a specified way.

do ... down
To criticize someone, especially behind his or her

do for

To do something to something else, e.g. what is to

be done for the leak?

do for
To ruin or kill someone.
do in
To improve the quality or appearance of someone
or something.

do out

To kill someone;
To make someone feel very tired.

do ... out of

To cheat or do a secretly dishonest thing to


do ... over
To decorate or furnish a room or building in a
particular way.
To attempt again at doing something, e.g. My
homework is so full of mistakes that the teacher
has no choice but to tell me to do allover.
To decorate a wall, room, etc.
To injure someone by beating him up.
To ransack and steal from a place.

do ... up
To fasten or fix something, especially ones
To improve an old car, building, etc. by repairing
or redecorating it.
To make oneself look attractive by dressing and
making up.
do with
To need or would like to have something, e.g. I
could do with a drink.
To connect one thing to another, e.g. When
questioned by police about a robbery case, he said
he had nothing to do with it.

do without

229. dole out

230. doll up
231. doss down

To have to manage on ones own without

something or someone, e.g. Her husband has just
passed away, so she has to do without.
To have to tolerate someone or something, e.g. I
can do without all her endless grumbling.
To distribute something such as money, food, etc.
to people.
To dress and make oneself up attractively.
To sleep somewhere which is not the usual place
or ones bed.

To do very little work.

232. dote on/upon
233. double as

To have a very strong affection or liking for and is

clearly demonstrated by ones actions.
To have a second use, job, or purpose.

double back

To return the way you have come.

double up

To share something such as a room.

To use the winnings from a bet as stake for
another bet.
To bend ones body due to excessive laughing,
pain, etc.

234. doze off

235. drag down

drag ... in

To play another or different role in a play, etc.

To fall asleep unintentionally, e.g. Each time he
listens to the same speaker, he dozes off.
To cause someone to feel upset, lose confidence
or enthusiasm.

To involve someone in something with which he

has nothing to do.

To get someone unwillingly involved in

something such as a discussion, conversation, etc.
drag ... into

(Meeting, etc.) to last longer than is necessary.

drag on

drag ... out

To prolong a meeting, argument, etc.


drag ... up

To raise unpleasant or embarrassing subject

without regard to the feelings of the persons

To improperly bring up a child.

236. dragoon into To force someone into doing something.
237. drain off
To cause liquid in something to run off, leaving it
empty or dry.
238. draw back
To recoil or to withdraw from doing something.
draw in

To get dark earlier in the evening and so there are

fewer hours of daylight.
To get someone involved in something.

draw into

draw ... off

To cause someone to participate in, especially

criminal, activities

To extract some liquid from specific holder of


To suck in smoke from a cigarette, cigar, etc.

draw on
To make use of expertise, savings, resources, etc.
for a particular purpose.
(Winter, spring, etc.) to come nearer when it is
drawing on.

draw out
(Days) to become longer due to the changing
draw out
To induce someone to open up by being more
willing to talk.
To prolong or extend something such as an event,

meeting, etc.
draw up
(Vehicle) to reach a place and stop there.
To prepare an official document such as a list of
appointees, etc.
To pull ones legs closer to the body, e.g.
knees drawn up to the chest
239. dream away To idle by thinking about something that one
would like to happen.

dream on

To be used to tell someone that what they are

hoping for may most likely not happen, e.g. You
think of striking the jackpot? Dream on!

240. dredge up

To imagine or mentally invent something, e.g.

Who could have dreamed up those ideas of how
the dinosaurs became extinct?
To bring out something from the distant past.

241. dress down

To remove whatever there are from the bottom of

a river, harbour, etc.
To wear informal clothes.

dream ... up

dress down

dress up

To express disapproval that something someone

has done is very wrong.

To put on clothes, e.g. She always dresses upto

appear younger than her age.
To wear a special costume appropriate for a
formal occasion, e.g. At every costume party he
attends, he dresses up like Popeye.

242. drift apart

(Relationship) to end gradually.

drift off
243. drill into

To doze off.
To continuously impress something on someones

244. drink in
drink to

mind to produce a lasting effect.

To enjoy taking in all the sights and sounds.
To wish someone success, good luck, good health,
etc. before drinking alcohol.

To finish up all the rest of a drink.

drink up
245. drive at
drive away

The point that one is attempting to make.

To behave in a way that forces someone to leave

drive off
To leave in a vehicle.
To cause an enemy, animals, etc. that are
threatening or attacking you, to flee.

drive out
drive up
246. drone on
247. drop away
drop in

To force someone or something to leave.

To cause rapid rise in prices, costs, etc.
To speak at length in a boring way.
To become lower in level or amount.
To visit someone without appointment, e.g. Jack
dropped in on Jill and almost couldnt recognize
her as she had not had her usual make-up on.

To doze off or begin to sleep, e.g. He dropped off

while watching television.
drop off
To move someone or something to another place,
e.g. He dropped me off at the Post Office.
To become lower in level, interest, amount, etc.,
e.g. Readership of the magazine has
beendropping off since early last year.

To abandon an activity, course, etc. before

completing it, e.g. dropped out of school.

drop out
248. drum into

(A term or phrase) to be no longer in use if it

drops out of a language.
To drive something into someone by constant

drum out
To remove or expel someone from, or force
someone to leave employment, office, school, etc.
drum up
249. dry off

dry out

To attempt to obtain support by meeting a large

number of people.
To become dry or to make something dry, e.g. He
rubbed his head vigorously with a towel to dry off
his wet hair.

To become or make something, such as washed

clothing, very dry after it has been very wet.
To succeed in dealing with alcoholism.

dry up

To deprive a place of water, e.g. The rivers and

lakes completely dry up in areas that suffer severe

251. duff in

(Supply) to diminish with no addition, e.g.

research fund has dried up. To dry plates, dishes,
etc. with a cloth.
To avoid doing what you have to do or promised
to do..
To fight someone and injure them.

duff up
252. dump on

To beat someone up.

To treat or criticize someone badly or harshly.

250. duck out of

253. dust down

To unload all of ones problems onto someone

To remove dust from surface of ones clothes by
brushing with hands.

To clean something by brushing or wiping it with

dust off

a cloth.
To use something again after a long period of
254. dwell on/upon To think, speak, or write at length about
255. ease away/off To slacken a rope or sail slowly or gently.
ease off /up

To do something with more moderation;

(Situation) to get better.

ease out

(Vehicle) to slowly move forward into the traffic.

ease out

To deliberately try to make someone leave office.

ease up
256. eat away at

To take it easy after working too fast or too hard.

To erode or destroy gradually; to worry someone
constantly, e.g. the thought of contracting a
serious illness is eating away ather.

To reduce something over time such as money,

time, etc.
eat into
To damage or destroy something gradually, e.g.
rust is eating into the metal door.

eat up



To use resources excessively.

To finish eating all of something, e.g. Our

uncleate all the donuts up, leaving us none.
edit out
To remove harmful, objectionable, or unpleasant
material in preparing a recording or broadcast.
egg on
To encourage someone to do something foolish or
eke out
To make something last longer by using or
consuming it sparingly, e.g. to eke out a
emanate from
To emit or come from a source.
embark in/upon To begin a new course of action.
empty out
To discharge the contents from a container, e.g. I
empty out a container by holding it upside down

and let all the sweets drop out.

263. encroach

264. end in

To discharge itself of someone or people, e.g. As

soon as a movie ends, the people head for the exit
and soon the cinema empties out.
To intrude on someones rights, time, territory,
possessions, etc.
To advance on more and more land, e.g. housing
development encroaching on farmland.
To have a particular result, or finish in a particular

end up

265. endear to
266. endow with


To come to be in a particular situation or place,

e.g. We took a wrong turn and ended up in an
unknown place.
To make someone popular or liked.
To naturally have a good feature or quality.

To give something to someone.

endue with To endow someone with a good quality or ability
engage in
To participate or become involved in an activity.
enlarge on/upon To speak or write about in greater detail.
enter into
To begin to be involved in something.
To impose an obligation on oneself to do
enter on/upon

271. even out


even up
eventuate in
expand on/upon
explain away

To begin something such as job, an activity, etc.

To make equal in number, amount, value, etc.
To make a situation or competition more equal.
To result in.
To give more details about something.
To speak or write in detail about a particular
To minimize the significance of something
embarrassing by giving an excuse or justification.
To excuse or justify ones behaviour.

explain oneself
276. eye up
To look at someone with sexual interest.
277. face down
To deal with someone in a strong and confident
face up to

face with

278. factor in
279. fade in/out

280. faff
281. fake out
282. fall about
fall apart

To face fact however objectionable it is.

To provide someone with evidence of their guilt.
To include something as a relevant element when
making a decision or an estimate.
To make a picture or sound appear/disappear or be
heard/become quieter gradually.
To perform some useless task.
To deceive someone.
To have a good laugh about something.
To break into pieces;
(System) to stop working or become ineffective;
To suddenly develop a lot of, especially personal,
(Machine, car, etc.) to be in very bad condition.

fall away
(Noise, feeling, scenery, etc.) to recede as you
move through it.
To separate from the main part.

fall back

(Soldiers) to retreat.
To make sudden backward movement caused by
fright, pain, surprise, etc.

fall back on
To have a source of help in a difficult situation
when needed.

fall behind

To slacken so that others move ahead or finish,

e.g. In long distance running competitions,
runners try to keep pace with the leader, but
increasingly they fall behind due to a variety of

To become less successful than someone else, e.g.
Industrial disputes have caused production to fall
behind schedule.
To fail to keep up with schedule for payments, e.g.
I fell behind with the payments on the car and it
was repossessed, and now I move around on a

fall down
To drop onto the ground, e.g. All the onlookers
were shocked to see a monkey fall down from a
(Plan, system, etc.) to fail to work or to become
fall for
To feel strongly attracted to someone or
To be deceived by someone, e.g. The seller claims
it is a magic stone that can cure all illnesses, yet
there are people who fall for it.
fall in
To drop within, e.g. part of the ceiling falls into
the sitting room.
(Soldiers) to form neat lines behind each other.
fall in behind
To form a line behind someone.
fall into
To belong to a part, section, etc.
To move down somewhere, e.g. fall into the
To develop a particular feeling, e.g. fall

intodespair or holiday mood.

fall in with
To meet by chance and become involved with
To agree or accept someones suggestions,
decisions, etc.
fall off
To drop to the ground from a higher place, e.g.
He fell off his horse and landed in a ditch.
To become detached or disconnected from the
main body.
fall on/upon

(Demand, prices, quality, amount) to drop or

become less.

To launch a sudden or unexpected attack on

fall out

To delegate a duty or responsibility to someone.

To have ones gaze directed towards someone or

(Hair, tooth, etc,) to drop out, e.g. Did your

tooth fall out or you pull it out?

fall over

To have a misunderstanding, disagreement or

quarrel with someone, e.g. Jack fell out with his
best friend as both have fallen in love with the
same girl.
(Soldiers) to leave ones place in a military

fall through
(Someone) to fall onto the ground or (something)
to fall from an upright position onto its side.

To not end or complete a plan, meeting, project,

etc. successfully, e.g. The commercial venture fell
through after one party decided to withdraw.

fall to

To drop through something, e.g. A meteoritefell

through the roof of a cottage and landed on the
floor in the living room.

To be entrusted with a duty or responsibility.

283. fan out


farm out

285. fart
286. fasten off

(Property) to revert to the ownership of someone.

To walk forwards while spreading over a wide
To subcontract work to others instead of doing it
To waste time not doing very much or on trivial
To secure the end of a thread with stitches or a

fasten on/upon
To quickly single out an idea, etc. as the best one
and concentrate firmly on it.
fasten onto
287. father on
288. fatten up
289. favour with
290. fawn on/over
291. feed off/on

292. feel for

To follow and stay with someone.

To assign paternity of a child to someone, or the
source or originator of something to someone.
To become fat or fatter, or make someone or an
animal fat or fatter.
To give someone something such as a smile,
salute, reply, etc.
To give an excessive display of exaggerated
flattery or affection to someone.
To eat a particular food, or obtain regular
nourishment from a substance; to make a feeling
stronger, e.g. jealousy feeds on insecurity.
To have a sympathetic feeling towards someone.

feel out

To ask someones opinions or feelings.

feel up

To fondle someone for ones own sexual


feel up to
To have the strength and confidence to do

293. fence in/off

something, e.g. I would like to go canoeing too,

but I dont feel up to doing it.
To enclose an area with a fence.

294. fend off

To make someone feel restricted.

To defend oneself from an attack or attacker.

295. ferret out

296. fess up
297. fetch up

298. fiddle around

To avoid answering difficult questions directly,

e.g. to fend off reporters provocative questions.
To search out a desired piece of information.
To confess to committing a minor wrong.
To arrive at a place unintentionally, especially
because of having fallen asleep in a public
To vomit.
To waste time doing unimportant things.
To keep playing around with something.

fiddle with
299. fight back

To play around with somebody elses thing in an

annoying way.
To struggle violently against an attacker, e.g. They
chose to fight back until reinforcements arrive..
To wage a campaign against something such as
unfair discrimination.
To hide ones feelings, e.g. to fight back tears.

To defend oneself against an attack by someone or

fight ... off

fight ... out

300. figure on

figure out

To engage in violence until the dispute is

To expect or plan for something, e.g. I
didntfigure on such massive traffic jam; I would
have stayed at home.
To ponder over something until a solution is found
or one has gained an understanding of it, e.g. He
cant figure it out why his wife is behaving

4. Phrasal Verbs 301-400


fill in

To provide answers or information on an official

To block up a hole, etc. with something.
To do someone elses work for a specified

fill out
To write down all the required information on an
official document, e.g. Many people hatefilling
out forms, but most of the time they have to do

fill up
To fill a place such as a cinema, church,
container, etc. with people, things, etc., e.g. As
soon as the doors are opened, the cinema quickly
started to fill up.
To write down required details on an official
document, e.g. I had to fill up everything on the
form before I could submit it for approval.
To eat something in excess, e.g. He has a strong
liking for cookies and when any are available he
will fill up on them.


filter out


find against/for

To keep refilling a glass, etc., e.g. Do you have

to keep filling up my glass? Im feeling a bit
tipsy already.
To pass liquid or gas through a device to remove
impurities or other particles.
(Court) to make a decision against/in favour of

find out


fine down


finish off

To discover information or a fact about someone

or something, e.g. They no longer remained
friendly to him when they found outhe had been
a prisoner.
To improve something by making it thinner,
smaller, more exact, etc.
To kill someone or animal, or decisively defeat
someone in a match, etc.

To finish eating all of something;

To do the final thing before breaking up or
dispersing, e.g. finish off the evening by having
a drink.

To end up at a particular place or doing one final

finish up
To eat or drink all the rest of something.

To no longer need to use something.

finish with

fire back

To end a relationship with someone.

To shoot back with gun, etc.
To respond promptly and angrily to a question or

fire off
To use a weapon to shoot.


firm up


fit in

To send something quickly, e.g. a fax, letter.

To make something such as an agreement, ideas,
plan, arrangements, etc. more definite and
To adapt to a group

fit in

To find time to see someone or do something.

fit out

To meet the requirements of someone.

fit up

To make someone appear guilty of a crime or

wrongdoing by falsifying evidence against them.
To decide or settle on a suitable person, thing,
etc. for a particular purpose.


fix on

fix up

To provide someone with something, e.g.

They fix us up for a nights stay at their place.
To arrange a date for someone with a member of
the opposite sex, e.g. Jack brought Jill along,
hoping his friends will find someone
tofix her up with.

To improve on a place to make it more attractive

or suitable, e.g. They intend to fix up their house
to look more like a palace than a house.


fizzle out
flag down
flake out
flare out


flare up
flash around


flesh out


flick through


fling into

To enhance ones appearance, e.g. She

hasfixed herself up gorgeously for its her
birthday party tonight.
To gradually end in a disappointing way.
To wave or signal to a driver to stop.
To fall asleep because of exhaustion.
To suddenly say something angrily.
To suddenly become angry or violent.
To flaunt ones wealth in order to gain
To add more details to something in order to
improve it.
To look quickly through a book, magazine, set of
photographs, etc.
To get wholeheartedly engaged in an activity or

fling off
To quickly remove something such as a piece of
clothing, cover, etc.


fling out

To dispose of unwanted things.

flip off

To suddenly make someone leave a place or

To rudely show your middle finger to someone.

flip out

To suddenly become very angry or upset or start

to behave in a crazy way, e.g. Jackflipped
out when Jill called to say she couldnt turn up
for the appointment as she was very tired.
To turn something from one side onto the other.

flip over


flip through
flirt with

To look quickly through something such as a

book, magazine, etc.
To behave as though one is sexually attracted to
someone but not in a very serious way.
To willingly risk danger, death, etc. without
worrying about it.


float around


flood out


flunk out


fly at/into


fob off

(Something) to be somewhere, e.g. Everyone

knows the spreadsheet file is floating aroundbut
no one knows exactly where it is.
(Rumour, information, etc.) to be circulated and
talked about, e.g. The latest gossip about the
managers private affair is floating aroundin the
office building.
To force someone to leave their home or to be
evacuated because of floods.
To be expelled from school or college for failing
To attack verbally or physically.
To suddenly go into a rage or other strong
To satisfy someone by making excuses to
deceive them or make them receive something of
low quality.

fob off on

To make someone accept something inferior by

foist on/upon To force to accept someone or something that
they do not want.
fold in
To mix an ingredient with another when
preparing food.
follow around
To keep following someone everywhere they go.
follow through

To continue an action after the main task is

completed in order to ensure a successful
To continue the arm movement of a stroke after
the ball has been struck as in sport.

follow up



To conduct further investigation or probe, e.g.

The police follow up the investigation with new
information leading to the arrest of the wanted
To put in additional efforts to attain a desired
aim, e.g. He follows up his doctors diagnosis by
seeing another specialist for a second opinion.
To waste time behaving in a silly way, e.g.
Hes fooling around in the library when he

should be reading or doing some writing.

To act in an irresponsible way, e.g. Someone
must have fooled around with this telephone,
now the public cant make calls with it.


force back
force down
force out of


forge ahead
fork out
foul up


freak out


freeze out

To engage in a casual or extramarital sexual

activity, e.g. A doctor is fooling around with
one of his patients and nobody knows about it.
To refrain from displaying ones emotions.
To forcibly swallow something that one does not
To impose something on someone.
To force information out of someone by repeated
questioning or threat, etc.,
To make progressive and successful headway.
To unwillingly pay money for something.
To spoil something or do something wrong by
making mistakes.
To become or cause someone to become very
upset, angry or irrational, e.g. She freaked out
when she was stopped by traffic policemen for
To deliberately exclude someone by adopting a
hostile or obstructive attitude.

To turn the surface of pool, lake, etc. into ice.



freeze over
freshen up

To wash oneself or changing ones clothes to feel

clean and comfortable.
frig about/around To waste time doing unnecessary or unimportant
To treat someone badly or unfairly.
frighten away To make an animal or someone go away by
making them feel afraid.

To drive someone away by frightening them.


frighten off
fritter away

To waste time, money, or effort on something


front for


frost up
frown on/upon


fuck around

unimportant or trivial.
To act as the person or organization serving as a
cover for illegal activities.
To become covered in frost.
To disapprove of something, especially
someones behaviour.
To behave in a silly way or waste time or other
peoples time.

To go away.
fuck off

To anger or annoy someone.

fuck ... off

To treat someone very badly.

fuck over
To make someone confused or unhappy.
fuck ... up
To make a mistake or do something badly.


fuck up
function as
fuss over

To fulfil the purpose or task of something.

To treat someone with excessive attention or
futz around
To idle or occupy oneself without purpose.
To go to different places in search of pleasure.
gain on/upon
To gradually get closer to a person or thing
gallop through To proceed at great speed in doing something.
gamble away To lose money or other things by gambling.
gang up on
To join together into a group to intimidate or
attack someone.
gas up
To fill petrol in a car.
gather in
To collect things such as crop, clothes, etc.
gather up
To pick up lots of things from different places.
gee up
To encourage someone to work harder and
gen up
To learn a lot about something for a specific
gen up


get across

To provide someone with information about

To successfully convey a message, an idea, etc.
to someone.

get ahead
To have achieved success in ones life or career,
e.g. He comes from a wealthy family and getting
ahead seems easy to him.

get along

To manage to live or survive, or interact with

people, e.g. He never seems to get along with
To be able to do something, e.g. He is getting
along fine in his new job.

get around to

To finally do something after some time, e.g. He

didnt get around to preparing for his exam until
the last moment.

get at

To be able to reach something.

To criticize someone repeatedly.

get away

To succeed in leaving a place; escape, e.g. The

robbers managed to get away through the back
exit just before the police arrived.
To have not been punished or criticized for a
wrongful act, e.g. He has been shoplifting for a
considerable time, and he always gets awaywith
To take a holiday, e.g. I have been working very
hard and long hours, but still have no plan to get
away for a week or two.

To escape blame or punishment for a wrongful

get away with

To return a place, e.g. I think we can get backin

time for dinner.
get back

To have something returned to one, e.g. I lent

him my umbrella two days ago and I
haventgot it back.
To move away from danger, etc., e.g. The
onlookers were told to get back as the firemen
battled the blaze.
To move back to the real discussion, e.g. He was
told to get back to the main point of the
discussion as his comments seemed irrelevant.

get back at

To plan to retaliate, e.g. Jill cannot forget what

Jack said about her and intends to get
back at him.
To take revenge on someone, e.g. He swears he
would get back at his step-father who ill-treated
him while they were living together.

To talk to someone later, e.g. He said he

would get back to me, and after two days Im
still waiting.
get back to
To have not done what one should have done
earlier, e.g. He has gotten far behind with his
work which should have been finished one week
get behind
Manage to live but with difficulty or accomplish

get by

get down

To move from higher to lower level, e.g. I got

down to the beach by walking down a flight of
To move someone or something from a higher to
lower level, e.g. Some one called a fireman
to get a cat down from a tree.
To cause unhappiness, depression, etc. to
someone, e.g. The prolonged illness of her
mother is beginning to get her down.

To start work on something.

get down to

To try to enter a place, e.g. It was very crowded

at the stadium, and those without tickets also
tried to get in.

get in

To engage someone to do something, e.g. We

have to get the plumber in as the tap isnt
working properly.

To enter a place, e.g. We got into the stadium for

the match as soon as we arrived there.

get into

To put something into something else, e.g. We

tried quite unsuccessfully to get all the
thingsinto the luggage.
To come into an adverse situation, e.g. They had
to sell off their house when they got
intofinancial difficulty.
To form a habit, routine, etc., e.g. She hasgotten
into the habit of biting her nails.

To escape punishment or be acquitted, e.g. The

lucky murderer got off scot-free when the sole

witness suddenly passed away.

get off

To alight, e.g. When a train arrives at a station

and stops, a lot of people get off it.
To end a telephone conversation, e.g. She started
a lengthy telephone conversation andgot off it
only after being told to do so for the third time by
her angry father.
To leave ones workplace after a days work, e.g.
Jill is always very punctual getting off the
workplace after the days work.
To have difficulty removing something, e.g. He
has already spent hours trying to get the lid offa
To send something such as a letter, parcel, etc.,
e.g. The clerk has to get the parcels offby courier
service before evening.

To find something enjoyable or be excited by

something, e.g. He gets off on skydiving and has
been doing it for many years.

get off on

To continue doing something, e.g. We had toget

on with it until its completed because there isnt
much time left.
To have a friendly relationship with each other,
e.g. Having known each other for only a short
while we seem to get on very well.

get on

To make progress in ones activity, e.g. How are

you getting on with writing the book?
To climb on to an animal, bicycle, etc., e.g. They
have to use a ladder to get on an elephant.
To enter a vehicle, etc. e.g. As soon as the bus
opened its door, people rushed to get onit.
To put on something such as clothes, etc., e.g.
Those shoes are sure too small for me, I

cant get them on.

To leave or escape from a place, e.g. Visitors to
the zoo rushed out for their life when they heard
a tiger get out from its enclosure.

To help someone leave or escape from a place,

e.g. Gang members helped a prisoner get
outfrom the prison.
To have a regular break from the same
environment, e.g. Every weekend we get outof
this city for an activity in the country.
To run away from danger, etc. We managed
toget out when a fire started to burn in the

get out

To get something from something else, e.g. He

couldnt get any coin out of his piggy-bank no
matter how he tried.
To remove something from something else, e.g.
What should I use to get this stubborn
stain out of my shirt?
To prevent secret information from being known,
e.g. If this information gets out we will be
directly implicated.
To publish something, e.g. The first issue
should get out at the end of this month.

To escape from an unpleasant situation, e.g.

He got out of visiting his mother-in-law with his
wife by claiming falsely that he had to attend an
important office meeting.

To succeed in dealing with an unpleasant or

difficult situation, e.g. Many speakers prefer to
be the first or among the earlier ones on the list
to get it over with than to be nervous awaiting

get out of

their turns.

get over

To recover from something such as an illness, a

bad experience, etc. Her husband passed away
one month ago and she still hasnt gotten overit.
To go or be asked to go to a place, e.g. I think Ill
call and ask them to get over here for a drinking

get ... over

To complete a task.

To resolve a problem; evade something such as a

restriction, etc.

get round

get round to

get through

To deal with a task in due course, e.g. After

we get through painting the house, we can start
on tiling the floor.
To communicate successfully with someone, e.g.
He has explained to his family again and again
the need to move house, but he just cant get
To fail in trying to speak to someone by
telephone, e.g. He has tried numerous times to
call his brother overseas but he has not been able
to get through.
To have undergone a bitter experience.

To annoy or upset someone, e.g. Now he is

looking for someone to blame, but dont let
him get to you.
To arrive at a place, e.g. We managed to get
toour destination before it gets dark.
To have to do something, e.g. I havent finished

my homework; Ill get to it later.

get to

To upset or annoy someone, e.g. The babys

constant crying is beginning to get to its young

To meet or gather for a specific purpose, e.g. We

have agreed to get together tomorrow night to
do some crazy thing like looking for ghosts.
To put things in the same place, e.g. We
aregetting all the ingredients together to make
some cakes.

To rise from bed when awake, e.g. I dont feel

like getting up in this frosty morning.
get together

To make someone wake up and get out of bed,

e.g. I think Ill prepare the breakfast before
Iget him up.
To stand up from a sitting position, e.g. Everyone
present got up when he entered.

get up

To be involved in something, especially

something illicit, e.g. The neighbours all along
didnt know what he got up to until the police
arrived and arrested him.

get ... up


get up to
ginger up

To make someone or something full of interest or



give away

To willingly transfer ones thing or things to

someone, e.g. He has been giving money awayto
the various charities.
To unintentionally disclose evidence that
implicates someone in a crime, e.g. He told his
wife he would work late but instead went to a
party after work, and his
colleague gave itaway when the wife called the
To hand over a bride to her bridegroom, e.g. The
brides father was too sad to give heraway, and
asked his eldest son to do it instead.
To make a secret known, e.g. The
culprit gavehimself away by feeling and
appearing very nervous when questioned by the

give in

To stop fighting or arguing and concede to their


give out
To distribute something to many people, e.g.
Campaign workers give out thousands of leaflets
about the danger and prevention of AIDS to
everyone on the street.
To stop functioning properly, e.g. As we get
older increasingly more parts of our body can
easily give out.
To have none left, e.g. Explorers ensure their
provisions, especially food and drink, do notgive
out in the midst of their exploration.

give over

To hand over for a particular purpose.

To delegate the responsibility for someone or
something to somebody else.

give up

To stop doing something before completing it,

e.g. He gave up midway in a marathon race
because he felt exhausted.
To willingly admit defeat, e.g. When the soldiers
realized they were completely outnumbered by
the enemy, they gave upwithout fighting.

give ... up

To hand someone or something to someone else,

e.g. give up ones seat in a bus to an old lady; the
missing men were given up for dead.

To shop hoping that someone or something will

change for the better, e.g. The parents have given
up on their drug addict son.


give up on
glance at/through To look at or through quickly, e.g. glance
through a photo album.


glance off
glass in


glory in


gloss over


gnaw at
go about

To strike a surface at an angle and bounce off in

another direction.
To cover something with glass or build a glass
structure around something.
To take great pride or pleasure in something,
such as praise, peoples attention, etc.
To prevent something from being known by
avoiding talking about them.
To make someone feel uneasy or distressed.
To begin or continue doing something, e.g. I
wish I knew how to go about starting a business.
To do something that you usually do.

go after

To pursue someone, especially to apprehend

them, e.g. Having arrested most of the gang
members, the police are going after the leaders.

To oppose or resist something or someone;

To have something such as a judgement, etc. that
is unfavourable to you.
go against

To go earlier than other members of the group; to

go ahead

go along with

To agree with someone or something, e.g. The

majority of the members voted for him as theygo
along with what he proposed.

(Illness, news, etc.) to pass from person to

person, e.g. Theres a rumour going around in
the workplace that the manager is keeping a
secret lover.
go around
To be enough for everyone to have a share, e.g.
There arent enough blankets to go around, and
some of the evacuees may suffer the cold.
To deliberately do something to offend people,
e.g. The new manager goes aroundtelling
everyone in sight to put in more effort in their
To behave in an unacceptable way, e.g. The
cleaner goes around chatting loudly with
everyone in the office.
To go from place to place looking for something,
e.g. A bargain hunting housewifegoes
around from store to store looking for the really
cheap, discounted items on sale.

To leave a place or person, e.g. Jack bade his

friend farewell and went away leaving his friend
alone on a park bench.
To spend some time elsewhere, e.g. We aregoing

go away

away for a holiday next week.

(Condition, difficulty, etc.) to gradually
disappear, e.g. Shes on mediation for her
backache and the pain is slowly going away.

To return to where you have come from, e.g. He

has to go back for his wallet which he left
His smoking habit goes back to his early
go back

To break a promise or an agreement, e.g. Hewent

back on his promise to his wife that he would
never to see his ex-lover again.
go back on

To pass near something or place, e.g. Every day

I go by his house on my way to work.

go by

(Time) to pass away, e.g. Five years have gone

by since she passed away, and memory of her
lives on.
To strictly obey or refer to something, or use it as
a guide, e.g. Deeply religious people go bytheir
holy books.
To have an opinion of someone or something,
e.g. To choose an employee, would an
employer go by looks?

To get to a lower level e.g. When the doorbell

rang, he went downstairs to answer it.

go down

To get down to another place, e.g. After

breakfast we went down to the pool for a swim.
To lose in a match, contest, etc., e.g. Theywent
down 2 -1 in the final.

To get an unfavourable reaction or perception,

e.g. His critical attitude does not go down well
with his friends and colleagues.
(Something such as computer system, etc.) to
stop working, e.g. Long queues formed in the
bank as its computer system went down.
To choose a course of action, e g. The captain
chose to go down with the ship.
To become lower, e.g. The price of tomatoes
has gone down, attracting many buyers.
To disappear from sight, e.g. We played football
until the sun had gone down.

To try to get or gain something or get someone.

To decide on achieving something, e.g. He
intends, after completing his education, to go
for professional sports.
To have a preference, e.g. She goes for tall men.

go for

To enter a place such as a building, e.g. Wewent

in as soon as they opened the doors of the

To attack someone physically or verbally.

go in

To enter a contest, etc. or take an examination,

etc, e.g. She decided to go in forthe quiz show
on television.
To like or do something often, e.g. When he was
young, he would go in for any kind of sea sports.

go in for
To enter a profession, business, e.g. I decided not
to go into that commercial venture with him.

To expend something on doing something, e.g. A

great of time, money, and resources havegone
into producing this scientific paper.
To sort out details of something, e.g. They have
been going into the details of the draft agreement
to finalize it before the meeting.
go into
(Gun, bomb, etc.) to fire or explode, e.g.
Someone planted a bomb in the police station but
it didnt go off.
(Alarm) to sound, e.g. .Every morning he can
only wake up when the second alarm clockgoes
(Machine, system, etc.) to stop operating, e.g.
Every worker leaves the building before the
central heating goes off at 8 oclock.
To do something, e.g. to go off to sleep.
go off
To continue to do something, e.g. to go
onworking on it;
To take place, e.g. something goes on in that
To talk for a long time.
To go on with the speech after the break.
To take medication, e.g. go on the pill.

go on

To leave the home for some place, e.g.

Everyone goes out except me as I have a
television program to watch.
(Tide) to ebb, e.g. Tonight we sit at seaside to
watch the tide going out to sea.
(Fire) to stop burning, e.g. Firemen battled the
forest fire for five straight days before itwent


go out

To carry on a romantic relationship, e.g. Jack is

the only one Jill goes out with, but one cannot be
sure about Jack.

To visit someone at their house, e.g. go overto

uncles house.
To move to another place, e.g. go over to the
kitchen for a drink.
To examine or check something, e.g. We go
over the documents and discuss their contents.
To explain something, e.g. Some students dont
understand the passage, so the teachergoes
over it.
go over
To change religion, etc, to go over from this
religion to that one.

To be enough, e.g. not enough chairs to go

To spread, e.g. a rumour goes round that .

To search through or examine carefully, e.g. togo

through the files.
To suffer from an ordeal, bitter experience, etc.
go round

To be officially approved, e.g. the bill has gone

through parliament with majority approval.
To look for something, e.g. have to go
throughthis drawer to find it.

go through
To do something despite opposition, danger,
difficulty, etc., e.g. The government decided
to go through with its proposal to legalize

prostitution despite strong opposition from many


(Ship, etc.) To sink.

(Business) to become bankrupt.

To burn or explode, e.g. to go up in flames.

go through with
To increase in price, quality, etc., e.g. The
increase in demand for flour has caused its price
to go up.
To reach further up, e.g. He has gone up the hill
go under

To move from lower to higher level, or from

south to north, e.g. We seldom go up to his
house as the weather there is so much colder.

go up

To confront another person, e.g.

She wentstraight up to him and told him off.

To have a romantic relationship with someone.

To accept an idea, etc., e.g. We all have decided
to go with his proposal.
To escort, e.g. mother goes with her young
daughter to the shop.

go ... up

go with

To match an item of clothing with another, e.g.

She is searching her wardrobe for a skirt to go
with her blouse.

To experience lack or deprivation, e.g. go

without food for two days.


go without
goof around


goof off
gouge out


grab at

To waste time doing silly things, e.g. He goofs

around maybe to prove something, but nobody
knows what.

To idle or avoid doing any work.

To cut or force something out roughly or
To quickly seize something with the hand.


graft off


grapple with
grasp at

To immediately seize an opportunity that is

To gain money or advantages by dishonest use of
To strive to cope with a difficult problem.
To seize and hold firmly on to something.

grass over
grind away

To accept an opportunity eagerly.

To cover land with grass.
To work or study hard.


grind down

To overwhelm someone with long cruel


grind on
To continue for an unpleasantly long time.
grind out


gross out

ground in

To produce something laboriously.

To make someone feel disgusted by something,
e.g. The sight of natives eating cooked rats for a
meal really grossed them out.
To add deductions, etc. to a net amount.
To learn the basics in order to do something.


grow apart

(Relationship) to become less close.

grow into

(Childs clothes) to become big enough to wear

when the child grows into clothes.
To develop into a particular kind of person or
thing over time.
To learn successfully to do a job or deal with a

grow on

grow out of

(Someone or something) to become more

attractive or interesting.

(Childs clothes) to become too big to wear when

the child grows out of clothes, e.g. She
has grown out of her clothes and is not sure to
throw or give them away.
To develop into something bigger or more
To no longer do the thing one does when small,
e.g. He has grown out of climbing trees.

(Child) to develop to maturity or adulthood.


grow up
grub up/out
guard against


gulp back
gum up


gun down
gussy up
gutter out


hack into


hail as

To dig something out of the ground.

To take precautions against something
To refrain from expressing ones feelings.
To clog up something and prevent it from
working properly.
To shoot someone with a gun.
To make someone or something more attractive
To become gradually weaker and then stops
To use or change someones information on their
computer system.
To acclaim someone or something in

newspapers, magazines, etc.


hail from
hammer in/into

To have been born in a particular place.

To instill something into someone forcefully and

hammer out


hand around
hand back

To laboriously work out the details of an

agreement, plan, etc.
To distribute to all members of a group.
To pass back or return something to someone,
e.g. The traffic policeman handed my driving
licence back to me after inspecting it.

To leave something to a successor or those who

come after oneself, such as a son, daughter, etc.
hand down
To pass or announce something such as a verdict,
punishment, etc.

hand in

To give something to a person in authority, e.g.

to hand in ones papers at the end of an
examination, or to hand in a resignation letter.

To pass something to another person.

hand ... on
To distribute something among a group or

hand ... out

To pass a verdict, punishment or penalty, etc. on


hand over

To pass someone or something to someone else

for a reason, e.g. He handed his ticketover to the
ticket collector.


hang about

To spend time at a place without a good purpose.

hang around

To loiter or wait somewhere needlessly, e.g.

They like to gather in a group and hang arounda
shopping centre.

hang around with To spend a lot of time with someone.

hang back

To remain behind or unwilling to move around

and mix with others.

hang in

To remain persistent and determined in difficult


hang on

To hold tightly onto something, e.g.

She hungtightly on to the rail to prevent herself
from falling.
To continue doing something in spite of
difficulties, e.g. He has to hang on until the next
shift worker arrives to take over.
To rely on someone or something, e.g. Does the
relay race hang largely on the ability of the last
runner to run very fast?
To ask someone to wait for a short while, e.g.
Please hang on. Hell be taking over in a while.

To keep something and reluctant to let go.

hang on to

hang out

To be at some place or with some people for

some time, e.g. After he dropped out of school he
can be seen very often hanging outwith a couple
of friends at the shopping centre.
To hang something such as clothes, etc. outside

to dry them, e.g. I hung out my shoes to dry this

morning and now they have gone missing.

To cooperate and work towards the same goal.

To put the telephone down, e.g. We had tohang

up as we had been talking for more than an hour.
hang together


hang up
hanker after/for


happen by
happen on

To put something up on a hook, etc., e.g. She is

always hanging up several clothes on one hook.

To secretly harbour a strong feeling of wanting to

have something.
To find a place by chance.
To come across something or meet someone by

happen to
To experience a misfortune.


hark back
harp on


haul up


have on

have on

To wonder the whereabouts and wellbeing of

someone after a long time, e.g.
whateverhappened to my niece?
To recall things that happened in the past.
To talk or write continuously and tediously on a
To officially bring someone to a court of law to
be judged.
To be wearing something, e.g. He has on a hat
imported from Mexico.
To be using something, e.g. Each time he has the
radio on it has to be extremely loud.

To have something removed, e.g. to have the

appendix out by medical operation.
have out


haze over

To bring someone to court to answer for an

alleged offence.
To become hazy.


head back

To return to a place where one was before, e.g. I

had to head back when I realized I had left my
wallet at home.

head for

To move toward ones destination, e.g. I am

headed for Montreal and have to speed up in
order to arrive there before it gets dark.

head off

To intercept and prevent something from

(Wound) to have new skins grown over it and
become healthy again.
To receive news from someone by letter,
telephone call, etc.


heal over


hear from

hear of

To have knowledge of something or someones

existence, e.g. I had never heard of Black Hole
until recently.

To listen to all that someone wants to say.


hear ... out

heat up


heave to


hedge in

To become or to make something warm or hot,

e.g. By the time I arrived home with the pizza, it
had cooled down so I had to heat it up.
(Situation) to become unstable or dangerous.
(Ship) to turn across the wind in order to stop
To be enclosed by something, e.g. a parkhedged
in with trees.
To feel restricted.


hedge against
heel over

To protect against possible problems, especially

financial loss.
To lean to one side as if going to fall, e.g.
shipheels over in the storm.

5. Phrasal Verbs 401-500


help out

To assist someone in their work, e.g. On

weekends, the husband helps out in the kitchen.


hem in


hike up


hinge on/upon
hire out


hit back

To support someone who has problems, e.g. Jack

is an tiger trainer and he needs an assistance, but
nobody dares to help out.
To surround and restrict the space or movement
of someone or something.
To pull or lift up clothing, e.g. She hiked up her
skirt to climb the ladder.
To depend entirely on someone or something.
To allow the temporary use of something in
exchange for payment.
To retaliate in kind.

hit on

To think of a good idea.

help out

To discover something by chance.

hit out


hitch up


hive off


hold against

To strike at someone.
To express strong disapproval of something or
To lift or roll up ones clothing, e.g. to hitch up
ones trousers.
To harness a draught animal.
To separate something from a large group, such
as to sell a company in a conglomerate.
To continue to blame and dislike someone, e.g.
Despite the years that have passed, Jack
still holds it against Jill for something she did
that caused him embarrassment.

hold back

To stop oneself from doing something or

expressing an emotion.

hold ... down

To succeed in retaining ones job.

To keep prices from rising.

hold forth

To talk at length on a subject.

hold off

To postpone doing something, e.g. They hold

off renovating the house until next year when
they can better afford to pay for it.

(Bad weather) to fail to occur.

hold ... off

To ward off someone or something from harming

or affecting one, e.g. They are planning a way
to hold the enemy off while looking for an
escape route.

hold on

To wait for a short time, e.g. Would you like

tohold on or call back? Shes in the toilet.

hold on to

To persist in doing something despite the

difficulty encountered, e.g. They managed tohold
on to a piece of debris until help arrived.
To grasp something firmly, e.g.
She held tightlyon to the rail as she climbed the

hold out

To extend ones hand, e.g. We have not met for a

long time and when I hold out my hand, he grabs
it tight.
To make something such as money, etc. last, e.g.
Im spending less, so it holds out until my next
To resist something such as attack, pressure,
temptation, etc., e.g. They were under siege but
managed to hold out until reinforcements

To be not prepared to receive less than what is

hold out for

hold out on

To refuse to provide someone with information,

an answer, etc. that is needed.

To continue to remain strong, valid, etc.

hold up
To delay the progress of someone or something,
e.g. work is held up by workers strike.
hold ... up
To commit a robbery, e.g. A couple of men
succeeded in holding a bank up by using toy

To adopt someone or something as a role model

or example.
hold with


hole up
hollow out
home in on


hook up

To approve or agree with something, e.g. Most

parents do not hold with using the cane in
To hide oneself, especially from the law.
To remove the inside part of something.
To aim at something and move directly towards
it with a purpose, e.g. to identify a problem and
home in to resolving it.
To connect an electronic equipment to an
electricity supply.

hook up with


horn in
hose down
hot up
howl down

To get acquainted with someone and become

friendly with them.
To interrupt without invitation or necessity.
To fool around or about.
To wash something or someone using a hose.
To become more active, exciting, or dangerous.
To prevent someone or something from being


hunt down


Hurry up/hurry


hush up


hype up


ice down


ice over/up
identify with




heard by shouting loudly and angrily.

To search diligently for and capture or kill
someone or an animal
To make someone or something move, act, finish
or happen more quickly, e.g. If we dont hurry
up, we are going to be the last ones in the long
queue. / We hurried the waiter up as we had
waited almost half an hour.
To prevent something from being expressed
publicly, especially about something dishonest or
To promote or publicize someone or something
in a exaggerated way.
To cover injury with ice to prevent swelling.

To become covered or blocked with ice.

To feel oneself as having the same
characteristics, thinking or feelings as someone
idle away
To spend time doing nothing.
imbue with
To make someone fill with an emotion or quality.
impinge on/upon To have an effect on someone or something.
improve on/upon To make or do something better than before.
impute to
To regard something, especially something bad,
as being caused by someone else.
To give vital information about someone to the
police, enemy, etc.
infringe on/upon To intrude on someones freedom or rights.
ink in
To write or mark something with ink.
inquire after
To ask someone about their health, well-being,
inquire into
To investigate about something or someone.
inquire of
To ask someone about someone else or
insist on
To firmly continue doing something.
interfere with
To prevent something from succeeding or
continuing in the way that was planned.

inure to

To sexually molest, especially a child.

To make someone accustomed to something,
especially something unpleasant so that they are
used to it.


invalid out


inveigh against


inveigle into


invest in

To leave the armed services or to remove

someone from active military service because of
injury or illness.
To speak or write about someone or something
with great hostility or criticism.
To persuade someone to do something, especially
by deceit or flattery.
To buy a financial product with a view of making
a profit.
To buy something useful, e.g. a grey winter suit.

invest with


invite along

To endow someone with power or authority to

perform a duty or with a particular quality or
To ask someone to come along to some place
such as a cinema, etc.

To ask someone to come to ones house, etc.

invite ... back
invite ... in
invite ... over



iron out

To ask someone to come into ones house, office,

To ask someone to come over to ones house, for
dinner, etc.
To resolve a problem.

issue forth

To remove folds from clothes by ironing them.

(Sound, etc.) to emanate or come out from
something or a place.

issue from
jack around

(Smoke, etc.) to emit or come out from

To waste someones time by causing
inconvenience or problems.

To stop doing something.

jack ... in
To masturbate.
jack off
To inject oneself with a narcotic drug.

jack up

To refuse to participate.
To raise something, e.g. to jack a car up in order
to change its wheels.

jack ... up



jazz up
jerk around

To increase something considerably such as

prices, sales, etc.
To make something more interesting or exciting.
To deal with someone dishonestly or unfairly.

jerk off

To masturbate.

jerk out
jib at
jibe at
jog along
join in

To utter something in a quick and unsteady

To become unwilling to do or accept something.
To make an insulting or mocking remark.
To continue in the same steady way.
To take part in an activity.

join up

To become a member of the armed services.

join up with

To form a group with other people in order to do


join with


jolly along
jolly up

To do or say something together, e.g. to join with

fellow church members say prayers.
To encourage someone to do something faster.


jot down
joy in


juice up
jump at

To make someone or something more lively and

To write something quickly.
To have a feeling of great pleasure and
To make something more interesting or exciting.
To eagerly accept the chance to do something.

jump in

To join a conversation suddenly by interrupting.


jump on
keel over


keep at

To criticize or attack someone, usually unfairly.

(Boat, ship) to turn over on its side; to fall over
To continue a course of action, e.g. We kept at it
until we completely fitted together all the pieces
of a jigsaw.

keep at

To force someone to continue a course of action.

keep away

To make someone or something avoid going

somewhere or seeing someone else, e.g. Wekeep
away from this guy who often gets drunk and
To keep someone or something away from
someone or something else, e.g. Gun owners
should ensure they keep away their guns beyond
the reach of their children.

keep back

To refrain from telling someone what you know,

e.g. He keeps back when asked how he sustained
a black eye.

keep ... back

To withhold paying or giving something to


keep ... down

To stop something from increasing, e.g. The
producer is increasing the supply of its products
in order to keep their prices down.

keep from
To refrain from sharing information with
someone, e.g. He knows he cannot keep the
incident from his family for very long.

keep ... from

To prevent someone from doing something or

something from happening, e.g. We just could
not keep ourselves from buying those big, juicy
looking apples.
To protect someone from possible danger or a

keep ... in
To make someone stay indoors, e.g. His
parents keep him in most of the time to prevent

him from mixing with those bad neighbours


keep in with

To remain on friendly terms with someone,

especially because this is very advantageous.

keep off

To protect something from some other things,

e.g. putting things in container
to keep verminoff.
To make someone stay away from something or
someone else, e.g. The doctor advised the parents
to keep her off sugary stuff.

To continue doing something, e.g. He keeps on

complaining about his parents to me.
keep on
To retain someone in employment, e.g. He has
attained retirement age but the
companykeeps him on because of his immense

To talk constantly about something, especially

about ones personal problems.
keep on about
To bother someone with repeated requests.

keep on at

keep ... on

To retain someone or something such as to

continue to employ someone, etc., e.g. He is
still kept on the company payroll despite having
reached retirement age.

To usually appear on signboard warning people

to stay away from a place, e.g. A signboard
warns passersby to keep out as construction

keep out

work is still in progress.

To refrain from getting involved in something,

e.g. We often discuss current issues but keep out
of sensitive ones.
keep out of
To keep to a particular place, e.g. If
motoristskeep to their lanes as much as possible
when driving, the number of accidents might be
keep to
To observe an agreement and do what one
promises to do, e.g. I have not been keeping
to my work schedule and now my work is piling
up .
To keep something secret, especially something
that has been confided in one, e.g. No matter how
hard she tries, she just
cannotkeep anything to herself.
To keep to the topic one is talking, writing or
discussing about which one is supposed to.
To confine or restrict oneself to a particular
place, e.g. The nurses tell him to keep to his
ward where he is a patient instead of wandering
into other wards to chat.
To maintain something at a certain level, e.g.
They have been reminded again to keep their
spending to within the amount allowed in the

To continue to maintain ones good performance,

e.g. to keep up the good work.

keep up

To keep abreast of current affairs by reading and

learning, e.g. to keep up with the development in
the field of medicine.
To move or progress at about the same rate as
someone or something else, e.g. Some of them

were not able to keep up with others in their

class in school that led to their dropout.
To acquire about the same possessions as those
of friends and neighbours, e.g. She tries to keep
up her extravagant lifestyle by incurring huge
debts through heavy use of her credit cards.
To prevent someone from going to bed, e.g. to
drink strong coffee to keep one up the whole


key in


kick against


To maintain something at a high level, e.g. The

suppliers of a product conspire to manipulate its
supply in order to keep up the price.
To enter or work on data by using a computer
To express disagreement or frustration with
someone or react strongly against something;
To travel from place to place wander with no
explicit aim, e.g. He has been kicking aroundthe
coastal area for the past year.
(Place or thing) awaits exploration and
exploitation, e.g. Some of the things we need for
this project could be kicking around in the attic.

To treat someone badly, unfairly and without

respect, e.g. He never seems to kick his
workers around.
kick ... around

To discuss an idea with other people casually,

e.g. We could kick around the possibility of

To be at leisure or relaxing, e.g. He decides

tokick back the whole day and call in sick.
kick back
To have an effect, e.g. to begin to feel the pain of
the wound kicking in.

kick in
To injure someone, e.g. He was sent off for
deliberately kicking the other players ankle in.

kick ... in

To gain access, e.g. The neighbours had

tokick the door in to rescue a child from the fire.
To contribute money, help, etc., e.g. The
villagers are all willing to kick in and help with
the building of a new bridge.

To start off a football match, e.g. They decide

that the match should not kick off this afternoon
due to adverse weather conditions.
kick off

To remove ones shoes by shaking the feet, e.g.

He habitually kicks off his shoes on arriving

To expel or dismiss someone, e.g. got kicked

out of the house or kicked out of the club.


kick ... out

kid around
kill off


kiss up to


kit out



To behave in a silly way.

To kill a lot of lives, e.g. the discharge of
chemicals into the river has killed off a variety of
fish species.
To be excessively obedient or attentive to
someone for a selfish reason.
To provide someone with the appropriate
clothing and equipment for an activity.
To travel, especially without a specific purpose,
e.g. He intends to knock around a few countries
before he gets married.
To hit someone, e.g. He used to get knocked
around when he was staying with his drinking
To be present at a particular place, e.g. There is a
hammer knocking about in the attic but I just

couldnt find it.

knock ... back

To drink heavily and quickly, He can

easilyknock back five bottles when he has the
To spend on costly things, e.g. The air fare
hasknocked her back by some four hundred
pounds, but it was worth it.

knock ... down

To hurt or kill someone by hitting them

accidentally with a car, e.g. He
was knockeddown by a car as he was dashing
across a road.
To reduce substantially the price of something,
e.g. Sale has been poor so the seller knocks
down some of the prices by as much as half.
To destroy something and replace it with
something better, e.g. They knock down the
garage to build a bigger one.

knock off

knock ... off

To finish the days work, e.g. He does notknock

off at the same time every day.

To kill someone, e.g. Pictures of him with a

reward for information leading to his capture are
all over the country after he knocked offthe
police chief.
To have sex with someone.
To deduct points from the total, e.g. Each
contestant will have one point knocked off for
each wrong answer.
To reduce prices.
To accidentally or deliberately strike something
onto the ground from a surface, e.g. My

armknocked a glass ashtray off the table and

broke it into pieces.
To tell someone to stop bothering one, e.g. He
yelled out, Knock it off at someone in a
crowded place.
To produce something quickly, e.g. Sheknocked
off a couple of poems for the school magazine.

knock ... out

To eliminate contestants, e.g. He was knocked

out early in the contest. To lose a boxing match,
e.g. He was knocked out by the opponents left
To make someone unconscious, e.g. A brick fell
on the head of a passerby and knocked himout.
To destroy something, e.g. Aerial attacks
haveknock out their ammunition factory.

To hit someone or something with a car, e.g. The

dog was knocked over when it was running
across the street.
knock over
To combine or assemble something from
whatever one has, e.g. He knocked together a
dinner from last nights leftovers.
knock ... together
To awaken someone by knocking at their door,
e.g. Every morning she has to knock him up for
knock ... up


know about

To make something hurriedly, e.g. They got

together and knocked up a big kite for a kite
flying contest the next day.
To be aware of, e.g. There are still many things
in this world we dont really know much about,
such as whether or not Nessie exists, the
Bermuda Triangle, UFOs, etc.

know of

knuckle down

To be aware of something but lack knowledge

concerning it.
To devote oneself diligently to a task.


ladle out


land in

To unwillingly submit to someones authority or

To distribute something in large amounts such as
advice, praise, compliments, etc.
To cause someone to be in a difficult situation;

land on

To speak angrily to someone

land up

To finally reach ones desired place, position,

destination, etc. despite the difficulties.

knuckle under

land up with


land with
lap up


lapse into


lash out



latch on

latch onto


laugh at
laugh off

To end up with an unpleasant or unwelcome

To assign someone with an unpleasant task.
To accept something with considerable pleasure
and enjoyment
To pass gradually into a different, often worse,
state or condition.
To have fun by behaving in a playful way.
To attack someone verbally, e.g. He lashed outat
his critics for their derogatory remarks.
(Animals) to react violently using, typically their
paws, or other parts of its body such as their
mouths, tails, etc.
To understand the meaning of something, e.g. It
wasnt easy for him but finally he managed
to latch on.
To have full affection for someone and aim to be
their steady companion, e.g. He has been looking
for a long time for an attractive lady whom he
can latch onto.
To develop a keen interest in something.
To ridicule someone or something.
To treat something as unworthy of serious
consideration, e.g. All his friends have been



launch into

launch out
lay about
lay aside

trying to convince him that he is putting on a lot

of weight, but he just laughs it off.
To start something with great energy and interest,
or criticism of someone or something.
To undertake something new and risky on ones
own such as a business enterprise.
To attack someone violently.
To put something away for future use, e.g. He
has been laying a small sum of money aside in
his savings account to meet future needs.
To defer doing something, e.g. The developer has
decided to lay aside a major construction project
until the economy improves.

lay ... down

To put down weapons, tools, etc., e.g. The gang

members were ordered to lay down their
weapons and surrender to the police.
To introduce a regulation, law, etc., e.g. The
local authority laid down a by-law against
owners letting their dogs loose in the streets.

To store a large supply of something for future


lay ... in
To attack someone physically or verbally, e.g.
She would lay into her partner whenever she
feels she is provoked.
lay into

lay off

To discharge workers from employment, either

for a temporary period or permanently due to
shortage of work, e.g. My brother was one of
those who were laid off during the recent
To give up something, e.g. He just couldnt lay
off betting no matter how hard he tries.

To stop doing, having, or using something, e.g. I

advised her to lay off eating excessively as she is
putting on weight by the minute.
To stop bothering someone, e.g. You have been
annoying me and if you dont lay off, Im going
to thump you hard on the head.

To provide service such as food, entertainment,


lay ... on

To entrust someone with a responsibility to

tackle a problem, task, etc., e.g. They think he
was the best man to lay the responsibility onto
organize the weekend jumble sale.

To spread something out such as a map, carpet,

To arrange or plan the construction of something
such as a building, garden, town, etc.
lay ... out

To spend a large sum of money for a particular

purpose, e.g. Together, they laid out a vast sum
for interior decoration of their house.
To prepare a dead body for burial.
To knock someone unconscious.

To sojourn somewhere before resuming ones


(Ship) to stop moving.

lay over

lay to

To be unable to do anything due to illness or

To take a ship, vehicle, etc. out of service.


lay ... up
lead into

lead off

lead to

(Something) to happen and then followed by

another as there is a close connection between
To connect directly to another place, e.g. The
corridor leads off to the backyard.
To be a route or means of access to a particular
place, e.g. This road leads to the park.
To be the result of an action, e.g. The Police offer
a reward for any information leading tothe arrest
of the wanted man.

lead up to


leaf through


leak out


lean on

(Events, etc.) to lead to a final outcome, e.g. No

one knows what were the preceding events
that led up to the managers dismissal.
To say or write something that supports your
intention which is not mentioned, e.g. Jack didnt
directly say he wanted to be captain of the team,
however he led up to it by talking about his
ability to lead.
To turn the pages of a book, magazine, etc.
To intentionally make secret information known
to people.
To rely on someone or something for support,
encouragement, etc.
To influence someone to act in a certain way.

lean towards


leave behind

To have a tendency to support a view, belief,

idea, opinion, etc.
To forget to bring someone or something along,
e.g. He left his cell phone behind in his car.
To move faster than someone else, e.g. He is
certain to win the gold medal as he leaves the
other marathon runners far behind.
To go away from someone or something, e.g.
He left his wife and kids behind and sought

employment overseas.
To be slow and make less progress than others,
e.g. I watch television more than I work hard; not
surprisingly, Im left behind by others.

To omit to add or put on something.

leave ... off

To discontinue doing something, e.g. I use a

bookmark to help me remember where I leave
off when I stop reading.

To deliberately or accidentally overlook the

inclusion of someone or something, e.g. They
have to leave him out from participating in any
of the athletic events because he is far too fat.
leave ... out
To exceed a desired amount, e.g. Ill leave the
remaining food over for tomorrow.


leave over
lech after/over


let down

let ... in/let ...


To show excessive or offensive sexual desire for

a woman.
To disappoint someone by not meeting their
expectations, e.g. He assured me that he would
come in first in the race, but he let medown by
not turning up for the race.

To open the door of a building, house, etc. for

someone to enter, e.g. She was still angry with
me and would not let me in when I arrived.
(Light, air, etc.) to enter a place, e.g. Whenever it
rained a crack on the roof letwater seep in.
To share a secret with someone, e.g. Is it wise
to let him into our secret plan to smuggle

To reveal a secret to someone with the

understanding that they keep it to themselves,
e.g. He let me in on how he acquired his wealth.
let ... in on
To fire a gun or make bomb, firework, etc.
explode, e.g. Despite the official ban on
firecrackers, people nationwide are
lettingthem off to usher in the new year.
let off
To decide not to punish someone, e.g. The
victims family was furious when the judge letthe
offender off with only a warning.
To release someone from public transport, etc.,
e.g. The bus driver let the elderly
passenger off in front of her house.

To make known secret information to someone.

let on

To make a sound such as a scream, cry, etc., e.g.

Her nightmare caused her to let out a scream of

let out
To allow someone or something to leave a
confined area, building, etc., e.g. The zoo
attendant opened a cage door and let some
monkeys out to roam freely.
let ... out

To make an item of clothing larger or looser as

its owner has put on weight, e.g. This is the
second time she is letting her dress out as she
has put on more weight.
To allow someone else occupy a room, building,
etc, in return for periodic payments.

(Storm, high winds, etc.) to become less intense,

e.g. It looks like the rain is not going to let up

any time soon.
To do something continuously, e.g. to grumble
without letting up.


let up
level at

To publicly accuse or criticize someone, e.g.

level an accusation at.
To aim a weapon at someone.

level off/out


To become level, e.g. the steep road begins to

level off.

To have a frank talk or discussion with someone.

level with
lick up
To drink or eat something by licking it.
lie about/around To leave something untidily somewhere, e.g. She
can really tolerate the sight of old newspapers,
magazines, books, etc. lying around her.
To lie down and not doing anything, e.g. He
islying around watching television.

lie behind

To be the real reason for a change of behaviour,

e.g. something lies behind his sudden heavy

lie down

To accept unfair treatment without complaining,

e.g. how long is he going to take this lying
To put oneself in a sleeping position.

To remain in bed longer than usual.

lie in

lie with


To have power, authority, etc., e.g. the

responsibility to deal with the problem lies
with the local authority.

lift off

To have sex with someone.

(Aircraft, spacecraft, etc.) to rise into the air.

lift up

To raise something from a surface, e.g. I lifted


light up

up an overturned can and a big insect hopped

To provide light to a place or shine light on
something, e.g. They light up trees in the city
with multi-coloured light bulbs for the festive
(Face or eyes) to show pride, liveliness or joy;
To light something such as a cigarette, cigar, etc.,
e.g. He has no lighter or matches and so goes
around borrowing them to light up his cigarettes.

lighten up

To treat someone in a particular way, e.g. You

have been grumbling at me for hours, arent you
going to lighten up soon?
To be or to tell someone to be less serious about
something, e.g. If she had realized it was just a
joke, it would have lightened herup.


lighten ... up
liken to
limber up


line up
line up

To resemble someone else or something.

To warm up in preparation for an exercise or
To form a queue with others.
To form a line of people or things, e.g. Theyline
up for inspection.


link up


listen for

To have someone or something prepared for a

specific purpose, e.g. to line up a number of
speakers for the rally.
To form a link between or connection with
something or someone.
To pay ones attention to a sound;

listen in

To listen to a radio broadcast.

To eavesdrop.


listen out
live in

To listen carefully for something.

To reside at the place where one works or

live off
To depend on a source of income or support from
another person, e.g. to live off the interest from
ones investment or live off the money regularly

given by a relative such as a son or daughter.

live on

live out

To remember someone after they have died, e.g.

the memory of their parents still lives on.
To live away from the place where one works or
To continue to live ones life in a particular place
until one dies.
To fulfil ones dreams or wishes, e.g. eventually
they were able to live out their dreams.

To feel a horrific experience, e.g. the ordeal she

had lived through.
live through

To fulfil their obligation as a trustworthy

financial, etc. institution, e.g. a bank has tolive
up to its reputation.
live up to
To make ones home with someone, e.g. Despite
my age, Im still living with my parents.
live with

Endure someone or something that is

disagreeable, e.g. I was born with a face marred
by a big aquiline nose, sunken cheeks and sleepy
eyes, and I have to learn to live with it.
To become or make something more lively or
interesting, e.g. the place livens up when more
guests arrive.
To entrust someone with excess authority.


liven up


load down


To make someone or something carry or hold a

large amount of heavy things, e.g. she struggles
to push her trolley loaded down with a great deal
of purchases.
lobby through To seek to influence a legislator.
lock away
To put someone in prison.
To keep something in a safe place and fasten its
door with a lock, e.g. she places her valuables in

a safe and locks it away.

lock ... in

lock onto

lock ... out

lock up

To ensure no one leaves by locking the door, e.g.

Closing the car door automatically locksthe
driver in.

When a missile locks onto a target, it heads for

the target.

To keep someone out of a place by locking the

door, e.g. My God, Ive locked myself out but
luckily Im a locksmith, so I have ways to unlock
the door without the key.

To make all the doors of the building locked

when the days work ends.
To imprison a criminal after he was officially
found guilty.
To keep something in a safe place such as a safe,
etc. and lock its door.
To take the required actions to begin the use of a
computer system.


log in/on


log off/out
look after

To take the required actions to conclude the use

of a computer system.
To take care of someone or something;

look ahead

To plan for the future.


To try to find something or someone by looking,

e.g. We heard a sound, and we looked
around but there was nothing and nobody, and
we started running through the dimly lit alley.

look at

To focus ones eyes on someone or something,

e.g. We look at each other when we talk to each
To examine something and consider what action

to take.

To recall something that occurred in the past.

look back
To view others with a feeling of superiority, e.g.
She looks down on me just because Im jobless.
look down on

To find something, or something that has been

lost or someone who is missing.
look for
To wait eagerly for something that is going to
happen, e.g. He looks forward to playing in the
next game.
look forward to
To make a short visit to someone.
look in

look into

To try to find out what happened and take the

necessary actions, e.g. Police, investigating a
bank robbery, are looking into the possibility of
an inside job.

To watch something without getting involved in

look on
To keep a close watch on and be aware of
someone or something.
look out
To search for and find a particular thing.

look ... out

To keep careful watch for possible danger or

difficulties, e.g. Look out for snakes when you
take that path, or you may step on one like I did.

look out for

To examine something quickly, without paying
much attention to detail, e.g. We looked overthe
inside of a newly-opened store and left.
look ... over
To look for one person or thing among many.

look through

To rely on something or someone to do


look to
(Situation) to improve, e.g. Now that oil has been
discovered off the coast of the country, things
are looking up.

look up
To try to find a piece of information in a
dictionary, reference book, etc, e.g. Every time
he comes across an unknown word, he
looks it up in a dictionary.
look ... up

To renew contact with someone, e.g. My bother

always looks me up whenever he is in town on

To have a great deal of respect for someone.

look up to

6. Phrasal Verbs 501-600





loose on/upon To allow something dangerous and destructive

to begin to affect a situation or other people.
loosen up
To warm up the body, especially the muscles
and joints, in preparation for a physical activity.
lop off
To cut off, especially a branch or limb, from a
tree or body.
To make a slight reduction in a price or charge.
lose out
To fail to get something, e.g. to lose out on a
job, business contract, etc. which go to a rival.
louse up
To spoil, or to do something badly, or to make
something worse.
luck out
To succeed due to good luck, e.g. We both
bought lottery tickets and he, not me, lucked out
when he discovered he hit the jackpot.
lump together To combine into an indiscriminate mass or
lust after
To feel strong sexual desire for someone or
luxuriate in
To relax and consciously enjoy something.
magic away To use magic to make someone or something
magic up
To make something appear suddenly and
make after
To pursue someone or something.
make away with To steal something, e.g. The thieves made
away with a safe.
To kill someone or something.

make for

To move towards someone or something, e.g.

We made for the railway station as quickly as
we could.
To have a particular result or make something
possible, e.g. Proper training makes forsmooth
operation of the machinery.

To change the form or purpose of something,

make ... into

e.g. Jack planned to make the attic into a study.

To change someones character, etc., e.g. A road
accident has made him into a careful driver.

To express an opinion of something, e.g. We do

not know what to make of the ultimate
consequences of climate warming.
make ... of
To use opportunities to achieve an outcome, e.g.
I want to make use of whatever money I have
for my higher education.
To give someone a new job or position in a
group, organization, etc., e.g. He
was madecaptain of the team.

To leave hurriedly.

make off
To take something away illegally, e.g. he made
off with my bicycle while I was not looking.
make off with
To manage with difficulty to see, etc., e.g. On
that foggy night the driver could barely make
out what was in front of him until his car
rammed into it.
make out
To issue payment by means of a cheque, e.g.
He makes a cheque out in favour of one of his

make ... out

To have sufficient evidence to effect a

conviction, e.g. The police feel they havemade
out a case to charge the culprit.
To have individual opinions on something or
someone, e.g. The horror movie is not as scary
as you made it out to be.

To survive a difficult situation, e.g. His wife has

run away, he will make out somehow.
To find good reasons to prove or explain
something, e.g. The police believe they
havemade out a strong case against the accused.

To give money or legally transfer ownership of

property to someone else, e.g. His fathermade
over the whole factory to his son.

make ... over

To change ones own appearance with

cosmetics, hairstyling, new clothes, etc.

To be reconciled after a quarrel, etc., e.g.

They make up every now and then after an
angry argument or disagreement.
To make a choice, e.g. I havent made up my
mind to give up smoking or lose weight, or do
both at the same time.
make up
To improve ones appearance, e.g. The regular
use of cosmetics has made her up much
younger than her actual age.
To invent a story, etc. in order to deceive
someone, e.g. He made a fictional
happeningup to escape punishment.
make ... up


map out
mark down

To add an amount that is enough for a particular

purpose, e.g. I dont have enough money to buy
her a birthday present, so I borrowed to make
up the difference.
To plan a course of action carefully.
To write something down in order to keep a
To reduce the indicated price of an item.
To judge someone to be a potential leader, etc.
To reduce the marks awarded to a candidate or

for their work, e.g. He was marked down as his

work has missed the point by not understanding
the main meaning of the questions.

mark ... off

To isolate an area such as a building, road, etc.

by putting a rope, tape, cones, etc. around it, e.g.
the murder scene has been marked offwith
police tape.
To tick off items on a list for a purpose, e.g. She
has marked off the items that she has already
To distinguish someone from others, e.g. Her
ability to debate in class has marked her off as
a potential representative debater of her school.


mark ... up
marry into

marry off

match up


match up
max out


measure against

measure off

To increase the profit margin, e.g. Cell phones

may be marked up by as much as 60%.
To become a member of a family by marriage,
e.g. She married into a very wealthy family.
To look for a spouse for someone, e.g. They
married her off to the first young man who came
To match a report, piece of information, etc.
with another to see of they are the same.
To find something that is similar to or suitable
for something else.
To do something with as much effort and
determination as one can.
To judge someone or something by comparing
them with another person or thing.
To measure the required amount of material and
cut it off a larger piece.

To take out a certain amount of liquid, powder,

etc. from a larger quantity.
measure ... out

measure up


meet up

meet with


melt down



To determine whether one is good enough for a

particular job, position, etc., e.g.The new
manager has not measured up to his
To come and do something together, e.g. We
used to meet up on weekend to go fishing.

To mutually agree to come face to face for a

To have a particular reaction to something, e.g.
The stars emergence from a car was met with a
loud cheer.
To heat metal until it becomes liquefied and
reuse it, e.g. His hobbies include melting down
unwanted metal objects to make souvenirs for
To behave in a silly way that lacks purpose.
To cause problems for someone.

To have an affair with someone that one should

mess around with not have.
mess up/mess To make something dirty or untidy, e.g. The
puppies have really messed up the sitting room.
To interfere with something and turn it into a
confused state, e.g. Ive arranged my CDs in
alphabetical order, but someone
has messed itup.
To handle a situation wrongly or ineffectively,
or to spoil something.
To ruin ones own personal life, e.g. She feels
she has messed up her whole life by running up
massive credit card debts.

To get involved in or interfere with something

or someone.



mess with
mete out

To dispense justice, punishment, etc. to

mike up
To equip someone with a microphone so that his
voice can be made louder.
militate against To stop something from happening or stop
someone from doing something
mill around/about (A lot of people) to move around a place in
different directions.
minister to
To attend to the needs of someone.
minor in
To study a subsidiary subject in addition to the
main one.
miss out
To fail to use an opportunity to do something

mist over
mist up


mistake for


mix up

To fail to include someone or something, e.g.

to miss out some punctuation marks in ones
(Eyes) to become filled with tears.
To become covered with tiny water droplets or
condensed vapour, e.g. ones glasses
havemisted up.
To wrongly identify someone or something as
someone or something else, e.g. mistook a
cheetah for a leopard.
To confuse someone or something with
someone or something else, e.g. The teacher
often mixes him up with his twin brother.
To combine two or more things together, e.g. A
good way to mix the ingredients upthoroughly
is to use an electric mixer.
To disrupt the order or arrangement of
something, e.g. He unknowingly mixed upthose
arranged papers which are not numbered, and
now they have to sort and rearrange them.


mock up
monkey around

To become confused or make someone feel

confused, e.g. They really mixed me up, telling
me different stories about the same person.
To replicate or imitate something.
To behave in a silly, careless or playful way,
e.g. The children monkey around in the park
and cause damage to some of the exotic plants.

To tamper with something without authority or

the required skill, e.g. My kid monkeyed
around with my cell phone and now it cant
make any call.


monkey with

To interfere with something so as to cause

To move around without any apparent purpose.
To spend time in a relaxed, lazy manner.
To miss and long for someone.



moon over
mop up

mount up
mouth off
move along

To wipe or soak up liquid with a mop, cloth, etc.

from a surface.
To complete or put an end to something by
dealing with the remaining parts.
To feel sad or dispirited.
To gradually increase in size or amount.
To talk in a conceited way.
To go further to the front or back of something.

move away

To change ones place of residence.

move in

To start living with someone, e.g. Jill moved

inwith her boyfriend
despite her parents' objection.

move into

To start living in a place, e.g. Jack and Jill are

planning to move into a rural area of the
country for some peace and quiet.

(Vehicle or crowd) to start to move away.

move off
To carry on with ones journey.
move on
To start talking a new part of the subject under

discussion or start talking a new subject.

move out

To stop living in a place in order to live

somewhere else, e.g. We are looking for a house
somewhere and move out of our apartment.

To shift someone or something out of a place,

e.g. The villagers move their
belongings tohigher ground in anticipation of a
move to

To shift position and so create more space for

move over
To get a promotion in the place where one


move up
mow down


To kill a large group of people at one time by

shooting them.
To recklessly knock someone down with a car.
To behave in a silly way without purpose.
To spoil something by interfering with it.

muck around with

muck in

To share accommodation or tasks with others in

order to complete a job

To clean a place, especially where an animal

lives, e.g. to muck a stable.
muck ... out

To spoil a plan.
To fail to achieve something.
muck ... up
To dirty a place or something such as ones
clothes, etc.


muddle along

To engage aimlessly in an activity.

muddle through

To cope satisfactorily with something despite

not having the know-how.
To confuse two or more things with each other.


muddle up
mug up


mull over


muscle in


nail down


narrow down


nibble away at


nip off


nod off
nose out
notch up


number off


occur to
open up

To study intensively in preparation for an

To think and consider about something at
To force ones way into anothers affairs to gain
To elicit a firm commitment from someone.
To decide or identify something precisely.
To reduce, e.g. In the second round, the number
of finalists will be narrowed down to five.
To keep taking small amounts out of a large
To remove something by pinching or squeezing
tightly between finger and thumb.
To begin to fall asleep.
To discover something after a long search.
To achieve something such as a victory, total,
score, etc.
(Soldiers) to call out their number when their
turn comes.
(Thought, idea, etc) to come into the mind.
(Crack, hole, etc.) to appear and become wider.
To begin shooting with a weapon, e.g. The
gangsters opened up with small arms, but all of
them were soon shot dead by the police.
(Land) to make it available for development,
e.g. The developer is opening up a jungle area
for a housing project.
(Office, shop, cinema, etc.) to begin operation,
e.g. The new cinema is expected toopen
up soon.
(Box, container, etc.) to remove or unfasten the
cover, e.g. She opened up her jewellery box

and showed us the contents.



opt out

order about

order ... out


own up


pack away

(Door, window, etc.) to make them open, e.g.

The supermarket here opens up at 10:00 every
To decide not to participate in a group,
activities, etc.
To avoid performing a duty.
To use ones power or authority to tell someone
to do something.

To deploy soldiers, police, etc. for a particular

action such as crowd control, dealing with
natural disaster, etc.
To admit to having done something wrong or
To put something back in its box, case,
container, etc.

pack in
To cram a lot of things into a space, place,
period of time, etc.

pack ... off

To send someone away.


pack up
pad out


page through


paint in

To stop working or close early in business.

To lengthen a speech or piece of writing with
unnecessary material.
To turn over the pages of a book, magazine, etc.
and read them quickly or casually.
To make additional painting to a picture.

paint out

To erase something with paint so that it is no

longer visible.

paint over

pair off
pair up

To cover something with new paint.

To become or form a couple.
To form a couple to work together or start a


pal around


pal up
palm off
pan out
pander to


pant for
parcel out

To go around or do things together with a friend

or with someone as a friend.

To form a friendship with someone.

To sell someone something by deceiving them.
To end up in a particular way.
To give or allow oneself to enjoy the desired
pleasure of an immoral habit.
To long for or to do something.
To separate something into parts and hand them

parcel off
To separate something into parts for sale.
parcel up

pare down
part with


partake of
partition off


partner up/off
pass around

To make something into a parcel by wrapping it.

To make or become less, or reduce gradually.
To unwillingly hand over possession of
something to someone else.
To have certain characteristic.
To divide or separate a room, floor, etc. into
parts by erecting a structure such as a light
interior wall, etc.
To become or make people become partners.
To offer something to each member of a group.
To hand something over from one person to the
next in a group.

To die.
pass away

To go past someone or something.

pass by

pass ... down

To hand over something such as knowledge,

traditions, etc. to people who are younger, those
who live after one, to the next generation, etc.

To be mistaken as someone else, e.g. with her

dressing she could have passed for a wealthy
pass for

pass off

To try to deceive someone that someone else or

something is much better, e.g. trying
topass these fake watches off as genuine.

To give something such as information,

message, disease, etc. to someone else.
To make consumers bear higher costs.
pass on

To faint.
To distribute.

pass out
To select someone instead of the expected
person for a promotion, etc.

pass over


To fail to make use of something such as an

opportunity, etc.

pass up
patch together To make something hastily from different
patch up
To restore friendly relations after a quarrel or
To repair damage to something.


pay back

To treat someones injuries.

To settle ones debt with someone, e.g. He is
always slow in paying back the money he
To pay back with something bad, e.g. Jack

swore he would pay Jill back for what she did

to him.

pay for

pay ... for

To give someone money in exchange for

something, e.g. He paid for his new car in cash.

To suffer the consequences of ones actions or

be punished for them, e.g. Hell pay the
pricefor habitually drinking excessively

To put money in ones bank account.

pay in/into

pay off

To settle the outstanding balance for something,

e.g. pay off the balance owing for purchase of a
To produce good results.
To give someone money to keep quiet about
something such as an illegal act.
To dismiss someone with a final payment.

pay out

pay up

peck at
peel off

To hand over money, especially a large sum, for

something such as compensation, etc.

To settle or be forced to settle ones debts, e.g. I

have already received their third legal letter
demanding that I pay up.
To eat food slowly due to lack of hunger.
To remove a thin outer layer of something.
To take ones clothes off.
To leave a moving group such as a convoy, etc.
by changing direction.


peg away

To work hard over a long period.

peg out

To use pegs to fix wet clothes to a washing line

to dry.
To mark a piece of ground with wooden sticks.


pen up/in


pencil in


pension off


pep up


perk up
pertain to


peter out
phase in


phase ... out

phone in


pick at

To die.
To keep an animal or animals in an enclosed
area or confine someone in a restricted space.
To temporarily compile a list of something that
is subject to change later.
To terminate someones employment, usually
because they are officially considered too old to
continue working, and pay them a pension.
To dispose of something that is not useful any
more or outdated.
To make someone or something more active,
energetic or exciting.
To make or become more cheerful or lively.
To be directly related or applicable to
To diminish or come to an end gradually.
To introduce something such as a law, rule, etc.
in gradual stages.

To gradually withdraw something from use.

To telephone someone or a place such as ones
workplace, a radio or television station, police
station, etc.
To criticize someone in a petty way.
To pull something slightly and repeatedly with
ones fingers.
To eat something taking small bites due to lack
of appetite.
pick ... off
To shoot people or animals one by one from a

pick on
To repeatedly single out someone for unfair
criticism or treatment, e.g. It does appear my
teachers hobby is picking only on me.

pick ... out

To choose someone or something from a group,

e.g. Despite the vast array of dresses on sale, she
couldnt pick out any one she liked.

pick over

To examine a number of items and carefully

choose some.

pick through
To look carefully through a number of items and
select one.
pick up
To take something from a surface or floor, e.g.
to pick up something one has dropped.
To go somewhere and fetch someone; e.g. Im
now on my way to pick up my child from
To find something by accident, e.g. to pick upa
purse, dropped by someone, from a pavement.
To learn a skill while working, e.g. pick up the
skill of baking while working at the bakery.
To collect something form somewhere, e.g.
Remind me to pick up my clothes from the
laundry on our way home.
To go and buy something, e.g. I just remember
Ive to pick up a magazine at the newsagent.
To acquire a skill, manner, etc., e.g. Since when
have you picked up the disgusting habit of
picking your nose?
To make an arrest, e.g. He was picked up by

the police for attempting to make an illegal

entry into a building.
To pay for something, e.g. His girlfriends
father picked up the tab for the sumptuous
To improve something, e.g. With an
improvement in the economy, sale of consumer
goods is expected to pick up.




To try to get someone of the opposite sex, e.g.

Jack attended the party hoping to pick upa girl,
but ended with none.
piddle around
To spend time doing unnecessary thing.
piece together To assemble all the facts or information about a
situation in order to form a suitable conclusion.
pig out
To eat a large amount of food greedily.
pile in/into
To get into a place, vehicle, etc. in a
disorganized manner.
pile on
To exaggerate something
pile out
To leave a place, vehicle, etc. in a disorderly
pile up
To make or become increasingly larger in
quantity or amount.
pin down
To make someone specific about their aim or
pine for
To miss and long for someone or something.
pipe up
To say something suddenly, especially after
having been quiet all along.
piss about/around To spend time doing things aimlessly.
piss away

To waste something very stupidly.

piss off

To tell someone to go away.

piss off

To annoy someone very much, e.g. He really

pisses me off when he blows that flute out of
tune for hours on end.
To set something or someone in competition
with something or someone else.

pit away

To sweat profusely.
pit out


pitch in

To work enthusiastically within a group

pitch into

To attack someone physically or verbally.

pitch up

To arrive at a particular place.

7. Phrasal Verbs 601-700


pivot on


plan ahead

plan for

plan on

To depend on something such as an event, idea,

To decide on or arrange something in advance,
e.g. She has planned ahead so that if she falls
ill, therell be someone to do her work.

To make preparation for something, e.g.

Heplanned for a big turnout at the evenings
outdoor performance but it was a total disaster
due to heavy rain.

To expect something as planned, e.g. Sheplans

on achieving grade A in all her subjects in the
final examination.
To intend to do something as planned, e.g.
Weplan on going to Niagara Falls this Summer
and take at least one hundred photographs there.


plan ... out

plant out
plaster over

To make a careful plan after considering all

relevant factors.
To place a young plant to grow outdoors.
To apply plaster to a hole, an old surface, etc.
To behave in an irresponsible manner; to have a
casual relationship with someone.

To pretend to cooperate for a selfish reason.

play along

To deceive or mislead someone in order to gain

an advantage.
play along

To assume a role playfully.

play at
To listen to ones own recording of something.
play ... back

To make something appear less important or

serious than it really is.
play ... down

play off

To compete between two rivals in an extra match

to determine their final positioning or decide an

To involve another person in a dispute for a

selfish purpose.
play ... off

play on

To exploit someones weak and vulnerable point

so as to gain selfishly.

To fail to work or operate properly or to cause

play up

play ... up

To devote all of ones physical and mental

powers in a particular activity.

To exaggerate the importance of someone or


play up to
To behave in a way that brings benefit to

play with
To tamper with something.


plough back

plough into

plough on

plough through


plough ... up
pluck at


plug away
plug in/into

plug up

To treat someone inconsiderately for ones own

To use profit made in a business for business
purposes, usually to expand it.

(Vehicle, etc) to be driven violently into

something or someone such as a crowd, etc.,
especially by a driver who loses control of the

To continue doing something that requires

considerable time and effort.

To persist in something such as studying a

textbook, etc. despite the considerable time and
effort required.

To break up the surface of the ground by

repeated walking on it.
To pull something quickly and repeatedly with
the fingers.
To keep working hard at something.
To connect a piece of electrical equipment to
another or into a socket, e.g. Why do you turn on
the new television? I havent plugged itinto the

To block or become blocked with something,

e.g. Someone threw potato peelings down the
drain, and they plugged up the pipe.



plump for

To make a selection after proper consideration.

plump up
plunge in

To make something such as pillows, cushions,

etc. bigger and softer by shaking them.
To act quickly and rashly on a course of action.

plunge into

To act suddenly without a careful thought.

To push something forcibly and deeply into
something else, e.g. plunging a dagger into the
victims chest.



ply with

point out

To experience an unpleasant situation, e.g. the

whole building was plunged into darkness.
To keep providing someone food and drink.
To direct numerous questions at someone.
To make someone aware of a fact, e.g. A
witness pointed out to the police the scene
where the incident took place.
To indicate to someone a particular direction,
e.g. Someone in response pointed out to me the
road that leads to the hotel.
To draw ones attention to something, e.g. He
pointed out a spelling mistake on the signboard
to me.

point to

To use a finger, usually the forefinger, to

indicate a particular direction, e.g. The
childpointed to the woman on the photo as her
To cite something as evidence, e.g. All the
evidence pointed to him as the culprit.

point ... up



To make known the truth or importance of

something, e.g. the high drug abuse figurespoint
up the need for more vigorous enforcement of
the existing laws on drugs.
To look or search around a place for something
or information about someones life, etc.,
e.g.poking about in the warehouse looking for

something to steal.


poke at
polish off

To jab repeatedly with something sharp or

pointed, e.g. to poke at a fire with a poker to
make it burn better.
To finish something such as food, work, etc.
To kill or defeat someone.

polish up
poop out

To improve a skill or an ability by practising it.

To move or behave in an idle, weak or
effeminate manner.
To stop functioning.

pop off

To discontinue or not participate in an activity.

To die suddenly.

pop in/out

To come/go briefly without advance warning.

pop on

To quickly put on a piece of clothing.


pop up
pore over


portion out
pot on

To appear suddenly and unexpectedly.

To be absorbed in the reading or study of
To divide something into parts for distribution.
To transplant a growing plant from a small pot to
a large one.



pot up

pounce on


pour out


preside over
press for

To transplant a seedling into a flowerpot.

To spring or seize something suddenly.
To notice a mistake and take swift advantage of
it by expressing a critical assessment of it.
To express ones feelings to someone in an
unrestrained way.
To be in charge of a situation.
To persist in asking for something.
To strive hard to achieve something.

press on/ahead

To continue doing something in a determined


press on/upon

To insist on someone accepting an offer or gift.

presume on/upon To unjustifiably regard something such as a
good relationship with someone, etc. as entitling


prevail on/upon
prey on

one to privileges, e.g. presuming on the

relationship to borrow a large sum of money.
To persuade someone to do something.
(Animals and birds) to hunt and kill other
animals and birds for food.
To exploit, influence or deceive weaker people.


prick out


print out


prize out


proceed against


proceed from
profit by/from


prop up


provide against

To cause constant worry or distress to someone,

e.g. the problem has been preying on my mind.
To place a young plant in a specially prepared
hole in the earth.
To produce a printed paper copy of information
or document stored on a computer, e.g. I cant
print this document out now because my printer
has no ink.
To get or by using force to get information from
To take legal action against someone.
To originate from something.
To learn from something that happens or to
benefit from a situation.
To support or assist someone or something that
would otherwise fail or decline.
To lean against something.
To make plans in order to forestall a bad
situation happening.

provide for

psych out

psych ... up

puff out

puff up

To prepare or arrange for the needs of someone.

To intimidate an opponent by appearing overly
confident or say things that will make him feel
worried, nervous and less confident.

To get mentally prepared in order to build up

ones confidence for something challenging.
To make something such as ones cheeks, etc.
swollen by filling them with air.
(Arm, leg, etc.) to swell due to injury or
To make something swell by filling them with


pull ahead

pull apart

pull at

(Vehicle) to get in front of another, especially by

moving faster.

To separate people or animals when they are

fighting, e.g. Their argument suddenly
developed into a fight and the others had
topull them apart.

To hold something and pull more than once; e.g.

The wife pulled at the husbands shirt as he was
walking faster.
To draw in smoke while smoking by inhaling

pull away
To start a car, etc. and drive away; e.g. I waved
to the driver as the car was pulling away.
To overtake another vehicle and leave it behind
by driving faster, e.g. the ambulance ispulling
away from the other vehicles on the highway.

pull back

To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. to pull

back from a joint venture due to an unsettled

pull ... down

To demolish a building, e.g. had to pull that prewar building down as it had fallen into disuse.

pull ... in

(Vehicle) to stop at the side of the road, e.g. The

driver pulled in as directed by a traffic
(Train) to arrive at a station, e.g. As the
trainpulled in, more people move onto the

(Show) attracts a lot of people, e.g. the circus has

been pulling in big audiences daily.
To earn money, e.g. His new business has
beenpulling in a lot of money.

pull ... off

To succeed in doing something or winning

something difficult, e.g. his sculpture pulled
off the highest bid in the auction.
To drive to the side of the road or a side road,
e.g. We pulled off the road for a bite before
resuming our journey.

pull ... out

(Train) to depart from a station, e.g. There was

much waving among the people as the train
started to pull out of the station.
To retreat from an area, e.g. Most of the troops
have been pulled out as the situation has
improved considerably.
To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. One of
the partners has decided to pull out of the
venture as it is no longer profitable to carry on.

To be ordered to drive a vehicle to the side of the

road, e.g. The policeman waved to the driver to
pull over.
pull over

To drive a vehicle to the side of the road, e.g.

I pulled over and waited for them in the car.

To get through an illness or a difficult situation,

e.g. He has managed to pull throughfrom a
recent bout of depression.

pull through
To work hard together in a task or undertaking,
e.g. If they all pull together, they could easily

finish the work ahead of schedule.

pull together
To bring a vehicle to a halt, e.g. The
driverpulled up when signaled to do so by the


pull up
pump into

pump out

To shoot someone several times, e.g. A

motorcyclist rode aside his
car, pumped bulletsinto the driver and sped off.
To produce or emit something in large quantities
or amounts, e.g. In a supermarket, prices after
prices of the products on sale arepumped out of
a speaker for the benefit of shoppers.
To fill something with air, liquid, gas, etc.

pump up
To play a piece of music louder.


punch in

punch out


To increase someones enthusiasm or

To record the time of arrival at the workplace on
a card by making use of a special machine, e.g.
As Im late most of the time, I asked my closest
trustworthy mate to punch in for me without
anyone noticing it.
To record the time of departure from the
workplace on a card, e.g. Some of my colleagues
leave early and when the days work ends
I punch out for them carefully without anyone
noticing it.

push ahead

To strike someone so hard with the fist that they

fall over.
To carry on persistently with what one is doing.

push along

To go from a place.


To order someone around without due respect

for his feeling.

To cease thinking about an upsetting event.

push aside

push for

To insist on making a request for something, or

for something to be done which is felt to be

To advance or make progress constantly despite

push forward

push in

To dispense unasked for advice or join in a

conversation, etc. which does not concern one.
To jump queue.

push off

To leave or to tell someone rudely to leave.

push on

To carry on with what one is doing.

To cause someone or something to fall to the

ground by pushing them.
push ... over

push ... through

To get a bill accepted for discussion in

parliament by an opposition member.

To cause an increase in something such as

demand, prices, investment.

push ... up
put about

To spread false information or unfounded


put aside
To save money regularly for a future purpose.
put away
To keep someone in a prison or mental hospital,

e.g. He was put away for good for a series of

murders he committed.
To eat or drink large quantities of food or drink,
e.g. Every day the child puts away twice the
amount of his father.
To save money, e.g. Every month he puts awaya
moderate sum of money as saving for the future.
To return things to their storage space, e.g. The
father nearly fell when he stepped on a toy that
should have been put away.

put back

To return something to its original place, e.g.

The children have been taught to put backtheir
toys when they have finished playing with them.
To postpone something, e.g. The football
matches have to be put back due to adverse
weather conditions.
To delay something, e.g. Heavy rains and
flooding for the past weeks have put the
construction work back by at least a month.

To lay something or someone on a surface, e.g.

She put the baby gently down in the cot.
put ... down
To criticize or belittle someone, e.g. Nobody
wants to be around him as all he does
isputting others down.
To put an end to an insurgency, revolt, etc., e.g.
Reinforcements were called in to put down a
regional rebellion.
To kill an animal in order to end its suffering,
e.g. His dads job is to put down severely
diseased animals.
To pay a specified sum as a deposit, e.g. The
sales agent asked if I could put $10,000 downon
the house.

To reason out, e.g. Her friends put her sudden

depression down to the passing of her husband.
To stop doing something, e.g. Her father
interrupted Jill by asking when she would putthe
phone down after she had talked for nearly an
To find something interesting and absorbing, e.g.
What a book it was; once I started reading it I
couldnt put it down until I completed it.

To put something in something else, e.g.

Dontput all your eggs in one basket.

put in

To put someone somewhere, e.g. The children

decided to put their old mother in an old folks
To invest time, money, effort, etc. into
something, e.g. To date we
have put $100,000in the business.
To add permanent equipment to something such
as a home, e.g. They are putting in an additional
To request for something, e.g. The stolen wallet
was handed over to the police, but the owner has
not put in a claim for it.

To postpone something, e.g. They intend toput

off having a baby until they can afford it.

put ... off

To delay meeting someone, e.g. Hes been

calling me day and night to meet him over a
matter, but I keep putting it off.
To lose interest in doing something, e.g. The
new assignment is challenging, but the distance
he has to travel every day really putshim off.
To make someone feel offended, e.g. Everyone
who knows her is put off by her excessively

critical point of view.

To become fatter and heavier.

To wear a piece of clothing.
To press the brake when the driver wants the
vehicle to stop.
put ... on
To apply make-up, creams, etc.
To pretend to have a particular way of speaking.

To extinguish a fire, cigarette, etc., e.g. One of

the men helping to put out the forest fire could
be the arsonist responsible for it.
To agree to have sex with someone.
To upset or annoy someone, e.g. Jack borrowed
put out/put ... out my car and promised to return it the next day,
but now three days later Im reallyput out by not
having got my car back.
To make extra work for or cause problems to
someone, e.g. My neighbour
really put me outwhen he called in the middle of
the night to help push his car as it couldnt start.
To put something outside the house, e.g. Every
night before the elderly lady goes to bed,
she puts her cat out.
To extend one arm, hand, leg or foot, e.g.
Heput out his arms and legs when he lay down;
I tripped over one of his limbs and landed on top
of him.
To produce something, e.g. The publisher
isputting out a paperback edition of the book at
the end of the month.

To connect someone by telephone to another; to

finance ones childs education; to be made to

undergo a bad experience.

To ask at a discussion, etc., e.g. Members of the

audience were allowed to put questions tothe
individual panelists.
put ... through
To affix ones signature to a document, letter,

put ... to

To cause difficulty, inconvenience, etc, to

someone, e.g. I would like to ask my friends to
help me paint my house but hesitate
to putthem to such trouble.

To fit together the component parts of

something, e.g. Putting the jigsaw puzzle
pieces together is going to take a long time.

put ... together

To provide accommodation temporarily to

someone, e.g. While I was in the city for a week,
I put up with my cousin.
To suggest a topic for discussion, etc.
To offer something for sale or auction, e.g. He
is putting up his set of antique furniture for

put ... up
To finance an enterprise, etc., e.g. An unknown
donor put up most of the money to build a
public library.
To put something, e.g. Huge tents were put
up to house the evacuees.
He intends to put up a real fight all the way
despite being regarded as the underdog in the

To incite someone to do something stupid,

illegal or dangerous, e.g. When Jack was

arrested for injuring Jills ex-husband, he
accused Jill of putting him up to it by
threatening to leave him for good.

put ... up to

To endure an unpleasant situation or tolerate a

nasty person, e.g. Shes been thinking how long
she is going to put up with her husband coming
home blind drunk.


put up with
puzzle out


quarrel with


rack up
rain down
rake in

To consider a difficult problem carefully with a

view to solving it.
To disagree with someone or complain about
To accumulate or increase something.
To fall in large quantities.
To make a lot of money.

rake up

To recall a past event that is best forgotten.


rally round
ram home


ramble on
ration out


rattle around

To gather someone or something together for a

purpose such as forming a sport team,
volunteering for a campaign, etc.
To bring or come together for a worthy cause.
To forcibly inculcate through the process of
study and comprehension.
To talk or write at length in a tedious manner.
To distribute something in small controlled
To be in a space that is in excess of what is

rattle off
To say or produce something quickly and easily.
rattle on
To talk quickly and at length.
rattle through

react against

To do something very quickly.

To respond with an extremely unfriendly attitude
or a contrary course of action.


read into

read out

To regard something as having a meaning or

importance when this is not the case.
To say out what is written on something such as
a list, etc. for people to hear.

To check for mistakes by careful reading of the

whole thing.
read ... through

To acquire information or knowledge by reading

a lot about a subject.
To find a solution to a problem by considering
all the possibilities.


read ... up
reason out


To persuade someone to be more sensible with

rational argument.
reason with
rebound on/upon To have an unexpected bad effect on someone.
reckon in
To include all relevant data in ones calculation.
reckon on

To expect anything unforeseen to happen while

plans are being made.

To take into account all that may happen


reckon with
reconcile to


reduce to

To make someone able to accept an unpleasant

or disagreeable thing or situation.
To change something into a shorter simpler
form, e.g. the passage can be reduced to four
To lower the ranks of an army officer, e.g. to
reduce an officers ranks to an ordinary soldier.
To destroy a building by burning or demolition,
e.g. to reduce to ashes or rubble.


reel in

To degrade someones existence, e.g. to reduce

one to squat on public land.
To turn the reel of a fishing rod to draw in the

line, e.g. to reel in a fish.

reel ... off


refer to

To say something quickly and easily, e.g. to reel

off lists of team members.
To arrange someone to see a medical specialist,
e.g. His doctor refers him to an ophthalmologist.
To mention or allude to someone, e.g. She was
warned not to refer to him again.


reflect on/upon


regale with


rein in



rejoice in

relate to

To consult a source of information, e.g. He often

refers to an encyclopedia for factual information.
To think deeply or carefully about, e.g. Sooner
or later, one has to reflect on ones future
To expose the good or bad side of someone, e.g.
His behaviour reflects on his level of education.
To entertain someone with conversation or storytelling, e.g. He often regales his
friendswith stories of his romantic involvements.
To have strict control of something, or keep it
within limits.
To control the movement of a horse by pulling
on its reins.
To feel great joy, e.g. he rejoices in his
examination success.
To have an extraordinary or strange-sounding
To show a direct connection between two things,
e.g. Low wages are directly related tolow level
of education.
To be able to have a good relationship with
others, e.g. He has difficulty relating to older
To feel sympathy for or identify with someone
or something.


relieve of

To be concerned with someone or something,

e.g. It does not relate to what we are talking
To remove the post, duties, responsibility,

rely on/upon

command, etc. of someone.

To trust someone or something fully to do what
they have to do.


remark on/upon
remind of


render down

To be dependent on something to survive, e.g.

They have to rely on the handicraft for their
To pass comment on someone or something.
To make someone remember about something
because of a resemblance, e.g. the
areareminds her of her early childhood days.
To purify fat by melting down.


render up

repair to


report back


reside in


resolve into


resonate with


resort to


rest on/upon

To hand something to someone such as a ruler,

enemy, etc.
To go to a place, e.g. to repair to the sitting
To send or bring something back to someone,
e.g. to investigate an incident and report backto
ones superiors.
(Power, right, etc.) to be present in someone or
To become or make something into separate
To be full of something such as meaning,
feeling, sound, etc., e.g. a householdresonating
with incessant shouting.
To choose and use a, especially bad, course of
action to succeed in something or resolve a
To depend or be based on something, e.g. the
success of the club rests on the number of
members it has.
To direct ones look on someone or something,
e.g. to rest ones eyes on the scenery.

rest with

result in


revel in


revert to

To be answerable for something, e.g. the

responsibility for day-to-day operation rests
with the manager.
To have a specified end or outcome, e.g. the
accident resulted in the death of some
To take great pleasure in something, such as
attention, praise, etc.
To return to a former state, condition, etc.


revolve around

To treat something as the most important

purpose, e.g. her life revolves around her


rid of


ride down

To move in a circular orbit around something.

To remove someone or something bad from a
place such as ones body, working place, etc.
To knock someone down when riding a horse.

ride on

To travel in or on a vehicle or horse.

To depend on someone or something.

ride out

To come safely through, especially a bad


ride up

rig out

(Skirt, etc.) to move upwards exposing the body.

To provide someone with special clothes to

rig up

ring back
ring in

To make something in a makeshift way.

To make a return call by telephone.
To telephone a place, especially ones working

ring off
To end a telephone call.
ring out
To have something loud and clear come from
something else.

ring round

To make telephone calls to a group of people for

a specific purpose.

ring ... up

rinse out


rip off

rip through

To make a telephone call to someone.

To wash something, especially to get rid of soap
from it.
To overcharge, cheat, or steal from someone,
e.g. The souvenir shopkeeper really ripped us
To move somewhere at high speed and in a
really violent way.

rip ... up


rise above

To tear something into pieces, e.g. Jill ripped

up Jacks photos when she found out he is
dating other girls.
To deal with any unpleasant situations without
being adversely affected by it.
To be sensible and refrain from immoral acts.


To attempt to seize power and replace the

rise against
roll around/round (Something that happens regularly) to happen
roll away
To stretch up to the horizon, e.g. green
pastures rolling away into the distance.

roll ... back

To reduce the influence, importance, etc. of

To reverse the progress of something.

roll down
To open in specific cases, e.g. to roll down cars
window to open it.

roll in

To come in large numbers or quantities;

To arrive later than usual or expected without
being concerned.

roll ... out

To lay out something flat and thin, e.g. to roll
out the red carpet.
To officially launch a new product.

roll over

To change bodily position while lying down, e.g.

to roll over to the left.

To arrive, e.g. to roll up late or unexpectedly.

roll up
To fold or shorten something, e.g. to roll ones
sleeves up.
roll ... up


romp through


roof in/over


root for

To close a cars window, e.g. to roll the window

To succeed in doing or finishing something
quickly and easily.
To put a roof over something, e.g. to roof in an
To support a sport team by shouting and

root out
To find and get rid of someone and something.
root up


rope in

rope off


rot away


rough in
rough out

To dig and pull something such as weeds, etc. up

with its roots.
To persuade someone despite their reluctance to
participate in something, e.g. to rope in the
neighbours to be vigilantes.
To isolate an area with ropes to prevent access,
e.g. police roped off the area where the dead
body was found.
To decay or cause something to decay
completely, or break into pieces.
To live in discomfort with only basic necessities.
To draw out a preliminary sketch without the

rough up

round down

To attack someone and beat them up.

To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole

round off
To end something such as an entertainment,
discussion, etc. in a satisfying or suitable way.
To smoothen the edges of something.
To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole
round up


rub along

rub down

rub off

To gather up a group of people or things for a

specific purpose, e.g. to round up the illegal
immigrants for detention.
To cope or get along with a situation or someone
without difficulty.

To make something dry, smooth, or clean by

rubbing with something else such as a cloth,
sandpaper, etc.

To remove something such as rust, impurities,

etc. from a surface by rubbing.
To transfer a feeling, quality, or habit onto
someone else, e.g. ones cheerfulness,
enthusiasm, etc. seem to rub off on everyone

rub ... out


ruck up


rule out


run across

run after

run along

To erase something such as writing, stain, mark,

etc. from a surface by rubbing it with something
else such as eraser, cloth, sandpaper, etc.
To make or form folds, creases, etc. on
something such as cloth, coat, etc., e.g. shirt is
all rucked up after washing.
To conclude that something is not possible, e.g.
The unstable political situation rules out any
increase in foreign investments.
To meet or find someone or something by
chance, e.g. I ran across my former classmate
this morning.
To chase someone or something, e.g. His dog is
very fond of running after cats.

To leave some place, e.g. He has to run alongfor

an appointment.

To run within a particular area, e.g. He likes

run around

torun around in the park.

To spend considerable amount of time with
someone whom one likes, e.g. Jack has
beenrunning around with his neighbours

To leave or escape from a place, e.g. the

childran away from home because of the
abusive parents.
run away
To avoid facing a problem or difficult situation,
e.g. He has now learned to face his problem
instead of running away from it.

To go away secretly or illegally with someone,

e.g. He ran away with his neighbours daughter.
run away with

To win something such as a competition, match,

etc. easily, e.g. Liverpool ran away with the
European soccer championship again.
To steal something, e.g. the cashier has run
away with the whole weeks takings.

To get knocked, and injured or killed by a

vehicle, e.g. His dog was run down by a
speeding car.

run down

To reduce or become reduced, e.g. Our joint

savings is running down.

To criticize or belittle someone or something,

e.g. He has a habit of running others down.

run ... down

To find someone or something after a long

search, e.g. He finally ran me down at my new
house in the same neighbourhood.
To lose or cause to lose power and stops or cause
to stop functioning, e.g. The clock has stopped

functioning as its batteries have run down.

To kill someone or something with a vehicle,
e.g. He was run down by a speeding motorcycle
while crossing a street.
To move quickly to another area for something,
e.g. Ill run down to the store for a couple of
bottles of beer.

To knock someone or something with a vehicle,

e.g. The brake of his car failed and the car ran
into the van in front.
To meet someone by chance, e.g. I ran into my
former classmate at the library yesterday.

run into

To encounter problem, etc., e.g. They ran

intodifficulties midway in their climb up the

To leave hurriedly and secretly, e.g. He ran

offfrom the detention centre without anyones
To produce copies of something, e.g. We have
to run off some more of this copy to meet
additional demand.
run off
To write something such as speech, poem, piece
of music, etc. quickly and easily, e.g. He
could run off a long speech in a couple of hours.

To go away with someone for a specific reason,

e.g. He runs off with his girlfriends sister.
To steal, e.g. The villagers know he ran offwith
one of the horses.

run off with

To carry on longer than is expected, e.g. The

meeting ran on well past midnight.

To cause none left, e.g. A sudden blackout has

caused all shops in the area to run out of
run on

run out

To become no longer valid, e.g. The

agreementran out last month.
To use up or be used up, e.g. The bakery
sometimes runs out of sugar before new supply
To quickly leave a place, building, etc., e.g. He
opened the door of the house and ran out

To knock and drive over someone or something

with a vehicle, e.g. Our cat was run over by a
car and died instantly.
To overflow, e.g. Someone fills a tank with so
much oil that some runs over.

run over

To exceed the expected time, e.g. The showran

over, and I missed the last bus.
To move from where one is to where someone
is, e.g. When I saw my mother-in-law, I decided
instantly not to run over to greet her.

To revise ones lessons, e.g. The students run

through the question-andanswer part again.
To push something through someone, e.g. It is
not easy to run a sword
completely throughsomeone.
To go over something quickly, e.g. The
shopkeeper runs through the list of items with
the customer.

run through

To cost a certain amount, e.g. The cost of the

damage is estimated to run to five million

To make something quickly, e.g. They ran this

project up well ahead of schedule.
To accumulate something such as bill, etc., e.g.
Her parents bar her from using the telephone as
she habitually ran up an enormous phone bill.
run to
To move quickly to a higher level, e.g. They had
a fun race to see who would be the first one
to run up and reach the peak of the hill.

run ... up

To move quickly to someone or something, e.g.

When Santa Claus arrived, all the childrenran
up to him.
To raise a flag.

run up against
To experience or meet an unexpected problem,
e.g. We ran up against some unforeseen
difficulties when we built that patio.

8. Phrasal Verbs 701-800


rush about/around To do something with urgent haste, e.g. Her

family members were rushing around, making
preparations on the day of her wedding.

rush into

To get hastily involved in something without

sufficient consideration, e.g. He was invited to
be the manager of a football team, but he does
not want to rush into it before careful

To produce and distribute something very


rush ... out

To deal with something hurriedly.


rush ... through

rust away
rustle up
sack out
saddle up


saddle with
sail through


sally forth
salt away


save on


savour of


saw at

To give someone a difficult or boring task.

To succeed easily at something, especially a test
or examination.
To set out to perform a challenging task.
To secretly store something, especially money,
for the future.
To prevent wastage of something by
minimizing the use of it.
To have a slight trace or indication of
To use a saw to cut something.

saw off

To remove something with a saw.


saw up
scale down


scare into

To use a saw to cut something into pieces.

To reduce the size of operations of an
organization, plan, etc.
To frighten or threaten someone into doing

To be gradually destroyed by rust.

To make something quickly.
To go to sleep or bed.
To put a saddle on a horse.

scare away/off
To make or keep someone or something away
by frightening them.


scare up
schlep around
scope out
scrape by/along
scrape in/into

To make or do something from a limited source.

To spend ones time idling or lazing.
To take a look at someone or something to
understand their true nature.
To delete something by drawing a ling through
To manage to survive on the bare minimum.
To just manage to succeed in getting something,
e.g. just scraped into a position or college.

To only just succeed in something such as

passing an examination, etc.
scrape through

To manage to accumulate, collect or get

something with difficulty.
scrape together/up


scratch out


scream at
screen out


screw around

To cancel or strike out something by drawing a

line through it.
To become blatantly obvious or conspicuous.
To protect from something dangerous or
harmful entering or passing through.
To investigate someone or something to
ascertain their suitability for a job, position, etc.
To fool about.
To have sex with different partners.

screw out of

To act dishonestly or unfairly in order to

deprive someone of money or something
valuable, e.g. The man was finally arrested after
screwing many people out of their savings.

screw ... over

To cheat or treat someone unfairly.

screw up

screw ... up


scrub out

To manage or handle a situation badly, wrongly

or ineffectively, e.g. He volunteered to help me
in my work but instead screwed it up.

To cause someone to be emotionally or

mentally disturbed, e.g. It really screwed her up
when her flight was seriously delayed by a
bomb hoax.
To thoroughly clean something such as a place,
objects, etc.

scrub up
To thoroughly clean ones hands and arms


scrum down
scrunch up


seal in


seal ... off

search out
section off


see about

before doing a surgery.

To form a scrum during a game of rugby.
To crush or squeeze something into a round,
compressed mass.
To close something securely to prevent what it
contains from getting out.

To cut off an area and deny access to and from

To try to find something by looking.
To divide an area into distinct parts by marking
border lines between them.
To attend to someone or deal with something,
e.g. I would see about the food and drinks for
the guests.
To inform or consult someone about a matter,
e.g. I think I had better see someone in the
government department about the potholes on
the road leading to my house.

see around/round
To visit a place and move about looking at it,
e.g. They would like to see around the cave.

see in

To notice a particular quality in someone or

something, e.g. They see in him a young player
with great potential.
To show the visitor the way in, e.g. He was told
to see in only the members when they arrive.
To celebrate the new year, e.g. Each year
millions of people throughout the world see in
the new year.

see ... off

To send someone off at the place of departure

such as airport, railway station, etc.
To evict an intruder from a property, e.g.
Security guards were notified to see him off the


To accompany a guest to the door when he or

she leaves.
see ... out
To continue with something until it completes,
not necessarily with enthusiasm, e.g. He is not
enthusiastic but promised to see out the twoweek campaign against smoking.

see over

To examine something with a view to acquiring

it, e.g. He is seeing over the antique furniture on
behalf of a potential buyer.

To discover the truth about someone e.g. She

could see through his deviant behaviour that he
is not a suitable partner.
see through

To provide help and care to someone who is in

need, e.g. A home was set up in the area for the
physically handicapped that should see them
through the rest of their life.
To persist with something until it is completed,
e.g. He allocates time from his busy schedule to
see the project through.

To deal with something or do something for

someone, e.g. see to the needs of the poor.


see to
seek out
seize on/upon

seize up

sell off

To look for and find someone or something.

To grasp eagerly and take advantage of
something such as an opportunity, idea, excuse,
(Machine parts) to become jammed due to lack
of oil, etc.
To get rid of unwanted things at cheap prices,

especially when one needs the money.

sell on

To make someone enthusiastic about something

such as an idea, new products, novelties, etc.

To offer sex in return for money.

sell oneself

sell out

To sell all of a particular product with none left,

e.g. The latest model of dishwasher was sold
out in the first week.

sell ... out

To desert ones beliefs, principles, etc. for
personal gains.
sell up
To betray someone for ones own financial or
material benefit.


send away

To sell ones assets and other possessions such

as house, business, yacht, car, etc.
To cause to go or be delivered to another place,
e.g. He was sent away to live with his
grandmother when he was little.
His duties include sending away numerous

send back
To return something to where it came from, e.g.
The letter was wrongly delivered so I sent it
back to the post office.

send ... down

To make something decreased in value, e.g. The
companys recent performance has sent its
rating down.
To send someone to prison, e.g. He was sent
down even for a minor offence.
To expel from a university, especially for

send for

immoral conduct.

To summon someone to appear before one or

order something to be sent to one.
send ... off

To order a player to leave the field by showing

him a red card, as in a football game, and be
excluded from further participation in the
To cause to be delivered by post, e.g. He sent
off the parcel yesterday.
To arrange someone to go to another place, e.g.
They sent the children off to their grandparents
for the weekend.
To order something to be delivered to one, e.g.
We have sent off an order for some pizza.
send ... on
To pass on something that has been received to
anther place, e.g. The processed food is then
sent on to the packing department.
send out
To emit something, e.g. Stars send out gamma
rays, radio waves, etc.
To arrange for something to go or be taken to
another place, e.g. Most of the invitation cards
have been sent out.

send ..,. up


separate out
serve out

To cause something to increase in value, .e.g.

Allowing greater foreign participation in the
property sector has sent property prices up.
To make or become apart or detached.
To continue with something until it is complete,
e.g. He has served out nearly half of his prison

To place food onto plates for handing over to

someone such as customers, guests, etc.

serve ... up
To place food onto plates for people to eat.

set about

Start doing something that requires lots of

efforts and time.
To attack someone with fists and legs.

set against
To cause someone to fight or quarrel against

set apart

To offset something against, especially amount

spent against tax in order to reduce the amount
of tax payable.
To distinguish someone or something that are
more superior compared to others, e.g. the
Nobel Prize awards set the laureates apart from
other people.

set ... aside

To keep something for a special purpose, e.g. a
room in a library is set aside for only reading
To annul a legal decision or order, e.g. A
verdict of a lower court was set aside by a judge
of a higher court.
set ... back
To hinder the development of someone or
set ... down

To cost someone a lot of money.

To write about something for the record.

set forth

To stop a vehicle for someone to get out.

set ... forth

To start a journey, etc.

set in

To explain or describe something in writing or


set off

(Something unpleasant) to begin and seem to

continue for a long time.

set ... off

To go or embark on a journey.

To cause something such as a bomb, alarm, etc,

to go off.
set on/upon
To make something such as a piece of clothing,
etc. more attractive.

set out

To attack someone violently.

To start a journey.
set ... out

To begin to do or plan a course of action

towards achieving a goal.

set to

To lay something out so that they can be

arranged in a particular order.

set ... up

To start doing something eagerly and seriously.

To deliberately make an innocent person appear

guilty or have done something wrong.

To make someone feel healthy and energetic.

To start a company, organization, etc.


settle down

To place or erect something such as a

signboard, road block, statue, etc.
To make or become calmer or quieter, e.g. She
should settle down as the driving test is not
going to cost her life.
To go for a more secure lifestyle, especially in
having a permanent job and own house, e.g. He
hasnt decided to settle down and raise a family
despite having a house and a secure job.

settle for

To accept or agree to something, usually less

than satisfactory to either side, e.g. She had
stated a sum for her starting salary, but had to
settle for a slightly less amount.

To adapt to a new surrounding.

settle in/into

settle on/upon

settle up


sew up

To decide or agree on something, e.g. They

havent settled yet on the paint colour for the
kitchen wall.

To agree on the final settlement on something

such as sharing property, etc.
To pay for something such as a bill, account,
To remedy a fault by sewing it, e.g. sewing up a
tear in a shirt.
To conclude a business transaction in a
favourable way.


shack up


shade into

To have gained overall control over something.

To move in or start living with someone as a
To be unable to distinguish where something
ends and another begins.


shake down

To adapt to a new place.

To extort money from someone.
To sleep on the floor, on a seat, etc. instead of
in a proper bed.
To search someone or something thoroughly.

shake ... off

To get rid of something such as an illness,

problem, etc. that is bothering one, e.g. unable
to shake off this gambling habit.
To escape from ones pursuer.

shake on

To conclude something such as an agreement,

etc. by shaking hands.

shake ... out

To shake something such as a shirt, cloth, etc. in

order to remove any pieces of dirt, dust, etc.
from it.

shake ... up

To make someone feel more enthusiastic,

energetic and eager.


shape up


sharpen up


shave off


shell out


shine through

To make an organization, system, etc. more

effective by introducing changes.
To develop or improve ones behaviour,
performance, physical fitness, etc. to the
required standard.
To improve something to the required standard,
quality, etc.
To remove hair off part of someones body by
using a shaver or razor.
To reduce by a very slight amount, e.g. to shave
half a second off the world record.
To pay a seemingly excessive amount of money
for something.
(Personal quality or skill) to be plainly obvious.


shoot for/at

shoot down
shoot off

To try to achieve a particular aim, e.g. to shoot

for a five percent growth rate for this year.
To bring someone, an aircraft, etc. down by
To have to leave quickly or suddenly, e.g. He
has to shoot off after receiving a telephone call.

shoot through
To depart hurriedly.

shoot up

To injure or damage someone or something by

shooting them with bullets.
To increase rapidly in prices, number, etc., e.g.
The prices of many food items have shot up; tall
buildings are shooting up in many major cities
across the world.


shop around


shore up


shout down

To inject oneself with a narcotic drug.

To look for the best price for the available
quality goods.
To help or support something that is likely to
fail or is not working well.
To prevent someone from speaking or being
heard by shouting.

To say something suddenly in a loud voice.

shout out

shove off

To go away or to tell someone to go away.

To push a boat away from the shore.

shove up

show around

To shift oneself to make space for someone

To take and guide someone round a place and
point out the interesting features, especially
when he is new.

show off

To display ones abilities, accomplishments, or

possessions in a boastful manner, especially to

impress people and gain their admiration, e.g.

He shows off his new car by sounding the horn

show off

show up

To display something to others because one is

very proud of it, e.g. His father bought Jack a
large flashy car, and he is busy showing it offby
driving all over town.

To turn up at a place where one is expected to,

e.g. He finally showed up at the restaurant
where others are waiting for him.

To expose someone as being bad or faulty.

show ... up

shrink from


shrug off


shuck off


shudder at


shut away

To embarrass or humiliate someone.

To avoid doing something difficult or
unpleasant, e.g. shrink from making tough
To dismiss something as unimportant and
without caring about it.
To take off a piece of garment, e.g. He shucks
off his jacket and plays a game of snooker.
To think something is inappropriate or
disagreeable, e.g. He shudders at what his
parents would say when he tells them hes
dropped out of college.
To isolate someone or something from being
To put oneself in a place in order to be alone,
e.g. He shut himself away in his room to
continue with his work.

shut down
To cease or cause to cease business operation

shut ... in
To keep someone indoors or in a room.

shut off

To make something such as a machine, etc.,

stop operating, e.g. Someone accidentally
pressed the wrong button on the remote control
and shut off the television while everyone was
watching it.
To stop or cut off supply, e.g. shutting off a
tap, or a strike that closes a coal mine andshuts
off coal supplies.

shut ... out

To deliberately prevent someone from

participating in an activity, e.g. he felt he was
being shut out when he was not invited to the
To prevent someone or something from entering
a place, e.g. double-glazed windowsshut
out the cold and noise.
To prevent an opposing team from gaining
points by scoring.

shut up
To make someone stop talking, e.g. They tried a
few times to shut her up but failed.
To tell someone to stop talking, e.g. Wherever
she is she tends to dominate the conversation,
talking endlessly but no one would dare to tell
her to shut up.
To keep someone from other people, e.g.
Heshut himself up in his room to prevent his
cold from spreading to others.


shy away from


sick up
sicken of
sieve out

To cease business activities for the day or

To avoid doing something because of
nervousness or lack of confidence, e.g. Heshied
away from an offer to speak at the club
To vomit.
To lose ones desire for or interest in something.
To separate solid from liquid or small objects
from large ones by using a sieve.


sift out


sign away

sign for

To separate something from other things, e.g.

Its not always easy to sift out genuine products
from fake ones.
To sign a document giving ones property or
legal right to someone else.
To sign a document acknowledging receipt of
To sign as a player, especially for a football

sign in
To write ones name in a book, sign a book on
arrival at, or enter a place such as hotel, office,
club, etc.
sign off
To end a letter, broadcast, etc. by writing ones
name, bidding farewell, etc.
sign on
To sign a document agreeing to work for an
To sign officially that one is unemployed.
sign ... on
To recruit someone into ones employment.
sign out
To write ones name in or sign a book when
leaving a hotel, office, club, etc.
sign over
To sign an official document conveying ones
property or rights to someone else.

sign up
To sign a document committing oneself to
something such as a course of study,
employment, specific petition, etc.

sign with


silt up


sing along

To enter legal agreement to play for a particular

sports team.
To become filled with sand, mud, soil or other
To join in singing with someone who is already

sing out
To sing loudly.
sing up

single out


sink in


sit around/about
sit back

To request someone to sing more loudly.

To choose someone or something from a group
of like people or things for favourable or
adverse comment, or unfair treatment.
(Information, facts, ideas, words, etc.) to
gradually become fully understood, e.g. His
remark did not sink in immediatetly.
To sit down idling.
To be in a sitting and relaxing position in a
comfortable chair.

sit down
To be in or get into a sitting position, e.g. Im so
busy I havent sat down since I got up from bed
this morning.
To try to resolve a problem, e.g. They mutually
agreed to sit down for a drink and sort out their
disagreement over a certain matter.

sit in
To be at but not actively involved in a meeting.
To be temporarily doing something on behalf of
To engage in a silent demonstration of protest.
sit on
To delay or fail to deal with something.
sit ... out
To not participate in an event, activity, etc.

To wait without taking action until an

unpleasant or unwelcome situation is over.

sit through
To stay on until a meeting, talk, speech,
performance, etc. ends, even if it is very long
and boring.

sit up
To get into a sitting position from a lying



size up

To stop oneself from going to bed and stay up

very late.
To consider and judge about a person or

To estimate or measure somethings

skate over/around To avoid addressing an issue or problem, or not
according it the attention it deserves.
skin up
To make a cannabis cigarette.
skip out/off
To leave quickly and secretly in order to evade
something such as paying bill, etc.


slag off


slam into


slap down
slap on


slaver over


sleep around
sleep in

A person who defaults or absconds.

To strongly criticize someone, especially behind
their back.
To crash hard into something, e.g. The car
slammed into a tree.
To unjustifiably criticize someone.
To apply something hastily or carelessly on
something else.
To show excessive admiration for something in
a silly way.
To have sex with numerous people.
To wake up much later than usual in the

sleep off
To recover from something by sleeping, e.g. to
sleep off the effects of drinking too much

sleep through

To sleep continuously without being awakened

by anything that happens.
To sleep continuously at length.

sleep together
To have sex.


sleep with
slice off

To have sex with someone, especially someone

whom one is not married to.
To separate something from another by cutting
easily with a sharp knife or edge.
To make ones hair flat, smooth, and glossy by
using oil, or cream, etc.

To make someone or something smart, tidy, or


slick ... up
slip into

To put clothes on quickly.

To pass gradually to a worse condition, e.g. slip
into unconsciousness or a coma.

To take clothes off quickly.

slip ... off

To put clothes on quickly.

slip ... on

To move away quickly, or secretly.

slip out
To say something without thinking or real
intention to say it.

slip out of

To accidentally slide or move out of position or

from someones grasp.

To quickly get out of ones clothes.


slip up
slob around

To make a careless mistake.

To idle and behave in a lazy, relaxed and
unconcerned manner.
slobber over
To show ones excessive interest in someone in
an annoying way.
slop about/around To wander in an aimless or slovenly manner;
mess about.
slop out
(Prisoners) to empty out the contents of their
slop through


slope off


slot in/into


slough off


slow down


smack of


smarten up


smash down
smash in

To wade through a wet or muddy area.

To leave a place quietly, and inconspicuously in
order to avoid work or duty.
To fit someone or something into something
else such as a plan, organization, a new role,
situation, etc.
To get rid of something such as the outer layer
of old skin, etc..
To banish ones feelings, belief, etc., e.g. He
was to slough off all feelings of guilt.
To become or make something such as a
vehicle, etc. slower, e.g. Many a time his
girlfriend asked him to slow down or she would
get out of the car.
To have a flavour, smell, or suggestion of
something, e.g. a piece of writing that smacks of
To make someone or something look neat, tidy
and stylish.
To knock something down violently.
To hit or collide with something violently or

smash up



smell out

To deliberately damage or destroy something,

e.g. smash the place up.
To find something by smelling.

smoke out

To detect or suspect by means of instinct or

To force someone or something out of a place


smooth away

by filling it with smoke.

To dispose of something such as problems,
difficulties, etc.

smooth over



snap on/off

To make a situation or the effects of something

less unpleasant, harmful, or serious.
To turn a light on/off

snap out of

To get out of a bad or sad state to a better one.

snap up

To get or buy something quickly, especially

because it is in short supply or very cheap.
To seize something quickly.
To enter a place unnoticed, e.g. The boys
managed to sneak past the ticket collector into
the circus tent.

snatch at
sneak in/into

sneak on

To officially inform someone or provide them

with information about something or someone
elses misdeeds.

sneak out

To exit a place unnoticed, e.g. The kids sneaked

out of the church by crawling between the
empty pews.

sneak up



To creep stealthily up to someone.

To investigate something in a covert manner.
To find out something by investigation.


sniff out
snuff out


soak up


sober up


sock in

To extinguish or put an abrupt end to

To use something such as a sponge, cloth,
towel, etc. to absorb a liquid.
To learn something quickly and easily.
To become or make someone become less
To be engulfed by adverse weather conditions,
reducing visibility.

9. Phrasal Verbs 801-900


soften up


sop up


sort out

To become or make someone soft or softer.

To make someone less powerful or effective,
especially in a gradual or insidious way so that
they will be vulnerable or more vulnerable.
To soak up liquid by using something such as a
cloth, sponge, etc.
To deal with someone who causes difficulty or
annoyance, e.g. We sorted out a
misunderstanding over the terms of an
agreement by discussing in great detail.
To deal with something such as a problem,
difficulty, etc., e.g. The staff stayed on late to
sort the pile of printed documents out into
individual reports.

sort through

sound off

To classify or categorize or arrange things into

an order.
To express ones opinions in a loud or forceful

sound out


soup up


space out


speak for

To seek the opinions of others before

undertaking something.
To improve something by making it more
interesting or impressive.
To feel disorientated or confused, e.g. He
doesnt seem to concentrate on what he is
saying; hes spaced out because it doesnt make
To express ones opinions, thoughts, feelings,
position, beliefs, etc.

speak of

To be a clear indication of the existence of an

incident or event, e.g. the large presence of
policemen spoke of trouble.

speak out

To publicly protest by expressing ones opinions

frankly, especially when this could be a risk to

To talk to someone in order to advise, inform

about something, etc.
speak to
To express ones views publicly or speak in
favour of someone or something.


speak up
speed by

speed up

spell out


spill over


spin off

spin out


spin ... out

splash down

To ask someone to speak loudly or more loudly.

To pass very quickly, e.g. The months and years
speed by and soon we are not young any more.
To move or work, or make something move or
work faster, e.g. They have to speed up to meet
the deadline.
To say or write the letters that made up a word.
To explain something clearly and in detail.
(Conflict, etc.) to spread and affect other places
or people.
(A parent company) to turn a subsidiary into a
new and separate company.
(Vehicles) to be out of control, e.g. fast-moving
car spins out of control on the wet road.

To make something such as money, food, etc.

last as long as one possibly can, especially
because one has limited amount of it.
(Spacecraft) to return to Earth by landing in the

splash out on


split off

To spend vast sum of money on something, e.g.

They splash out on more decoration of their
To separate or break away from someone or

split on
To commit betrayal by informing on someone.
split up
To end a marriage or a relationship.


spread out

To divide into groups, parts, sections, etc.

(People) to move apart from each other so as to

occupy a bigger area.


spring from

To open out something on a flat surface such as

a table.
To originate or come from somewhere.

spring on

To present or give something such as

information, etc. to someone suddenly or
unexpectedly that causes surprise or shock.


spring up
spruce up


spy out


square away

To suddenly appear or start to exist.

To make someone or something neater, tidier or
To seek out secret information on someone or
To finish something in a satisfactory way.

square off

To assume an aggressive attitude.

square off

To calm or pacify someone.

square up to

To face and deal with a difficult situation or


square with


stack up
stake out


stamp out
stand against

To reconcile two ideas, situations, facts, etc. to

show that they can exist together.
To measure up or compare.
To keep someone or some place under close
observation, especially because of suspected
criminal activities.
To forcibly put an end to something.
To contest against another candidate in an

stand alone
To be unequalled.
stand around
To stand somewhere and not do anything, e.g.
He grumbles that the supervisor has nothing to
do but stands around watching him every

stand by

To look on without getting involved.

To stay loyal and support someone, e.g. will

always stand by him.
To maintain the validity of ones words or
action, e.g. He stands by what he said earlier.
To be ready to do what is required, e.g. A
lifeguard always stands by at the swimming

stand down

To leave ones position or office.

To leave the witness box in court after giving

stand for
To represent something in the form of
abbreviation, symbol, etc., e.g. I think most
people know what UN stands for.
To not tolerate or endure something, e.g. More
and more people the world over will not stand
for racism.
To support a particular set of ideas, values, or
principles, e.g. Voters should demand that
candidates state what they stand for so that they
(voters) know what they are voting for.
stand in
To temporarily take over the work of someone
who is away.
stand off
To move or keep away.
stand out
To be conspicuous or clearly noticeable.
To be clearly better than someone else.
stand out against

To be strongly opposed to an idea, plan, etc.

stand over
To watch someone closely to ensure they work
stand to

To move to a position, ready for action.

stand up

To be in a standing position, e.g. As soon as she

finished singing, everyone stood up to give her a
standing ovation.
To be able to withstand close scrutiny, test, etc.
stand ... up

To fail to keep an appointment, etc., e.g. I was

supposed to go fishing with Jack today, but he
stood me up
stand up for

stand up to


To speak or act in support or defence of

someone or something.

To defend oneself against or refuse to be

unfairly treated by someone.
stare out/down To look at someone at length until they feel
forced to look elsewhere.
start in
To begin doing something.
start in on

To begin to do or deal with something.

To attack someone or something verbally.

start off

To begin in a certain way, e.g. The event started

off in fine weather but midway through it began
to rain.
To begin a journey, e.g. We will start off as soon
as they arrive.

start on

To begin doing some of the things, e.g. We will

start on the mowing first before we proceed to
the planting.

start on at

To start to talk by criticizing someone and their

behaviour, e.g. She started on at him for always
returning home late from work.

To begin a business enterprise or undertaking.

start out/up
To restart doing something in order to do it
start over

start up


starve into

To begin operation, e.g. I usually start up the

cars engine to warm it up before driving it.
To begin something, e.g. He started up a
restaurant in the neighbourhood, but closed
down after six months.
To force someone to do something by denying
them food.

starve out



stave in

stave ... off

stay off

stay on

To force someone out of a place by denying

them food.
To break something inwards or be broken
inwards by something.

To avert something bad or dangerous happening

to one.
To keep away from, e.g. Visitors to the temple
were advised to stay off the grass whenever or
wherever they walk.
To continue doing something such as working,
studying, etc. after the usual time or the others
have left, e.g. He decides to stay on in the

library while the others leave for home.

stay out
To decide to return home late, e.g. On weekend,
Jack stays out late boozing with his mates.
To not get involved in a situation, especially a
bad one, e.g. The neighbours wife and mine
have been quarrelling for the past days, I choose
to stay out of it.

To go to bed later than normal, e.g. He is a night

owl who enjoys staying up late.
steam open/off To make use of steam to do something such as
opening and removing a stamp from an
envelope, etc.
stay up



steam up

To cover or become covered with steam.

stem from
step down

To be or become extremely agitated or angry.

To originate in or be caused by something.
To resign from ones official position.

step forward

To volunteer ones services.

step in

To get involved in a difficult situation in order

to help.
To act or serve in place of someone.

step on
To place ones foot on something, e.g. My big
fat auntie accidentally stepped on my toe; its
terribly painful that tears roll down my cheeks.

step out

step ... up

To go out of a room or building, etc., usually for

a short time, e.g. He steps out for a smoke.

To increase something such as amount, speed,

etc. of something.


stick around

To stay for a while longer, e.g. We were asked

to stick around for a while so as to have a drink
together, but weve already waited for half an

stick at

To continue to do what one is doing with the

same determination.

stick by

To continue to support someone.

stick ... on

To blame someone for a mistake or wrongdoing.

stick out

To be particularly noticeable, e.g. His two

oversized ears stick out more than usual.
To extend from a surface, e.g. Be careful when
you handle that plant, it has sharp thorns
sticking out.
To extend a part of one outward, e.g. This dog
certainly looks rather tired, with its tongue
sticking out dripping with saliva and body
To tolerate an unpleasant or difficult situation,
e.g. I found the roller coaster ride more scary
than exciting, but I stuck it out.

To refuse to accept less than what one wants

stick out for

stick to

To continue to do what one thinks or believes is

proper, e.g. He always considers very carefully
before making a decision, and once a decision is
made he sticks to it.
To talk or write relevantly, e.g. A speaker or
writer should stick to the subject in question,

and not wander off to something else.

To cooperate or remain united for mutual


stick together
To rob someone at gunpoint, e.g. No one was
aware that a couple of men were sticking up a
store until police arrived.
stick ... .up
To put up something such as a sign, notice, etc.,
e.g. Someone stuck a picture of Popeye up on
the public toilet wall.
(Something) to point out from a surface.

To defend oneself or someone else when others

will not.
stick up for
To stay close to someone physically or
stick with
To do something as planned despite the


sting for


stink out


stir up


stitch up

(Something) to remain in ones memory, e.g.

The nightmare I had has stuck with me since.
To overcharge someone for something, e.g. The
mechanic stung him for a big amount for a
minor repair to his car.
To fill a place with a particularly unpleasant
smell, e.g. The new coat of paint is stinking out
the whole office.
To deliberately cause conflict between people by
spreading rumours or gossip, etc.
To cause something to rise, e.g. The strong wind
stirs up a lot of dust.
To apply stitches to cloth or wound in order to
fasten or cure.

To satisfactorily finalize a deal or agreement.

stitch ... up

stock up


stoke up

To handle a situation in such a way as to

disadvantage someone.
To accumulate a supply of something, e.g. They
stock up on whisky for the forthcoming
To add coal or wood to a fire.
To stir up strong emotions among people
To eat a large amount of food to get the energy
required for sustained activity.


stoop to


stop back

To stock something such as clothing, etc. for

ones needs.
To lower ones dignity so far as to commit a
morally wrongful act.
To return to a place one has previously been.

stop by

To visit a place or person briefly when on ones

way to somewhere else.

stop down

To reduce the lens aperture in a camera to allow

less light in when one is photographing.

To visit a place or person briefly when on ones

way to somewhere else.
stop in

stop off

To make a brief visit to a place, especially to

rest or visit someone, en route to ones
destination, e.g. We stopped off at our parents
house for a day on our way to the island.

To stay out later than usual.

stop out
To make a short stay somewhere before
resuming ones journey, e.g. We stopped over at

stop over

our grandparents house for a drink on our way


To stay up late.

stop up
stow away

To hide oneself on a ship, aircraft, etc. in order

to travel secretly or without paying.
straighten out To make something straight, e.g. The workers
are working to straighten out the winding road.
To deal with the causes of a difficult problem
with a view to resolving it, e.g. They meet for
discussion to straighten out the remaining issues.
To help someone overcome their bad behaviour
or personal problems, e.g. We dont condemn
the kids behaviour or punish them, instead we
try to understand them and help them to
straighten out.

To decide to change ones way of behaving and

become a better person.


straighten up
stretch out
strike back
strike down

To lie down in order to rest or sleep.

To retaliate.
To cause someone to fall by hitting them very
(Disease) to make someone die or seriously ill.

strike off
To stop doctors, lawyers, etc. from practising
their profession by removing their names from
the official list of those who are allowed to

strike on/upon

To discover something such as a good idea, etc.

To remove an item from a list by drawing a line

strike out

through it.
To do something new on ones own such as
living alone, starting a business, etc.

To begin to play a piece of music.

strike up


string along

To start a friendship or conversation with

To deceive someone over a length of time.

string out

To prolong something.
To be anxious or tense over something.
To be joined or spread in a straight line, e.g.
pearls, islands.

string together
To be able to put two things such as words,
sentences, etc. together to make sense to other
people, e.g. Can a drunk string two words
together to make sense?

string ... up



strip away

To put someone to death by hanging, e.g. He

was finally strung up for the multiple murders he
To gradually get rid of something such as habits,
customs, etc.

To deprive someone of something such as rank,

power, property, citizenship, etc.
strip ... of
struggle on
To continue obstinately a course of action in
spite of difficulty or opposition.
stub out
To snuff out a cigarette butt by pressing the
lighted end against something.
stumble on/across To find something or meet someone by chance
and unexpectedly.
stump up
To pay a sum of money.
subject to
To cause or force someone to undergo
something unpleasant or difficult.


subscribe for

To accept to hold shares in a company.

subscribe to

To agree to receive something, especially a

periodical, regularly by paying in advance.


suck up


sucker into
suffer from


suit to
sum up


suss out


swallow up


swarm with


swear by

swear in

To believe and support an idea, view, belief, etc.

To be completely obedient and attentive to the
comfort or wishes of others in order to gain a
personal advantage.
To fool or trick someone into doing something.
To be affected by an illness, especially one that
lasts a long time.
To have a problem that hinders success.
To make something appropriate for someone.
To summarize something briefly such as a
report, speech, etc.
To understand or realize the true character or
nature of something.
To take in and cause to disappear, e.g. rise in
earning being swallowed up by increases in food
and other prices.
To be crowded or overrun with people, animals,
etc., e.g. the beach is swarmed with people.
To have great confidence in something, e.g. He
swears by the quality of the new model of a
To admit someone to a position or office by
having them take an oath, e.g. the person elected
as president having to take the presidential oath
on assuming office.

swear off
To promise to refrain or abstain from doing
swear to


sweat out

To make a formal declaration that something is

To continue doing something difficult until
To do strenuous physical exercise.

sweat off


sweep aside

To get rid of something such as bodily fat,

illness, etc. by sweating through doing
something such as aerobic exercises, etc.
To remove someone or something quickly.
To ignore what someone says.



sweep away

To cause the death of someone and/or

completely destroy something, e.g. floods sweep
people and houses away.

sweep up

To clean a place by using a brush, broom, etc.

To turn or make something turn around quickly.

swing by
switch off

switch on

To make a short visit to a place or someone for a

particular purpose.
To use a switch to turn off something such as
television, etc., e.g. It often happens here that no
one switches off the television when no one is
watching it.

To cease paying attention or listening to

To turn on something such as electric light,
television, machine, etc. by using a switch.

switch over


swot up


tack on


tag along
tag on


tail away

To change from something such as a system,

dress, television station, etc. to another.
To study intensively and with perseverance, e.g.
Students just have to swot up in order to pass
their examinations.
To add something to something else later when
To accompany someone uninvited.
To add something thought of later to something
To gradually become less and less in amount,
intensity, etc.

tail back
(Traffic) to become more and more congested
until it forms a long queue that is very slow in


tail off

moving or not moving at all.

take aback

To become less, smaller, weaker, etc.

To be very surprised about something, e.g. She
was really taken aback by what he had just said.

take after

take against

To bear a close resemblance to an older relative

such as a parent, etc.

To begin to develop a feeling of dislike of


To dismantle something.
take ... apart
To easily defeat an opponent in something, such
as a game, sport, etc.

take away from

take back

To reduce the worth or belittle the quality of


To withdraw what one has said or written, e.g. If

it is not true, Im sorry and I take back what Ive
To return something that is unsatisfactory back
to a shop for exchange or refund, e g. The sales
assistant said I could take it back within a week
if there is any problem with it.
To bring back what one owns, e.g. Visitors are
advised to take back their umbrellas when they
leave the premises.

take ... down

To jot or write down something spoken.

take in

To include something, e.g. The bill has not yet

taken in the additional charges of transporting it.

To be cheated or deceived by someone, e.g.
Many were taken in by the vendors claim that
the craft products were handmade.

take ... in

To let someone stay in ones house, e.g. Our

cousin has no place to stay, so we take him in.
To understand and retain something such as
facts, ideas, etc.

take off

(Aircraft, etc.) To leave the ground for the air.

(Business) to become more and more successful.

take ... off

To remove a piece of or all of ones clothing.

To make a deduction of an amount.
To be absent from work, e.g. Ill take the whole
of next week off.
To leave hastily without informing anyone.

take on

To assume a quality or appearance without any

specific reason, e.g. to take on a very upset,
worried, etc. look.

To engage new workers.

take ... on
To be ready or willing to meet an opponent in a
contest, competition, etc.
To undertake a task or responsibility.

To remove something from a container, etc., e.g.

He took out a hundred dollar bill from his wallet

and gave it to the cashier.
take ... out
To bring someone with one to some place such
as a restaurant, beach, cinema, etc. Every
weekend my dad takes me out to the park or
some other place.
To vent ones feelings on others, e.g. He takes it
out on his children wherever he gets angry.
To kill someone, or destroy something, e.g. The
police sharpshooter took out the hostage-taker
with a single shot.
To get an official service, e.g. taking out an
insurance policy.

take over

To take responsibility for something, usually

from someone, e.g. Jack takes over the running
of the company while his father is away.
To bring something from one place to another,
e.g. I help my colleague take some office files
over to his house.
To gain control of a place, country, town, etc.,
e.g. The invading army took over the city after
the defending troops abandoned it.

To begin to develop a liking for someone, e.g.

He began to take to her after working for six
months together.
take to

To acquire a habit, e.g. He took to drink after his

wife left him.

To start a new job or have a new responsibility,

e.g. He took up the supervisory post when the
former supervisor left.
take up
To accept a challenge from someone, e.g. He
took up the challenge of not smoking for a

whole week.
To do selected subjects in school, e.g. She took
up history as it is one of her favourite subjects.
To fight using weapons, e.g. Many villagers
took up arms and join the rebel group.
To pursue a course of action, e.g. They are
taking up this matter with the local authority.
To occupy ones time, attention, etc., e.g.
Building the kennel may take up two weekends.

To accept an offer, e.g. Jack was disappointed

that Jill refused to take him up on his offer of a


take up on
talk around

To convince someone to change their opinion

and accept a specific point of view.

To reply defiantly, rudely or disrespectfully.

talk back

talk ... down

To belittle or dismiss the good quality or worth

of something, e.g. The opposition leader was
booed in parliament when he talked down the
governments economic management of the

talk down to

To speak condescendingly to someone, e.g. His

habit of talking down to others has alienated

talk ... into

To persuade someone to do or not to do

something, e.g. If you had
not talked me intosmoking, I wouldnt be such

a heavy smoker today.

talk ... out

To discuss an issue or problem and how to

tackle it.

talk out of
To persuade someone not to do certain things,
e.g. They talked her out of taking her own life.

talk ... over

talk ... through

To have a thorough discussion about something

before adopting a decision, e.g.
They talk it over many times before deciding to

To discuss something completely with regard to

every detail in order to gain a better or complete
comprehension of it.

talk to


tamper with


tangle with


tank up
tap in


taper off


tart up


tax with


team up

To converse with someone, e.g. He loves talking

to people and can talk at length on any subject.
To interfere with something without authority in
order to cause damage to it.
To get involved in an argument or fight with
To fill the tank of a vehicle with fuel.
To press buttons or keys on telephone,
computer, etc, to begin operating it.
To gradually become less, smaller or fewer in
size, amount, intensity, or degree.
To improve something but only on the surface of
To make oneself look attractive by wearing
makeup, jewellery, or through better dressing.
To blame someone for or accuse them of a fault
or wrongdoing.
To work jointly with someone on an activity or


tear apart

To be violently broken into pieces, e.g. vultures

tearing a carcass apart.
To cause serious conflict between people within
a family, group, organization, etc., e.g. Dispute
over family property is tearing the siblings apart.

To pull violently at someone or something.

tear at

To leave suddenly, quickly and in an

uncontrolled manner, e.g. The car tore away
noisily attracting much attention.
tear away
To leave a person or place despite a strong
feeling of wanting to stay.

tear ... down

To pull or knock down something, e.g. Some of

the buildings will be torn down as the area is
earmarked for redevelopment.

To launch a strong verbal attack against

tear into
To attack someone or something fiercely, e.g.
two wolves tearing into each other.

tear off

To leave suddenly and quickly, e.g. He tore off

when he realized he was almost late for a

tear ... up

To pull or rip apart or to pieces, e.g. He angrily

tore up the letter from a companys lawyer
demanding payment from him.
To damage something, e.g. They tore up the
seats in the stadium when their team lost the


tease out


tee off


teem with


tell against

tell ... apart

tell of

To extract, obtain or ascertain information from

a large amount of material by painstaking effort.
To hit the ball off the tee to begin a game of
To be full of or swarming with people, fish,
animals, etc.
To make one unsuccessful in ones endeavour to
achieve, e.g. He wants to be a basketball player
but his height tells against him.

To be able to identify someone or something

separately despite their close similarity or
resemblance, e.g. The only way to tell twins
apart is to call their names, which are the only
thing that makes identical twins different.

To give a detailed account of someone or

something, e.g. The novel tells of a mothers
heroic efforts to save her family.

To express ones strong disapproval to someone

of what they have or have not done.
tell ... off

tell on


thin out


think about

think ahead

To inform someone in authority of someone

elses wrongdoing, e.g. He smoked in the school
toilet which is forbidden, and he is furious that
someone has told on him.
To make or become less thick, e.g. As soon as
the warehouse fire was put out, the crowd of
onlookers began to thin out.
To consider the possibility or advantages of
something, e.g. I have been thinking about
migrating for the past ten years, and Im still

To plan for ones future, e.g. When I think ahead

I decide not to get married.

think back

To think of past events, e.g. She couldnt help

thinking back to the day she almost lost her life
in a road accident.

thank of

To have an opinion of something, e.g. Many of

them think highly of the new President.
To remember things, e.g. Some of them cant
think of the name of the countrys first
To have fond memory of someone, e.g. He often
thinks of her whenever they are not together.

think ... out

To think of all the relevant things before making

a decision.

think ... over

To consider carefully all factors before
committing oneself, e.g. He prefers to think it
over before he decides to join them in that
commercial venture.

think ... through

think up

thrash out


throttle back


throw away

To consider carefully the possible consequences

of getting involved in an activity.

To think of new ideas, plans, etc., e.g. He has to

think up a way to be a famous magician in order
to fulfill his ambition.
To discuss something thoroughly in order to
reach a decision.
To control the flow of fuel or power to an
To dispose of unwanted or useless things, e.g.
Please threw away the old newspapers including
todays which I havent read.
To waste or fail to seize an opportunity or

advantage, e.g. I threw away an opportunity to

befriend her and know her better when I was too
shy to approach her at the party.

throw ... in

To include something extra, such as free gifts,

with things which are being sold without an
increase in their prices.
To inject a remark in a conversation without
To start to do something with enthusiasm.

throw ... off

throw ... open

throw ... out

To escape from someone or something that is

pursuing one.

To allow people access to a place that is usually

not open to them.

To expel someone from a place such as a school,

organization, etc., e.g. A member of the club
was thrown out for misbehaviour.
To dispose of unwanted things, e.g. The old
newspapers and magazines are piling up and
nobody cares to throw them out.
To terminate a romantic relationship with

To make something quickly without any

throw ... over
To cause people to meet and know each other.
throw ... together

To vomit, e.g. Whenever she is in a moving bus,

she feels like shes going to throw up.
throw up


thrust aside


thumb through


tick away/by
tick off

To give up something such as home, job, etc.

completely, e.g. He threw up everything and
sought employment overseas.
To refuse to consider about something, e.g. Our
petition was thrust aside and we have never
heard from the authority since.
To look through something such as a book,
magazine, etc. quickly, e.g. thumbing through a
photo album.
(Time) to pass away.
To express ones disapproval to someone, e.g.
They were ticked off for misbehaviour.
To mark the items on a list to indicate that they
have been dealt with.

tick over

tide over


tidy away


tie down

(Engine of vehicle) to run slowly without

moving the vehicle.
To help someone through a difficult period,
especially with financial assistance.
To maintain tidiness by not allowing things to
lie around but returning them to the places
where they are kept.
To restrict someone or something, e.g. Now tied
down with a wife and kids, he finds it hard to

tie in

To be or cause to be in harmony with something.

tie up

To restrict someones movement by binding

their arms and legs.
To keep someone so busy that they are
unavailable to do something else, e.g. He is
going to be tied up the whole of next week
because of the new project.
To invest in something so that the money is not


tilt at
tip off


tire out
tog up/out


tone down

immediately available for use, e.g. All his

money is tied up in shares.
To attack someone by what one says or writes.
To inform, especially the police, by passing
them a piece of information about illegal
To make someone very tired.
To put on clothes for a particular occasion or
To reduce the effect of a speech or piece of

tone up


tool up

To give greater strength or firmness to the body

or a muscle.
To be or become armed.

10. Phrasal Verbs 901-974


top off

To complete something with one last act, e.g.

They decide to top off the days session with a
meal at a restaurant.
To fill up a partly full tank with fuel.

top out

To reach an upper limit, e.g. No one knows if oil

price has topped out.

To add more drink to ones glass or mug.

top ... up
To add to an amount, etc. to bring it up to a
required level.



toss off

To fill up a partly full container.

To produce something quickly and effortlessly,
e.g. He can toss off a simple meal within

toss off

To drink something rapidly or all at once.

tot up

To masturbate.
To total up amounts, numbers, etc, e.g.


total up


touch at

Shetotted up the bill with the use of a calculator.

To find the total of something such as amounts,
numbers, etc. by adding, e.g. Hetotaled up the
bill without using a calculator.
(Ship) to call briefly at a port.

touch down

(Aircraft, etc.) to land on the ground.

touch for

To ask someone to lend or give one something,

especially money.

touch ... off

touch on/upon

To cause something to happen suddenly, e.g. A

cut in personal income tax touched off rumours
of an impending general election.

To mention or refer briefly to a subject when

talking, writing, etc.

To improve something by doing something to it.

touch ... up

toy with


track down


trade in

trade ... off

To stroke someone gently without their consent

for sexual pleasure.
To think of something for a short while and not
seriously, e.g. He has been toying with the idea
of working overseas.
To find someone or something that one has been
searching very hard for, e.g. The police finally
managed to track down the vandal.
To use a used article, especially a car, as part
payment for another, e.g. He traded his car infor
a newer one.

To counterbalance an action against another in

order to produce a satisfactory result, e.g. They
have to trade off the cost of new machinery to
step up production against the possibility of
production not being able to meet the demand.


trade on/upon
traffic in
treat of

To take advantage of someone or something.

To deal in illegal goods, especially drugs.
(Book, article, etc.) to be about a particular

treat with


trespass on
trick into


trim off


trip up


trot out


truckle to


trump up
trust in


To negotiate an official agreement with

To take advantage of someone or something.
To deceive someone into doing something, e.g. I
was tricked into parting with one hundred
pounds by a so-called friend.
To cut small irregular or unwanted parts or edges
off something to make it neater.
To make or cause one to make a mistake, e.g.
The questions are designed to trip you up.
To cause someone to fall by blocking his foot
with yours while he is walking.
To use same excuses, reasons, etc. repeatedly,
e.g. He trots out the same excuses whenever he
is late.
To be or behave excessively obedient to
To falsely accuse someone of something.
To have faith in someone or something.

trust to

To commit someone or something to the

protective care or guardianship of someone or
something else.

trust with
try for

To have faith in someone to do something.

To attempt to achieve or get what one desires.

try on

To put on something to see if it fits or suits one,

e.g. Have you counted how many dresses she
has tried on? So many and yet she hasnt
decided on any.

try ... out

To test the suitability or effectiveness of

something or someone by using or testing them,
e.g. He tried out the new car to experience its
performance before deciding whether or not to
buy it. / They tried him outto see if he could do
the job.

try out for


tuck away

To put oneself forward for selection for a

particular role.
To put someone or something in a quiet,
concealed or secure place.
To eat a lot quickly and in an enjoyable way.

To eat in an enjoyable manner.

tuck in
To conceal the edge of a piece of clothing in
something, e.g. tuck in ones shirt.

tuck into

To eat something eagerly.

To arrange bedclothes around someone,

especially a child, in bed.

tuck ... up
tucker out
tune in

To become or make someone very tired.

To watch or listen to a television or radio

tune out
To ignore or stop listening or paying attention to
someone or something.
tune up

turf out
turn against
turn against

turn around

To bring something to the most efficient

To get rid of someone or something.
To oppose someone or disagree with something.
To incite someone to oppose someone else or to
disagree with something.
To revive something, especially a company, e.g.
The new manager was able to turn the
company around in less than two years.
To make to face opposite direction, e.g. I thought
someone was following me, and Iturned
around to see who it was.

To refuse someone entry to a place such as a

stadium, etc. because it is full.
turn away
To return, e.g. We had to turn back halfway
through the journey because of extreme heavy
rain and flooding.
turn back

To reduce the level of what something is

producing or doing, e.g. Every day he has to be
told to turn the television down.
turn down
To reject someones proposal, suggestion, offer,
etc., e.g. She has turned down his marriage
proposal for the tenth time.

To go to bed, e.g. We have to turn in now in

order to wake up early.

turn in

To inform the police the whereabouts of a

criminal, e.g. His guilty conscience has certainly
played the chief part in making the
murdererturn himself in.
To return something, stolen or missing, etc., to
the police or its owner.
To give something, especially a completed piece
of work, to someone who requested it, e.g. At the
end of an examination, we have toturn in our
exam papers to the person in charge.

To change someone into someone else, e.g. The

parents tried unsuccessfully to turn their
son into a teacher like them as the son believed
he was not made for it.
To change something into something else, e.g.
The freezer has turned water into ice.
turn into
To do something repulsive or boring, e.g. His

frequent picking of the nose turn his friendsoff.

To end the supply or operation of something
such as water, television, etc. by turning the tap,
switch, etc., e.g. The tap is dripping, can
you turn it off tight?
turn off
To leave one road and drive into another, e.g.
We have to turn off at the next exit to reach our

To start the supply or operation of something

such as water, television, etc. by turning the tap,
switch, etc., e.g. Someone turned the
television on and nobody is watching it.

turn on

To suddenly attack or vent ones anger on

someone, e.g. Im not responsible for the rumour
about her, so why is she turning on me?
To excite or stimulate someone, especially
sexually, e.g. Some guys are easily turned on by
a woman who is busty.
To make someone interested in something, e.g.
He was the one who turned me on to that
excellent documentary.

To produce an unexpected result, e.g. Itturned

out that he was my classmate at college.
To go somewhere to do something, e.g.
Manyturn out to cast their votes because of the
fine weather.
To expel someone from a place, e.g.
Theyturned him out of the lecture hall for his
disruptive behaviour.
turn out
To put out an electric light by pushing a switch
etc., e.g. He turns out the light and closes his
eyes to sleep.
To produce something, e.g. The new
machineturns out twice as many units as the

previous one.

To turn upside down, e.g. The car swung around

the bend at a great speed and turned over.

To hand someone to the police, e.g. The

villagers turn the wanted man over to the police.

turn over

To hand something to the police or its rightful

owner, e.g. We found a wallet
and turned itover to the police.
To give someone the ownership of or
responsibility for something, e.g. He is
slowlyturning the business over to his son as he
anticipates his retirement.

turn ... over

To do an amount of business in a particular
period, e.g. That company has been turning
over $4 million a year for the past five years.
To change television channels, e.g. Can youturn
over to the other channels and see what they

To get help, advice, etc. from someone, e.g.

He turned to a consultant for advice on
management of his business.
To go to a particular page in a book, e.g. The
students are asked to turn to page 13.

turn to

To suddenly appear after having been lost or

searched unsuccessfully for, e.g. The villagers
were shocked to suddenly see the long missing
man turn up at the market.
To arrive somewhere, e.g. The politicianturned
up at a public rally late as usual.
To search thoroughly for something, e. g. They

searched every inch of the area for the murder

weapon and more evidence, but nothing
newturned up.
To increase the volume, heat, power, etc. of
television, oven, air-conditioner, etc., e.g. This is
the third time you turn up the television, can
you see that Im reading?
urge on
To encourage someone or something to continue
to do something.
use up
To consume or expend the whole of something,
e.g. I bought a bottle of brake oil and
someoneused it up.
vamp up
To improve something such as making a story
more exciting by modifying it.
venture on/upon To do something that involves risks.
verge on/upon To be very close or similar to, e.g. His behaviour
sometimes verges on madness.
vest with
To give someone the legal right to power,
property, etc.
visit on
To punish someone.
wad up
To compress soft material such as paper, cloth,
etc. into a small lump.
wade in
To intervene or become involved in something.
turn up



wade through

wait around

To read or deal laboriously with a lot of boring

papers or written work.
To stay where one is and do nothing until an
expected event occurs, such as the person one
waits for arrives, etc.

wait behind

To stay back until all the others have left.

wait on

To attend to or serve food to someone, especially

customers in a restaurant.

wait ... out

To wait for something to end, e.g. We had to stay

back in college where we waited out the heavy

wait up


wake up

wake up to


walk all over

walk away

To await the return of someone, e.g. Shewaited

up for her husbands return so they could go to
the cinema together.
To come out or be caused to come out of a sleep,
e.g. He uses two alarm clocks
to wakehim up every morning.
To become aware or alert to what goes on, e.g.
More and more people are waking up to the
reality of climate warming.
To treat someone thoughtlessly and unfairly.
To move from and not get involved in a dispute,
bad situation, etc.

To win something, e.g. She walks away withthe

walk away with first prize in tonights contest.

To enter a place such as a building, etc.,

especially unexpectedly or uninvited.
walk in

walk into

To move into something quickly and hard, e.g.

He walked into a glass door and slightly hurt

To leave someone by moving away from them.

walk off

walk off with

To take along ones winning, e.g. She walks

offhappily with the first prize money.

To steal something secretly and quietly, e.g.

Someone walked away with the marble statue at
walk away with the party without anyone noticing it.

walk over

To take advantage of or treat someone badly, e.g.

He allows others to walk all over him by not
defending his rights.

To go outside.
walk out

To leave a place suddenly or angrily, especially

because one is unhappy over something.
To go on strike.

To leave ones spouse, e.g. She walked out on

her husband after discovering he has a lover.


walk out on
wall in
wall off

To enclose an area with walls.

To separate an area from another by building a

wall up


waltz off with


waltz through
want for
ward off


warm to

To turn a window, doorway, etc. into a wall by

filling it with bricks, cement, etc.
To take something deliberately without
permission or unintentionally, e.g. He waltzed
off with the receptionists pen after using it.

To do something such as an exam, test, etc. very

well and with ease, e.g. She waltzed through her
final examination with flying colours.
To not have something desirable or essential.
To prevent someone or something from harming
one, e.g. He warded off every blow from his
opponent in a martial art contest.
To become more interested in or enthusiastic
about someone or something, especially
someone whom one has just met.

(Food, house, etc) to make warm or warmer by

reheating it.
warm up

To make engine, etc. reach a required

temperature for it to be operational, e.g. I usually
warm up the car before I drive it.
To prepare ones body for a physical activity,
e.g. warming up before a race by doing light
stretching exercises.


warm up to
warn against

warn off

wash down

To become more interested in or enthusiastic

about someone or something, especially
someone whom one has just met.
To advise someone against doing something
because it may have bad or dangerous
To advise or use threats to tell or order someone
to stay away or refrain from doing something.
To clean something large with plenty of water,
e.g. spent the whole afternoon washing down the
To drink something to facilitate swallowing, e.g.
medicine, or food such as steak and chips,
washed down with plain water or red wine.

wash ... off

wash ... out

To clean something such as dirt, dust, stain, etc.

from a surface with water, e.g. Jack washed the
dirt off his face and hair after he fell headlong
into a muddy drain.

To cause the postponement or cancellation of

something, especially a sport event, because of
heavy rain, e.g. The outdoor jumble sale was
washed out by a sudden downpour.

To do the dishes after a meal, e.g. Now whose

turn is it to wash up?
wash up

To clean ones hands and face, e.g. She

habitually washes up before she says her prayers.


waste away


watch for
watch out

watch out for

To bring something up to the shore, e.g. The

waves washed up the dead body of an unknown
creature on the beach.
To become progressively and abnormally weaker
and thinner.
To look out for something.
To be careful or to tell someone to be careful,
e.g. She ought to be careful when passing
comments, which are always highly critical of
other people

To keep looking and waiting for someone or

To be alert, e.g. watch out for strangers loitering
close to ones house.

watch over

water down


wave aside

To guard or protect someone or something.

To make something less assertive or
controversial by modifying certain details,
especially to achieve an agreement.
To disregard someones opinion, idea, etc.

wave down

To hail the driver of a vehicle to stop.

wave off

To move ones hand to signal goodbye to

someone as they leave.
To make someone give up a habit or addiction,
e.g. Some infants are weaned off their mothers
milk as early as at four months.


wean off

To be strongly influenced by something from a

very early age.

wean .... on
wear away
wear down

To erode something.
To gradually worsen the condition of something
or someone, e.g. The stair carpet has worn down

in places.
To overcome someone or something by
persistence, e.g. He is very secretive about his
earnings, but gradually his siblings wear him

wear off
To gradually lose the effectiveness or intensity of
something, e.g. pain, anaesthesia, the effects of
drugs or alcohol, novelty of a product, emotional
feelings, etc. gradually wears off.

wear on

(Time) to pass very slowly.

wear out

To tire someone out completely, e.g. Chasing

and catching butterflies the whole afternoon has
worn me out.


weed out


weigh down

weigh in

weigh on

To become damaged by constant use, e.g. My

right shoe wears out faster then my left shoe.
To get rid of someone or something that is longer
(Load, feelings, etc.) to weigh heavily on
someone, e.g. an employed person weighed
down with frustration.

(Boxer or jockey) to be officially weighed before

or after a contest.

To be depressing or burdensome to someone,

e.g. Her incurable illness is beginning to weigh
on her.

weigh ... out

To measure an amount of something by weight,
e.g. The seller weighed out a kilogram of sugar
and handed it over to a customer.

To consider carefully the qualities, importance,

etc. of something before making a decision.

weigh ... up
wheel out


whip through

whip up






wimp out
win around
win back

To publicly introduce or display someone or

something for a specific purpose, e.g. A
politician is very fond of having famous
personalities accompanying him in his election
To finish a job very quickly, e.g. He whipped
through the work faster than all the other
workers combined.
To deliberately excite, stimulate a particular
feeling or provoke a reaction in someone, e.g. to
whip up support for someone.
To make something very quickly, especially a
To take or remove something or someone
quickly from a place, e.g. On arrival at the
airport, the foreign head of state was whisked
To gradually make or become smaller or less in
amount, degree, value, size, or weight, e.g. to
whittle away the powers or list of someone or
To cowardly refrain from doing something.
To gain someones attention, support, or love.
To regain what one had before, e.g. to win back
her love

win out/through


win over

To manage to succeed or achieve something by


wind down

To gain someones support, attention or favour

To relax after working very hard.
To slowly lessen the activities of a business or
organization prior to its closure.

To close down a company or organization.

wind up
To end something such as a meeting, activity,

To deliberately annoy or tease someone.


wink at


winkle out


wipe down

To be in a bad situation one created, e.g. to wind

up in court over something one has committed.
To pretend not to notice something bad or illegal,
especially something one tacitly approves.
To obtain something from someone, e.g. winkled
secret information out of someone.
To completely clean or dry a surface by rubbing
with a cloth.

wipe off
To subtract an amount from a value or debt.
To clean or dry by rubbing with a cloth, e.g. He
wiped droppings of birds off the windscreen of
his car with a damp cloth.

wipe out

To completely destroy or eliminate something,

e.g. A gigantic swarm of locusts wiped out a
huge area of crops within hours.
To ruin someone financially, e.g. His compulsive
gambling over the years has wiped out his vast
To clean or dry something, e.g. He wiped out the
sweat on his forehead with a cloth.


wipe up
wise up


wish away
wish for


witness to

To dry or remove moisture, dirt, etc. from the

surface of something, e.g. My sick dog vomited
on the floor and I had to wipe it all up.
To become or make someone become alert or
aware of the unpleasant truth about a situation.
To desire something unpleasant will not happen.
To secretly want or desire something and hope it
will be realized.
To state that something is true or that one
actually sees something happened, e.g. to be a
witness to a persons good character or witnessed
the accused loitering near the scene of the


work in

work off

To try to include something, e.g. to put washing

his car in his list of things to do.
To reduce ones frustration by venting it on
To discharge a debt by working.

work on

work out

To be engaged in doing something, e.g. He spent

the whole night working on his research paper.

To calculate something, e.g. have to work out

how much they can afford for a new house.
To think about something and solve it, e.g. He
managed to work it out without help from
To understand someones character, e.g. No one
seems able to work out why he behaves this way
every time he gets back from work.
To plan carefully about doing something, e.g. I
have worked out who is going to do what in this
To develop in a positive way, e.g. Things begin
to work out for them and they find they are
happier together.
To engage oneself in a programme of regular
exercises, e.g. He works out twice a week in a

work ... over

To beat someone up repeatedly.

work up

To develop a state of excitement, anxiety, etc.

over something, e.g. He works himself up into a
state of anxiety about his forthcoming first job
To develop or improve something by putting in
hard effort, e.g. He intends to work up some

findings to support a ban on animal research.

To develop a feeling, e.g. Whenever she thinks
of him, it really works up her anger and hatred.

To proceed gradually towards doing something,

e.g. I dont want to do it but I am still working
up to it because it has to be done.

work up to
worry at/out


wrap up

To think at length about a possible solution to a

To completely cover up something with
wrapping paper, cloth, etc., e.g. to wrap up a
birthday present.
To put on warm clothes, e.g. If we know its
freezing in here, we would have wrapped up
To be engrossed in something, e.g. Work wraps
up all his attention that he hardly has time to


wriggle out of
write back

write ... down

write in

To complete or finish something, e.g. They

wrapped up their week-long piece of research
work with a leisurely drink.
To avoid doing something by devious means.
To reply to someones letter, e.g. My grandpa is
always prompt in writing back.

To jot something down on a piece of paper for

later use, e.g. I wrote down her telephone
number on my business card.

To write to an organization, etc. for a purpose,

e.g. to write in asking for more information, to
complain, to give ones view or to comment as
requested, etc.

To include someones name in the list of

candidates in order to vote for them.

write into

write off

To include something in something else such as

a document, agreement, etc., e.g. I requested him
to have my occupation written into the

To dismiss someone or something as a failure,

unnecessary, unimportant, etc., e.g. Some
observers have written it off as another white
To decide an asset no longer has any value, e.g.
The management agreed the machines that were
badly damaged in the fire should be written off.


x out
yield up


zero in on


zip up


zoom in/out

To cancel bad debts or possible bad debts, e.g.

Some of the poor nations debts were written off
as apparently they were unable to settle them.
To mark out a mistake in a piece of writing.
To gradually give out more information, e.g. The
ocean depths yield up more and more
information as exploration is stepped up.
To focus all of ones attention on someone or
To aim a gun towards someone or something.
To fasten a piece of clothing with a zip, e.g. I
have to change my trousers as I cannot zip up;
the zipper jammed.
(Camera) to change from a picture that is close to
one that is distant or vice versa.